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  • 1.
    Jarvis, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytical sociology amidst a computational social science revolution2022In: Handbook of Computational Social Science, Volume 1 / [ed] Edited by Uwe Engel, Anabel Quan-Haase, Sunny Xun Liu, and Lars Lyberg, Routledge, 2022, p. 33-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical sociology is beginning to embrace a digital revolution in the collection and analysis of social data and is increasingly drawing on tools from computational social science (CSS) to pursue its goals of mechanism-based explanation of aggregate outcomes. In this chapter, we highlight the ways in which analytical sociologists are using CSS tools to further social research. Using agent-based modeling, large-scale online experiments, digital trace data, and natural language processing, analytical sociologists are identifying how large-scale properties of social systems emerge from the complex interactions of networked actors at lower scales. At the same time, we provide a perspective on how CSS techniques can be successfully deployed in social research, including ways in which they can be productively combined. Computational tools, when applied using a theory-grounded approach, offer sociologists a chance to transcend the limitations of the dominant survey-research paradigm and finally address “big” sociological questions about, for example, the nature of culture, the emergence of inequality, and the dynamics of segregation. We also discuss how computational social scientists can take cues from analytical sociology to further hone their own research and methods in the service of theoretically grounded, mechanism-based explanations, moving beyond theoretically thin descriptions or predictions of micro- and macro-level outcomes.

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  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Collet, F.
    Ramon Llull Univ, Spain.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Trojan-horse mechanism: How networks reduce gender segregation2021In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 7, no 16, article id eabf6730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The segregation of labor markets along ethnic and gender lines is socially highly consequential, and the social science literature has long viewed homophily and network-based job recruitments as some of its most crucial drivers. Here, we focus on a previously unidentified mechanism, the Trojan-horse mechanism, which, in contradiction to the main tenet of previous research, suggests that network-based recruitment reduce rather than increase segregation levels. We identify the conditions under which networks are desegregating, and using unique data on all individuals and all workplaces located in the Stockholm region during the years 2000-2017, we find strong empirical evidence for the Trojan-horse mechanism and its role in the gender segregation of labor markets.

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  • 3.
    Ertug, Gokhan
    et al.
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Kotha, Reddi
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    KIN TIES AND THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW FIRMS: A STRUCTURAL APPROACH2020In: Academy of Management Journal, ISSN 0001-4273, E-ISSN 1948-0989, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1893-1922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kin ties are all but ubiquitous in new firms. However, their effects on performance are not straightforward, as they can provide new firms with advantages (enhanced coordination and cooperation) as well as disadvantages (reduced diversity, nepotism concerns, and the possible spillover of personal conflict). As kin ties may have both positive and negative implications for performance, a contingency approach to the performance of new firms is valuable. We develop such an approach by relating different structural configurations of kin ties-whether they are between founders, between founders and employees, or between employees-to the performance of new firms. We test our predictions using data on 4,967 new firms founded in Stockholm between 1998 and 2003. Our theory deepens our understanding of why kin ties have heterogeneous effects on the performance of new firms.

  • 4.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mutgan, Selcan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Urban scaling and the regional divide2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 1, article id eaav0042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superlinear growth in cities has been explained as an emergent consequence of increased social interactions in dense urban environments. Using geocoded microdata from Swedish population registers, we remove population composition effects from the scaling relation of wage income to test how much of the previously reported superlinear scaling is truly attributable to increased social interconnectivity in cities. The Swedish data confirm the previously reported scaling relations on the aggregate level, but they provide better information on the micromechanisms responsible for them. We find that the standard interpretation of urban scaling is incomplete as social interactions only explain about half of the scaling parameter of wage income and that scaling relations substantively reflect differences in cities sociodemographic composition. Those differences are generated by selective migration of highly productive individuals into larger cities. Big cities grow through their attraction of talent from their hinterlands and the already-privileged benefit disproportionally from urban agglomeration.

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  • 5.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lovsjö, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytical sociology and computational social science2018In: Journal of Computational Social Science, ISSN 2432-2717, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical sociology focuses on social interactions among individuals and the hard-to-predict aggregate outcomes they bring about. It seeks to identify generalizable mechanisms giving rise to emergent properties of social systems which, in turn, feed back on individual decision-making. This research program benefits from computational tools such as agent-based simulations, machine learning, and large-scale web experiments, and has considerable overlap with the nascent field of computational social science. By providing relevant analytical tools to rigorously address sociology’s core questions, computational social science has the potential to advance sociology in a similar way that the introduction of econometrics advanced economics during the last half century. Computational social scientists from computer science and physics often see as their main task to establish empirical regularities which they view as “social laws.” From the perspective of the social sciences, references to social laws appear unfounded and misplaced, however, and in this article we outline how analytical sociology, with its theory-grounded approach to computational social science, can help to move the field forward from mere descriptions and predictions to the explanation of social phenomena.

