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  • 1.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Against Service Innovation: Why Service Innovation Is Not Sustainable2023In: Debating Innovation: Perspectives and Paradoxes of an Idealized Concept / [ed] Alf Rehn, Anders Örtenblad, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, 2023, p. 203-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is often viewed as the main source of growth in the modern economy. There is a general agreement that service innovation can provide a positive change for the environment, creating new types of jobs and making consumers’ lives easier. In this chapter, we challenge the positive view and provide arguments against service innovation. While service innovation might seem positive, there are negative effects on the financial development, the social development, and the environment. Service innovations do not replace existing services, but create complementary services and as a consequence most positive effects do not appear, which results in increased use of resources and negative effects on the environment. The lack of critical studies on service innovation has resulted in a flawed and somewhat overpromising picture of service innovations and what they can do.

  • 2.
    Kriz, Alexandra
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Australia; Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Tresidder, Julia
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Dowd, Anne-Maree
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Weerawardena, Jay
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Snyder, Hannah
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    de Pallant, Rohan
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Business model-dynamic capabilities and open innovation initiatives in research-intensive organisations: A case of Australias national science agency2023In: Australian journal of public administration, ISSN 0313-6647, E-ISSN 1467-8500, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 400-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Publicly funded national science agencies create value as innovation catalysts and through their scientific and research missions, they tackle wicked problems. Understanding how dynamic capabilities and business model innovation enable research-intensive organisations to seize the market in the mission is key to translating bold new science that has impact. We qualitatively explore how Australias national science agency-the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)-has pursued open innovation to support business model-dynamic capabilities in an evolving publicly funded landscape. We reflect on the value of open innovation initiatives that have allowed the CSIRO to ambidextrously pursue world-class science while achieving impact. Points for practitionersDynamic capabilities and business model innovation are strategic tools for publicly funded national science agencies seeking to seize the market in the mission.We examine a case of business model-dynamic capabilities in CSIRO.Open innovation has been important for CSIRO as part of an ambidextrous approach.

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  • 3. Tarasi, Crina
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hierarchical Linear Model Applications to Large Datasets2023Book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Snyder, Hannah
    BI Norwegian Sch Business, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    How sustainable is the sharing business model? Toward a conceptual framework2023In: R&D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy, which is considered a better way of utilizing existing resources, is associated with positive effects not only on the financial aspects of sustainability but also on its environmental and social dimensions. But is this true? Previous research has typically discussed either the positive or negative aspects of the sharing business model in specific contexts. This study adopts a dual perspective regarding the sustainability of sharing business models by critically analyzing the relationship between sharing business models and sustainability. Building on the resource-based view of the firm and practice theory, the current research develops a conceptual framework for evaluating the sustainability of sharing business models at the level of the individual, the firm, and society. Our proposed dual-process model suggests that two competing processes contribute to sustainability. The studys conceptual model and propositions advance theory and provide a research agenda for future empirical studies. This research also provides valuable guidance to managers and policymakers regarding the sustainability of sharing business models, which can inform the business model innovation process.

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  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Bi Norwegian Business School.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstads universitet.
    Schirr, Gary
    Radford University.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innovation when all products are services2023In: The PDMA Handbook of Innovation and New Product Development / [ed] Ludwig Bstieler and Charles H. Noble, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2023, 4, p. 461-476Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All products are services. This message from “Service Dominant Logic of Marketing,” (Vargo 2004) nearly two decades ago, has had a major impact on marketing theory and practice. This chapter discusses how this paradigm shift affects new product development (“NPD”) theory and practice today and going forward.

  • 6.
    Kabel, Daan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martin, Jason
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Jesper
    Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Will Self-monitoring Transform Healthcare? Using Institutional Theory to Understand an ongoing transformation in the Swedish Healthcare Service Ecosystem2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in the use of digital technologies to create new roles and relations between health professionals and patients. This technology-enabled transformation extends the traditional interactional way to deliver healthcare services, which has been historically grounded for over 100 years. A compelling argument for this interest is that for many diseases, not least for chronically ill persons for whom the majority of practices related to treating their medical condition is carried out in their home, there is a space for healthcare service delivery that is largely invisible for the healthcare provider. Swedish healthcare is currently finding ways to adopt and utilize self-monitoring as an integral part of healthcare services. Even though there is consensus among many stakeholders that self-monitoring can be a potentially transformative force, the speed of transition is slow. The evolving phase of the healthcare service ecosystem becomes interesting to investigate and how a variety of institutional logics shape the future of the digitally engaged patient. A service ecosystem has previously been defined as “a relatively self-contained, self-adjusting system of resource-integrating actors connected by shared institutional arrangements and mutual value creation through service exchange” (Vargo and Lusch, 2016, p.10). By applying institutional theory to the case of self-monitoring in Sweden, we are responding to the call in service science to contribute to a better understanding of the service ecosystem of healthcare and what facilitates and constrains the changing roles of its actors in value creation. The purpose of this study is therefore to better understand the shift from the view of patients as passive receivers of care into being active co-producers that takes part in decision-making and in the care delivery through self-monitoring. Taking an institutional logic approach, the authors identify key “roles” (subjects), “materials” (objects) and “practices” (ways of acting) in the healthcare service ecosystem that facilitate and constrain the emergence of self-monitoring technologies. To do so, the study draws on multiple sources of evidence. First, 20 interviews have been conducted with respondents representing various key actors in the healthcare service ecosystem (e.g., health-care professionals, patient organizations, hospital managers, policy officials, pharma industries and information officers). Second, we observed a development project where new self-monitoring systems were piloted in cancer care. Our study offers several important implications for service theory and management. For service theory, this study shows how alignment and misalignment between practices, roles and materials facilitate and constrain the emergence of self-monitoring technologies within the health service ecosystem. For service management, this study raises four barriers – conflicts, compliance, lack of knowledge and appropriate technologies - that are crucial to overcome when implementing self-monitoring technologies

