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  • 1.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden; Habilitat & Hlth, Sweden.
    Johnels, Jakob Asberg
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundalv, Mats
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    'To have a plan': teachers' perceptions of working with a literacy instruction combining phonics and comprehension applications for students with intellectual disability and communication difficulties2024In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeStudents with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically have difficulties with literacy learning, often not acquiring basic literacy skills. Research and practical experience indicate that when these students are provided with evidence-based instruction, including comprehension as well as phonemic strategies, literacy may develop.MethodsIn this study, four pairs of teachers were interviewed regarding their perceptions of a 12-week digital literacy intervention that focused on both phonics and comprehension strategies. The intervention aimed to enhance literacy and communication development in students aged 7-21, who had mild to severe ID.Results and conclusionFour themes were identified in the analysis. It was seen that the teachers found it valuable to have access to two apps accessing and facilitating the use of different literacy strategies in meeting the needs of individual students. This digital format was also perceived as positive, contributing to creating a supportive and systematic learning environment that enhanced and increased literacy learning. The teachers recurringly also talked about the positive influence of participating in research, lifting the strong focus, and positive attention as very important for both teachers and students.

  • 2.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of the relationship between children's exposure to screen media and vocabulary development2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThis study addresses the scarcity of longitudinal research on the influence of screen media on children. It aims to explore the longitudinal relationship between children's vocabulary development and their exposure to screen media.MethodsThe study, initiated in 2017, included 72 children (37 boys) in ostergotland, Sweden, at three key developmental stages: preverbal (9.7 months), early verbal (25.5 months) and preliterate (5.4 years). Parents completed online surveys at each time point, reporting their child's screen time. At 10 months and 2 years, age-appropriate vocabulary assessments were conducted online. At age 5, children's vocabulary was laboratory assessed.ResultsCorrelational analysis revealed a negative relationship between language scores and screen media use across all time points. Furthermore, a cross-lagged panel model demonstrated that screen media use showed significant continuity over time, with screen use at age 2 predicting language development at ages 2 and 5.ConclusionThis longitudinal study, spanned from 9 months to 5 years of age, established a predictive negative association between children's exposure to screen media and their vocabulary development. These findings underscore the need to consider the impact of screen media on early childhood development and may inform guidelines for screen media use in young children.

  • 3.
    Strid, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Attention: a prerequisite for learning2023In: International Encyclopedia of Education (Fourth Edition) / [ed] Tierney, Robert J; Rizvi, Fazal; Ercikan, Kadriye, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2023, 4, p. 117-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter is organized into four parts. 1. Attention in infancy; 2. Attention networks, behavioral and brain aspects plus subsections on developmental disorders and how genes influence attention; 3. Aspects of attention such as novelty, memory or pupil dilation; and 4. Attention and learning which includes a comprehensive model of attention in infancy plus sections on how attention is important for learning from social interactions and for understanding intentions. The chapter ends with two brief sections, one on digital media and one on compensatory systems.

  • 4.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi, sektionen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lundälv, Mats
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kan en app-baserad läsintervention öka elevers läsförmåga och lärares self-efficacy?2023In: Läs- och Skrivsvårigheter & DyslexiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Speech and Language Pathology Unit, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Dart—Centre for AAC and Assistive Technology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Habilitation & Health, Habilitation Children and youth, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    Speech and Language Pathology Unit, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Speech and Language Pathology Unit, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Dart—Centre for AAC and Assistive Technology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    My point of view: Students with intellectual and communicative disabilities express their views on speech and reading using Talking Mats2023In: British Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 1354-4187, E-ISSN 1468-3156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It can be challenging for people with intellectual disabilities to convey their thoughts and opinions because of cognitive, speech and language impairments. Consequently, facilitating their ability to communicate using augmentative and alternative communication methods is essential. The picture-based framework Talking Mats has been applied in many studies and has been shown to be successful in facilitating communication and soliciting views from individuals with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties. The aim of this study was to describe the views of students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties on speech and reading activities and to examine whether valence scores (from negative to positive) on these views were associated with performance on tests of their corresponding abilities. Methods This is a cross-sectional quantitative survey study. A group of 111 students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties aged 7–21 were interviewed about their speech and reading activities using the visual framework Talking Mats. Their answers were scored on a three-grade like-dislike continuum and were correlated with their results on adapted tests of the corresponding abilities. Findings The students expressed their views on speech and reading activities. The scored views on speech were positively associated with speech production, and the scored views on reading activities were positively related to reading ability. This suggests that their opinions as expressed through Talking Mats were consistent and reliable. Conclusions Most students with intellectual disabilities and communicative difficulties can reliably express their own opinions of their abilities when they are provided with a clear visual structure and pictorial support, such as Talking Mats. In this study, this was seen for students with a mild intellectual disability from age seven and onwards and for students with a more severe intellectual disability from 12 years of age and onwards.

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  • 6.
    Nyberg-Akremi, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Voinier, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergström, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    No concurrent correlations between parental mental state talk and toddlers language abilities2023In: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental State Talk (MST) is utterances describing invisible mental aspects. The first aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of Parental MST and Child MST and their concurrent association in a Swedish population, and the second aim was to relate these MST measures to the childrens general language abilities. Seventy-seven dyads of parents and their 25-month-old toddlers participated. MST was assessed by videotaping the dyads during free-play sessions in a laboratory and general language abilities were based on parental reports. Forty-nine toddlers did not produce MST, while all parents used MST. Child MST was positively associated with vocabulary and grammar. Parental MST was not associated with Child MST nor the childrens general language abilities. In exploratory analyses, Parental MST referred to another than the child was positively correlated with vocabulary and grammar. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and continue studying MST in different linguistic contexts.

