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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Centralized or decentralized? How to exploit Sweden’s agricultural biomethane potential2024In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector holds great potential for contributing to European biomethane production, but how to best exploit it is still not clear. This study compares three technical solutions for producing liquefied biomethane from manure in Sweden: centralized biogas production and liquefaction, decentralized biogas production and centralized liquefaction, and decentralized biogas production and liquefaction. Technical and practical aspects of the three configurations are assessed through interviews with professionals, and the economic performance is compared through life cycle cost analysis. Depending on the conditions, the most cost-efficient alternative is either a gas pipeline from decentralized biogas production to a centralized liquefaction, or fully centralized production. The economic benefit of centralization increases with the number of farms involved but decreases with the biogas capacity of the system and the transport distance. The pipeline solution provides simple logistics and operation, although concession for pipe laying can be challenging. Moreover, a partly or fully centralized setup improves the delivery security of the system and reduces downtime. However, decentralized biomethane production can be an option for remote farms where centralization is not possible. For existing biogas plants, small-scale liquefaction or a pipeline to centralized liquefaction can be options for developing more biomethane production.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cordova, Stephanie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Climate performance of liquefied biomethane with carbon dioxide utilization or storage2024In: Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, Vol. 192, article id 114239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of upgrading biogas to biomethane for gas grid injection or use as a vehicle fuel, biogenic carbon dioxide (CO₂) is separated and normally emitted to the atmosphere. Meanwhile, there are a number of ways of utilizing CO₂ to reduce the dependency on fossil carbon sources. This article assesses the climate performance of liquefied biomethane for road transport with different options for utilization or storage of CO₂. The analysis is done from a life cycle perspective, covering the required and avoided processes from biogas production to the end use of biomethane and CO₂. The results show that all of the studied options for CO₂ utilization can improve the climate performance of biomethane, in some cases contributing to negative CO₂ emissions. One of the best options, from a climate impact perspective, is to use the CO₂ internally to produce more methane, although continuous supply of hydrogen from renewable sources can be a challenge. Another option that stands out is concrete curing, where CO₂ can both replace conventional steam curing and be stored for a long time in mineral form. Storing CO₂ in geological formations can also lead to negative CO₂ emissions. However, with such long-term storage solutions, opportunities to recycle biogenic CO₂ are lost, together with the possibility of de-fossilizing processes that require carbon, such as chemical production and horticulture.

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  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Policy designs for biomethane promotion2024In: Biogas to biomethane: Engineering, Production, Sustainability / [ed] Abu Yousuf, Lynsey Melville, Elsevier, 2024, p. 301-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Great expectations: Future scenarios for production and use of biogas and digestate in Sweden2023In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 93-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to increase biogas production from anaerobic digestion (AD) from 2 to 7 TWh/year until 2030. This paper investigates the requirements, challenges and implications of such a development through qualitative and quantitative assessment of three scenarios. Seven key elements—national policies and policy instruments, regional policies and policy instruments, mobilization of feedstock, infrastructure for feedstock and gas, mobilization of actors, new production facilities, and stable and increasing demand—were defined for the scenario construction and were also used to structure the comparative analysis. Quantitatively, increasing the biogas production from 2 to 7 TWh is estimated to require up to 5 times larger digester volume and up to 12 times more AD plants, meanwhile producing 6 – 8 times more biofertilizers. While a centralized production structure would be more efficient, a decentralized structure with small biogas plants would facilitate the logistics of agricultural substrates and biofertilizers. New production capacity could be incentivized through new and increased production subsidies, as well as an increased demand for renewable energy. Regardless of how the goal is to be achieved, it will require collective efforts from both public and private actors to overcome the many challenges on the way.

