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  • 1.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Product Realisation.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Product Realisation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Repurposing and production – So what’s the issue? Reflecting on how the production system can be affected by new circular material flows2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the path towards a circular economy, new ways of making and producing must be implemented on an industrial level. While there are methods for remanufacturing, the topic of repurposing on an industrial scale is still not fully explored and systematized. Repurposing, in this paper defined as the process of re-using products or components but with other functions, or modifying products or components for use in other products, will have a distinct effect on the production system and will challenge the current idea of production system development. In this paper, the authors use four different cases (three implemented in industry, one current design project in an academic-industrial partnership) to reflect on how the production system will be affected by certain aspects of repurposing. In total, five topics of production system development (Material classification, Product definition, Logistics & material handling, Manufacturing processes & planning and Processing window) are highlighted in the analysis, and some concluding remarks about flexibility needs and integrated development processes are presented. This paper does not provide clear answers or methods on how to implement repurposing but highlights multiple areas where further research is needed in order to make repurposing easily accessible and possible to implement for small and medium-sized manufacturers in their regular, daily work.

  • 2.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs, Bröderna Ugglas Gata hus 208B, 58188 Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automated material handling in compostie manufacturing using pick-and-place systems - a review2018In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 51, p. 222-229Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing use of fiber reinforced polymer composites follows a natural pursuit for more rational and effective manufacturing. Robotic pick-and-place systems can be used to automate handling of a multitude of materials used in the manufacturing of composite parts. There are systems developed for automated layup of prepreg, dry fibers and thermoplastic blanks as well as to handle auxiliary materials used in manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to highlight the challenges associated with automated handling of these materials and to analyze the main design principles that have been employed for pick-and-place systems in terms of handling strategy, reconfigurability, gripping technology and distribution of gripping points etc. The review shows that it is hard to find generic solutions for automated material handling due to the great variety in material properties. Few cases of industrial applications in full-scale manufacturing could be identified.

  • 3.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures, Sweden.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry2016In: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea SICOMP, Sweden.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures, Sweden.
    Åkermo, Malin
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods2016In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

  • 5.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stolt, Andreas
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Robertsson, Anders
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    von Gegerfelt, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Department of Computer Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    On force control for assembly and deburring of castings2013In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional industrial robots have problems interacting with an uncalibrated, ill-dened environment where part geometry and position may vary. Active force control technology has therefore been suggested as a solution to add the extra sensory dimension needed to handle manufacturing tasks like assembly and deburring. The technology is proposed to give increased exibility compared to other solutions and force control systems are available commercially. Active force control installations however, are is still uncommon in industry. This paper presents two cases of force control applications; assembly of a compliant carbon ber structure and deburring/cleaning of iron castings. Based on these two cases, some issues are raised on how the technology can be further developed to t the industrial setting, and the proposed benets are re-examined and refined. The two cases show that programming, parameter setting and ease of use are critical components in lowering the industrial threshold, together with increased possibilities of application-specic compensation and filtering. Force control does however, show great potential in increasing the boundaries for variance in product and equipment like grippers and xtures as well as decreasing the need for calibration of for example virtual models used for programming compared to traditional automated solutions.

  • 7. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Jonsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Manufacturing Technology as an Enabler of Flexibility: Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling and Force-Controlled Robotics2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to survive in today’s global market many manufacturing companies seek flexibility to reduce product lead times and meet changing market demands. Manufacturing equipment forms the base of the production system and manufacturing technology with the capability to adapt to any changes in prerequisites is thus a key enabler of flexibility. Industrial robots and fixtures are common in all types of manufacturing. Robots are versatile re-programmable units capable of performing many tasks, such as welding, part transfer, etc. Industrial robots have traditionally been unable to handle disturbances and lack of constraints of input. This has led to manual operations often being preferred to automation when some level of flexibility is needed. One way to enhance manufacturing equipment’s capability to handle unknown events is to integrate different kinds of sensors to gain more knowledge of the manufacturing environment. Force sensors, for example, can be used to close the feedback loop and, together with an adequate control system, enable the robot to react to force stimuli. This is useful in manufacturing applications like assembly and deburring, which have previously been difficult to automate.