  • 7.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden; Habilitat Children & youth, Sweden.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The relationship between early literacy skills and speech-sound production in students with intellectual disability and communication difficulties: a cross-sectional study2023In: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 2047-3869, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research and reports from educational practice seem to suggest that teaching early literacy skills may facilitate speech-sound production in students with intellectual disabilities, but further research is needed to confirm a potential connection. This study investigated (1) the relationship between speech-sound production, phonological awareness, and letter-sound knowledge in students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties, and (2) to what degree phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge explain the variance in speech-sound production over and above IQ and chronological age. A group of 116 students, aged 7–21, enrolled in Swedish compulsory schools for students with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. All had limited reading skills. The test results for phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and speech-sound production had a wide range. The results showed that early literacy skills were moderately and significantly correlated with speech-sound production. After controlling for IQ and age in a regression model, the addition of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge explained 29% of the variance in speech-sound production. The results suggest that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge is associated with speech-sound production and that these associations are not explained by age or IQ. Further research on this group of students should aim to determine causal relationships, for instance, by investigating early reading intervention and the potential effect on speech-sound production.

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  • 8.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundälv, Mats
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Mühlenbock, Katarina
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Will an app-based reading intervention change how teachers rate their teaching self-efficacy beliefs?: A test of social cognitive theory in Swedish special educational settings2023In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 8, article id 1184719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational researchers have challenged Bandura’s prediction that self-efficacy beliefs tend to be established early in learning and that once set, self-efficacy beliefs persist unless a critical event causes them to be reevaluated. However, the results have been mixed in previous research, including being positive, negative, and unchanged. In response, we evaluated how 75 teachers (i.e., special educators) rate their teaching self-efficacy beliefs in motivating student reading and adapting reading instruction at two time points. All teachers taught students with an intellectual disability, communication difficulties, and poor reading skills. The teachers participated in a workshop to learn teaching reading strategies with apps under various conditions (comprehension strategies, phonemic strategies, or both comprehension and phonemic strategies). We analyzed teacher self-efficacy beliefs at two time points with a 12-week span (pre-and postintervention). First, we developed measures of teacher self-efficacy through confirmatory factor analyses. Next, we analyzed the data with multiple imputation and mixed linear regression with difference-in-differences (DiD). The results indicated no statistically significant treatment effect on teachers’ rating of their teaching self-efficacy beliefs. We conclude that our results agree with Bandura’s original prediction and thus, his social cognitive theory.

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  • 9.
    Spjut Janson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Combining a Being Imitated Strategy With IBT Improves Basic Joint Attention Behaviors in Young Children With ASD2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 784991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we examined how an initial being imitated (BIm) strategy affected the development of initiating joint attention (IJA) among a group of children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One group received 3 months of BIm followed by 12 months of intensive behavior treatment (IBT) which equaled treatment as usual whereas a second group received IBT for the entire 15-month study period. We utilized two measures of IJA: an eye gaze and a gesture score (point and show). IJA did not change during the first 3 months of treatment, nor were any significant between-group differences noted. However, at the end of the 15-month-long intervention period, the BIm group used eye gaze significantly more often to initiate joint attention. No significant change was noted for the gesture score. These results suggest that an early implementation of a being imitated strategy might be useful as less resource intensive but beneficial "start-up" intervention when combined with IBT treatment as a follow-up.

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  • 10.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Ease of Language Undestanding in deaf and hard of hearing children: Sign language and reading2022In: Tendencias actuales en la investigación en lenguaje escrito y sordera / [ed] Ana Belén, Domínguez Gutiérrez-Mariana Valmaseda & Carmela Velasco Alonso, Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca , 2022, 1, p. 87-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an empirical study, preceded by a corresponding review of the state of the art, to demonstrate that, as suggested by the notion of multimodal language processing in the ELU model, an intervention basedon training the connection between sign language and reading can be a very useful method to improve word reading among children who are def or hard of hearing who know sign language.

  • 11.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Imitation from Infancy Through Early Childhood: Typical and Atypical Development2022 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book summarizes more than four decades of research on imitation in infancy and its relation to early learning and sociocognitive development in typically and atypically developing children. The studies were carried out in a Scandinavian context and thus provide important cultural validation of the central developmental processes. The book is divided into three parts: Part one focuses on the social and cognitive aspects of imitation, discussing links to early parent-infant interaction, and developmental meaning. It addresses evidence for an imitative capacity at birth for typical and atypical infants. Also covered are early individual differences in imitation, the role of imitation as a social and cognitive learning mechanism in early development, and possible links between imitation and temperament. Part two presents unique longitudinal studies on early memory development using deferred imitation as the key method. It discusses the biological basis of memory and explores the idea that deferred imitation is an indicator of an infant’s ability to understand intentions. Part three focuses on imitation in young children with autism and with Down syndrome. It examines the role of imitation as a “deficit” as well as a vehicle for change when used interactively in early interventions for children with autism. Imitation from Infancy Through Early Childhood is an essential resource for researchers, professors, and graduate students as well as clinicians and other professionals in developmental psychology, cognitive development, psycholinguistics, child psychiatry, and developmental neuroscience. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

  • 12.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderberg, Mimmi
    Vrinnevi Hosp, Sweden.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of child-directed parental talk and the relation to 2-year-olds developing vocabulary2022In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 682-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although prior research has independently linked vocabulary development with toddlers media usage, parental mental state talk (MST), and parent-child conversational turn-taking (CTT), these variables have not been investigated within the same study. In this study, we focus on associations between these variables and 2-year-olds (N = 87) vocabulary. Child vocabulary and digital media use were measured through online questionnaires. We took a multimethod approach to measure parents child-directed talk. First, we used a home sound environment recording (Language ENvironment Analysis technology) to estimate parents talk (CTT). Second, parents narrated a picture book, the Frog story, to assess the parents MST. There was a negative association between how much children watched video content and their vocabulary. However, parents reported that they frequently co-viewed and engaged with the child and media. The negative association first displayed between the amount of video content viewed and the childs developing vocabulary was fully mediated by the parents qualitative and quantitative talk as measured by MST and CCT, respectively. We propose that the parent relative level of MST and CTT also occurs when parents engage with the child during media use.

