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  • 1.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Lofthouse, Tony
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Hammer, Patrick
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Generalized Identity Matching in NARS2023In: ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE, AGI 2022, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2023, Vol. 13539, p. 243-249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized identity matching is the ability to apply an identity concept in novel situations. This ability has been studied experimentally among humans and non-humans in a match-to-sample task. The aim of this study was to test if this ability was possible to demonstrate in the Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System (NARS). More specifically, we used a minimal configuration of OpenNARS for Applications that contained only sensorimotor reasoning. After training with only two identity matching-to-sample problems, NARS was able to derive an identity concept that it could generalize to novel situations.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Scientific progress in AGI from the perspective of contemporary behavioral psychology2020In: NARS AGI 2020 Workshop, 2020, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) continues to develop, it seems to be a need for continued progress in terms of developing AGI as a science. In this paper, we discuss scientific progress in AGI from the perspective of behavioral psychology. We provide examples of psychological experiments that seem potentially useful for AGI research. First, we show experiments that demonstrate various cognitive capabilities. Then, in line with contemporary behavioral psychology research, we examine how the terms coherence, complexity and levels of derivation can be used to study the dynamics of complex responding. Finally, we discuss experiments that are uniquely possible for AGI. Future implications for the AGI field are discussed.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Arbitrarily Applicable Relational Responding in NARS2019In: NARS AGI 2019 Workshop, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous publication, we argued why the behavioral psychology theory Relational Frame Theory (RFT) might be interesting for AGI researchers. This paper explores details of RFT in NARS. More specifically, we investigate different response patterns, such as equivalence, opposition, and comparison in NARS. An additional core feature of RFT is transformation of stimulus function which explains how arbitrary symbols can acquire various functions depending on the relational networks in operation. We demonstrate how NARS handles this process. Finally, future applied and basic research opportunities are discussed.

  • 4.
    Delahunty, Fionn
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; NUI Galway, Ireland.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Arcan, Mihael
    NUI Galway, Ireland.
    Passive Diagnosis incorporating the PHQ-4 for Depression and Anxiety2019In: SOCIAL MEDIA MINING FOR HEALTH APPLICATIONS (#SMM4H) WORKSHOP & SHARED TASK, ASSOC COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS-ACL , 2019, p. 40-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and anxiety are the two most prevalent mental health disorders worldwide, impacting the lives of millions of people each year. In this work, we develop and evaluate a multilabel, multidimensional deep neural network designed to predict PHQ-4 scores based on individuals written text. Our system outperforms random baseline metrics and provides a novel approach to how we can predict psychometric scores from written text. Additionally, we explore how this architecture can be applied to analyse social media data.

  • 5.
    Zwerenz, Rüdiger
    et al.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Becker, Jan
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frederick, Ronald J
    Center for Courageous Living, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Beutel, Manfred E
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Transdiagnostic, Psychodynamic Web-Based Self-Help Intervention Following Inpatient Psychotherapy: Results of a Feasibility Study and Randomized Controlled Trial.2017In: JMIR Mental Health, E-ISSN 2368-7959, Vol. 4, no 4, article id e41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have become a major health issue, and a substantial number of afflicted individuals do not get appropriate treatment. Web-based interventions are promising supplementary tools for improving health care for patients with mental disorders, as they can be delivered at low costs and used independently of time and location. Although psychodynamic treatments are used frequently in the face-to-face setting, there has been a paucity of studies on psychodynamic Web-based self-help interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a transdiagnostic affect-focused psychodynamic Web-based self-help intervention designed to increase emotional competence of patients with mental disorders.

    METHODS: A total of 82 psychotherapy inpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized into two groups. Following discharge, the intervention group (IG) got access to a guided version of the intervention for 10 weeks. After a waiting period of 10 weeks, the wait-list control group (WLCG) got access to an unguided version of the intervention. We reported the assessments at the beginning (T0) and at the end of the intervention, resp. the waiting period (T1). The primary outcome was satisfaction with the treatment at T1. Secondary outcome measures included emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive statistics (primary outcome) and analysis of covariance; a repeated measurement analysis of variance was used for the secondary outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen d and data were analyzed as per protocol, as well as intention-to-treat (ITT).

