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  • 1. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems: Exploring practices, knowledge dynamics and policy evaluation2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating climate change represents one of the most pressing challenges of our time. The EU has set the goal of reaching climate neutrality by 2050. The transition of manufacturing organizations is essential in reaching the EU’s goal, since industry accounts for circa 25% of the total final energy use and about one-fifth of EU’s GHG emissions. Energy efficiency stands as one of the essential pillars of industrial decarbonization, with energy management playing a pivotal role in reaching its full potential. To remain competitive in the long term and align with the EU’s carbon neutrality goal for 2050, the manufacturing industry must enhance energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. Manufacturing companies are exploring new ways of working with energy management in order to meet the requirements for both radical and incremental innovations needed to achieve the climate neutrality goal. However, due to the high complexity of industrial energy systems and its high diversity among sectors, improving energy efficiency is a difficult task. Knowledge, especially extensive knowledge, is a key factor for adopting innovations in energy efficiency and industrial processes. 

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the role of industrial energy management in the transition toward sustainable energy systems using an extended system approach. Employing top-down and bottom-up approaches, this thesis specifically focuses on three key aspects: industrial energy management practices, knowledge dynamics in industrial energy management, and policy evaluation. Key aspects of this thesis have been studied by means of mixed methods, such as literature reviews, interviews, case study with action research approach, survey, and evaluations. This thesis advocates that energy management practices (EnMPs) include activities beyond energy efficiency improvements. Specifically, they incorporate activities related to the decarbonization of industrial processes, including energy supply (own and purchased) and fuel conversion, at the very least. 

    The results show that internal EnMPs revolve around a focus on technologies, processes, and leadership, for which knowledge creation is an ongoing and evolving process. EnMPs encompass a comprehensive set of strategies and actions undertaken by manufacturing organizations to enhance energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and navigate the transition towards sustainable energy systems. Such practices consist of the following components: energy conservation, energy efficiency, process innovation, energy supply and compensation measures. Furthermore, this thesis has shown that external EnMPs are connected to the participation in energy policy programs and voluntary initiatives and is a common practice in energy management work.

    Organizations often employ a combination of these strategies to achieve climate neutrality and align with environmental sustainability goals. Successful implementation of EnMPs is contingent upon deep process knowledge, especially in the case of radical process innovations, which necessitate a thorough understanding of interdependencies and interconnected processes. Collaboration with external sources of knowledge, including universities and stakeholders, is essential to drive innovation and adapt to evolving energy systems. Leadership plays a vital role in navigating these complexities and ensuring a strategic approach to EnMPs implementation. 

    This thesis contributes to the field of research on energy management in different ways: i. re-viewing the role of energy management in the current context of transition toward sustainable energy systems, ii. advancing theoretical and practical understanding of energy management in manufacturing organizations, iii. enhancing the knowledge-creation perspective within energy management practices for enhancing the adoption of both energy efficiency and process innovation, and iv. advancing theoretical understanding of the knowledge-creation process for energy management through the development of a knowledge-based framework. 

    List of papers
    1. Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review
    2022 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 159, article id 112168Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The social context in relation to energy policies and advances in more energy efficient technologies is changing constantly, thus driving a need for change in the manufacturing sector. This study presents a knowledge-based framework that enables the understanding of the model for knowledge that has taken industrial energy efficiency to current levels and the analysis of the model in the current context of industry transition. The framework consists of three broader forms of knowledge and specific knowledge attributes that can capture the knowledge employed in industrial energy management. The framework is applied in a systematic literature review, analyzing the forms of knowledge and main aspects of energy management in manufacturing industries from 157 articles published between 2010 and 2020 in various academic journals. Besides the framework, the results show that the technical form of knowledge is the primary type of knowledge employed in energy management and that a paradigm-changing towards Industry 4.0. is seen. Another employed form of knowledge is process knowledge, which is concerned with the prerequisite information needed to implement energy management. Finally, lead- ership knowledge is also employed in energy management and a blend in these three forms of knowledge might move us beyond traditional knowledge towards new forms of knowledge that maximize the potential for energy management in manufacturing industries. The knowledge demands brought by Industry 4.0 for all forms of knowledge are identified and discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2022
    Keywords
    Energy management, Manufacturing industry, Energy efficiency, Decarbonization, Analytical framework, Knowledge based framework, Industry 4.0, Process knowledge, Technical knowledge, Leadership knowledge, Model for energy management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183200 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2022.112168 (DOI)000786655600003 ()
    Projects
    Towards a theory of energy management through contrasting case studies from the shipping and the manufacturing sectors
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 460581-1, Dnr 2018-001887
    Note