    Fixtures are devices that hold and position parts during a manufacturing process. Traditionally many fixtures have been dedicated, i.e. designed for a specific part and purpose. This means that fixtures have not been able to handle different products in the same unit, thus hindering flexibility. Sensors, like measurement systems, can be used together with fixtures to de-couple the structure of the fixture from the accuracy, which is the traditional approach to fixturing. This reasoning forms the base of the Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling (ART) concept, developed at Linköping University. The ART concept aims at increasing flexibility in manufacturing, while ensuring affordability and efficiency.

    This thesis explores how common manufacturing equipment, like industrial robots and fixtures, combined with sensor input, can enhance flexibility in manufacturing. The research shows that force-controlled robots, reacting to force stimuli, produce consistent results in assembly of compliant structures and in complex deburring. Force control also makes the system more robust, as it is able to handle variance in the assembled and deburred parts which adds to system flexibility. It also lessens the need for accuracy in other equipment used, such as grippers and fixtures, and makes programming easier and safer. Force control would, however, benefit if parameter tuning was simplified in order to fit an industrial environment and if presented user information is tailored for the intended user.

    Using measurement sensors to build fixtures, new ART devices aimed at increased flexibility in fixtures have been developed. These devices reduce the resources needed for fixture build and reconfiguring between products and also open up for making fixtures more active in manufacturing and similar to robots, while still being affordable. ART also reduces resources needed for design, as shown by the developed design aid programs. ART also supports concurrent design, as fixture specifications may be finalized before the product specifications are fully set.

    The overall results indicate that the explored sensors in combination with today’s emerging technologies can give additional benefits for applications like assembly and deburring and for fixtures. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to increase flexibility on different levels in a manufacturing system by using sensors in combination with industrial robots and fixtures.

    List of papers
    1. Fixture design using Configurators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fixture design using Configurators
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2008 Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Lindberg, B.; Stahre, J., 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and manufacture of fixtures are among one of the major cost drivers in product industrialization. Modular or reconfigurable fixture solutions that may be adapted to encompass a large variety of parts or products have been researched and employed in applications ranging from machining to assembly. These solutions have not only the potential to reduce fixture manufacturing cost, but they also render it possible for different solutions to facilitate and speed up actual design work. The process of designing fixtures today is complicated, time consuming and require long experience by the tool designer. In this paper we present the Configurator approach - add on programs to the CAD-software which aids the designer in the design process. The Configurators are semi-automated and interactive, designed to use in compliance with the ART-concept, a reconfigurable fixture concept for assembly applications. The Configurator approach has been tested on industrial cases and parts of the results are presented in this paper.