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  • 13.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedendahl, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottmer, Elida
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kolling, Thorsten
    Univ Siegen, Germany.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    2-Year-Olds Learning From 2D Media With and Without Parental Support: Comparing Two Forms of Joint Media Engagement With Passive Viewing and Learning From 3D2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 576940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates to what degree two different joint media engagement (JME) strategies affect childrens learning from two-dimensional (2D)-media. More specifically, we expected an instructed JME strategy to be more effective than a spontaneous, non-instructed, JME strategy. Thirty-five 2-year old children saw a short video on a tablet demonstrating memory tasks together with a parent. The parents were randomized into two groups: One group (N = 17) was instructed to help their child by describing the actions they saw on the video while the other group (N = 18) received no specific instruction besides "do as you usually do." The parents in the instructed group used significantly more words and verbs when supporting their child but both groups of children did equally well on the memory test. In a second step, we compared the performance of the two JME groups with an opportunistic comparison group (N = 95) tested with half of the memory tasks live and half of the tasks on 2D without any JME support. Results showed that the JME intervention groups received significantly higher recall scores than the no JME 2D comparison group. In contrast, the three-dimensional (3D) comparison group outperformed both JME groups. In sum, our findings suggest that JME as implemented here is more effective in promoting learning than a no JME 2D demonstration but less so than the standard 3D presentation of the tasks.

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  • 14.
    Sundqvist, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digital media content and co-viewing amongst Swedish 4-to 6-year-olds during COVID-19 pandemic2021In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, no 12, p. 3329-3330Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 15.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bus, Adriana
    Univ Stavanger, Norway; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Editorial: Growing Up in a Digital World-Social and Cognitive Implications2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 745788Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 16.
    Sundqvist, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Growing Up in a Digital World: Digital Media and the Association With the Childs Language Development at Two Years of Age2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 569920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital media (DM), such as cellphones and tablets, are a common part of our daily lives and their usage has changed the communication structure within families. Thus, there is a risk that the use of DM might result in fewer opportunities for interactions between children and their parents leading to fewer language learning moments for young children. The current study examined the associations between childrens language development and early DM exposure. Participants: Ninety-two parents of 25months olds (50 boys/42 girls) recorded their home sound environment during a typical day [Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA)] and participated in an online questionnaire consisting of questions pertaining to daily DM use and media mediation strategies, as well as a Swedish online version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, which includes a vocabulary scale as well as a grammar and pragmatics scale. Results: Through correlations and stepwise regressions three aspects of language were analyzed. The childs vocabulary was positively associated with interactional turn-taking. The childs vocabulary and grammar were negatively associated with the likelihood of parents device use during everyday child routines and the amount of TV watched by the child. The childs pragmatic development was also positively associated with the parents device use in child routines but also with the parents joint media engagement (JME), as well as the childs gender (where girls perform better). Conclusion: Our study confirms that specific aspects of the 2-year olds DM environment are associated with the childs language development. More TV content, whether it is viewed on a big screen or tablet, is negatively associated with language development. The likelihood of parents use of DM during everyday child routines is also negatively associated with the childs language development. Positive linguistic parental strategies such as interactional turn-taking with the child, JME, and book reading, on the other hand, are positively associated with the childs language development.

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  • 17.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inlevelseförmåga hos barn med funktionsnedsättning2021In: Leva som andra: Ett biopsykosocialt perspektiv på funktionsnedsättning och funktionshinder / [ed] Lisa Kilman, Josefine Andin, Håkan Hua, Jerker Rönnberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, p. 241-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Neonatal Imitation, Intersubjectivity, and Children With Atypical Development: Do Observations on Autism and Down Syndrome Change Our Understanding?2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 701795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all studies on neonatal imitation to date seem to have focused on typically developing children, and we thus lack information on the early imitative abilities of children who follow atypical developmental trajectories. From both practical and theoretical perspectives, these abilities might be relevant to study in children who develop a neuropsychiatric diagnosis later on or in infants who later show impaired ability to imitate. Theoretical in the sense that it will provide insight into the earliest signs of intersubjectivity—i.e., primary intersubjectivity—and how this knowledge might influence our understanding of children following atypical trajectories of development. Practical in the sense that it might lead to earlier detection of certain disabilities. In the present work, we screen the literature for empirical studies on neonatal imitation in children with an Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Down syndrome (DS) as well as present an observation of neonatal imitation in an infant that later was diagnosed with autism and a re-interpretation of previously published data on the phenomenon in a small group of infants with DS. Our findings suggest that the empirical observations to date are too few to draw any definite conclusions but that the existing data suggests that neonatal imitation can be observed both in children with ASD and in children with DS. Thus, neonatal imitation might not represent a useful predictor of a developmental deficit. Based on current theoretical perspectives advocating that neonatal imitation is a marker of primary intersubjectivity, we propose tentatively that an ability to engage in purposeful exchanges with another human being exists in these populations from birth.

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  • 19.
    Nyberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mattila, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    No evidence of an association between parental mind-mindedness at 9 months and language development at either 9 or 25 months in Swedish infants2021In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 760-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mind-mindedness (MM), the parents propensity to treat their young child as an individual with a mind of their own, has repeatedly been found to be positively associated with subsequent child development outcomes. In the current Swedish study, the first aim was to investigate the main features of MM in this cultural context and the second aim was to investigate its association with early child language development. Sixty-three parent-child dyads participated. MM was assessed by videotaped laboratory-based parent-child dyad free-play sessions. Language development was assessed using the parent questionnaire Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI), a Swedish adaptation of the internationally used MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI). The ratio between Appropriate MM and Non-attuned MM was 4:1 and there was no statistically significant correlation between these two variables. There were no statistically significant correlations between Total MM or Appropriate MM and language ability ratings at either 9 or 25 months. This may be due to methodological issues concerning elicitation of MM in a Swedish context. We emphasize the importance of further theoretical and empirical studies of cross-cultural validation of MM.