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  • 5.
    Georgiadou, Maria
    et al.
    European Commission.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Proietti, Stefano
    ISINNOVA.
    Fredriksson Möller, Björn
    ETIP Bioenergy.
    Sfetsas, Themistoklis
    Qlab.
    Salonen, Petteri
    Finrenes.
    Stålhandske, Jonas
    Biofrigas Sweden.
    Innovative technologies for biomethane production: Review of the current state of the art2023Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cordova, Stephanie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Värdeskapande av koldioxid från biogasproduktion2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO₂) has a negative impact on the climate, but it also has several practical areas of use. Many industrial processes emit CO₂ in high concentrations, which could be captured to mitigate emissions while also creating valuable products. One example of such a process is biogas upgrading – a process separating renewable gases, where methane is taken care of for use as vehicle fuel or industrial energy carrier, while CO₂ is released into the atmosphere. The aim of this project has been to chart alternatives and technologies for taking care of green CO₂ from biogas upgrading, so-called carbon capture and utilization (CCU), and to investigate the conditions for applying these in a Swedish context. The work has been guided by the following research questions:

    • How large is the current and future potential for CCU from biogas production?
    • What are the possible areas of use for CO₂ from biogas production?
    • What factors influence the choice of areas of use for CO₂ from biogas production?
    • How large is the environmental benefit of CCU from biogas production?

    To answer these questions, calculations of potentials, a multi-criteria assessment and a life cycle assessment were carried out, based on the Swedish biogas production. A reference group comprising representatives for large Swedish companies within biogas production and biogas upgrading technology was used to enable coproduction and networking between the research group and the business sector.

    The production of CO₂ from biogas was estimated to 160,000 ton/year in 2020, with potential to increase to 540,000 – 840,000 ton/year in a few years and 790,000 – 1,230,000 ton/year in a longer perspective, as a consequence of an expected increase in the Swedish biogas production. A large share of the CO₂ is however produced at relatively small upgrading facilities, which could limit the feasibility for CCU due to high costs for investment and operation. Adding hydrogen to transform all the CO₂ into methane could potentially increase the methane production from biogas from 2 to 3 TWh/year in a short-term perspective and from 11 to 17 TWh/year in a long-term perspective, given sufficient access to hydrogen.

    Other ways of utilizing CO₂ from biogas include production of biomass or chemicals, concrete curing, pH control of process water and use as a refrigerant. The choice of CCU options can be influenced by environmental, technical, economic and policy-related aspects. From the biogas producers’ perspective, methanation is the option that is the most compatible with the existing production system and business model, while other solutions usually involve another actor taking care of the CO₂. Hydrogen is required for methanation as well as for production of chemicals. Another limiting factor are the high purity requirements on all CO₂ that is distributed and sold on the market. The geographical distribution of the production plants can also be a challenge.

    Several CCU options can improve the environmental performance of biogas by replacing fossil-based products. The potential climate impact is the lowest if the CO₂ is methanized with renewable hydrogen or mineralized in concrete, but other forms of environmental impact can also be reduced by applying these or other CCU options. For comparison, permanent storage of CO₂ in geological formations (carbon capture and storage, CCS) only reduces the climate impact, while it increases other forms of environmental impact. Furthermore, permanently storing biogenic CO₂ can make it difficult to reduce the use of fossil CO₂ and transition to a more sustainable society. The need for carbon in many essential processes and products suggests that biogenic CO₂ should be utilized and not stored.

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  • 7.
    Cordova, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What should we do with CO₂ from biogas upgrading?2023In: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 77, article id 102607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon capture and utilization has been proposed as an essential climate change mitigation strategy, but only a few implemented cases exist. During biomethane production from anaerobic digestion, CO₂ is commonly separated and emitted into the atmosphere, which can be utilized as raw material for various products. This research aims to identify and assess CO₂ utilization alternatives for possible integration with biogas upgrading from anaerobic digestion by developing a soft multi-criteria analysis (MCA). A literature review complemented with stakeholder participation enabled the identification of relevant alternatives and criteria for assessment. Potential alternatives for CO₂ utilization include methane, mineral carbonates, biomass production, fuels, chemicals, pH control, and liquefied CO₂. Results show that although no alternative performs well in all indicators, there is an opportunity for short-term implementation for methane, biomass production, mineral carbonates, liquefied CO₂, and pH control. Moreover, the uncertainty analysis reveals that even though the technologies have a high technological development, more information on critical aspects is still required. The soft MCA provides information to decision-makers, practitioners, and the academic community on learning opportunities of the alternatives and indicators to step from development into implementation. For instance, the method can be used to assess more specific systems with different locations and scales or to direct efforts to ease the implementation of CCU.