    Keywords
    Fixture design, Reconfigurable fixtures, Configurators
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63187 (URN)
    Conference
    Swedish Production Symposium 2008, November 19-20, Stockholm, Sweden
    Projects
    Flexa
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Development of a new flexible fixturing device for Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a new flexible fixturing device for Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling
    2010 (English)In: 3rd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems: Responsive, customer demand driven, adaptive assembly / [ed] Terje K. Lien, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010, p. 103-108Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To use thin wedges of metal to adjust fixtures, i.e shimming, has been a common approach to achieve desired position and tolerance. To build a fixture using shims is time-consuming and results in a fixture that is difficult to modify. The newly developed ART (Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling) concept addresses the need for flexible fixturing by means of reconfigurable supports that are set to desired position by guidance from an outer measuring system. The ART concept can be realized by means of several different reconfigurable devices, among these is the newly developed “Mini Flexapod”. This small 6 degree of freedom reconfigurable device was designed to eliminate shimming and therefore has a small working envelope of approximately 4x4x4 mm. The Mini Flexapod is a result of working with several manufacturing cases  described in this paper.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63186 (URN)9788251926164 (ISBN)
    Conference
    3rd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems (CATS2010), June 21-22, Trondheim, Norway
    Projects
    Fixture, Fixturing, RMS, FMS, Tooling; Assembly technology
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany / [ed] D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixtures are used in manufacturing to hold and position products or workpieces. Linköping University has over a period of several years developed an approach to flexible fixturing that relies on an outer measuring system to ensure accuracy rather than the more common approaches of high internal accuracy or a built-in chain of tolerances. The Linköping system fuses modularity, a rebuildable framework, with reconfigurability, through the means of adjustable devices. To address the need for speed in reconfiguration an automated approach has been developed as a proof-ofconcept. The system consists of electrical motors attached to the legs of the Flexapod 6, a PC, controller cards and an external measuring system. The measuring system feeds information to the PC that is utilized to calculate desired leg length using a Visual Basic program that communicates with CATIA V5. This program then sets signals to the motor controller cards which run the actuators. Due to the motors used the accuracy achieved are in the range of +/-0.15 mm but this may be enhanced with other types of motors developed for higher strengthrather than speed. The system can be further developed by having the actuators as the actual legs of the Flexapod, making it a cheaper Hexapod robot. The paper presents the automated Flexapod 6 in the current system along with possible further development.

    Keywords
    Tooling, Hexapod, Reconfigurable, Manufacturing, RMS
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88172 (URN)3-8396-0293-9 (ISBN)978-3-8396-0293-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), Innovation in Product and Production, 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany
    Note

    Published in CD-ROM.

    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Aspects of reconfigurable and flexible fixtures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of reconfigurable and flexible fixtures
    2010 (English)In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 333-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The design and manufacture of fixtures and other dedicated tooling for positioning of workpieces are among the major cost drivers in product industrialization. This has spurred research and commercial interest towards other fixturing solutions like reconfigurable fixtures, with the ability to be changed, or  reconfigured , to suit different parts and products. When reconfiguring, the product interface not only has to be moved but moved to a desired position and orientation. Several different approaches have been used to move and position these devices, all with their own advantages and disadvantages. This article presents different methods used to position and reconfigure flexible fixture devices using a parallel kinematic device as a case. Discussing the different ways to reconfigure a flexible device, the article aims to arrange the techniques according to their key features.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Heidelberg: Springer Berlin, 2010
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63174 (URN)10.1007/s11740-010-0256-z (DOI)
    Projects
    KooFixProFlexaFlexa
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2023-03-01
    5. Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of SEA AeroTech Congress and Exhibition 2011, 18th-21st October, Toulouse, France, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation in aerospace industry is often in the form of dedicated solutions and focused on processes like drilling, riveting etc. The common industrial robot has due to limitations in positional accuracy and stiffness often been unsuitable for aerospace manufacturing. One major cost driver in aircraft manufacturing is manual assembly and the bespoke tooling needed. Assembly tasks frequently involve setting relations between parts rather than a global need for accuracy. This makes assembly a suitable process for the use of force control. With force control a robot equipped with needed software and hardware, searches for desired force rather than for a position. To test the usefulness of force control for aircraft assembly an experimental case aligning a compliant rib to multiple surfaces was designed and executed. The system used consisted of a standard ABB robot and an open controller and the assembly sequence was made up of several steps in order to achieve final position. The result shows that the process is robust and repetitive and has the potential to reduce the need for bespoke jigs and fixtures.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88173 (URN)10.4271/2011-01-2734 (DOI)
    Conference
    SEA AeroTech Congress and Exhibition 2011, 18th-21st October, Toulouse, France
    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
    6. On force control for assembly and deburring of castings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On force control for assembly and deburring of castings
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional industrial robots have problems interacting with an uncalibrated, ill-dened environment where part geometry and position may vary. Active force control technology has therefore been suggested as a solution to add the extra sensory dimension needed to handle manufacturing tasks like assembly and deburring. The technology is proposed to give increased exibility compared to other solutions and force control systems are available commercially. Active force control installations however, are is still uncommon in industry. This paper presents two cases of force control applications; assembly of a compliant carbon ber structure and deburring/cleaning of iron castings. Based on these two cases, some issues are raised on how the technology can be further developed to t the industrial setting, and the proposed benets are re-examined and refined. The two cases show that programming, parameter setting and ease of use are critical components in lowering the industrial threshold, together with increased possibilities of application-specic compensation and filtering. Force control does however, show great potential in increasing the boundaries for variance in product and equipment like grippers and xtures as well as decreasing the need for calibration of for example virtual models used for programming compared to traditional automated solutions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keywords
    Industrial robotics Machining Debur- ring Force Control Assembly
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88174 (URN)10.1007/s11740-013-0459-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
    7. On emerging manufacturing technology as enablers of Lean
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On emerging manufacturing technology as enablers of Lean
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper discusses the impact of emerging automation technologies on the reduction of waste/muda in Lean manufacturing. Two industrial cases are used to highlight the increasing complexity of investment decisions and technology management.

