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  • 1. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Nyman, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cathodic arc deposition of metal-rich Cr-based coatings2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood and wood-based products have always been key components in the development of human civilization. Nowadays most wood harvesting is done using chainsaws, and their efficient operation helps promote worker safety and reduce emissions. An important factor for efficient operation is the sharpness of the chain – a sharper chain requires less energy for cutting and reduces the risk of dangerous kickback. To reduce the rate of wear and prolong the life of the chains, they are protected by a hard chrome coating. The production of this coating involves compounds in which Cr atoms are in the toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent state. The deposited coatings contain no toxic compounds, however. Consequently, there is a need to develop replacement processes which can produce equally well-performing coatings.

    In this thesis I investigate the process of cathodic arc deposition of coatings for this purpose. Cathodic arc deposition is a well-established technique for tool coatings, free of toxic compounds. Specifically, elemental Cr coatings, and Cr-rich Cr-N, Cr-C, and Cr-C-N coatings are studied.

    For the study on elemental Cr, focus is put on the impact of substrate bias on the growth and coating properties. This is important in cathodic arc deposition as the evaporated species are ionized to a high degree. I show that an increasing substrate bias increases the temperature of the substrate and compressive stress of the coatings while decreasing the growth rate because of resputtering. The texture also changes from a preferential [110]- to [100]-orientation, and the hardness is lower than for typical hard chrome coatings.

    For alloying with N or C, using N2 and C2H2, respectively, the N-/Ccontent is shown to decrease with increasing bias. This process is attributed to preferential resputtering, and ceases at a critical partial pressure, different for N and C, at which point there is no observed difference in N- or C- content at different bias. The incorporation strongly affects the microstructure of the coatings. For N, there is a transition from a columnar structure to a featureless appearance at high N-content, while for C a mixed amorphous/crystalline structure appears at high C-content. For both C and N, the change in microstructure is accompanied by a large increase in hardness, which almost doubles when the alloying concentration reaches ~7 at.%.

    In a fourth study, combined C- and N-alloying is investigated. Here it is seen that the preferential resputtering persists for N, but for C there is a linear increase in content with partial pressure of C2H2 for all bias levels. This results in the coatings containing more C than N, with a structure like that of Cr-C. At the highest alloying level, a new structure appears which is not seen for the Cr-N and Cr-C studies, consisting of small, elongated grains and columns.

    In a fifth study, synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption spectroscopy is used to provide structural information about the coatings that is difficult to access with X-ray diffraction. The measurements show that Cr2N and Cr3C2 are the predominant phases forming alongside bcc Cr and reveal changes in bond orientations and strengths at differing alloying concentrations.

    List of papers
    1. Substrate bias effects on cathodic arc deposited Cr coatings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substrate bias effects on cathodic arc deposited Cr coatings
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Results in Materials, ISSN 2590-048X, Vol. 19, article id 100450Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effects of substrate bias on cathodic arc deposition of Cr coatings without external substrate heating at four different substrate bias levels, floating, −30, −50, and −70 V. After 10 min of deposition, the substrate temperature reaches 180, 210, 230, and 260 °C for floating potential, −30, −50, and −70 V, respectively. Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all grown coatings are of high purity, with no coating containing more than 0.2 at.% of C and/or O. Increasing the substrate bias also reduces the number of macroparticles, steers the texture from preferred [110]- to [100]-orientation and induces a residual compressive stress of ∼450 MPa in the coatings. The hardness of the coatings remains at a constant 7.5 GPa irrespective of the substrate bias. The four-point probe resistivity of the grown coatings is 15–17 μΩcm regardless of substrate bias, close to the 12.9 μΩcm of bulk Cr.

    Keywords
    Chromium coatings, Cathodic arc deposition, Substrate bias, Stress, Hardness
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198779 (URN)10.1016/j.rinma.2023.100450 (DOI)
    Note

    Funding agencies: The research leading to these results has received funding from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and contract ID17-0055. The authors acknowledge Arnaud Le Febvrier and Claudia Schnitter for assistance with the pole figure measurements. Support from the Swedish research council VR-RFI (#2017–00646_9) for the Accelerator based ion-technological center, and from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (contract RIF14-0053) for the tandem accelerator laboratory in Uppsala is gratefully acknowledged. H.H. acknowledges financial support from the Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU No. 2009–00971).

    Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Composition, structure, and mechanical properties of cathodic arc deposited Cr-rich Cr-N coatings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition, structure, and mechanical properties of cathodic arc deposited Cr-rich Cr-N coatings
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 2, article id 023105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We arc deposit Cr-rich Cr-N coatings and show that these coatings are a promising alternative to electrodeposited hard chrome. We find that the substrate bias is of importance for controlling the N content in the grown coatings as it determines the degree of preferential resputtering of N. The substrate bias also affects the substrate temperature and film growth rate. Higher bias results in higher temperatures due to higher energy transfer to the substrate, while the growth rate decreases due to an increased re-sputtering. The N content affects the morphology, microstructure, hardness, and resistivity of the coatings. The hardness increases from 10 GPa with 0.5 at. % N to 17 GPa with 7.5 at. % N, after which no further increase in hardness is seen. At the same time, the grain structure changes from columnar to more featureless and the resistivity rises from 15 to 45 mu omega cm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    A V S AMER INST PHYSICS, 2023
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-192478 (URN)10.1116/6.0002366 (DOI)000933046200002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [ID17-0055]; Swedish Research Council VR-RFI [2019-00191]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoeping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-10-27
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  • 2.
    Nyman, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Sarius, Niklas
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Kahl, Soren
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Composition, structure, and mechanical properties of cathodic arc deposited Cr-rich Cr-N coatings2023In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, no 2, article id 023105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We arc deposit Cr-rich Cr-N coatings and show that these coatings are a promising alternative to electrodeposited hard chrome. We find that the substrate bias is of importance for controlling the N content in the grown coatings as it determines the degree of preferential resputtering of N. The substrate bias also affects the substrate temperature and film growth rate. Higher bias results in higher temperatures due to higher energy transfer to the substrate, while the growth rate decreases due to an increased re-sputtering. The N content affects the morphology, microstructure, hardness, and resistivity of the coatings. The hardness increases from 10 GPa with 0.5 at. % N to 17 GPa with 7.5 at. % N, after which no further increase in hardness is seen. At the same time, the grain structure changes from columnar to more featureless and the resistivity rises from 15 to 45 mu omega cm.

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  • 3.
    Nyman, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna.
    Sarius, Niklas
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kahl, Sören
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Substrate bias effects on cathodic arc deposited Cr coatings2023In: Results in Materials, ISSN 2590-048X, Vol. 19, article id 100450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effects of substrate bias on cathodic arc deposition of Cr coatings without external substrate heating at four different substrate bias levels, floating, −30, −50, and −70 V. After 10 min of deposition, the substrate temperature reaches 180, 210, 230, and 260 °C for floating potential, −30, −50, and −70 V, respectively. Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all grown coatings are of high purity, with no coating containing more than 0.2 at.% of C and/or O. Increasing the substrate bias also reduces the number of macroparticles, steers the texture from preferred [110]- to [100]-orientation and induces a residual compressive stress of ∼450 MPa in the coatings. The hardness of the coatings remains at a constant 7.5 GPa irrespective of the substrate bias. The four-point probe resistivity of the grown coatings is 15–17 μΩcm regardless of substrate bias, close to the 12.9 μΩcm of bulk Cr.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Huang, Po-Han
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Laakso, Miku
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Hartwig, Oliver
    Univ Bundeswehr Munich, Germany.
    Duesberg, Georg S.
    Univ Bundeswehr Munich, Germany.
    Lai, Lee-Lun
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Mayer, Joachim
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Nyman, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Stemme, Goeran
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Three-dimensional printing of silica glass with sub-micrometer resolution2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 3305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silica glass is a high-performance material used in many applications such as lenses, glassware, and fibers. However, modern additive manufacturing of micro-scale silica glass structures requires sintering of 3D-printed silica-nanoparticle-loaded composites at similar to 1200 degrees C, which causes substantial structural shrinkage and limits the choice of substrate materials. Here, 3D printing of solid silica glass with sub-micrometer resolution is demonstrated without the need of a sintering step. This is achieved by locally crosslinking hydrogen silsesquioxane to silica glass using nonlinear absorption of sub-picosecond laser pulses. The as-printed glass is optically transparent but shows a high ratio of 4-membered silicon-oxygen rings and photoluminescence. Optional annealing at 900 degrees C makes the glass indistinguishable from fused silica. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by 3D printing an optical microtoroid resonator, a luminescence source, and a suspended plate on an optical-fiber tip. This approach enables promising applications in fields such as photonics, medicine, and quantum-optics.

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    fulltext
1 - 4 of 4
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