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  • 20.
    Barr, Rachel
    et al.
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Kirkorian, Heather
    Univ Wisconsin, WI USA.
    Radesky, Jenny
    Univ Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Coyne, Sarah
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Nichols, Deborah
    Purdue Univ, IN 47907 USA.
    Blanchfield, Olivia
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Rusnak, Sylvia
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Stockdale, Laura
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Ribner, Andy
    Univ Pittsburgh, PA USA.
    Durnez, Joke
    OpenLattice Inc, CA USA.
    Epstein, Mollie
    OpenLattice Inc, CA USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konrad, Carolin
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Germany.
    Slussareff, Michaela
    Charles Univ Prague, Czech Republic; Univ New York Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bus, Adriana
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Bellagamba, Francesca
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Italy.
    Fitzpatrick, Caroline
    Univ St Anne, Canada.
    Beyond Screen Time: A Synergistic Approach to a More Comprehensive Assessment of Family Media Exposure During Early Childhood2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital media availability has surged over the past decade. Because of a lack of comprehensive measurement tools, this rapid growth in access to digital media is accompanied by a scarcity of research examining the family media context and sociocognitive outcomes. There is also little cross-cultural research in families with young children. Modern media are mobile, interactive, and often short in duration, making them difficult to remember when caregivers respond to surveys about media use. The Comprehensive Assessment of Family Media Exposure (CAFE) Consortium has developed a novel tool to measure household media use through a web-based questionnaire, time-use diary, and passive-sensing app installed on family mobile devices. The goal of developing a comprehensive assessment of family media exposure was to take into account the contextual factors of media use and improve upon the limitations of existing self-report measures, while creating a consistent, scalable, and cost-effective tool. The CAFE tool captures the content and context of early media exposure and addresses the limitations of prior media measurement approaches. Preliminary data collected using this measure have been integrated into a shared visualization platform. In this perspective article, we take a tools-of-the-trade approach (Oakes, 2010) to describe four challenges associated with measuring household media exposure in families with young children: measuring attitudes and practices; capturing content and context; measuring short bursts of mobile device usage; and integrating data to capture the complexity of household media usage. We illustrate how each of these challenges can be addressed with preliminary data collected with the CAFE tool and visualized on our dashboard. We conclude with future directions including plans to test reliability, validity, and generalizability of these measures.

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  • 21.
    Janson Spjut, Birgitta
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Child and Adolescent Habilitat and Hlth Unit, Sweden; Queen Silvia Childrens Hosp, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparing Imitation Responding and IBT for children with ASD, a preschool intervention2020In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the effectiveness of two interventions, Imitation Responding (IR) and Intensive Behavior Treatment (IBT) used as initial treatment programs for autistic children enrolled in ordinary preschools. The interventions were carried out by parents and/or preschool teachers with supervision from Child Adolescent Habilitation and Health Clinics. Children were randomly assigned to either the IR group or the IBT group. The IR group received a new focused imitation treatment averaging 2.2 hours per week, while the children in the IBT group received 14.4 hours treatment per week. The outcome was measured with subscales from PEP-3 and Vineland-II, covering language and social domains. The between-group comparison revealed no significant differences in effect of treatment during the 5 months that encompassed the period from pre- to posttest. Within-group comparisons revealed significant changes on four subscales for the IR-group, with the highest effect sizes for play and expressive language, while for the children in the IBT-group a significant gain was evident for five subscales with the highest effect sizes observed for expressive and receptive language. These findings suggest that IR can be used as an initial and complementary method in settings where IBT is usually the primary treatment of choice.

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  • 22.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ullman, Michael T.
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Data and analysis script for infant and adult eye movement in an adapted ocular-motor serial reaction time task assessing procedural memory2020In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 29, article id 105108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a description of eye movement data collected during an ocular-motor serial reaction time task. Raw gaze data files for 63 infants and 24 adults along with the data processing and analysis script for extracting saccade latencies, summarizing participants performance, and testing statistical differences, are hosted on Open Science Framework (OSF). Files (in Matlab format) available for download allow for replication of the results reported in "Procedural memory in infancy: Evidence from implicit sequence learning in an eye-tracking paradigm" [1]. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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  • 23.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyberg, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lum, Jarrad A. G.
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    Ullman, Michael T.
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20007 USA.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Procedural memory in infancy: Evidence from implicit sequence learning in an eye-tracking paradigm2020In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 191, article id 104733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedural memory underpins the learning of skills and habits. It is often tested in children and adults with sequence learning on the serial reaction time (SRT) task, which involves manual motor control. However, due to infants slowly developing control of motor actions, most procedures that require motor control cannot be examined in infancy. Here, we investigated procedural memory using an SRT task adapted for infants. During the task, images appeared at one of three locations on a screen, with the location order following a five-item recurring sequence. Three blocks of recurring sequences were followed by a random-order fourth block and finally another block of recurring sequences. Eye movement data were collected for infants (n = 35) and adults (n = 31). Reaction time was indexed by calculating the saccade latencies for orienting to each image as it appeared. The entire protocol took less than 3 min. Sequence learning in the SRT task can be operationalized as an increase in latencies in the random block as compared with the preceding and following sequence blocks. This pattern was observed in both the infants and adults. This study is the first to report learning in an SRT task in infants as young as 9 months. This SRT protocol is a promising procedure for measuring procedural memory in infants. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 24.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relationship Between Family Technoference and Behavior Problems in Children Aged 4-5 Years2020In: CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, ISSN 2152-2715, E-ISSN 2152-2723, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 371-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital media (DM) is omnipresent in society today and impacts every aspect of our life. Previous studies have shown DM to cause problems in interpersonal relationships by creating problematic interruptions in interactions, this has been termed technoference. The current study focuses on parents self-rated perceived technoference and the rated behavior of their 4- to 5-year-old children. Parents (N = 153) filled out an online questionnaire regarding family DM use and technoference as well as questions regarding their childs behavior. Parents rated the level of technoference caused by their own use of DM as well as the rate of technoference caused by the childs use of DM. Parents were also asked questions regarding their own possible problematic cell phone use. The findings reveal a statistically significant contribution of technoference, caused by the parents use of DM, to the behavior repertoire of the children.

  • 25.
    Nyberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barr, Rachel
    Georgetown Univ, DC 20057 USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Natural Language Environment of 9-Month-Old Infants in Sweden and Concurrent Association With Early Language Development2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 1981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The language environment is important for the development of early communication and language. In the current study, we describe the natural home language environment of 9-month-old infants in Sweden and its concurrent association with language development. Eighty-eight families took part in the study. The home language environment was measured using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system, and language development was assessed using Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI), a parent questionnaire. LENA measures showed dramatic variation between individuals but were comparable to and showed overlapping variance with previous studies conducted in English-speaking households. Nonetheless, there were significantly more infant vocalizations and conversational turns in the present study than in one previous study. Adult word count correlated significantly and positively with infants Use of gestures and the subscale of that section Communicative gestures. These together with another four non-significant associations formed a consistent overall pattern that suggested a link between infants language environment and language development. Although the direction of causality cannot be determined from the current data, future studies should examine children longitudinally to assess the directionality or the bidirectionality of the reported associations between infants language environment and language development.