    Design/methodology/approach - The 7 wastes are mapped along with their drivers in an automated manufacturing cell. Using two industrial cases; non-contact robotized scanning of car structures and force control de-burring, as illustrative examples their impact on drivers and waste reduction is established.

    Findings - Emerging technology has a high potential for reducing waste, not only on a cell level but also up-, and downstream the actual manufacturing process, for example on programming efforts. However, this increases the complexity of how technology impacts waste, and to what extent and scope.

    Research limitations/implications - New models for planning of manufacturing cells have to be researched that consider the possible impact of technology solutions to a wide aspect of the manufacturing organization.

    Practical implications - The identified drivers of waste in automation along with the presented waste reducers can be used by industry practitioners as a tool to evaluate and design manufacturing cells.

    Originality/value - This paper links new automation technologies with the waste concept and discusses the issues of increasing complexity in manufacturing, which is valuable for researchers and practitioners in technology management. It also lists drivers and summarizes possible technical solutions for waste reduction.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88176 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    On Manufacturing Technology as an Enabler of Flexibility: Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling and Force-Controlled Robotics
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 8.
    Olsen, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flexible automation in the printing industry2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 45-51Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The printing industry had a turnaround on about 700 billion US dollar in 2008. Althoughthe printing process itself is highly automated, a lot of the handling between process stepsis done manually and these heavy lifts could result in occupational injuries with long timeexposure. Operators for example can lift up to 1-2 tons/hour when moving large stacks ofpaper from a pallet to a jogger table before cutting. For quality reasons it’s important tomake these lifts with correct airing of the paper and without harming the edges or surface,something a human is very adapt in doing. To see if it is possible to do this mechanically,a dual armed robot equipped with grippers was used to lift an air paper stacks inlaboratory experiments. In order to achieve the same high quality as in manual handlingthese experiments tested the grippers, gripper fingers, robot movements and grippositions to find the best parameters for a future automated paper handling cell. The testsshowed that a dual armed robot could lift paper stacks with satisfying airing withoutharming the paper. Also, better gripper fingers were developed for lifting the paper withouttears or surface marks.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murray, Tom
    Airbus UK, United Kingdom.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing2011In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany / [ed] D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixtures are used in manufacturing to hold and position products or workpieces. Linköping University has over a period of several years developed an approach to flexible fixturing that relies on an outer measuring system to ensure accuracy rather than the more common approaches of high internal accuracy or a built-in chain of tolerances. The Linköping system fuses modularity, a rebuildable framework, with reconfigurability, through the means of adjustable devices. To address the need for speed in reconfiguration an automated approach has been developed as a proof-ofconcept. The system consists of electrical motors attached to the legs of the Flexapod 6, a PC, controller cards and an external measuring system. The measuring system feeds information to the PC that is utilized to calculate desired leg length using a Visual Basic program that communicates with CATIA V5. This program then sets signals to the motor controller cards which run the actuators. Due to the motors used the accuracy achieved are in the range of +/-0.15 mm but this may be enhanced with other types of motors developed for higher strengthrather than speed. The system can be further developed by having the actuators as the actual legs of the Flexapod, making it a cheaper Hexapod robot. The paper presents the automated Flexapod 6 in the current system along with possible further development.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stolt, Andreas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Murray, Tom
    Airbus UK, United Kingdom.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib2011In: Proceedings of SEA AeroTech Congress and Exhibition 2011, 18th-21st October, Toulouse, France, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation in aerospace industry is often in the form of dedicated solutions and focused on processes like drilling, riveting etc. The common industrial robot has due to limitations in positional accuracy and stiffness often been unsuitable for aerospace manufacturing. One major cost driver in aircraft manufacturing is manual assembly and the bespoke tooling needed. Assembly tasks frequently involve setting relations between parts rather than a global need for accuracy. This makes assembly a suitable process for the use of force control. With force control a robot equipped with needed software and hardware, searches for desired force rather than for a position. To test the usefulness of force control for aircraft assembly an experimental case aligning a compliant rib to multiple surfaces was designed and executed. The system used consisted of a standard ABB robot and an open controller and the assembly sequence was made up of several steps in order to achieve final position. The result shows that the process is robust and repetitive and has the potential to reduce the need for bespoke jigs and fixtures.