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  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biogas policies and production development in Europe: a comparative analysis of eight countries2022In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 931-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and analyzes the relations between the biogas development and the national policy frameworks for biogas solutions in eight European countries. The policy frameworks are compared using a biogas policy model, comprising five dimensions: type of policy; administrative area; administrative level; targeted part of the value chain; and continuity and change over time. The studied countries show examples of both increasing and stagnating biogas production, all of which can be associated with changes in national policy frameworks. Many different policy tools?particularly economic instruments?have proven successful for stimulating biogas production, but changing a well-functioning framework risks impeding the development. Therefore, predictability and relevance for targeted actors are key in policymaking. Targeting specific parts of the value chain can however be required to integrate all the benefits of biogas solutions, such as agricultural methane emissions reduction. Moreover, it can be challenging to design policies and policy instruments that are both effective and sustainable over time, without needs for modifications or adjustments. Finally, biogas policies and policy instruments that are effective in one country would not necessarily lead to the same outcome in another country, as they are dependent on the broader context and policy and economic framework.

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  • 9.
    Cordova, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Corrigendum to “Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide frombiogas production in Sweden” [J. Clean. Prod. 370 (2022) 133498]2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 378, article id 134392Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Cordova, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Potential for the valorization of carbon dioxide from biogas production in Sweden2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 370, article id 133498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions offer many advantages to improve sustainable development, but there is still untapped potential in its environmental performance. During biogas upgrading, CO2 is separated from the gas to deliver a flow with high methane concentration and thus high energy content. In this practice, CO2 is commonly emitted to the atmosphere without contributing to a net addition of climate gases because of its biological origin, being a missed opportunity for carbon capture. In this paper, CO2 valorization is an option that has been evaluated using a qualitative and quantitative approach, taking Sweden as an example. Results showed that around 140 kt of CO2 can potentially be captured and utilized from biogas upgrading, which can significantly increase in future scenarios. If CO2 were turned into methane using power-to-gas technology, an additional 35% of biogas could be produced in the short term, meaning up to additional 0.7 TWh in 2020. By 2050, around 600 to 1600 kt of CO2 could be available, depending on how well the biogas production develops and how much of the biogas is upgraded, resulting in up to 6.2 TWh of biomethane. The qualitative assessment suggested that only minor modifications in the upgrading process are required for this practice. Biogas actors are interested in getting involved in valorization projects that enhance their circular business and avoid carbon lock-in mainly to improve the environmental performance of biomethane. Moreover, the application of CO2 valorization requires collaboration with different actors to integrate current CO2 demand or innovative transformation technologies.

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  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cleaner heavy transports: Environmental and economic analysis of liquefied natural gas and biomethane2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 278, article id 123535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking to reduce climate change impact and particle emissions, the heavy-duty transport sector is moving towards a growth within technology and infrastructure for use of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This opens an opportunity for the biogas market to grow as well, especially in the form of liquefied biomethane (LBM). However, there is a need to investigate the economic conditions and the possible environmental benefits of using LBM rather than LNG or diesel in heavy transports. This study presents a comparison of well-to-wheel scenarios for production, distribution and use of LBM, LNG and diesel, assessing both environmental and economic aspects in a life cycle perspective. The results show that while LNG can increase the climate change impact compared to diesel by up to 10%, LBM can greatly reduce the environmental impact compared to both LNG and diesel. With a German electricity mix, the climate change impact can be reduced by 45 – 70% compared to diesel with LBM from manure, and by 50 – 75% with LBM from food waste. If digestate is used to replace mineral fertilizer, the impact of LBM can even be less than 0. However, the results vary a lot depending on the type of feedstock, the electricity system and whether the calculations are done according to RED or ISO guidelines. Economically, it can be hard for LBM to compete with LNG, due to relatively high production costs, and some form of economic incentives are likely required.