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  • 26.
    Meltzoff, Andrew N.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Murray, Lynne
    Univ Reading, England; Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Simpson, Elizabeth
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nagy, Emese
    Univ Dundee, Scotland.
    Nadel, Jacqueline
    Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, France.
    Pedersen, Eric J.
    Univ Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Brooks, Rechele
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Messinger, Daniel S.
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    De Pascalis, Leonardo
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Subiaul, Francys
    George Washington Univ, DC USA.
    Paukner, Annika
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth and Hum, MD USA.
    Ferrari, Pier F.
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Eliciting imitation in early infancy2019In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 22, no 2, article id e12738Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 27.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neonatal imitation: Temporal characteristics in imitative response patterns2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 674-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neonatal imitation has been an area that has attracted intense attention within developmental psychology. Reported here are data from 33 newborn infants (16 girls; mean age: 47 hr) assessed for imitation of tongue protrusion (TP) and mouth opening (MO). The stimuli were presented dynamically, in three 20-second-long gesture modeling intervals, interwoven with three 20-second-long intervals in which the presenter kept a passive face. Imitation of TP emerged among a majority of the infants during the first 60 s of the experiment. In contrast, MO showed a protracted response and a majority exhibited imitation after 60 s. The individual response pattern of the participating infants varied substantially over the course of the experiment. The study provides renewed support for neonatal imitation of MO and TP, and, in addition, suggests that the temporal organization of the responses observed is an important factor to consider, which in turn has methodological and theoretical implications.

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  • 28.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Falth, Linda
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Two-step tier three interventions for children in grade three with low reading fluency2019In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 19, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a tier three intervention, response-to-intervention design, on children with low reading ability in grade three. Twenty-eight children (12 females and 16 males) participated in this study. The participants were given out a battery of reading tests including decoding and reading comprehension tests, and in total, the children received 20 reading intervention sessions in two waves, during 4 weeks. The results showed substantial gains with large effect sizes (d 0.78-2.95) on all the reading tests after the intervention period. A short, intensive and individualised intervention has a substantially positive effect on childrens reading ability. For a majority of the children, the increased ability sustains even 4 years after the end of the interventions. However, as boys seem to have the greatest problem to sustain their increased ability, the authors claim that it is important to continue the intervention even after the research interventions have ended.

  • 29.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Herbert, Jane
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Changes in infant visual attention when observing repeated actions2018In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 50, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants early visual preferences for faces, and their observational learning abilities, are well-established in the literature. The current study examines how infants attention changes as they become increasingly familiar with a person and the actions that person is demonstrating. The looking patterns of 12- (n = 61) and 16-month-old infants (n = 29) were tracked while they watched videos of an adult presenting novel actions with four different objects three times. A face-to-action ratio in visual attention was calculated for each repetition and summarized as a mean across all videos. The face-to-action ratio increased with each action repetition, indicating that there was an increase in attention to the face relative to the action each additional time the action was demonstrated. Infants prior familiarity with the object used was related to face-to-action ratio in 12-month-olds and initial looking behavior was related to face-to-action ratio in the whole sample. Prior familiarity with the presenter, and infant gender and age, were not related to face-to-action ratio. This study has theoretical implications for face preference and action observations in dynamic contexts.

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  • 30.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing theory of mind abilities in Swedish pre-schoolers2018In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 27, no 4, article id e2090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the development of theory of mind (ToM) in 80 Swedish-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds, a previously unstudied language and culture. The ToM scale was translated and tested in a Swedish context. The results show that the ToM abilities improve significantly with age. In addition, a gender difference was observed for the whole sample, girls outperformed boys, but follow-up analyses revealed that the difference only remained significant for the 4-year-olds. No gender differences were observed at 3 and 5years of age. When conducting a scalability analysis, the overall Wellman and Liu scale showed less than acceptable scalability. However, when removing the last task of the scale (Real-Apparent Emotion), the fit and scalability was good. The reason for this divergent result is discussed in terms of cultural differences, such as parental and pedagogical practices in Sweden, which might especially focus on developing childrens socio-emotional understanding. Highlights Is the theory of mind (ToM) scale a feasible method to assess preschool-aged children in a Swedish context? The scale shows significant development from 3 to 5 years of age. To achieve a good scalability, the final task of the scale was removed. The scale measures ToM abilities developing in preschoolers. Cultural differences, such as parental and pedagogical practices, may alter the developmental trajectory of ToM abilities.

  • 31.
    Meltzoff, Andrew N.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Murray, Lynne
    Univ Reading, England; Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Simpson, Elizabeth
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nagy, Emese
    Univ Dundee, Scotland.
    Nadel, Jacqueline
    Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, France.
    Pedersen, Eric J.
    Univ Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Brooks, Rechele
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Messinger, Daniel S.
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    De Pascalis, Leonardo
    Univ Liverpool, England.
    Subiaul, Francys
    George Washington Univ, DC USA.
    Paukner, Annika
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth and Hum, MD USA.
    Ferrari, Pier F.
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Re-examination of Oostenbroek etal. (2016): evidence for neonatal imitation of tongue protrusion2018In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 21, no 4, article id e12609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The meaning, mechanism, and function of imitation in early infancy have been actively discussed since Meltzoff and Moores (1977) report of facial and manual imitation by human neonates. Oostenbroek etal. (2016) claim to challenge the existence of early imitation and to counter all interpretations so far offered. Such claims, if true, would have implications for theories of social-cognitive development. Here we identify 11 flaws in Oostenbroek etal.s experimental design that biased the results toward null effects. We requested and obtained the authors raw data. Contrary to the authors conclusions, new analyses reveal significant tongue-protrusion imitation at all four ages tested (1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks old). We explain how the authors missed this pattern and offer five recommendations for designing future experiments. Infant imitation raises fundamental issues about action representation, social learning, and brain-behavior relations. The debate about the origins and development of imitation reflects its importance to theories of developmental science.