    Funding: Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency [46058-1, 2018-001887]; Division of Energy Systems in the Department of Management and Engineering at Link oping University

    Available from: 2022-02-28 Created: 2022-02-28 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
    2. Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, p. 1385-1395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2021
    Keywords
    Decarbonization of industry; Energy efficiency policy programs; Ex-ante policy evaluation; Energy audits; Policy process; Guidelines; Methodology
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180263 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2021.02.067 (DOI)000701614200009 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy Agency [302881]; Division of Energy Systems at the Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2021-10-14 Created: 2021-10-14 Last updated: 2023-10-31
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  • 2.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sannö, Anna
    Research & Development Department, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Knowledge demands for energy management in manufacturing industry - A systematic literature review2022In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 159, article id 112168Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social context in relation to energy policies and advances in more energy efficient technologies is changing constantly, thus driving a need for change in the manufacturing sector. This study presents a knowledge-based framework that enables the understanding of the model for knowledge that has taken industrial energy efficiency to current levels and the analysis of the model in the current context of industry transition. The framework consists of three broader forms of knowledge and specific knowledge attributes that can capture the knowledge employed in industrial energy management. The framework is applied in a systematic literature review, analyzing the forms of knowledge and main aspects of energy management in manufacturing industries from 157 articles published between 2010 and 2020 in various academic journals. Besides the framework, the results show that the technical form of knowledge is the primary type of knowledge employed in energy management and that a paradigm-changing towards Industry 4.0. is seen. Another employed form of knowledge is process knowledge, which is concerned with the prerequisite information needed to implement energy management. Finally, lead- ership knowledge is also employed in energy management and a blend in these three forms of knowledge might move us beyond traditional knowledge towards new forms of knowledge that maximize the potential for energy management in manufacturing industries. The knowledge demands brought by Industry 4.0 for all forms of knowledge are identified and discussed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Jalo, Noor
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ida
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Barriers to and Drivers of Energy Management in Swedish SMEs2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 21, article id 6925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency gap is known as the difference between optimal level of energy efficiency and the actual level of achieved energy efficiency. Energy management has proven to further close the energy efficiency gap. Energy management may differ depending on whether it concerns a large, energy-intensive company or small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are of high interest since they form a large share of the economy today. For SMEs, a lighter form of energy management, in the form of energy efficiency network participation, has proven to deliver sound energy efficiency impact, while for larger, energy-intensive firms, a certified energy management system may be more suitable. However, various barriers inhibit adoption of energy efficiency measures. While there is an array of research on barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in general, research on barriers to, and driving forces for, energy management is rare, one exception being a study of energy-intensive pulp and paper mills. This holds even more so for industrial SMEs. This paper aims to identify the barriers to, and drivers for, energy management in manufacturing SMEs. Results of this explorative study show that the top four barriers to energy management are lack of time/other priorities, non-energy-related working tasks are prioritized higher, slim organization, and lack of internal expert competences, i.e., mainly organizational barriers. The top four drivers for energy management are to reduce production waste, participation in energy efficiency networks, cost reduction from lower energy use, and commitment from top management. Furthermore, results show that energy management among the studied SMEs seems to not be as mature, even though the companies participated in an energy management capacity building program in the form of energy efficiency networks, which, in turn, shows a still largely untapped potential in the societal aim to reduce the energy efficiency and management gaps. The main contribution of this paper is a first novel attempt to explore barriers to, and drivers for, energy management among SMEs.