    RESULTS: Patients were chronically ill, diagnosed with multiple diagnoses, most frequently with depression (84%, 58/69), anxiety (68%, 47/69), personality disorder (38%, 26/69), and depersonalization-derealization disorder (22%, 15/69). A majority of the patients (86%, 36/42) logged into the program, of which 86% (31/36) completed the first unit. Satisfaction with the units mastered was rated as good (52%, 16/31) and very good (26%, 9/31). However, there was a steady decline of participation over the course of the program; only 36% of the participants (13/36) participated throughout the trial completing at least 50% of the sessions. According to the ITT analysis, participants improved statistically significantly and with moderate effect sizes (Cohen d) compared with the WLCG regarding depression (d=0.60), quality of life (d=0.53), and emotional competence (d=0.49). Effects were considerably stronger for the completers with respect to depression (d=1.33), quality of life (d=0.83), emotional competence (d=0.68), and general anxiety (d=0.62).

    CONCLUSIONS: Although overall program satisfaction and benefit of the program were favorable with respect to the indicators of emotional disorders, the rate of completion was low. Our findings point to the need to target the intervention more specifically to the needs and capabilities of participants and to the context of the intervention.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02671929; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02671929 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ntWg1yWb).

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  • 6.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An abstract specification of ICBT2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ICBT started out as delivering self-help modules via a computer and/or the Internet, with or without additional therapist support. Today, ICBT is a broad class of services that may or may not include components such as interactive treatment content, text messaging, video communication, intelligent adaptation of content, data collection from external hardware such as wristbands, etc. There is a current lack of coherence in describing these services and their components. This lack of standards makes it impossible for services to communicate with each other, unless they were explicitly designed for this.

    Method and Results: We believe that one way to address this problem is to reason about ICBT services on an abstract level. In this talk, we will describe how we created an abstract specification of an existing guided self-help ICBT service and how we implemented this specification as an application programming interface (API). This enabled us to develop several different front ends that each could communicate with the ICBT service through the API. In addition, we will describe how one of our front end applications could be used for two different ICBT services, once these services were designed to communicate through one standardized API.

    Discussion: ICBT is evolving and could be even more integrated with external services and hardware. We believe that reasoning about ICBT on an abstract level and implementing functionality through APIs will help ICBT to develop even further.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Consider Clojure: A modern Lisp that runs on Java and Javascript hosts2016In: Proceedings of the 12'th SweCog Conference / [ed] [ed] Alexander Almér, Robert Lowe, Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing software is a key methodology in cognitive science. Lisp is a family of programming languages that historically has been very influential in cognitive science in general and in the field of artificial intelligence in particular. Scientists and practitioners alike were drawn to Lisp due to its intelligent design and elegance. However, for various reasons it has become more and more uncommon to use Lisp in cognitive science and AI research.

    Clojure is a modern Lisp language that compiles both to the Java virtual machine and to Javascript. This enables us to write fast, stand-alone applications in Lisp that runs on computers, smartphones and in web browsers - everything written in the same language. Clojure encourages functional programming – an approach to software development in where we model our application in terms of data flowing through the system. The design and implementation of an application then become a process where the developer writes modular parts that transforms data. Such workflow open up for very elegant solutions to some of today's problems in software development in general and in the field of web applications in particular.

    Clojure can be used for everything from resource-intensive server-side applications to lightweight applications that runs in the browser or as a smartphone application. In addition, Clojure has a rich eco-system of freely available libraries to make development become like building things with LEGO.

    In this talk, we will give a technical demonstration of the language in where we demonstrate various aspects of the language that is relevant for cognitive science researchers and practitioners. We will also demonstrate an e- Health application that has been written in Clojure. It enables clinical practitioners to use the Internet to provide psychological treatment to individuals with for example depression and anxiety. Our experiences with Clojure in developing this application will be described. We have also made efforts to teach software development with Clojure to clinical psychologists to enable them to write e-Health web applications without any background in software development. This project will also be described in the talk.

    We believe that Clojure combines the best of both worlds – elegance and performance. With this talk, we hope to demonstrate why we believe Clojure is a perfect fit for both research and practice in the field of cognitive science.

    References

    Johansson, R. (in preparation). Functional programming with Clojure.