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  • 32.
    Simpson, Elizabeth A
    et al.
    Department of Psychology,University of Miami,Coral Gables, USA.
    Maylott, Sarah E
    Department of Psychology,University of Miami,Coral Gables, USA.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Subiaul, Francys
    Department of Speech and Hearing Science, George Washington University, Washington, USA.
    Paukner, Annika
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dickerson, USA.
    Suomi, Stephen J.
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Dickerson, USA.
    Ferrari, Pier F
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Parma, 43123 Parma, Italy; Institut des Sciences Cognitives Marc Jeannerod, CNRS / Université Claude Bernard Lyon, Lyon, France.
    Comments: Animal studies help clarify misunderstandings about neonatal imitation (vol. 40, articelID e400, 2017)2017In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 40, article id e400Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies are incompatible with the proposal that neonatal imitation is arousal driven or declining with age. Nonhuman primate studies reveal a functioning brain mirror system from birth, developmental continuity in imitation and later sociability, and the malleability of neonatal imitation, shaped by the early environment. A narrow focus on arousal effects and reflexes may grossly underestimate neonatal capacities.

  • 33.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children2017In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 404-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further, longitudinal associations between sign language skills and developing reading skills were investigated. Participants were recruited from Swedish state special schools for DHH children, where pupils are taught in both sign language and spoken language. Reading skills were assessed at five occasions and the intervention was implemented in a cross-over design. Results indicated that reading skills improved over time and that development of word reading was predicted by the ability to imitate unfamiliar lexical signs, but there was only weak evidence that it was supported by the intervention. These results demonstrate for the first time a longitudinal link between sign-based abilities and word reading in DHH signing children who are learning to read. We suggest that the active construction of novel lexical forms may be a supramodal mechanism underlying word reading development.

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  • 34.
    Kenward, Ben
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Oxford Brookes University, UK.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forssman, Linda
    School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Brehm, Julia
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tidemann, Ida
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hermansen, Tone Kristine
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Saccadic reaction times in infants and adults: Spatiotemporal factors, gender, and interlaboratory variation.2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 1750-1764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccade latency is widely used across infant psychology to investigate infants’ understanding of events. Interpreting particular latency values requires knowledge of standard saccadic RTs, but there is no consensus as to typical values. This study provides standard estimates of infants’ (n = 194, ages 9 to 15 months) saccadic RTs under a range of different spatiotemporal conditions. To investigate the reliability of such standard estimates, data is collected at 4 laboratories in 3 countries. Results indicate that reactions to the appearance of a new object are much faster than reactions to the deflection of a currently fixated moving object; upward saccades are slower than downward or horizontal saccades; reactions to more peripheral stimuli are much slower; and this slowdown is greater for boys than girls. There was little decrease in saccadic RTs between 9 and 15 months, indicating that the period of slow development which is protracted into adolescence begins in late infancy. Except for appearance and deflection differences, infant effects were weak or absent in adults (n = 40). Latency estimates and spatiotemporal effects on latency were generally consistent across laboratories, but a number of lab differences in factors such as individual variation were found. Some but not all differences were attributed to minor procedural differences, highlighting the importance of replication. Confidence intervals (95%) for infants’ median reaction latencies for appearance stimuli were 242 to 250 ms and for deflection stimuli 350 to 367 ms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 35.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Edorsson, Angelica
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thirteen-to Sixteen-Months Old Infants Are Able to Imitate a Novel Act from Memory in Both Unfamiliar and Familiar Settings But Do Not Show Evidence of Rational Inferential Processes2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gergely et al. (2002) reported that children imitated a novel action - illuminating a light-box by using the forehead - after a delay significantly more often if the hands of the experimenter had been visible in comparison with if they had been covered. In an attempt to explore these findings we conducted two studies with a total N of 63 children. Both studies investigated deferred imitation of the action in two conditions, with the hands of the experimenter visible or covered, but the settings differed. Study 1 (n = 30; mean age = 16.6 months) was carried out in an unfamiliar environment (a laboratory setting) while Study 2 (n = 33; mean age = 13.3 months) was conducted in familiar surroundings (at home or at day care). The results showed that 50% of the children in Study 1 and 42.4% in Study 2 evidenced deferred imitation as compared to only 4.9% (n = 2) in the baseline condition. However, in none of the studies did the children use inferential processes when imitating, we detected no significant differences between the two conditions, hands visible or hands covered. The findings add to the validity of the head touch procedure as a measure of declarative-like memory processes in the pre-verbal child. At the same time the findings question the robustness of the concept rational imitation, it seems not as easy as expected to elicit a response based on rational inferential processes in this age group.

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  • 36.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordqvist, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strid, K.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Connant Almrot, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Regional Vastra Gotaland, Sweden.
    Tjus, T.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Children with autism respond differently to spontaneous, elicited and deferred imitation2016In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 491-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundImitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and deferred imitation using both actions with objects and gestures as imitation tasks in these groups. MethodsImitation among 19 children with autism was compared with 20 children with DS and 23 TD children matched for mental and language age. ResultsElicited imitation resulted in significantly lower scores for the ASD group compared with the other two groups, an effect mainly carried by a low level of gesture imitation among ASD children. We observed no differences among the groups for spontaneous imitation. However, children with ASD or DS displayed less deferred imitation than the TD group. Proneness to imitate also differed among groups: only 10 (53%) of the children with autism responded in the elicited imitation condition compared with all children with DS and almost all TD children (87%). ConclusionsThese findings add to our understanding of the kind of imitation difficulties children with ASD might have. They also point to the necessity of not equating various imitation measures because these may capture different processes and be differently motivating for children with autism.