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    fulltext
  • 4.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pierre, Inge
    Energiforetagen Sverige, Sweden.
    Gindroz, Bernard
    CEN CENELEC Sect Forum Energy Management SFEM, Belgium.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Decarbonization of industry: Guidelines towards a harmonized energy efficiency policy program impact evaluation methodology2021In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 7, p. 1385-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of EU energy system is under way, but manufacturing industry is still using approximately 25% of the EU total final energy use. To maintain long-term competitiveness while contributing to the EU goal of carbon neutrality by 2050, manufacturing industry needs to improve energy efficiency in a cost-effective way. One important way to achieve this is through energy audits. The Energy Efficiency Directive promotes member states development of energy efficiency programs to encourage industry to undergo energy audits. Previous studies have reviewed industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluations and argued that there is no harmonized way to conduct them. This leads to difficulties in: i) comparing energy efficiency and cost saving potentials throughout different programs, and ii) providing necessary information that supports the improvement of the policy program. Therefore, we argue that a harmonized methodology for industrial energy efficiency policy program evaluation is of great importance, and, we have developed a set of five-steps guidelines that lay the foundation for an ex-ante energy efficiency policy program evaluation methodology. The guidelines are to be be conducted during the lifetime of the program, in five steps, as follows: (s1) define key issues, (s2) set the objectives for each key issue, (s3) identify the options for each key issue, (s4) analyze options from an energy and environmental perspective, and (s5) compare options and select the recommended one. Our proposed methodology will support policymakers and evaluators answer questions such as: i) how can the objectives of the policy program be achieved? ii) is there any need to change the policy program? Furthermore, a comparison in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of all major policy options developed, including the status quo option is proposed in the methodology. This paper can be seen an important step towards the goal of creating a harmonized policy evaluation methodology. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Andrei, Mariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reducing the Energy Efficiency Gap by Means of Energy Management Practices2019In: 2019 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Portland, August 12-14, 2019: Inspiring Action for a Sustainable Future. Panel 2: People, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency remains a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research onimproved energy efficiency has shown the existence of a gap between the optimal and currentimplementation of energy efficient technologies, which is referred to as the energy efficiencygap. Studies have identified that energy efficiency could be further improved by includingenergy management practices alongside energy-efficient technologies. The inefficiencies ofenergy efficiency are commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energyefficiency. Energy management is stated to be one of the foremost means of overcoming thesebarriers, and two important factors that can help are energy services and energy data monitoring.The aim of this paper is to address how energy services and energy data monitoring can helpeliminate the energy efficiency gap. The study has been carried out as a multiple case studyusing semi-structured interviews.Two aspects of energy management are included: Energy Performance Contract (EPC)and the concept of “Smart” processes and subprocesses. EPC is a commercial model that ispreferably to be designed in a way that it can remove barriers and allow driving forces to beeffective within the contract, and the concept of smart processes and subprocesses, that implies abetter use of big data from measurements and intra-machine connectivity by using the Internet ofThings. Major barriers to energy efficiency are high transaction costs, problems with financingand competition with in-house expertise. Thus, by introducing the EPC and “Smart” concept, areduction of the energy efficiency gap could be achieved.

  • 6.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several research studies have adopted specific energy consumption (SEC) as an indicator of the progress of improved energy efficiency, publications are scarce on critical assessments when using SEC. Given the increasing importance of monitoring improved industrial energy efficiency and the rising popularity of SEC as an energy key performance indicator (e-KPI), an in-depth analysis and problematization on the pros and cons of using SEC would appear to be needed. The aim of this article is to analyse SEC critically in relation to industrial energy efficiency. By using SEC in the pulp and paper industry as an example, the results of this exploratory study show that although SEC is often used as an e-KPI in industry, the comparison is not always straightforward. Challenges emanate from a lack of information about how SEC is calculated. It is likely that SEC is an optimal e-KPI within the same study, when all deployed SECs are calculated in the same way, and with the same underlying assumptions. However, before comparing SEC with other studies, it is recommended that the assumptions on which calculations are based should be scrutinized in order to ensure the validity of the comparisons. The paper remains an important contribution in addition to the available handbooks.

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