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  • 6.
    Spaiser, Viktoria
    et al.
    School of Politics and International Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvik, Monica K
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sumpter, David J T
    Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Identifying Complex Dynamics in Social Systems: A New Methodological Approach Applied to Study School Segregation2018In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294, no 2, p. 103-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that segregation processes are often the result of complex nonlinear dynamics. Empirical analyses of complex dynamics are however rare, because there is a lack of appropriate empirical modeling techniques that are capable of capturing complex patterns and nonlinearities. At the same time, we know that many social phenomena display nonlinearities. In this article, we introduce a new modeling tool in order to partly fill this void in the literature. Using data of all secondary schools in Stockholm county during the years 1990 to 2002, we demonstrate how the methodology can be applied to identify complex dynamic patterns like tipping points and multiple phase transitions with respect to segregation. We establish critical thresholds in schools’ ethnic compositions, in general, and in relation to various factors such as school quality and parents’ income, at which the schools are likely to tip and become increasingly segregated.

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  • 7.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal mechanisms in organization and innovation studies2017In: Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, ISSN 1447-9338, E-ISSN 2204-0226, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

  • 8.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal mechanisms in organization and innovation studies2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

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    Causal Mechanisms in Organization and Innovation Studies
  • 9.
    Ertug, Gokhan
    et al.
    Singapore Management University, Singapore.
    Yogev, Tamar
    University of Haifa, Israel.
    Lee, Yonghoon G.
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    THE ART OF REPRESENTATION: HOW AUDIENCE-SPECIFIC REPUTATIONS AFFECT SUCCESS IN THE CONTEMPORARY ART FIELD2016In: Academy of Management Journal, ISSN 0001-4273, E-ISSN 1948-0989, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 113-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of actors audience-specific reputations on their levels of success with different audiences in the same field. Extending recent work that has emphasized the presence of multiple audiences with different concerns, we demonstrate that considering audience specificity leads to an improved understanding of reputation effects. Using data on emerging artists in the field of contemporary art from 2001 to 2010, we investigate the manner in which artists audience-specific reputations affect their subsequent success with two distinct audiences: museums and galleries. Our findings suggest that audience-specific reputations have systematically different effects with respect to success with museums and galleries. Our findings also illuminate the extent to which audience-specific reputations are relevant for emerging research on the contingent effects of reputation. In particular, our findings support our predictions that audiences differ from one another in terms of the extent to which other signals (specifically, status and interaction with other audiences) enhance or reduce the value of audience-specific reputations. Our study thus advances theory by providing empirical evidence for the value of incorporating audience-specific reputations into the general study of reputation.

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  • 10.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Analytical sociology2015In: International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Routledge, 2015, 2, p. 668-673Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The core idea of analytical sociology is the importance of mechanism-based understanding of social processes. Sociological theories should provide clear and precise accounts of the social mechanisms by which the intentional activities of social agents bring about social phenomena. Theories about social mechanisms can be characterized as theories of middle range as they provide clear, precise, and simple explanations for specified aspects of range of different phenomena, without pretense of being able to explain all social phenomena. Intentional action plays an important role in social mechanisms, but the analytical sociology perspective suggests that our account of human agency should be based on findings and theories of psychological and cognitive sciences rather than on some preconceived ideas about human motivation or cognitive processing. Much of the development of mechanism-based knowledge consists of developing how-possibly explanation schemes. Agent-based computer simulations can be very useful for this kind of endeavor.

  • 11.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytisk sociologi, sociala nätverk och samhällets dynamik2015In: Årsbok 2015: Kungl. Vitterhetsakademien, 2015, Kungliga Vitterhetsakademien , 2015, p. 107-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    under senare tid har den analytiska sociologin vuxit sig allt starkare. Artiklar och böcker om analytisk sociologi publiceras av de främsta förlagen och tidskrifterna i världen, ledande yngre forskare attraheras till området och årliga internationella konferenser anordnas. Mina egna bidrag till detta område var en viktig anledning till att jag valdes in i Akademien och i detta kapitel ska jag ge en kortfattad beskrivning av vad som karaktäriserar den analytiska sociologin. Eftersom den analytiska sociologin ägnar mycket uppmärksamhet åt hur de sociala nätverk som individer är inbäddade i påverkar olika samhällsprocesser, kommer jag även att kortfattat uppmärksamma detta.