  • 7.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beyond the line of visibility: Toward sustainable service innovation2022In: The Palgrave Handbook of Service Management / [ed] Bo Edvardsson, Bård Tronvall, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, p. 577-593Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book chapter discusses the research on service innovation, covering what a service innovation is and what a sustainable service innovation is. A key insight is that service research has taken a customer perspective on service innovation, and we ask if this is enough for service innovation research to stay relevant. Research on service innovation needs to address transparency and open the line of visibilities toward value creation, the environment, social, financial, and privacy to further our understanding and to increase the managerial relevance. The book chapter ends by directing research on service innovation in a sustainable direction.

  • 8.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Consumer lying behavior in service encounters2022In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 141, p. 755-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether they know it or not, firms interact with lying consumers on a daily basis. However, surprisingly little is known about consumer lying behavior and its role in service encounters. Based on two empirical studies of 2,976 consumer lies, the study sought to explore consumer lying behavior by developing and testing a comprehensive conceptual framework encompassing motives for lying, characteristics of the lie, and outcomes for consumers. Study 1 explores and details the components of the conceptual framework, and Study 2 further investigates and tests the relationships between the components of consumer lying behavior and the emotional, behavioral, and financial outcomes for consumers. The findings suggest new policies and how frontline employees might be trained and educated to address consumer lying behavior. The paper concludes by outlining an agenda for future research on lying behavior in service encounters.

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  • 9.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kristensson, Per
    Mehran, Javaneh
    Customer-centric approach of innovation measurement in B2B: a framework development2022In: ISPM Innovation Conference, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Norwegian Business Sch BI, Norway; Alliance Manchester Business Sch, England.
    Tarasi, Crina O.
    Cent Michigan Univ, MI 48859 USA.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Designing satisfying service encounters: website versus store touchpoints2022In: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 0092-0703, E-ISSN 1552-7824, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 85-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how touchpoints moderate the antecedents of customer satisfaction with service encounters by comparing online and in-store encounters. Construal level theory was used within the Touchpoint, Context, Qualities (TCQ) Framework (De Keyser et al., 2020) to integrate a comprehensive model of how touchpoints-websites or stores-influence the magnitude of customer responses to qualities of service encounters. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was estimated using survey data describing the service encounters of 2.4 million customers with a global retailer. Online customers weighed cognitive and behavioral qualities more heavily than in-store customers, whereas they weighed emotional and sensorial qualities less heavily. Moreover, random effects in the HLM model indicated that each country and store would have unique clientele effects for specific qualities. Since each firm has limited resources, this research offers guidance on key qualities in designing satisfying service encounters for each touchpoint and how qualities should be standardized and customized in global omnichannel environments.

  • 11. Åkesson, Maria
    et al.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digital service innovation practices for service growth2022In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Dishonesty in Service Encounters: Comparing Employee and Customer perspectives on Lying Behavior2022In: 12th SERVSIG Conference, University of Strathclyde, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Pilawa, Joanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valtakoski, Aku
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    I see what you did there: Do consumers perceive actual service innovations as innovative?2022In: 12th SERVSIG Conference, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Lying behavior in service encounters: In the eyes of the beholder2022In: Frontiers in Service Conference, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    Tarasi, Crina O.
    Cent Michigan Univ, MI 48859 USA.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Managing a Global Retail Brand in Different Markets: Meta-Analyses of Customer Responses to Service Encounters2022In: Journal of Retailing, ISSN 0022-4359, E-ISSN 1873-3271, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 294-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how retailers can leverage their brand to shape customers satisfaction with service encounters. It develops and tests hypotheses about how brand, store, and consumer factors moderate customer responses to experience clues during retail service encounters. Six meta-regression analyses synthesize and compare results from 842 satisfaction equations describing customers encounters with a global retailer operating 400 stores in 32 countries. The results show how customers weigh their perceptions of service encounters differently depending on brand, store, and consumer factors. In markets where customers believe the retailer has high holistic brand quality, they place less weight on experience clues within the store. In markets where customers believe the retailers service brand promise, they place more weight on in-store experience clues. In markets where the retailer promises utilitarian value, customers weigh functional experience clues more heavily. In markets with an online purchasing channel, the effect of experience clues common to offline and online store environments is magnified, and unique clues are diminished. In addition, customers heavily weigh experience clues that fit their goals. In general, retail success factors include high brand quality (which makes customers more forgiving), a service brand promise that is mirrored in the store image (which makes customers attend to the experience clues aligned with them), and the careful monitoring and managing of retail touchpoints (to customize experience clues to each market). In this way, retailers can use customer-based strategies to effectively design and manage their global retail brand in different markets. (C) 2021 New York University. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Pilawa, Joanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Valtakoski, Aku
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Service innovativeness in retailing: Increasing the relative attractiveness during the COVID-19 pandemic2022In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 67, article id 102962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 primarily spreads through close contact between humans and has affected retailing industries extremely hard. To manage the situation retailers have turned to service innovation to change their operations to make consumers feel safe while shopping. This research focuses on the role of service innovativeness in retailing firms during the COVID-19 pandemic through an empirical study of almost 6000 consumers of 28 retailing firms. The results suggested that retailers with high service innovativeness performed COVID-19 imposed innovations better to improve their relative attractiveness. For retailers with physical stores, changes to the servicescape and the offering were found to be the key antecedents of service innovativeness. The findings on COVID-19 imposed service innovations demonstrate the importance of service innovativeness in successfully changing retailing services to adjust to the restrictions from governments and safety needs of customers.