    Johansson, R. (in preparation). Writing the code for ICBT web applications.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel M.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Abbass, Allan
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Davanloos intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy. Effectiveness and association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome2016In: Psychotherapeut (Berlin), ISSN 0935-6185, E-ISSN 1432-2080, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 327-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as developed by Habib Davanloo, is an intensive emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy with an explicit focus on handling resistance in treatment. A core assumption in ISTDP is that psychotherapeutic effects are dependent on in-session emotional processing in the form of an increase in complex transference feelings that occur when treatment resistance is challenged. Recent research indicates that an unlocking of the unconscious, a powerful emotional breakthrough achieved by a rise in complex transference feelings, can potentially enhance the effectiveness of ISTDP. While ISTDP has a growing evidence base, most of the research conducted has used small samples and has tested therapy delivered by expert therapists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall effectiveness of ISTDP when delivered in a tertiary psychotherapy service and to investigate whether unlocking the unconscious during therapy promotes enhanced treatment effectiveness. A total of 412 patients were included in the analysis. The average length of treatment was 10.2 sessions (SD 13.3). Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness and the association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. A number of control predictors including type of treatment resistance were selected and included in the analysis. Outcome was measured with the brief symptom inventory (BSI) and the inventory of interpersonal problems (IIP). Approximately half of the patients in the study were treated by therapists in training and the rest by more experienced therapists. Growth curve analyses using the full intention to treat sample revealed significant within-group effects of ISTDP on both the BSI and the IIP. Effect sizes were large (amp;gt; 0.80). Unlocking the unconscious during therapy was associated with a significant improvement in treatment outcome. The relationship was further moderated by the type of treatment resistance. This study adds to the empirical base of Davanloos ISTDP with confirmed treatment effectiveness in a large-scale patient sample when ISTDP was delivered by therapists with a wide range of experience. Furthermore, emotional mobilization in the form of unlocking the unconscious was confirmed as a process factor enhancing the effectiveness of ISTDP.

  • 9.
    Lindner, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Flodman, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hebert, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Poysti, Stephanie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Norrbotten County Council, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Berger, Thomas
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?2016In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, no e1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments.

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  • 10.
    Ebert, D. D.
    et al.
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Donkin, L.
    University of Sydney, Australia; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andrews, G.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Berger, T.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Carlbring, P.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rozenthal, A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Choi, I.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Laferton, J. A. C.
    Psychol Hsch Berlin, Germany.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kleiboer, A.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lange, A.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lehr, D.
    Leuphana University of Luneburg, Germany.
    Reins, J. A.
    Leuphana University of Luneburg, Germany.
    Funk, B.
    Leuphana University of Luneburg, Germany.
    Newby, J.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Perini, S.
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Riper, H.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ruwaard, J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sheeber, L.
    Oregon Research Institute, OR 97403 USA.
    Snoek, F. J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Titov, N.
    Macquarie University, Australia; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Unlu Ince, B.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Bastelaar, K.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vernmark, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    van Straten, A.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Warmerdam, L.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Salsman, N.
    Xavier University, OH 45207 USA.
    Cuijpers, P.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Does Internet-based guided-self-help for depression cause harm? An individual participant data meta-analysis on deterioration rates and its moderators in randomized controlled trials2016In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 46, no 13, p. 2679-2693Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.

    Method: Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.

    Results: A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit-risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.

    Conclusions: Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.

  • 11.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Erica Fdn, Sweden.
    Mechler, Jakob
    Northern Stockholm Psychiat, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Efficacy of Experiential Dynamic Therapy for Psychiatric Conditions: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials2016In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 90-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiential dynamic therapy (EDT) is a subgroup of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) that emphasizes patients in-session affective processing. To evaluate the efficacy of EDT for psychiatric conditions, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-eight studies published between 1978 and 2014 were included, encompassing 1,782 adult patients with mood, anxiety, personality, or mixed disorders. Across targeted outcome domains, medium-size between-groups effects (Cohens ds ranging from 0.39 to 0.65) favored EDT over inactive controls at posttreatment and in symptom measures at follow-up. We found no differences between EDT and active treatments (e.g., medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, manualized supportive therapy) at posttreatment, but EDT outperformed supportive therapy at follow-up (d = 0.75). In terms of within-group effect sizes, EDT was associated with large improvements in general psychiatric symptoms (d = 1.11), depression (d = 1.33), and anxiety (d = 1.09) and with small to moderate gains in the areas of interpersonal problems (d = 0.55) and global functioning (d = 0.86). Small but significant effects suggested continued improvement between posttreatment and follow-up. Heterogeneity in pre-post effects was explored in subgroup analyses, which indicated that EDT might be most effective in depressive disorders and that individual EDT had larger effects compared with group treatment. In addition, EDT performed better in higher quality studies. We conclude that EDT is a promising treatment for psychiatric conditions in adults. Further high-quality studies evaluating contemporary versions of EDT in specific psychiatric conditions are warranted.