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  • 37.
    Sundqvist, Annette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordqvist, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koch, Felix-Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Early declarative memory predicts productive language: A longitudinal study of deferred imitation and communication at 9 and 16 months2016In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 151, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deferred imitation (DI) may be regarded as an early declarative-like memory ability shaping the infant's ability to learn about novelties and regularities of the surrounding world. In the current longitudinal study, infants were assessed at 9 and 16months. DI was assessed using five novel objects. Each infant's communicative development was measured by parental questionnaires. The results indicate stability in DI performance and early communicative development between 9 and 16months. The early achievers at 9months were still advanced at 16months. Results also identified a predictive relationship between the infant's gestural development at 9months and the infant's productive and receptive language at 16months. Moreover, the results show that declarative memory, measured with DI, and gestural communication at 9months independently predict productive language at 16months. These findings suggest a connection between the ability to form non-linguistic and linguistic mental representations. These results indicate that the child's DI ability when predominantly preverbal might be regarded as an early domain-general declarative memory ability underlying early productive language development.

  • 38.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

    METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

    We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

    OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

    C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

    These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

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  • 39.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

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  • 40.
    Helland, Wenche Andersen
    et al.
    Helse Fonna HF, Div Psychiat, Sect Mental Hlth Res, Haugesund, Norway, Statped Vest, Norwegian Support Syst Special Educ, Bergen, Norway.
    Posserud, Maj-Britt
    Haukeland Hosp, Bergen, Norway, RKBU, Bergen, Norway.
    Helland, Turid
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lundervold, Astri
    Language impairments in children with ADHD and in children with reading disorder2016In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 581-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate language impairments (LI) in a non –clinical sample of children with symptoms of AD/HD,  RD,   AD/HD + RD and controls, and to explore whether these groups could be differentiated from each other regarding different aspects of language.

    Method: Out of a population-based sample  of 5672 children aged 7-9, four groups were derived.

    Results: LI was identified in the vast majority of the AD/HD+RD group and in more than 40 % of both the AD/HD group and the RD group.

    Conclusions: More phonological and expressive language problems were seen in RD compared to AD/HD, while receptive language problems were more prominent in AD/HD. As to pragmatics, more problems were identified in AD/HD, but the difference did not reach significance. These results support findings from clinical samples pointing to a considerable rate of LI both in children with symptoms of AD/HD and in children with symptoms of RD.

  • 41.
    Moe, Vibeke
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway; Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Cecilie Braarud, Hanne
    Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway; Uni Research Heatlh, Norway.
    Wentzel-Larsen, Tore
    Norwegian Centre Violence and Traumat Stress Studies, Norway; Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Slinning, Kari
    University of Oslo, Norway; Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Tranaas Vannebo, Unni
    Eastern and Southern Norway, Norway.
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hospital Bichat Claude Bernard, France; INSERM, France; University of Denis Diderot Paris Cite, France.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Margrethe Rostad, Anne
    Municipal Trondheims Welf Clin, Norway.
    Smith, Lars
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression2016In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N = 238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N = 64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 42.
    Linton, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Germundsson, Per
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danemark, Berth
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Örebro University, Sweden.
    School Staff’s Social Representation of Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger)2016In: Journal of Education & Social Policy, ISSN 2375-0782, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 82-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined and compared the social representations (SR) concerning the inclusion of students with Asperser diagnosis (AS) among principals, school health professionals, and teachers. Swedish school staff were invited to anonymously answer a web-based questionnaire (N=229). An association task was conducted to obtain data on principals, school health professionals and teachers’ of inclusion of students with AS. The content and structure of the SRs were explored by using the theoretical framework of social representation theory. Our results suggest that principals were mainly concerned with the organization and structural level of inclusion. School health professionals emphasized educational strategies, structure and routines and, students’ needs and their individual potentials whereas teachers refer to their own interaction as the most important aspect and more often than other staff referred to a burden. Social representation methodology offers unique opportunities for research as well as for applications aiming to promote inclusion. 

  • 43.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as its assocation with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

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  • 44.
    Salomone, Erica
    et al.
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Beranova, Stepanka
    Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic; University Hospital Motol, Czech Republic.
    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frederique
    University of Francois Rabelais Tours, France.
    Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene
    Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
    Budisteanu, Magdalena
    Titu Maiorescu University, Romania.
    Buitelaar, Jan
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo
    University of Salamanca, Spain.
    Felhosi, Gabriella
    Budapest and Kispest Child Mental Health Institute, Hungary.
    Fletcher-Watson, Sue
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Freitag, Christine
    Goethe University of Frankfurt, Germany.
    Fuentes, Joaquin
    Policlin Gipuzkoa, Spain.
    Gallagher, Louise
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Garcia Primo, Patricia
    National Institute Health Spain IIER NIH Carlos III, Spain.
    Gliga, Fotinica
    University of Bucharest, Romania.
    Gomot, Marie
    University of Francois Rabelais Tours, France.
    Green, Jonathan
    Booth Hall Childrens Hospital, England.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Loa Jonsdottir, Sigridur
    State Diagnost and Counselling Centre, Iceland.
    Kaale, Anett
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Kawa, Rafal
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Kylliainen, Anneli
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Lemcke, Sanne
    Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana
    Macedonian Academic Science and Arts, Macedonia.
    Marschik, Peter B.
    Medical University of Graz, Austria.
    McConachie, Helen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Moilanen, Irma
    Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Muratori, Filippo
    IRCCS Stella Maris Fdn, Italy.
    Narzisi, Antonio
    IRCCS Stella Maris Fdn, Italy.
    Noterdaeme, Michele
    Josefinum, Germany.
    Oliveira, Guiomar
    Centre Hospital and University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Oosterling, Iris
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Pijl, Mirjam
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Pop-Jordanova, Nada
    Macedonian Academic Science and Arts, Macedonia.
    Poustka, Luise
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Roge, Bernadette
    University of Toulouse Le Mirail, France.
    Sinzig, Judith
    LVR Klin Bonn, Germany.
    Vicente, Astrid
    Institute Nacl Saude Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Portugal.
    Warreyn, Petra
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Charman, Tony
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe2016In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 233-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 years or younger (N = 1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable variation in use of interventions, and in some countries more than 20% of children received no intervention at all. The most frequently reported interventions were speech and language therapy (64%) and behavioural, developmental and relationship-based interventions (55%). In some parts of Europe, use of behavioural, developmental and relationship-based interventions was associated with higher parental educational level and time passed since diagnosis, rather than with child characteristics. These findings highlight the need to monitor use of intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in Europe in order to contrast inequalities.