  • 11.
    Stolt, A.
    et al.
    Department of Automatic Control, LTH, Lund University.
    Linderoth, M.
    Department of Automatic Control, LTH, Lund University.
    Robertsson, A.
    Department of Automatic Control, LTH, Lund University.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murray, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Force controlled assembly of flexible aircraft structure2011In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, China: IEEE , 2011, p. 6027-6032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of industrial robots in the aircraft industry has been hampered by a combination of poor accuracy of the robots and poor calibration of the workcell, and also manufacturing variability in composite parts. A way to handle these difficulties is using force control. An experimental case where a semi-compliant rib is aligned to multiple surfaces is used as an example to show this. The constraint-based task specification framework is used for the modelling and control, and the search and alignment sequence required for the assembly is modeled with a state machine. An implementation on an industrial robot system is presented and experimental data is evaluated. The described approach is easy to apply to other fields and more complicated assembly operations as well. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aspects of reconfigurable and flexible fixtures2010In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 333-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and manufacture of fixtures and other dedicated tooling for positioning of workpieces are among the major cost drivers in product industrialization. This has spurred research and commercial interest towards other fixturing solutions like reconfigurable fixtures, with the ability to be changed, or  reconfigured , to suit different parts and products. When reconfiguring, the product interface not only has to be moved but moved to a desired position and orientation. Several different approaches have been used to move and position these devices, all with their own advantages and disadvantages. This article presents different methods used to position and reconfigure flexible fixture devices using a parallel kinematic device as a case. Discussing the different ways to reconfigure a flexible device, the article aims to arrange the techniques according to their key features.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a new flexible fixturing device for Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling2010In: 3rd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems: Responsive, customer demand driven, adaptive assembly / [ed] Terje K. Lien, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010, p. 103-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To use thin wedges of metal to adjust fixtures, i.e shimming, has been a common approach to achieve desired position and tolerance. To build a fixture using shims is time-consuming and results in a fixture that is difficult to modify. The newly developed ART (Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling) concept addresses the need for flexible fixturing by means of reconfigurable supports that are set to desired position by guidance from an outer measuring system. The ART concept can be realized by means of several different reconfigurable devices, among these is the newly developed “Mini Flexapod”. This small 6 degree of freedom reconfigurable device was designed to eliminate shimming and therefore has a small working envelope of approximately 4x4x4 mm. The Mini Flexapod is a result of working with several manufacturing cases  described in this paper.