  • 12.
    Frankl, My
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Centre Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Philips, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Centre Dependency Disorders, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Berggraf, Lene
    Research Institute, Norway.
    Ulvenes, Pal
    Research Institute, Norway.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N=82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N=197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample =0.88/Student sample =0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (=0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (=0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (=0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICCamp;gt;0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC=0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the tests original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (r(xy)=-0.229; pamp;lt;0.01) and anxiety (r(xy)=-0.315; pamp;lt;0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the tests affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not.

  • 13.
    Becker, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany.
    Zwerenz, Rüdiger
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frederick, Ronald J.
    Center for Courageous Living, 9300 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite #520, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Beutel, Manfred E.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, 55131 Mainz, Germany.
    Using a transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention to maintain inpatient psychosomatic treatment effects: Study protocol of a feasibility study2016In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 5, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Online self-help interventions have proven to be effective in treating various specific mental disorders, mainly depression and anxiety. Knowledge regarding their acceptance, efficacy, and usefulness in addition to inpatient or outpatient psychotherapy is limited. Therefore, we plan to evaluate an affect-focused, transdiagnostic, psychodynamic online self-help intervention following inpatient psychotherapy for mixed diagnoses in a feasibility study to determine acceptance, satisfaction, and preliminary estimates of efficacy.

    Methods

    The intervention is based on the book “Living Like You Mean It” by Ronald J. Frederick (2009) and the Swedish adaption by Johansson and colleagues (2013). The book was translated into German and thoroughly revised using parts of the Swedish adaption and additional tasks from their intervention. In a pilot phase, corrections concerning comprehensibility of the content and exercises were made based on patient's feedback. In the second step, we developed a website presenting the German adaption in eight units. In the third step, at least N = 66 patients from the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy will be recruited for a feasibility study. Patients are randomized into two groups. The intervention group (IG) will receive ten weeks of access to the online self-help intervention together with weekly therapeutic feedback on their progress. The wait-list control group (WLC) will receive access to the intervention for ten weeks as well, but without therapeutic feedback and with a ten-week delay. We will conduct assessments at the beginning of the intervention of the IG (T0), the end of the intervention of the IG (T1), two months later (only IG, T2), and at the end of the intervention of the WLC (T3). The primary outcome is satisfaction with the treatment as measured by the ZUF-8 at T1 and T3 respectively. Secondary outcome measures include emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life.

    Conclusion

    We expect insight into the usefulness and acceptance of an online self-help intervention used to maintain inpatient treatment effects. Furthermore, we await both groups to benefit from the participation in the intervention. Pre- post and between subject differences will be used as estimate effect sizes to calculate the necessary sample size for a larger efficacy trial.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using Clojure to provide computerized psychotherapy2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is a massive problem in the world today. People prefer psychological treatments over medication but access to psychotherapy is severly limited. One solution to this problem is to develop self-help treatments that can be delivered through the Internet. Research has shown that these treatments are effective and if therapist support by for example email is added, the effect could be on par with regular psychotherapy. However, therapist-supported computerized psychological treatments are very hard to access outside of research settings.

    We are a team of psychologists and psychotherapy researchers that aims to build a web application that takes advantage of modern web technologies and that could provide high-quality computerized psychotherapy at large scale. One of us had an experience with Common Lisp and from there we found Clojure. After digging into the language we found out that developing web applications with Clojure was a pure delight.

    In this talk we will describe the domain of computerized psychotherapy and some of its challenges. We will argue why we believe that Clojure is a perfect fit for developing web applications for psychotherapy. Our own experiences this far of using Clojure in this context will be described. Finally, we will discuss how we believe Clojure and its eco-system could help out even further in reducing the heavy burden of mental illness in society.