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  • 12.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mobilitet, nätverk och excellens2015In: Tänka vidare: forskning, finansiering, framtid. RJ:s årsbok 2015/2016 / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Björn Fjaestad, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 193-199Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Svenska
  • 13.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mobility, networks and excellence2015In: Thinking ahead: research, funding and the future. RJ yearbook 2015/2016 / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Björn Fjaestad, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 175-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Manzo, Gianluca
    CNRS, France; University of Paris 04, France.
    Recent Trends in Agent-based Computational Research: A Brief Introduction2015In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 179-185Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 15.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Analytical sociology and rational choice theory2014In: Analytical sociology: actions and networks / [ed] G. Manzo, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 57-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical sociology shares an historical lineage with the sociological rational‐choice tradition. However, there are fundamental differences as well. The chapter articulates these differences so that the relation between analytical sociology and rational‐choice sociology becomes clearer. It begins by examining what people mean when they talk about rational‐choice theory (RCT), especially in the context of sociology. Then, the basic ideas of analytical sociology are presented. The chapter concludes with some more general reflections about the nature of analytical sociology and the future of rational‐choice sociology, and an itemized summary of the most crucial differences between analytical sociology and rational‐choice theory. There are good reasons to reconsider meta‐theory that motivates sociological RCT (SRCT), and this is precisely what analytical sociology attempts to do.

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  • 16.
    Müller, Tim Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valdez, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Right-wing populism and social distance towards Muslims in Sweden: results from a nation-wide vignette study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New right-wing extremist parties all over Europe have been described as adopting a master framethat combines xenophobia and anti-political establishment populism (Rydgren 2004). In Sweden the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD) have emerged as the dominating newright-wing extremist party that was able to more than double their share of votes from the 2010 tothe 2014 parliamentary elections (2010: 5.7%, 2014: 12.9%). We conducted a vignette study in arepresentative sample of the Swedish population shortly before and after the 2014 nationalelections, which helps us to analyse the social distance between the majority population and theMuslim minority. We are explicitly taking into account the prevalence of right-wing populistattitudes in the population and their support for SD in the 2010 and 2014 elections. Our resultsshow that; (1) anti-minority attitudes (held by 36% of the population) but not anti-establishmentattitudes (held by 37% of the population) predict increased social distance to Muslims and eventowards persons that are only presented as having a foreign name, (2) SD voters hold drasticallymore negative views about Muslims than does any other voter group, (3) the vote for SD is purelydriven by anti-minority sentiments, not anti-establishmentarism. In conclusion, while SD mightpresent its cause in the language of anti-establishment populism and their voters mightlegitimise their voting choice by this principle, SD voters’ intentions are fundamentallyrooted in xenophobia.

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  • 17.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytical sociology and social mechanisms2013In: Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences / [ed] Byron Kaldis, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2013, p. 27-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 18.
    Collet, Francois
    et al.
    ESADE Business School, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hedström, Peter
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Old friends and new acquaintances: Tie formation mechanisms in an inter-organizational network generated by employee mobility2013In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 288-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates mechanisms of tie formation in an interorganizational network generated by the mobility of employees between organizations. We analyze a data set that contains information on all organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area between 1990 and 2003. We show that the formation of new ties is contingent upon the direction of past ties, and that most connections occur at an intermediate geodesic distance of 2 and 3. The findings highlight the importance of tie direction and indirect connections in research on network dynamics and knowledge exchanges stemming from the mobility of employees across organizations.

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  • 19.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Raymond Boudon (1934-2013)2013In: Revue Française de Sociologie, Sciences Po University Press , 2013, p. 1-2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Department of History and Philosophy, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Causal Mechanisms in the Social Sciences2010In: Annual Review of Sociology, ISSN 0360-0572, E-ISSN 1545-2115, Vol. 36, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade, social mechanisms and mechanism-based explanations have received considerable attention in the social sciences as well as in the philosophy of science. This article critically reviews the most important philosophical and social science contributions to the mechanism approach. The first part discusses the idea of mechanism-based explanation from the point of view of philosophy of science and relates it to causation and to the covering-law account of explanation. The second part focuses on how the idea of mechanisms has been used in the social sciences. The final part discusses recent developments in analytical sociology, covering the nature of sociological explananda, the role of theory of action in mechanism-based explanations, Merton's idea of middle-range theory, and the role of agent-based simulations in the development of mechanism-based explanations.

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