  • 14.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murray, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robertsson, Anders
    Lund University, Department of Automatic Control.
    Stolt, Andreas
    Lund University, Department of Automatic Control.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Lund University, Department of Computer Science.
    Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures2010In: Proceedings of the SAE 2010 Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, SAE International, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be programmed to achieve a certain force. This paper presents an experimental case where a compliant rib is aligned to multiple surfaces using force feedback and an industrial robot system from ABB. Two types of ribs where used, one full size carbon fiber rib, and one smaller metal replica for evaluation purposes. The alignment sequence consisted of several iterative steps and a search procedure was implemented within the robot control system. The technology has the potential to lessen the need for dedicated tooling, reduce the need for traditional workspace calibration and can be used in several other applications, such as pin and socket type assemblies found in pylons or landing gear or “part to part” assemblies such as leading edge ribs to spar.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling using Mini Flexapods2009In: Proceedings of The International 3'rd Swedish Production Symposium, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing processes are subject to increasing product changes, product diversity and customisation, higher quality demands and shorter lead times, all of which are drivers for new flexible approaches to manufacturing. As a result modular and reconfigurable fixture solutions have been both researched and commercialized. One of these is the ART, “Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling” concept, which relies on an external measuring system rather than internal accuracy of all fixture parts. Traditionally for dedicated fixtures shims are often used to achieve desired position and tolerances. This paper presents the “Mini Flexapod”, a small 6 degree of freedom reconfigurable device as part of the ART concept. The Mini Flexapod is designed to eliminate shimming and therefore has a small working envelope of approximately ± 4mm. Three different designs of the Mini Flexapod are presented, together with an illustrative application case from aircraft manufacturing. Further work will be done to improve design and to develop an intuitive operator interface for adjusting the Mini Flexapod.

  • 16.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aspects of reconfigurable and flexible fixtures2009In: Proceedings for the 3rd International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ossbahr, Gilbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coordinate Controlled Fixturing for Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling2008In: Proceedings of 2nd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fixture design using Configurators2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Lindberg, B.; Stahre, J., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and manufacture of fixtures are among one of the major cost drivers in product industrialization. Modular or reconfigurable fixture solutions that may be adapted to encompass a large variety of parts or products have been researched and employed in applications ranging from machining to assembly. These solutions have not only the potential to reduce fixture manufacturing cost, but they also render it possible for different solutions to facilitate and speed up actual design work. The process of designing fixtures today is complicated, time consuming and require long experience by the tool designer. In this paper we present the Configurator approach - add on programs to the CAD-software which aids the designer in the design process. The Configurators are semi-automated and interactive, designed to use in compliance with the ART-concept, a reconfigurable fixture concept for assembly applications. The Configurator approach has been tested on industrial cases and parts of the results are presented in this paper.

  • 19.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On emerging manufacturing technology as enablers of LeanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper discusses the impact of emerging automation technologies on the reduction of waste/muda in Lean manufacturing. Two industrial cases are used to highlight the increasing complexity of investment decisions and technology management.

    Design/methodology/approach - The 7 wastes are mapped along with their drivers in an automated manufacturing cell. Using two industrial cases; non-contact robotized scanning of car structures and force control de-burring, as illustrative examples their impact on drivers and waste reduction is established.

    Findings - Emerging technology has a high potential for reducing waste, not only on a cell level but also up-, and downstream the actual manufacturing process, for example on programming efforts. However, this increases the complexity of how technology impacts waste, and to what extent and scope.

    Research limitations/implications - New models for planning of manufacturing cells have to be researched that consider the possible impact of technology solutions to a wide aspect of the manufacturing organization.

    Practical implications - The identified drivers of waste in automation along with the presented waste reducers can be used by industry practitioners as a tool to evaluate and design manufacturing cells.

    Originality/value - This paper links new automation technologies with the waste concept and discusses the issues of increasing complexity in manufacturing, which is valuable for researchers and practitioners in technology management. It also lists drivers and summarizes possible technical solutions for waste reduction.

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