    Robert Johansson, PhD, is a licensed psychologist and a researcher at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sweden. Since 2009, he has conducted research on computerized psychotherapy. He had some basic training in Common Lisp from the late 1990’s and through that learned about Clojure in late 2014. Since then, he has practiced Clojure with the aim of building web applications for providing computerized psychotherapy. 

  • 15.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Writing the code for ICBT web applications2016In: EABCT 2016 Abstract Book: Total Awareness, The European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies , 2016: A technical demonstration of the development process, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific background:The Internet has become a cornerstone of CBT during the last 15 years. Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) has gained a substantial evidence base with well beyond 100 randomized controlled trials supporting its efficacy.

    ICBT requires not only treatment material suitable for delivery through the Internet (for example in the form of self-help texts). A web application is also required that for example enables functionality for communication, delivery of treatment content and the possibility to collect assessments in self-report format. Many clinics and clinicians do not have access to such a treatment application and hence cannot provide ICBT even if they have access to treatment material and clinical expertise.

    While several web-based solutions for treatment delivery exist, we seldom talk about the actual development process of these applications. For many people, the task of developing a web-based ICBT treatment application can look like a massive challenge. While the task requires some basic knowledge about programming and web technologies, it is far easier than one can think.

    A key for this process to work is to use a programming language that provides expressive power, high performance, and that is possible to integrate with modern web technologies. In this demonstration we will use a programming language called Clojure that has become increasingly popular during the last years. The language is easy to learn and has a large eco-system of freely available libraries that makes the process of developing a web application similar to LEGO construction.

    During the talk, the workshop leader will show with actual programming code, how to construct a fully functional web-based application for ICBT treatment delivery. The system constructed during the talk will include different views for therapists and clients, access right management, encryption, database connection, logging, the possibility to automatically summarize collected self-report data, automatic change of presentation for smartphones and tablets, etc. Throughout the workshop, every step will be explained in detail.

    Key learning objectives:- Understand which web technologies are required for building an ICBT web application- Take part of a demonstration of important steps in the development process of web-based ICBT treatment applications- Understand the benefits of using the programming language Clojure for this task- Gain knowledge on how to go further with an interest in developing your own ICBT web application

    Implications for everyday clinical practice of CBT:The Internet has become a key modality for the clinical practice of CBT. However, outside of research settings, there exist few options for clinicians to use the Internet to communicate with their clients, to provide treatment material and to collect self-report data. This workshop will show how it is possible to develop web applications for ICBT with only a basic skill-set in programming and web technologies.

    Description of the workshop leader:Robert Johansson completed his PhD in clinical psychology from Linköping University in 2013. His research has mainly focused on developing and evaluating Internet-based treatments for depression. Besides ICBT research, he has conducted several studies on Internet-delivered psychodynamic psychotherapy and also research about the effectiveness and working mechanisms of a form of psychotherapy called Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy. During the last years, he has developed an interest in the construction of software relevant for clinical psychology research and practice. He is currently working as a postdoc researcher in Research Group Kaldo, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    Training modalities:1.5-hour technical demonstration

    Key references:

    Andersson, G. (2014). The Internet and CBT: A Clinical Guide

    Vlaescu, G., Carlbring, P., Lunner, T., & Andersson, G. (2015). An e-platform for rehabilitation of persons with hearing problems. American Journal of Audiology, 24, 271-275.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Computerized psychological interventions and functional programming2015In: Abstracts from the 7th Swedish Congress on internet interventions (SWEsrii), Linköping: Linköping University Press , 2015, p16, Linköping, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional programming is an idea in computer science on how to design and evaluate computer programs in a way similar to mathematical functions. In my talk, I will argue why this way of designing programs is highly useful for the task of constructing computerized psychological interventions, and how this might help us with future challenges for the field. A demonstration will be carried out.

