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  • 1.
    Pietrzak, Michal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Yngve, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Kämpe, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Böhme, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Asratian, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Gauffin, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Löfberg, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Gustavsson, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson Capusan, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Leggio, Lorenzo
    Natl Inst Drug Abuse Intramural Res Program, MD USA; Natl Inst Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, MD USA.
    Perini, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    A randomized controlled experimental medicine study of ghrelin in value-based decision making2023In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0021-9738, E-ISSN 1558-8238, Vol. 133, no 12, article id e168260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND. The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite, but the ghrelin receptor is also expressed in brain circuits involved in motivation and reward. We examined ghrelin effects on decision making beyond food or drug reward using monetary rewards. METHODS. Thirty participants (50% women and 50% men) underwent 2 fMRI scans while receiving i.v. ghrelin or saline in a randomized counterbalanced order. RESULTS. Striatal representations of reward anticipation were unaffected by ghrelin, while activity during anticipation of losses was attenuated. Temporal discounting rates of monetary reward were lower overall in the ghrelin condition, an effect driven by women. Discounting rates were inversely correlated with neural activity in a large cluster within the left parietal lobule that included the angular gyrus. Activity in an overlapping cluster was related to behavioral choices and was suppressed by ghrelin. CONCLUSION. This is, to our knowledge, the first human study to extend the understanding of ghrelins significance beyond the canonical feeding domain or in relation to addictive substances. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that ghrelin did not affect sensitivity to monetary reward anticipation, but rather resulted in attenuated loss aversion and lower discounting rates for these rewards. Ghrelin may cause a motivational shift toward caloric reward rather than globally promoting the value of reward. TRIAL REGISTRATION. EudraCT 2018-004829-82.

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  • 2.
    Perini, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience.
    Kämpe, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arlestig, Theodor
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Löfberg, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Pietrzak, Michal
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Zangen, Abraham
    Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting the insular cortex for reduction of heavy drinking in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent subjects: a randomized controlled trial2019In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insula responses to drug cues are correlated with cravings, and lesions in this area reduce nicotine seeking. Here, we investigated the potential efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the insula in alcohol addiction. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition; N = 56) participated in this double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized trial. Participants received 10 Hz rTMS or sham using an H8 coil, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Stimulation targeted insular cortex and overlaying regions bilaterally, while excluding anterior prefrontal areas. Craving and self-reported as well as biomarker-based drinking measures were collected at baseline, during treatment, and through 12 weeks. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI) data were collected before and after treatment. Task-based MRI was used to probe brain correlates of reward processing, affective responses, and alcohol following completion of treatment. A marked overall decrease in craving and drinking measures was observed during treatment, but did not differ between rTMS or sham stimulation. Both groups equally increased their alcohol use following completion of treatment and through the 12-week follow-up. Analysis using seeds in the insula identified differences in resting-state connectivity between active and sham groups at completion of treatment, potentially indicating an ability of treatment to modify insula function. However, while each task robustly replicated brain responses established in the literature, no effects of rTMS were found. Collectively, this study does not support efficacy of rTMS targeting the insula in alcohol addiction. 

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