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  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dimensions and characteristics of biogas policies: Modelling the European policy landscape2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 135, article id 110200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas solutions typically span across several sectors, such as waste handling, energy and transport. While this can be an advantage in comparison to other alternatives, it also creates an intricate policy structure that is challenging to overview, making it difficult to evaluate consequences of different policy changes that might not be directly related to biogas. This article presents an attempt to describe the institutional conditions for biogas solutions in the EU by defining the dimensions and characteristics of policies and policy instruments influencing biogas. A five-dimensional model of biogas policies is proposed: type of policy; administrative area; administrative level; targeted part of the value chain; and continuity and change over time. This reflects the complexity of the conditions for biogas solutions and constitutes a platform for describing, discussing and developing biogas policies. From the proposed model, it becomes clear that biogas policy is a very dispersed and incoherent policy area. Thus, there is an apparent risk that the responsibility for biogas policy is diffuse and has no obvious owner among the involved actors, making the framework of biogas policies patchy and ineffective. This model can contribute to an improved overview of biogas policies, and can be used as a tool for comparing the policy landscapes in different countries.

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  • 13.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    O’Shea, Richard
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Gray, Nathan
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Lyng, Kari-Anne
    NORSUS, Norwegian Research Institute for Sustainability Research.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Murphy, Jerry D.
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Perspectives on biomethane as a transport fuel within acircular economy, energy, and environmental system2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature indicates that the life cycle costs of biomethane fueled light vehicles may be 15 to 20% highe rthan for similar petrol and diesel fueled vehicles, while liquid biomethane fueled heavy duty trucks may have similar life cycle costs to diesel. However, such an analysis can be two dimensional and limited in the message it conveys. On one hand the acceptance of diesel fueled trucks and buses will be limited due to the climate emergency and air pollution and after 2030 diesel may not be the competition for biomethane anymore. On the otherhand, biomethane production is part of a larger circular economy, energy, and environmental system. It is verydifficult to divorce the energy vector, biomethane, from the system through which it is produced. In essence biomethane can be considered as one of the products or services of a broad biogas system.

    An advantage of biogas is that it can be produced from most wet organic wastes or by-products, includingfor food waste, animal by-products, (such as manure), agricultural residues, sewage sludge, industrial biowaste (such as from slaughterhouses and food and beverage processing industries). Biogas production is an element in the environmental management of such wastes; biogas plants can also deliver digestate, which contains most ofthe nutrients in the feedstock and can be an excellent biofertilizer. In addition, it is possible to utilize the carbon dioxide removed in upgrading biogas to biomethane as a product with added value. The resource of biomethane is very significant in considering the vast amounts of organic wastes landfilled around the world each year, that instead could be used to produce biogas, biofertilizers and food grade CO2 while improving the environment through reduced fugitive methane emissions and improved water quality. Furthermore, the application of biogas systems in bio-industrial contexts (such as paper mills, food production facilities, or other types of biorefineries) has huge potential to decarbonize industry while significantly increasing the resource of biomethane. Due to the multifunctionality of biomethane solutions, broad assessment methods are needed to grasp thewide spectrum of relevant factors when comparing different technologies:

    • Biomethane has a competitive performance compared with fossil fuels and other biofuels on a whole lifecycle analysis and is particularly suited to long distance heavy vehicles.

    • Biomethane from manure, residues, waste & catch crops is estimated to have low GHG emissions ascompared to other renewable fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to reduced air pollution in comparison with diesel, petrol, and other biofuels.• Biomethane can contribute to a substantial reduction in acidification compared with fossil fuels.

    • Biomethane may contribute to significantly reduced noise levels in comparison with diesel heavy goodsvehicles.

    • Well-designed and applied biogas systems may be essential to transform conventional farming to moresustainable farming and to organic farming.

    • Common types of biogas solutions provide essential sociotechnical systems services as components ofsystems for waste and (waste) water management.

    • Biogas solutions may importantly contribute to improved energy supply/security and flexibility.