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  • 17.
    Samuelsson, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstads Univ, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Social entrepreneurs in service: motivations and types2022In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This study aims to describe social entrepreneurs motivation during the social entrepreneurship process and identify different social entrepreneurs in terms of their social characteristics. Design/methodology/approach The descriptive research design uses a directed qualitative interpretative approach based on 17 cases of social entrepreneurs active in healthcare innovation hubs. Findings The study describes the social entrepreneurs in a service context. Based on their key motivational characteristics, the study identifies three types of social entrepreneur: discoverers, seekers, and rangers. The study finds that not all of the three types regulate high levels of motivation during the social entrepreneurship process. Research limitations/implications Depending on the type of social entrepreneur, the social entrepreneurship process requires different forms of support. In practice, the traditional R&D process deployed by innovation hubs is suitable for rangers; discoverers and seekers commonly regulate low levels of motivation when developing and introducing their social innovations to the market. Originality/value Most service research on social entrepreneurship focuses on the outcome; in contrast, this empirical study focuses on the individual entrepreneurs, their motivation and process. While previous research has treated motivation as an antecedent for engagement in the social mission of entrepreneurship, the present study investigates social entrepreneurs motivation in relation to the social entrepreneurship process, providing insights in the behavior of social entrepreneurs.

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  • 18.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaa, Besma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transforming service-centric business models during core technology innovations: The case of electric vehicles2022In: Book of Abstracts, 9th International Conference on Business Servitization (ICBS), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Tronvall, Bård
    Karlstads universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding key market challenges through service innovation2022In: The Palgrave Handbook of Service Management / [ed] Bo Edvardsson, Bård Tronvall, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, p. 613-627Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is a crucial source of competitive advantage across firms and markets and has become critical to firm growth and profitability. Firms face market challenges both when designing and introducing new service offerings to the market. Service innovation can be used as a lens to understand how firms can overcome market challenges to improve their performance. This chapter provides an integrating framework to explain three key market challenges: novelty, diffusion and value capture from the perspective of engaged actors. The chapter shows how the framework can be applied and finishes with some theoretical implications and managerial guidelines.

  • 20.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Business Models for Digital Service Infusion Using AI and Big Data2021In: The Palgrave Handbook of Servitization / [ed] M. Kohtamäki, T. Baines, R. Rabetino, A. Z. Bigdeli, C. Kowalkowski, R. Oliva, & V. Parida, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 103-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers commonly introduce new digital services to increase the scope of the value proposition and improve financial performance. Digital technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Big Data are often used to co-create value with customers, which raises the question of what a service business model built on digital technologies should look like. This chapter explores how the use of IoT, AI and Big Data influences business models and service provision.

  • 21.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    Tarasi, Crina O.
    Cent Michigan Univ, MI 48859 USA.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    How customer experience management reconciles strategy differences between East and West2021In: JOURNAL OF GLOBAL SCHOLARS OF MARKETING SCIENCE, ISSN 2163-9159, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 273-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how customers of a global firm evaluate their experiences within and across 44 countries. It focuses on customers emotional, cognitive, sensory and behavioral responses to the catalog experience. It develops a theory-based model of satisfaction with the catalog experience as a function of experiential attributes and control variables. A second model captures how each experiential attributes contribution to the customer experience is influenced by market and customer characteristics. The models were operationalized using survey data from 366,185 customers who used the firms catalog across different trade areas in 44 countries, yielding 571 equations that describe satisfaction with the customer experience. Consistent with theoretical work on context-dependent judgments, nine contingency factors explain significant and substantial amounts of variation (30% on average) in the elasticities of the 12 experiential attributes. East and West can appear similar when market characteristics are similar - or when they are different. Emotional, cognitive, sensory, and behavioral responses to the customer experience systematically differ due to economic, demographic, technological, cultural and consumer characteristics. East and West especially differ in terms of responses to emotional and sensory experiences. Customer experience management can help to shape a strategy that resolves strategy differences between East and West.

  • 22.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Hellström, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Martin, Jason
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The roles of quality departments and their influence on business results2021In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 32, no 7-8, p. 886-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the various roles of quality departments and investigates whether their roles have different effects on business results. Based on a survey of quality managers in 211 Swedish organisations, the analysis identifies four roles of quality departments: firefighters, auditors, process improvers, and orchestrators. The roles vary in their predominant adoption of Quality Management practices ranging from a narrow scope focusing on quality management systems to a broader scope based on multiple practices. An analysis was performed to identify how each of the identified roles influences business results. The results show that quality departments with a broad focus that combines both explorative and exploitative quality practices contribute the most to business results.

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  • 23.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CERS—Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Helsinki, Finland.
    Perks, Helen
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Raddats, Chris
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Schwabe, Maria
    Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Benedettini, Ornella
    Polytechnic University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Burton, Jamie
    University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Characterizing customer experience management in business markets2020In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 416, p. 420-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing the customer experience has become a top priority for marketing managers and researchers. Research on customer experience management (CEM) has traditionally adopted a customer's viewpoint. Few studies have explicitly embraced an organizational perspective, and existing research focuses mainly on business-to-consumer settings. The present study espouses the utility of CEM in business-to-business (B2B) settings on the grounds that interactions in B2B contexts are also “experienced”. It explains how B2B firms can design and manage the customer experience to influence the customer at different touchpoints. The paper develops a comprehensive framework that characterizes CEM in B2B. The paper articulates key challenges for B2B CEM; relationship expectations (mismatches in customer relationships, siloed customer experiences); actor interaction issues (mismatches across the customer's journey, lack of touchpoint control); and temporal challenges (dynamics of the customer experience). The paper draws out the theoretical implications and develops managerial implications for B2B firms.