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  • 45.
    Nordqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deferred imitation, associative memory and communication in 14-month-old children2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Imitation and language development in deaf and hearing schoolchildren2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Deaf signing children and hearing children reveal different developmental trajectories in several aspects of neurocognitive functioning; however, comparative studies of imitation across these groups are lacking. Imitation has been suggested to play a part in language and cognitive development, and the ability to imitate indicates multi-modal integration and analysis (e.g., Meltzoff & Williamson, 2013). Thus, understanding the function of imitation in typical and atypical groups is of theoretical interest, but may also have practical implications. Because sign language is gesture based, it is likely that deaf signing children can tap into existing linguistic representations during gesture imitation whereas only motor representations are available for nonsigning individuals. Thus, gesture imitation is likely to be supported by different cognitive skills in the signing and non-signing individuals. Importantly, imitation may expose qualities of generic mechanisms in the representational system. Method: Thirteen school-aged deaf users of Swedish Sign Language and 36 hearing nonsigning children, at similar levels of non-verbal cognitive ability and word reading skills, performed an experimental imitation task. The task involved spontaneous imitation of a set of manual gestures. Participants performed the task at two occasions, separated by 35 weeks. Tests of nonverbal intelligence, visual working memory, phonological awareness, word reading and reading comprehension were also administered. We investigated the precision of the imitative acts across groups and time, as well as relationships between imitative precision and cognitive and language skills in both groups. Results: A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that deaf signers imitate manual gestures with greater precision than hearing non-signing children. Further, improvement in imitative precision over time was greater for deaf than for hearing participants. Correlational patterns indicated that imitative precision was positively associated with language skills in both groups. Specifically, for deaf children, word reading skills at both assessment points and performance on a sign similarity judgment task at the second assessment were correlated positively with imitative precision. For the hearing participants, positive connections to word reading skills and performance on a rhyme task were observed at the second assessment point. In both groups, a significant connection between imitative precision and reading comprehension was observed at the second assessment point. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that sign language experience enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures longitudinally. They also show that imitation ability is linked to language skills in the non-manual, speech-related domain. We propose that the precision of imitative acts reflects the quality of linguistic and motor representations and the ability to employ them in language processing.

  • 47. Nelson, K
    et al.
    Khan, Kirer
    Ohio State University.
    Arkenberg, Marnie
    Shaw University.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Tjust, Tomas
    Gothenburg University.
    Craven, Patrick
    Drexel University.
    Lessons for Educational Designs from Dynamic-Systems-Inspired Experimental Acceleration of Children's Learning in Diverse Domains2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Linton, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Germundsson, Per
    Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danemark, Berth
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Örebro University, Sweden.
    School Staff’s Social Representation of Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger)2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder in the mainstream classroom is problematic. The link between teachers’ individual practice and broader institutional forces has shown to be crucial to an inclusive environment. For example, school staff’s social representations (SR), have a bearing on how they accommodate for them in mainstream classes. Therefore the current study examined and compared the SRs concerning the inclusion of students with Asperger diagnosis (AS) among principals, school health professionals and teachers. Swedish school staff were invited to anonymously answer a web-based questionnaire (N=229). An association task was conducted to obtain data on principals, school health professionals and teachers’ SR of inclusion of students with AS. The content and structure of the SRs were explored by using the theoretical framework of social representation theory. Our results suggest that principals are mainly concerned with the organization and structural level of inclusion. Moreover, school health professionals emphasized students’ needs and their individual (different) potentials. Teachers more often than principals or school health staff referred to students as assets. School health professionals in general produced more negative phrases as compared to teachers who produced more positive phrases. These results highlight the need to bridge the gap between the organizational level, the classroom level and the individual student level in order to reduce barriers for students with AS to fit into an inclusive environment.

  • 49.
    Holmer, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sign language phonological awareness supports word reading in deaf beginning readers2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language phonological awareness (PA) supports word reading development in hearing children; however, deaf children, who have non-functional levels of hearing and a signed language as their first language, seem to utilize their first language skills to learn to read. We developed a new phonological decision task that can be used to assess PA in both spoken and signed languages, and investigated how these skills were related to word reading in deaf beginning readers (Study 1). We also investigated the validity of our new task in hearing beginning readers (Study 2). Thirteen deaf beginning readers with a mean age of 10 years (SD=2.3) participated in Study 1; in Study 2, 36 normal hearing children with a mean age of 7.5 years (SD=0.3) took part. Groups were well matched on word reading, non-verbal intelligence, and gender distribution. The deaf children performed the new phonological decision task both as a sign similarity task and as a rhyme task; hearing children only performed a rhyme task. Participants also performed motor speed, cognitive speed, working memory, word decoding and lexical decision tasks; in addition, hearing children completed an established test of PA. Correlational analyses across studies indicated that the new task is a valid measure of PA, and that first language PA supports word reading, even when surface forms of first and reading language are completely different. Sign language PA may support word-to-sign mapping or some aspect of orthographic analysis; however, future studies should investigate what the exact function of this skill is.

  • 50.
    Linton, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Germundsson, Per
    Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danemark, Berth
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of students with Asperger diagnosis2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers have various attitudes towards including students with AS in the classroom, but we do not know why. However, knowledge about factors related to these attitudes is necessary in order to improve for the provision of an inclusive school. The aim of the study was to explore factors underlying/associated with teachers’ confidence towards including students with AS. To this end we surveyed teachers’ associations for inclusion of students with AS (N=631). We then analyzed the valence of these associations in relation to teachers’ self-rated, competence, prior experience with, special training, and overall knowledge of teaching students with AS. Data from an association method task was employed in obtaining valence for teachers’ associations of inclusion of students with AS. Our results suggest that teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of students with AS are mostly positive and correlate with their attitudes towards students with AS, however, teachers of lower levels are less positive to inclusion of students with AS than teachers of higher levels. Positive attitudes towards inclusion of students with AS are related to teachers’ knowledge of teaching students with AS and their attitudes toward students with AS. We conclude that teachers’ beliefs are firmly rooted in their social representations (SR) and therefore there is a need to engage in a broader discussion on inclusive education. The present study contributes to the literature on teachers’ beliefs about inclusion of students with autism spectrum diagnosis (AS) and points to the apparent need for educating teachers better to provide for students with AS.

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