    Natural gas systems should be a facilitator of the introduction of biomethane for transport, but the sustainability problems associated with natural gas negatively impact the view of biomethane. This is where arguments amongst the renewable sector actors can hinder progress. Biomethane and (power to methane) can utilize the existing gas grid and accelerate progress to decarbonization of the overall energy sector beyond just electricity and also to decarbonize chemical (such as ammonia and methanol) and steel production. This should be advantageous especially when realizing that more energy is procured from the natural gas grid than the electricity gridin the EU and the US; however, suggestions that biomethane is only greenwashing the natural gas industry, and in doing so extending the lifetime of natural gas, greatly impedes this progress.

    This report provides exemplars of very good biomethane based transport solutions, with a high technologicalreadiness level for all elements of the chain from production to vehicles. Transport biomethane sits well in the broad circular economy, energy, and environmental system providing services across a range of sectors including reduction in fugitive methane emissions from slurries, treatment of residues, environmental protection, provision of biofertiliser, provision of food grade CO2 and a fuel readily available for long distance heavy haulage. What we do not have is time to postpone the sustainable implementation of such circular economy biomethane systems as the climate emergency will not wait for absolutely perfect zero emission solutions; should they exist.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson Möller, Björn
    St1 Biogas.
    Well-to-wheel climate performance of gas and electric vehicles in Europe2021In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 97, article id 102911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on tailpipe emissions, current EU policies do not favor the use of biofuels in transports. This paper analyzes the well-to-wheel climate performance of gas and electric vehicles in Europe, taking into account the share of biomethane in vehicle gas as well as the production systems for biomethane and electricity in different countries. The results show that both gas and electric vehicles can significantly reduce the climate change impact of transports compared to diesel. In an average European electricity system, electricity has around 30% lower climate impact than diesel for a heavy truck, and 65-70% lower for a passenger car or city bus. Average European vehicle gas reduces the climate impact by up to 28% compared to diesel, or 11% compared to fossil natural gas, and in some countries vehicle gas has lower climate impact than electricity. This demonstrates the importance of not limiting analysis and policy to tailpipe emissions.

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  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahl Öberg, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vehabovic, Aner
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions of heavy-duty transports: Influence of electricity carbon intensity2021In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several alternatives for how to phase out diesel in heavy-duty transports, thereby reducing the sector’s climate change impact. This paper assesses the well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy carriers for heavy-duty vehicles, analyzing the effect of the carbon intensity of the electricity used in production. The results show that energy carriers with high electricity dependence are not necessarily better than diesel from a WTW perspective. In particular, fuels produced through electrolysis are not well suited in carbon-intense electricity systems. Conversely, waste-based biofuels have low GHG emissions regardless of the electricity system. Battery-electric buses show a large reduction of GHG emissions compared to diesel buses and many other alternatives, while battery-electric trucks have higher GHG emissions than diesel in carbon intense electricity systems. Thus, electrifying transports or switching to renewable fuels will not suffice if the electricity system is not made renewable first.

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  • 16.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Developing biogas systems in Norrköping, Sweden: An industrial symbiosis intervention2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 277, article id 122822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas systems are often multi-functional and involve  several actors in different sectors, requiring these actors to collaborate closely in order to implement such systems. In this paper, a study is presented where the theory of institutional capacity building is used to guide interventions with public and private actors to facilitate the development of local biogas systems in Norrköping, Sweden. The interventions were performed in the form of a workshop series, where local actors with potential to influence biogas developments actively took part. The workshop series generated knowledge on Norrköping’s significant potential for both producing and using biogas, which was traced, in part, to its high concentration of bio-based industries and its good position as a hub for transports. The interventions also created a shared understanding that cooperation and coordination to distribute resources and knowledge about biogas, both geographically and across sectors, was critical for realizing this potential. The municipal organization was identified as an important actor for coordinating these efforts. Observations during the workshops and survey responses indicate that the interventions contributed to building institutional capacity and initiation of efforts to develop local biogas solutions. Ideas put forth in this study enable interventions to target the intangible internal capacities of emerging industrial symbiosis networks. In addition, institutional capacity building serves as a useful analytical framework capable of capturing progress within emerging networks in the short-term even when material, water or energy synergies are yet to be realized.