  • 24.
    Chen, Tom
    et al.
    Univ Canberra, Australia; Australian Natl Univ, Australia; Australian Natl Univ, Australia; Univ Newcastle, Australia.
    Dodds, Sarah
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Finsterwalder, Jorg
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads Univ, Sweden.
    Cheung, Lilliemay
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Falter, Mareike
    Univ Hohenheim, Germany.
    Garry, Tony
    Univ Otago, New Zealand.
    Snyder, Hannah
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Dynamics of wellbeing co-creation: a psychological ownership perspective2020In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 383-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose People are responsible for their wellbeing, yet whether they take ownership of their own or even others wellbeing might vary from actor to actor. Such psychological ownership (PO) influences the dynamics of how wellbeing is co-created, particularly amongst actors, and ultimately determines actors subjective wellbeing. The papers research objective pertains to explicating the concept of the co-creation of wellbeing and conceptualizing the dynamics inherent to the co-creation of wellbeing with consideration of the influences of all involved actors from a PO perspective. Design/methodology/approach To provide a new conceptualization and framework for the dynamics of wellbeing co-creation, this research synthesizes wellbeing, PO and value co-creation literature. Four healthcare cases serve to illustrate the effects of engaged actors PO on the co-creation of wellbeing. Findings The derived conceptual framework of dynamic co-creation of wellbeing suggests four main propositions: (1) the focal actors wellbeing state is the intangible target of the focal actors and other engaged actors PO, transformed throughout the process of wellbeing co-creation, (2) PO over the focal actors wellbeing state is subject to the three interrelated routes of exercising control, investing in the target, and intimately knowing the target, which determine the instigation of wellbeing co-creation, (3) the level of PO over the focal actors wellbeing state can vary, influence and be influenced by the extent of wellbeing co-creation, (4) the co-creation of wellbeing, evoked by PO, is founded on resource integration, which influences the resources-challenges equilibrium of focal actor and of all other engaged actors, affecting individual subjective wellbeing. Originality/value This article provides a novel conceptual framework that can shed new light on the co-creation of wellbeing in service research. Through the introduction of PO the transformation of lives and wellbeing can be better understood.

  • 25.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fraunhofer IMW, Germany; Univ St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Arzt, Alexander
    Fraunhofer IMW, Germany.
    Kohtamaki, Marko
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Lamprecht, Claudio
    Univ St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Parida, Vinit
    Tech Univ Lulea, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wortmann, Felix
    Univ St Gallen, Switzerland.
    How to convert digital offerings into revenue enhancement - Conceptualizing business model dynamics through explorative case studies2020In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 91, p. 429-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equipment manufacturers are currently utilizing new digital technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence, or Big Data, for new digital offerings. However, these offerings seldom enhance revenue, because companies struggle with business model (BM) dynamics. By analyzing 27 companies through an explorative case-study approach, the authors consider how companies can successfully achieve revenue enhancement through digital offerings. The result is a threefold framework for revenue enhancement through digital offerings. First, this framework distinguishes between three phases of BM dynamics: 1) augmenting products through a "hardware plus" logic, 2) developing a portfolio of multiple logics for creating customer value, 3) integrating this portfolio through platform logic. Second, the framework emphasizes that three barriers, which we refer to as confidence, mixing, and collaboration barrier, limit the progress from Phases 1 to 3. Third, the framework reveals that each phase contains certain modifications of BM components. In the first phase, companies adapt their BM components slightly, so as to advance toward a "hardware plus" logic. In the second phase, companies embrace more radical BM innovations in order to convert services into an outcome-based BM and develop a new software subscription BM. In the third phase, companies modify BM components in order to integrate the BMs internally and to open them up for external collaboration partners.

  • 26.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Identifying the resource integration processes of green service2020In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 839-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of green service. In particular, the focus is on identifying homopathic and heteropathic resource integration processes that preserve or increase the resourceness of the natural ecosystem.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Through an extensive multiple case study involving ten service providers from diverse sectors based on a substantial number of interviews, detailed accounts of green service are provided.

    Findings

    Six resource integration processes were identified: reducing, recirculating, recycling, redistributing, reframing and renewing. While four of these processes are based on homopathic resource integration, both reframing and renewing are based on heteropathic resource integration. While homopathic processes historically constitute a green service by mitigating the impact of consumption on the environment, heteropathic resource integration increases the resourceness of the natural ecosystem through emergent processes and the (re)creation of natural resources.

    Research limitations/implications

    The present study breaks away from the paradigm that “green service” is about reducing the negative environmental impact of existing services, toward providing a green service that expands biological diversity and other natural resources.

    Originality/value

    Transformative service research on environmental sustainability is still in its infancy. The present study contributes through conceptualizing green service, redefining existing resource integration processes (reducing, recirculating, recycling) and identifying new resource integration processes (redistributing, reframing, renewing).