  • 17.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tarkian Tillgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiklund, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Danlycke, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forssen, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jernelov, Susanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 70, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare guided Internet-delivered to group-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. We conducted an 8-week randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with 6-months follow-up. Participants were forty-eight adults with insomnia, recruited via media. Interventions were guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and group-delivered CBT (GCBT) for insomnia. Primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), secondary outcome measures were sleep diary data, depressive symptoms, response- and remission rates. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements and large effect sizes for ISI (Within Cohens d: ICBT post = 1.8, 6-months follow-up = 2.1; GCBT post = 2.1, 6-months follow-up = 2.2). Confidence interval of the difference between groups posttreatment and at FU6 indicated non-inferiority of ICBT compared to GCBT. At post-treatment, two thirds of patients in both groups were considered responders (ISI-reduction greater than 7p). Using diagnostic criteria, 63% (ICBT) and 75% (GCBT) were in remission. Sleep diary data showed moderate to large effect sizes. We conclude that both guided Internet-CBT and group-CBT in this study were efficacious with regard to insomnia severity, sleep parameters and depressive symptoms. The results are in line with previous research, and strengthen the evidence for guided Internet-CBT for insomnia. Trial registration: The study protocol was approved by, and registered with, the regional ethics review board in Linkoping, Sweden, registration number 2010/385-31.

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  • 18.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rasic, Daniel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel M.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Long-term healthcare cost reduction with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychiatric service2015In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 64, p. 114-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate whether a mixed population of patients treated with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) would exhibit reduced healthcare costs in long-term follow-up. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was employed in which data on pre- and post-treatment healthcare cost were compared for all ISTDP cases treated in a tertiary care service over a nine year period. Observed cost changes were compared with those of a control group of patients referred but never treated. Physician and hospital costs were compared to treatment cost estimates and normal population cost figures. Results: 1082 patients were included; 890 treated cases for a broad range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and 192 controls. The treatment averaged 7.3 sessions and measures of symptoms and interpersonal problems significantly improved. The average cost reduction per treated case was $12,628 over 3 follow-up years: this compared favorably with the estimated treatment cost of $708 per patient. Significant differences were seen between groups for follow-up hospital costs. Conclusions: ISTDP in this setting appears to facilitate reductions in healthcare costs, supporting the notion that brief dynamic psychotherapy provided in a tertiary setting can be beneficial to health care systems overall. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bernier, Denise
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Kisely, Steve
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders2015In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 228, no 3, p. 538-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Ly, Kien Hoa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trüschel, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jarl, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnusson, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Windahl, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial2014In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 1, p. e003440-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness.

    DESIGN: Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study.

    SETTING: General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements.

    PARTICIPANTS: 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment.

    INTERVENTION BA: An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9).

    RESULTS: 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0 years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the treatment based on mindfulness worked significantly better than the treatment based on BA.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT01463020.

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  • 21.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel M.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Abbass, Allan
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Davanloos Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychotherapy service: overall effectiveness and association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome2014In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP), as developed by Habib Davanloo, is an intensive emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy with an explicit focus on handling resistance in treatment. A core assumption in ISTDP is that psychotherapeutic effects are dependent on in-session emotional processing in the form of rise in complex transference feelings that occurs when treatment resistance is challenged. Recent research indicates that an unlocking of the unconscious, a powerful emotional breakthrough achieved at a high rise in complex transference feelings, can potentially enhance ISTDPs effectiveness. While ISTDP has a growing evidence base, most of the research conducted has used small samples and has tested therapy delivered by expert therapists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall effectiveness of ISTDP when delivered in a tertiary psychotherapy service, and to investigate if having an unlocking of the unconscious during therapy predicted enhanced treatment effectiveness. Methods. A total of 412 patients were included in the analyses. The average length of treatment was 10.2 sessions (SD 13.3). Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness and the association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. A number of control predictors including type of treatment resistance were selected and included in the analyses. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). About half of the patients in the study were treated by therapists in training and the other half by more experienced therapists. Results. Growth curve analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant within-group effects of ISTDP on both the BSI and the IIP. Effect sizes were large (greater than 0.80). Unlocking the unconscious during therapy was associated with significantly larger treatment outcome. The relationship was further moderated by type of treatment resistance. Conclusion. This study adds to the empirical base of Davanloos ISTDP with confirmed treatment effectiveness in a large-scale patient sample when ISTDP was delivered by therapists with a range of experience. Furthermore, emotional mobilization in the form of unlocking the unconscious was confirmed as a process factor enhancing the effectiveness of ISTDP.

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  • 22.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björklund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hornborg, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rousseau, Andréas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frederick, Ronald J.
    Center for Courageous Living, California, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial2013In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 1, p. e102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT), as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders.

    Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average) in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up.

    Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size of Cohen’s d = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.37–1.18) was found on the PHQ-9 and a moderately large between-group effect size d = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.08–0.87) was found on the GAD-7. The number of patients who recovered (had no diagnoses of depression and anxiety, and had less than 10 on both the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7) were at post-treatment 52% in the treatment group and 24% in the control group. This difference was significant, χ2(N = 100, df = 1) = 8.3, p < .01. From post-treatment to follow-up, treatment gains were maintained on the PHQ-9, and significant improvements were seen on the GAD-7.

    Conclusion. This study provides initial support for the efficacy of Internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The results support the conclusion that psychodynamic treatment approaches may be transferred to the guided self-help format and delivered via the Internet.

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  • 23.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Choosing between Internet-based psychodynamic versus cognitive behavioral therapy for depression: a pilot preference study2013In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Major depression is a world-wide problem that can be treated with various forms of psychotherapy. There is strong research support for treating major depression using cognitive behavior therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the Internet (ICBT). Recent research also suggests that psychodynamic psychotherapy can be delivered as guided self-help via the Internet (IPDT) and that it seem to be as effective as ICBT for mild to moderate depression. However, no head-to-head comparison between the two treatments exists. In the field of Internet interventions it is largely unexplored if treatment preference affects outcome and adherence.

    Methods

    Participants were allocated to IPDT or ICBT based on their stated preference. More than half of the participants preferred ICBT (N = 30) over IPDT (N = 14). Differences in efficacy between treatments were explored. Correlations between strength of preference and treatment outcome, adherence to treatment and completion of the whole treatment program were explored. Data were collected before and after treatment, as well as in a 7-month follow-up.

    Results

    During the treatment period, both programs performed equally well in reducing symptoms. More participants who received IPDT completed the entire program. At follow-up, mixed-effects models showed that participants who chose ICBT improved more in terms of quality of life. The ICBT group also had a significant increase in participants who recovered from their depression from post-treatment to follow-up. Exploratory analyses indicated that strength of preference was correlated with adherence to treatment and completion of the whole program, and long-term outcome for the ICBT group.

    Conclusions

    Few differences were found during the acute treatment phase, but the long-term effects are in favor of ICBT. Strength of preference for treatment seems to have a predictive value. Further research comparing the efficacy of ICBT and IPDT, and the effects of preference matching and strength of preference, is warranted.

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  • 24.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Heedman, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paxling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Depression, anxiety and their comorbidity in the Swedish general population: point prevalence and the effect on health-related quality of life2013In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 1, p. e98-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Depression and anxiety disorders are major world-wide problems. There are no or few epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorders in general in the Swedish population.

    Methods. Data were obtained by means of a postal survey administered to 3001 randomly selected adults. After two reminders response rate was 44.3%. Measures of depression and general anxiety were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The PHQ-9 identified participants who had experienced clinically significant depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10), and who had a diagnosis of major depression (defined by using a PHQ-9 scoring algorithm). Clinically significant anxiety was defined as having a GAD-7 score ≥ 8. To specifically measure generalized anxiety disorder, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) was used with an established cut-off. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Experiences of treatments for psychiatric disorders were also assessed.

    Results. Around 17.2% (95% CI: 15.1–19.4) of the participants were experiencing clinically significant depression (10.8%; 95% CI: 9.1–12.5) and clinically significant anxiety (14.7%; 95% CI: 12.7–16.6). Among participants with either clinically significant depression or anxiety, nearly 50% had comorbid disorders. The point prevalence of major depression was 5.2% (95% CI: 4.0–6.5), and 8.8% (95% CI: 7.3–10.4) had GAD. Among those with either of these disorders, 28.2% had comorbid depression and GAD. There were, generally, significant gender differences, with more women having a disorder compared to men. Among those with depression or anxiety, only between half and two thirds had any treatment experience. Comorbidity was associated with higher symptom severity and lower health-related quality of life.

    Conclusions. Epidemiological data from the Swedish community collected in this study provide point prevalence rates of depression, anxiety disorders and their comorbidity. These conditions were shown in this study to be undertreated and associated with lower quality of life, that need further efforts regarding preventive and treatment interventions.