    Biogas systems are often multi-functional and involve several actors in different sectors, requiring these actors to collaborate closely in order to implement such systems. In this paper, a study is presented where the theory of institutional capacity building is used to guide interventions with public and private actors to facilitate the development of local biogas systems in Norrköping, Sweden. The interventions were performed in the form of a workshop series, where local actors with potential to influence biogas developments actively took part. The workshop series generated knowledge on Norrköping’s significant potential for both producing and using biogas, which was traced, in part, to its high concentration of bio-based industries and its good position as a hub for transports. The interventions also created a shared understanding that cooperation and coordination to distribute resources and knowledge about biogas, both geographically and across sectors, was critical for realizing this potential. The municipal organization was identified as an important actor for coordinating these efforts. Observations during the workshops and survey responses indicate that the interventions contributed to building institutional capacity and initiation of efforts to develop local biogas solutions. Ideas put forth in this study enable interventions to target the intangible internal capacities of emerging industrial symbiosis networks. In addition, institutional capacity building serves as a useful analytical framework capable of capturing progress within emerging networks in the short-term even when material, water or energy synergies are yet to be realized.

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  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Biogas Research Center.
    Murphy, Jerry D
    MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Irland.
    IEA Bioenergy Task 37 – Country Reports Summaries 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication contains a compilation of summaries of country reports from members of IEA Bioenergy Task 37 (Energy from Biogas).

    Each country report summary includes information on the number of biogas plants in operation, biogas production data, how the biogas is utilised, the number of biogas upgrading plants, the number of vehicles using biomethane as fuel, the number of biomethane filling stations, details of financial support schemes in each country and some information on national biogas projects and production facilities. The publication is an annual update and is valid for information collected in 2019. Reference year for production and utilisation is as a rule 2018.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruz, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Scenarios for upgrading and distribution of compressed and liquefied biogas: Energy, environmental, and economic analysis2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 256, article id 120473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition towards fossil-free transports, there is an increasing interest in upgraded biogas, or biomethane, as a vehicle fuel. Liquefied biogas has more than twice as high energy density as compressed biogas, which opens up the opportunity for use in heavy transports and shipping and for more efficient distribution. There are several ways to produce and distribute compressed and liquefied biogas, but very few studies comparing them and providing an overview. This paper investigates the energy balance, environmental impact and economic aspects of different technologies for upgrading, liquefaction and distribution of biogas for use as a vehicle fuel. Furthermore, liquefaction is studied as a method for efficient long-distance distribution.

    The results show that the differences between existing technologies for upgrading and liquefaction are small in a well-to-tank perspective, especially if the gas is transported over a long distance before use. Regarding distribution, liquefaction can pay back economically after 25–250 km compared to steel container trailers with compressed gas, and reduce the climate change impact after 10–30 km. Distribution in gas grid is better in all aspects, given that it is available and no addition of propane is required. Liquefaction can potentially expand the geographical boundaries of the market for biogas as a vehicle fuel, and cost reductions resulting from technology maturity allow cost-effective liquefaction even at small production capacities.

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  • 19.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    et al.
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calabrese, Toni
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Siegele, Dietmar
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Unit for Energy Efficient Building, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Passive House Institute, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Bales, Chris
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    A comprehensive evaluation of a monthly-based energy auditing tool through dynamic simulations, and monitoring in a renovation case study2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 183, p. 713-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy auditing tool (PHPP) was evaluated against a dynamic simulation tool (TRNSYS) and used for the assessment of energy conservation measures in a demo case study. The comprehensive comparison of heating and cooling useful demands and loads included three building types (single-, multi-family house, and office), three building energy levels (before renovation and after renovation with a heating demand of 45 and 25 kWh/(m²·a)) and seven European climates.