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    Identifying the resource integration processes of green service
  • 27.
    Kustrak Korper, Ana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patricio, Lia
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Service design as an innovation approach in technology startups: a longitudinal multiple case study2020In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 303-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While service design has been accepted as a human-centered and cocreative approach to service innovation, its role in technology-driven contexts, specifically technology startups, has been largely unexplored. Previous research suggests that technology startups tend to focus on technical aspects of innovation, neglecting the value cocreation potential of service innovation that service design can facilitate. Focusing on value propositions as the main mechanisms of service innovation, this study explores how service design facilitates service innovation in technology startups. This longitudinal study examines the opportunities and challenges of introducing service design for the purpose of service innovation in five technology startups over a period of 11 months. Results reveal how service design facilitates the creation of new value propositions that expand the previous technology-driven focus towards a human-centered and cocreative one. Additionally, findings suggest that there are two levels of how service design becomes embedded in technology startups that are contingent on their life cycle stage. This contributes to the service innovation literature that views innovation as development of new value propositions and describes the key role of service design. The study also discusses managerial implications of the findings for technology startups and service designers and provides directions for future research.

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  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    Snyder, Hannah
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Service Innovation: A New Conceptualization and Path Forward2020In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 111-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovations challenge existing offerings and business models, shape existing markets, and create new ones. Over the last decade, service research has shown increasing interest in the concept of innovation and should by now have reached maturity and created a strong theoretical basis. However, there is no coherent theoretical framework that captures all the facets of service innovation, and to move service innovation research forward, we must revisit the key assumptions of what an innovation is. To enable this, the present article addresses three fundamental questions about service innovation: (1) What is it and what is it not? (2) What do we know and what do we not know? and (3) What do we need to know to advance service research? By doing so, this article offers an updated and comprehensive definition of service innovation and provides a research agenda to suggest a path forward.

  • 29.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Typologies and frameworks in service innovation2020In: The Routledge handbook of service research insights and ideas / [ed] Eileen Bridges, Kendra Frowler, Abingdon: Routledge, 2020, p. 109-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter synthesizes extant research on service innovation. It brings together literatures that are typically treated separately, identifying both shared and specific understandings of what service innovation is, and its implications for theory and practice. It begins by reviewing common characteristics, and models of service innovation. After departing in three distinct directions-assimilation, demarcation, and synthesis-it discusses the merits of a fivefold framework to encompass the multidimensional nature of service innovation. Next, following calls for theoretical integration, a typology based on four archetypes is reviewed, and an overarching value-centric view consistent with the synthesis perspective is exemplified. Finally, the chapter discusses why diverse perspectives, despite criticism, continue to exist in parallel. One reason may be that different perspectives emphasize different traits and characteristics of service innovations. Due to the challenges of assessing and managing service development in practice, and operationalization and measurement in research, this divergence is likely to continue in the future. Nonetheless, as service innovation becomes increasingly important across industries, a unifying framework provides both a practical and scientific contribution.

  • 30.
    Holmlund, Maria
    et al.
    Hanken Sch Econ, Finland.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    Viewpoint: getting your qualitative service research published2020In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide authors with guidelines for carrying out excellent qualitative service research. It describes the features that editors and reviewers use to evaluate qualitative research and pinpoints what authors can do to improve their manuscripts for publication. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies five features of excellent qualitative service research - relevance, rigor, integrity, narration and impact - and describes them with a focus on what they mean and what authors can do to meet these standards. Findings: The paper suggests that manuscripts are often rejected because they fail to meet key standards of excellent qualitative research. It calls for more discussion on research methodology and research ethics, especially when service research strives to make a difference such as investigating critical service contexts or dealing with vulnerable participants. Originality/value: This paper contributes to a better use and application of qualitative research methodology. It focuses on specific actions that researchers can take to improve the quality of their service research manuscripts.

  • 31.
    Hunter-Jones, Philippa
    et al.
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Line, Nathaniel
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Zhang, Jie J.
    Univ Victoria, Canada.
    Malthouse, Edward C.
    Northwestern Univ, IL USA.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Hollis, Brooke
    Cornell Univ, NY 10021 USA.
    Visioning a hospitality-oriented patient experience (HOPE) framework in health care2020In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 869-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper considers the question: what would happen if healthcare providers, like their counterparts in the hospitality industry, adopted the principles of customer experience management (CEM) in order to facilitate a more holistic and personalized patient experience? It proposes an alternative vision of the patient experience by adding to an emerging hospitality-healthcare literature base, this time focusing upon CEM. A hospitality-oriented patient experience (HOPE) framework is introduced, designed to enhance the patient experience across all the touchpoints of the healthcare journey. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper that draws upon three distinct literatures: hospitality literature; healthcare literature; and CEM literature. It utilizes this literature to develop a framework, the HOPE framework, designed to offer an alternative lens to understanding the patient experience. The paper utilizes descriptions of three unique patient experiences, one linked to chronic pain, a second to gastro issues and a third to orthopedic issues, to illustrate how adopting the principles of hospitality management, within a healthcare context, could promote an enhanced patient experience. Findings The main theoretical contribution is the development of the HOPE framework that brings together research on CEM with research on cocreative customer practices in health care. By selecting and connecting key ingredients of two separate research streams, this vision and paradigm provide an alternative lens into ways of addressing the key challenges in the implementation of person-centered care in healthcare services. The HOPE framework offers an actionable roadmap for healthcare organizations to realize greater understanding and to operationalize new ways of improving the patient experience. Originality/value This paper applies the principles of hospitality and CEM to the domain of health care. In so doing it adds value to a hospitality literature primarily focused upon extensive employee-customer relationships. To a healthcare literature seeking to more fully understand a person-centered care model typically delivered by a care team consisting of professionals and family/friends. And to a CEM literature in hospitality, which seeks to facilitate favorable employee-customer interactions. Connecting these separate literature streams enables an original conceptual framework, a HOPE framework, to be introduced.

  • 32.
    Myhrén, Per
    et al.
    Paper Province, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Creating the perfect match: roles and archetypes of open service innovation2019In: Service innovation for sustainable business: stimulating, realizing and capturing the value from service innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, p. 135-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The following sections are included: Open Innovation, Service Innovation, and Networks; Three Archetypes for Open Service Innovation; Role Constellations in Open Service Innovation; A Multiple Case Study of Open Service Innovation

  • 33.
    Samuelsson, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Incremental and radical service innovation in healthcare2019In: Handbook of service science, Volume II, Cham: Springer Nature, 2019, p. 619-638Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing cost and demand of healthcare is a major concern globally. Service innovation has been put forward as a top priority to address the challenges of healthcare. However, the concept of service innovation is poorly understood, in particular the differences between incremental and radical service innovation. The chapter makes two important contributions. Firstly, it conceptualizes incremental and radical service innovation based on internal and external changes; in particular, it identifies four types of service innovations. Secondly, it explores the effects and diffusion processes of service innovation. It aids practitioners and researchers to understand radical service innovation in a new way and to shed light on effects and diffusion of service innovation in healthcare.

  • 34.
    Glaa, Besma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Service teams and understanding of customer value creation2019In: Service innovation for sustainable business: stimulating, realizing and capturing the value from service innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key takeaways

    1. The research concerns what type of teams exist in service firms and what the literature has identified as their key characteristics.

    2. This chapter reports on how the configuration of teams used for new service development (in this chapter referred to as “service teams”) affects the understanding of the customer value creation process.

    3. The shift from products to services can be described as a change from value creation through the product’s efficiency alone to value co-creation through the product’s efficiency and effectiveness within the customer’s production process. A value driver that has a certain effect will over time lose this effect; to continue to co-create value, resources have to be com-mitted to activate new value drivers in the business relationship.

    4. The chapter concerns service teams and is relevant for most types of firms.

    5. Those interested in this chapter may also find Chapters 8 and 12 interesting

  • 35.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    BI, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    The influence of place on health-care customer creativity2019In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1400-1422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose When using a service, customers often develop their own solutions by integrating resources to solve problems and co-create value. Drawing on innovation and creativity literature, this paper aims to investigate the influence of place (the service setting and the customer setting) on customer creativity in a health-care context. Design/methodology/approach In a field study using customer diaries, 200 ideas from orthopedic surgery patients were collected and evaluated by an expert panel using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). Findings Results suggest that place influences customer creativity. In the customer setting, customers generate novel ideas that may improve their clinical health. In the service setting, customers generate ideas that may improve the user value of the service and enhance the customer experience. Customer creativity is influenced by the role the customer adopts in a specific place. In the customer setting customers were more likely to develop ideas involving active customer roles. Interestingly, while health-care customers provided ideas in both settings, contrary to expectation, ideas scored higher on user value in the service setting than in the customer setting. Research limitations/implications - This study shows that customer creativity differs in terms of originality, user value and clinical value depending on the place (service setting or customer setting), albeit in one country in a standardized care process. Practical implications - The present research puts customer creativity in relation to health-care practices building on an active patient role, suggesting that patients can contribute to the further development of health-care services. Originality/value As the first field study to test the influence of place on customer creativity, this research makes a novel contribution to the growing body of work in customer creativity, showing that different places are more/less favorable for different dimensions of creativity. It also relates customer creativity to health-care practices and highlights that patients are an untapped source of creativity with first-hand knowledge and insights, importantly demonstrating how customers can contribute to the further development of health-care services.

  • 36.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Benoit, Sabine
    Surrey Business School, University of Surrey, UK.
    The key role of communal belonging for collaborative consumption platforms2019In: / [ed] Roland Rust, Bart Larivière, Jochen Wirtz, Hugo Guyader , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Raddats, Chris
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    The role of customer knowledge development for incremental and radical service innovation in servitized manufacturers2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 98, p. 328-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is a key driver of service infusion for manufacturers. Although service innovation is widely researched for service firms, it is less explored for service infusion in manufacturers. Existing research about service infusion considers developing customer knowledge in sales and service delivery, but there is scarce research about how manufacturers develop customer knowledge during new service development (NSD). This study investigates customer knowledge development within manufacturers and considers how it differs between the development of incremental and radical service innovations. A study was undertaken with 239 European manufacturers which revealed multiple drivers of customer knowledge development, service innovation performance, and firm performance. Developing incremental service innovations are more successful when customers participate in NSD teams while developing radical service innovations leads manufacturers to higher firm performance.

  • 38.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Valtakoski, Aku
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Two routes of service modularization: advancing standardization and customization2019In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to investigate service modularization in a manufacturing firm, identifies service modularization processes and examines how these processes change the service module characteristics.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study is based on a longitudinal case study (2008-2017) of a manufacturing firm. The development of six service modules was analyzed using data from interviews with key informants, informal meetings and internal documentation.

    Findings

    This study suggests five service modularization processes, and that service module characteristics, such as standardization and interconnectedness, change in different ways depending on the service modularization processes used. It further identifies two service modularization routes that each combine the service modularization processes in unique ways with replication as a key process to improve both standardization and customization.

    Practical implications

    This study elaborates a framework for service modularization, which can serve as a guideline for developing service modules. It also highlights the differences between product and service modularization, suggesting that the role of service module characteristics such as standardization and customization is specific for services.