    Dynamic simulation results proved PHPP (monthly energy balance) to be able to calculate heating demand and energy savings with good precision and cooling demand with acceptable precision compared to detailed numerical models (TRNSYS). The average deviation between the tools was 8% for heating and 15% for cooling (considering climates with a relevant cooling load only). The higher the thermal envelope quality was, i.e. in case of good energy standards and in cold climates, the better was the agreement. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PHPP slightly overestimates the heating and cooling loads by intention for system design.

    The renovation design of a real multi-family house was executed using PHPP as energy auditing tool. Several calculation stages were performed for (a) baseline, (b) design phase, and (c) verification with monitoring in order to calculate the corresponding heating demand. The PHPP model was calibrated twice, before and after the renovation. The necessity for tool calibration, especially for the baseline, was highlighted increasing the confidence with respect to a number of boundary conditions.

    In this study, PHPP was tested as an energy auditing tool aiming to be a versatile and less error-prone alternative to more complex simulation tools, which require much more expert knowledge and training.

  • 20.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    et al.
    EURAC.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    EURAC.
    Bellini, Alessandro
    EURAC.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ochs, Fabian
    University of Innsbruck.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Database of energy, environmental and economic indicators of renovation packages for European residential buildings2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 203, article id 109427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the energy efficiency with a vast impact in the residential building stock requires retrofit so- lutions that can be exploited with respect to a wide range of different building typologies and climates. Several tools and methodologies are nowadays available both for the assessment of building demands and for the individuation of optimum retrofit solutions. However, they are usually either too complex to be adopted by professionals or, on the contrary, oversimplified to account for the full complexity of a deep envelope and HVAC system retrofit. In this context, this paper describes a methodology developed to generate reliable information on retrofit solutions for typical buildings in different climatic conditions. Detailed numerical models are used to simulate a number of combinations of envelope and HVAC systems retrofit measures and renewable energy integration. Energy performance results are gathered in a database that allows comparing solu- tions, spanning over a range of more than 250,0 0 0 combinations of building types, age of construction, climates, envelope performance levels and HVAC systems configurations. Economic feasibility is also de- rived for each of the combinations. In this way, the accurateness of a detailed and validated calculation is made available to assist during the decision making process, with minimum computational effort being required by professionals: the variety and density of evaluated combinations allows to easily assess the performance of a specific case by interpolating among instances previously assessed. The applicability of the results to different climates and similar building typologies is verified by a comparison of the database results with a specific case dynamic simulation.

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  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Moa Swing
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life Cycle Cost of Building Energy Renovation Measures, Considering Future Energy Production Scenarios2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

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  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindfors, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is expected to make an important contribution to the vision of fossil-free transports in Sweden. However, estimates of the national production potential have taken a top-down perspective, without detailing where the potential exists and how to realise it. This study is made with a bottom-up perspective, investigating the potential for production and use of biogas within different sectors and individual industries in the municipality of Norrköping. Moreover, critical factors and driving actors for realising these potentials are raised and analysed.  The study was conducted with a participatory approach involving 22 representatives from the municipality, biogas producers, interest organisations and companies dealing with potential biogas substrates. The results indicate a potential biogas production of 500 GWh/year by 2030, out of which 60% would come from the agricultural sector and 30% from local pulp and paper industries. A more modest estimate indicate that the production would cover 10 – 15% of the local energy demand for road transport and shipping as well as industrial energy gas.  Substrates are distributed over a large geographical area and between several actors, requiring cooperation between substrate owners to reach an economically feasible scale. In addition, collaboration with biogas companies could provide the substrate owners with necessary specialist knowledge. In order to realise the biogas potential, Norrköping municipality has a central role to play as coordinator and knowledge hub, as well as by directing procurements towards biogas and plan for biogas fuelling stations.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruz, Igor
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Technologies for production of liquefied biogas for heavy transports: Energy, environmental, and economic analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heavy transport sector is facing a growth within technology and infrastructure for use of natural gas. This opens an opportunity for the biogas market to grow as well, especially in the form of liquefied biogas (LBG). This study presents an investigation of the energy balance, environmental impact and economic aspects of current technologies for production of LBG: mixed refrigerant cycle, nitrogen cycle, pressure reduction and cryogenic liquefaction. Calculations are based on a review of recent literature and data from the biogas industry. The results show that mixed refrigerant cycle is the most economic and energy efficient technology for liquefaction of upgraded biogas, followed by nitrogen cycle. The lowest electricity use and environmental impact is achieved if the liquefaction process is preceded by amine scrubber upgrading. Pressure reduction liquefaction is inexpensive and can be an alternative in areas connected to a high-pressure gas grid, but as a method for liquefaction it is not very efficient as only about 10% of the incoming gas is liquefied and the rest remains in its gaseous form. Moreover, addition of propane for distribution in the natural gas grid increases the environmental impact compared to other distribution pathways. The cryogenic technology has a higher energy use than other liquefaction technologies but compensates by also including CO₂ separation, which could make it suitable if there is no existing upgrading facility in place. However, there are technical difficulties to overcome and it is not widely implemented.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindfors, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biogaslösningar i Norrköping: potential för produktion och marknad2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the municipal Energy plan for 2030, Norrköping has set the goal to increase its energy efficiency by at least 30 % compared to 2005, and that 100 % of the energy sources and fuels used within the geographical area of Norrköping (not including sea and air) will be renewable. Locally produced biogas could contribute towards these goals, and the possibility to produce biogas has previously been investigated in pre-studies on individual facilities in the municipality. While the neighboring municipality of Linköping has had a continuous large-scale biogas production for many years, Norrköping has only had a small production of biogas, despite a similar number of inhabitants and several large industries with waste streams that could potentially be used as substrate for biogas.