    Originality/value

    This longitudinal case study (2008-2017) provides empirical evidence on service modularization and extends existing knowledge on service modularization processes and how they influence service module characteristics.

  • 39.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Peter R.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Beckman, Helen
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Value creation in service-based states of business relationships2019In: Service innovation for sustainable business: stimulating, realizing and capturing the value from service innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, Singapore: World Scientific, 2019, p. 281-305Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following sections are included: Introduction Value and Value Drivers in a Relationship Context Methodology Results Conclusions Appendix: An Overview of the Conceptualization of Value Drivers References

  • 40.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An ecosystem perspective on service innovation2018In: A research agenda for service innovation / [ed] Faïz Gallouj, Faridah Djellal, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, 1, p. 85-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter suggests moving forward research on service innovation by articulating an ecosystem perspective and a service-dominant logic within a context of value creation, in order to provide an integrated and systemic framework of the structuration of service innovation. The framework emphasizes changes in agency that facilitate reconfiguration, such as actors, resources and value propositions, or in structure, such as institutional arrangements. A change of the state of service innovation process takes place as changes originate in either agency or structure. The chapter provides an illustration of this theoretical model, using the case of the service ecosystem built around Etalay, a high-end Italian food store chain that includes restaurants, food and beverage stations, bakeries, a bookstore and conference facilities. The authors call for the use of this theoretical construct in other contexts such as healthcare, the Internet of Things and social media, as well as the bottom of the pyramid.

  • 41.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, AZ 85287 USA.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Cheung, Lilliemay
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Gallan, Andrew
    Depaul Univ, IL 60604 USA.
    Orsingher, Chiara
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Zaki, Mohamed
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

  • 42.
    Myhren, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden; Eawag, Switzerland.
    Incremental and radical open service innovation2018In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Open service innovation is an emergent new service development practice, where knowledge on how to organize development work is scarce. The purpose of the present research is to identify and describe relevant archetypes of open service innovation. The study views an archetype as an organizing template that includes the competence of participants, organizing co-creation among participants and ties between participants. In particular, the studys interest lies in how open service innovation archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation. Design/methodology/approach For the research, a nested case study was performed, in which an industrial firm with nine open service innovation groups was identified. Forty-five interviews were conducted with participants. For each case, first a within-case analysis was performed, and how to perform open service innovation in practice was described. Then, a cross-case analysis identifying similarities and differences between the open service innovation groups was performed. On the basis of the cross-case analysis, three archetypes for open service innovation were identified. Findings The nested case study identified three archetypes for open service innovation: internal group development, satellite team development and rocket team development. This study shows that different archetypes are used for incremental and radical service innovation and that a firm can have multiple open service innovation groups using different archetypes. Practical implications This study provides suggestions on how firms can organize for open service innovation. The identified archetypes can guide managers to set up, develop or be part of open service innovation groups. Originality/value This paper uses open service innovation as a mid-range theory to extend existing research on new service development in networks or service ecosystems. In particular, it shows how open service innovation can be organized to develop both incremental and radical service innovations.

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  • 43.
    Valtakoski, Aku
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Service capabilities and servitized SME performance: contingency on firm age2018In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1144-1164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of back-office (BO) service capability and front-office (FO) service capability, and how firm age influences the impact of these service capabilities on small and medium size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach Based on the prior literature on servitization and firm operational capabilities, hypotheses were developed on the impact of service capabilities on firm performance. These hypotheses were tested using a survey and externally sourced financial data on 224 SMEs in the software industry. Findings FO service capability has a positive impact on firm performance of SMEs. The effect of BO service capability was weaker and partly contrary to expectations, showing a negative effect on firm performance for young SMEs. As hypothesized, the impact of both BO and FO service capability is moderated by firm age. Young SMEs benefit more from FO service capability. For older SMEs, BO service capability becomes increasingly more important. Practical implications As different capabilities lead to different outcomes, SMEs need to carefully consider which service capabilities to invest in. As the relative importance of capabilities changes over time, SMEs need to be ready to change their strategic focus over time toward BO capabilities to attain optimal outcomes. Originality/value The findings suggest that factors such as industry, firm size, and firm age affect the optimal servitization path, and that current understanding of servitization does not necessarily apply to all servitized firms. The study also provides further evidence of the impact of service capabilities on firm performance.

  • 44.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAWAG, Switzerland.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Finland.
    Hammedi, Wafa
    University of Namur, Belgium.
    Patricio, Lia
    Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Perks, Helen
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    A bricolage perspective on service innovation2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource-constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research.

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  • 45.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mikael, Ottosson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Frankelius, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University.
    A Typology for Green Service: Resource Integration and Actors Involvement.2017In: Proceedings of the QUIS15 International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, 12-15 June 2017, University of Porto, Portugal., 2017, p. 47-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a typology for green service. It is based on two dimensions: a resource integration dimension to differentiate between different efforts aiming to reduce, reuse, redistribute, recycle or renew resources (for instance natural or operant resources); and a dimension representing whether other ecosystem actors are actively or passively involvement in the green service. The ten types of green service provide an analytical tool for service marketing managers and scholars discussing how to improve or develop green service.

  • 46.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Hogan, Suellen J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Snyder, Hannah
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Cocreative customer practices: Effects of health care customer value cocreation practices on well-being2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 70, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on three studies using data from six separate samples of 1151 health care customers, the authors investigate cocreative customer practices, modeling the effects of customer value cocreation practices on well-being. Results highlight that while positive interactions with medical staff (doctors) lead to increased well-being through engaging in coproducing treatment options, interactions with friends and family and their associated cocreated activities have an even greater positive effect on well-being. Furthermore, several other customer directed activities have positive indirect effects. Interestingly, activities requiring change can have a negative effect on well-being, except in psychological illnesses, where the opposite is true. The authors conclude with theoretical and managerial implications, highlighting that if interactions and activities with medical professionals are supplemented with customer-directed activities, the positive effect on well-being is significantly enhanced. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 47.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, School of Economics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Research Center, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Research Center, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Luzern, Switzerland.
    Reynoso, Javier
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico.
    Sebastiani, Roberta
    Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.
    Weitlaner, Doris
    Campus 02 University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria.
    Does one size fit all? New service development across different types of services.2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 19p. 329-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The extant new service development (NSD) literature tends to assume that the key practices for NSD identified in one context apply for all services, and has failed to sufficiently consider differences in NSD between service types. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of NSD across different service types.Design/methodology/approach An extensive, cross-sectoral survey was conducted in seven countries. Data from 1,333 NSD projects were analyzed to empirically derive a service typology and examine if and how different types of services vary in terms of NSD resources, practices, methods, and results.Findings Based on six service characteristics, the study identifies four service types: routine-intensive, technology-intensive, contact-intensive, and knowledge-intensive services. The study also identifies specific NSD resources, practices, methods, and results that are prevalent across the service typology. The evidence indicates that the use of advanced practices and methods differs dramatically between service types.Practical implications The paper enables practitioners to expand their current understanding on NSD by providing insights into the variability of NSD across service types. The results suggest that either service-type-specific models or a configurable model for NSD should be developed.Originality/value This study provides one of the first empirically derived service typologies for NSD. The study demonstrates that NSD resources, practices, methods, and results differ across service types, thereby challenging the “one size fits all” assumption evident in current NSD research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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  • 48.
    Forkmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Alabama, AL USA.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Queen Mary University of London, England.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Driver Configurations for Successful Service Infusion2017In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 275-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers across many industries use service infusion to address the changing customer demands and improve their competitive position. However, understanding the drivers of successful service infusion is a complex process. Using business model and configuration theories, this study conceptualizes and analyzes the interplay of different driver domains for suppliers, customers, and their business relationships. In particular, we analyze how service offering, service pricing, service capabilities, and the service infusion process interact in affecting service infusion success and failure. 137 interviews relating to 25 business relationships are analyzed via configuration analysis, particularly fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Results show that different equifinal configurations exist (i.e., different ways to succeed with service infusion). We also find that more is not always better. For example, service infusion success can be achieved without fully developed service capabilities. In addition, successful configurations are often very similar to those leading to failure. A dyadic analysis demonstrates that customer service capabilities are overall more important than those of suppliers. From these findings, we derive priorities for future research. In particular, our study points toward the need to better understand the interplay between service infusion drivers. Second, we advocate the augmentation of research perspectives in service infusion by taking into account the supplier, customer, and dyadic perspectives. Lastly, the importance of understanding drivers of service infusion failure is highlighted. For managers, our study shows the importance of relational audits as a starting point to deciding on how to infuse services in a business relationship.

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  • 49.
    Perks, Helen
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, England.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Network orchestration for value platform development2017In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 67, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional firm and product-centric view of platforms is changing. Platforms are increasingly developed around value that is co-created with a network of actors. In such settings, lead firms shape their environments and develop value platforms through network orchestration. This study examines how lead firms mobilize network relationships to support and build novel value platforms. The research adopts a multiple case study methodology, investigating the development of six value platforms in network settings within Europe. A large-scale interview program over several years was conducted. The findings unravel practices constituting four overarching network orchestration mechanisms in the value platform development context; envisioning, inducing innovativeness, legitimizing, and adjusting. The study explains the relationships and interplay between the orchestration mechanisms and articulates theoretical and managerial contributions.

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  • 50.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Satisfaction and Loyalty for P2P Service Exchanges through Online Sharing Platforms (abstract).2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to validate factors driving satisfaction and loyalty in P2P service exchanges: feelings of belonging to a community, cost saving incentive, environmental motivation, non-ownership benefits, perceived exchange authenticity, P2P trust, trust in the platform, and supply/demand ratio.

    Whereas previous studies exploring the determinants of satisfaction of P2P exchanges largely used the theory of reasoned action or planned behavior (Bucher et al. 2016; Hamari et al. 2015; Plouffe 2008; Teubner et al. 2016; Tussyadiah 2016), this study follows marketing researchers who built on the access paradigm with the concept of “non-ownership services” (Moeller & Wittkowski 2010), and “access based” -consumption or -services (Bardhi & Eckhardt 2012; Schaefers et al. 2016). 

    The context of this study is ridesharing (carpooling in the U.S.), organized by online platform providers matching P2P service exchange participants: drivers offer transportation and passengers economically contributes to the trip. Whereas the aforementioned studies predominantly rely on vignette studies and survey data from M-Turk, this study, like Schaefers et al. (2015), is based on an original dataset collected from a large sample of active participants in long distance ridesharing, combing survey responses and actual behavioral measures originating from a platform’s exchange history (i.e. distance shared). The satisfaction and loyalty model was estimated using Smart PLS.

    Satisfaction with P2P services do not solely depends on utilitarian aspects (e.g. cost, convenience) but also emotional aspects (e.g. social interactions, fun) of the exchanges. A different set of satisfaction determinants is observed depending on the ridesharing participants’ initial motivations and attitudes. Participants sharing with a pro-social and communal style are more likely to use the platform again when satisfied with P2P service exchanges. However, participants sharing with an opportunistic style are less likely to remain loyal to the platform.

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