    This report presents the results of a project with the goal of mapping and quantifying the potentials for production and use of biogas in Norrköping, to elucidatehow these can  be realized, and what importance  this would have for Norrköping. The project was conducted through a workshop series with participants from BRC partners as well as Region Östergötland, Östgötautmaningen, Biogas Öst, Norrköping Water and Waste, Holmen Paper and Kolmården Zoo. The research questions were approached with a “bottom-up” methodology, departing from the local conditions, and estimates of the potential production and use of biogas were made with focus on different substrate streams and markets, respectively.

    The results show a great, unexploited potential for biogas production in Norrköping, mainly in the agricultural sector and in local pulp and paper mills. There is also a large potential market for biogas in Norrköping. The estimated production potential could, if actualized, cover around 10 – 15 % of the energy demand road transport and shipping as well as the industrial energy gas demand in Norrköping.

    One of the main obstacles to develop the production of biogas in Norrköping is the fact that the substrates, except for at individual industrial plants, are scattered among a large number of facilities and actors. In addition, many potential producers lack the knowledge to produce and sell biogas. Thus, cooperation between different actors is required, for example between substrate owners and biogas producers. Cooperation between different substrate owners for large-scale co-digestion and upgrading to vehicle gas could give economic advantages compared to small-scale facilities.

    Norrköping municipality could be a key actor in the development towards increased local production and use of biogas through strategic infrastructure planning, procurement strategies and mediation of knowledge about biogas to potential producers and users. One way for the municipality to make the work in this area more efficient and effective can be to employ a biogas- or biofuel-coordinator.

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    Biogaslösningar i Norrköping : Potential för produktion och marknad
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport: The case of Sweden2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 65, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of renewable fuels in Swedish public transport is steadily increasing, in line with European energy and climate goals as well as a national goal of a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. However, the progression towards this goal is quite different among the Swedish regions, and efforts have been made on a national level to compare the public bus transport systems and provide a foundation for policymaking. This paper investigates different ways of assessing and presenting the energy performance of public bus transport systems. The analysis includes use of renewable and fossil fuels as well as energy efficiency and its underlying factors. Various energy performance indicators are presented and discussed with regards to practical implications and applicability for policy support.

    A life cycle perspective on fuels (“well-to-wheel”) is found to have clear advantages when it comes to global reductions of fossil energy use and emissions. This requires detailed information about the fuel use, which is not always the case with the existing reporting system. Setting the energy use in relation to number of passengers transported rather than just the distance covered would better reflect the function of the transport system, but is also more uncertain with the current data available.

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