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  • 25. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Treating depression and its comorbidity: From individualized Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy to affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching goal of this thesis has been to enhance Internet-delivered psychological treatments for depression and its comorbidity. To this end, three randomized controlled trials (Study II, III and IV) with a total of 313 participants were conducted. A prevalence study (Study I) was also conducted to provide an up-to-date estimate of the prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, and their comorbidity in the Swedish general population.

    Study I showed that more than every sixth individual in Sweden suffers from symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Comorbidity between depression and anxiety was substantial and associated with higher symptom burden and lower health-related quality of life. Study II showed that a tailored Internet-based CBT protocol (ICBT) was effective in reducing symptoms of depression when compared to a control group. Among individuals with more severe depression and comorbidities, the tailored ICBT treatment worked better than standardized ICBT. Study III showed that a psychodynamic Internet-based psychotherapy was highly effective in the treatment of depression, when compared to a group who received psychoeducation and online support. In Study IV, an Internet-delivered affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy proved to have a large effect on depression and a moderately large effect on anxiety disorders.

    In conclusion, this thesis shows that in the context of treating depression and its comorbidity, Internet-delivered psychological treatments can be potentially enhanced by psychodynamic psychotherapy and by individualization.

    List of papers
    1. Depression, anxiety and their comorbidity in the Swedish general population: point prevalence and the effect on health-related quality of life
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depression, anxiety and their comorbidity in the Swedish general population: point prevalence and the effect on health-related quality of life
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    2013 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 1, p. e98-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Depression and anxiety disorders are major world-wide problems. There are no or few epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorders in general in the Swedish population.

    Methods. Data were obtained by means of a postal survey administered to 3001 randomly selected adults. After two reminders response rate was 44.3%. Measures of depression and general anxiety were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The PHQ-9 identified participants who had experienced clinically significant depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10), and who had a diagnosis of major depression (defined by using a PHQ-9 scoring algorithm). Clinically significant anxiety was defined as having a GAD-7 score ≥ 8. To specifically measure generalized anxiety disorder, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) was used with an established cut-off. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Experiences of treatments for psychiatric disorders were also assessed.

    Results. Around 17.2% (95% CI: 15.1–19.4) of the participants were experiencing clinically significant depression (10.8%; 95% CI: 9.1–12.5) and clinically significant anxiety (14.7%; 95% CI: 12.7–16.6). Among participants with either clinically significant depression or anxiety, nearly 50% had comorbid disorders. The point prevalence of major depression was 5.2% (95% CI: 4.0–6.5), and 8.8% (95% CI: 7.3–10.4) had GAD. Among those with either of these disorders, 28.2% had comorbid depression and GAD. There were, generally, significant gender differences, with more women having a disorder compared to men. Among those with depression or anxiety, only between half and two thirds had any treatment experience. Comorbidity was associated with higher symptom severity and lower health-related quality of life.

    Conclusions. Epidemiological data from the Swedish community collected in this study provide point prevalence rates of depression, anxiety disorders and their comorbidity. These conditions were shown in this study to be undertreated and associated with lower quality of life, that need further efforts regarding preventive and treatment interventions.

    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96837 (URN)10.7717/peerj.98 (DOI)000209187600002 ()23862109 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2018-03-09
    2. Tailored vs. Standardized Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression and Comorbid Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailored vs. Standardized Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression and Comorbid Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Major depression can be treated by means of cognitive behavior therapy, delivered via the Internet as guided self-help. Individually tailored guided self-help treatments have shown promising results in the treatment of anxiety disorders. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an Internet-based individually tailored guided self-help treatment which specifically targeted depression with comorbid symptoms. The treatment was compared both to standardized (non-tailored) Internet-based treatment and to an active control group in the form of a monitored online discussion group. Both guided self-help treatments were based on cognitive behavior therapy and lasted for 10 weeks. The discussion group consisted of weekly discussion themes related to depression and the treatment of depression. Methods: A total of 121 participants with diagnosed major depressive disorder and with a range of comorbid symptoms were randomized to three groups. The tailored treatment consisted of a prescribed set of modules targeting depression as well as comorbid problems. The standardized treatment was a previously tested guided self-help program for depression. Results: From pre-treatment to post-treatment, both treatment groups improved on measures of depression, anxiety and quality of life. The results were maintained at a 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the tailored treatment was more effective than the standardized treatment among participants with higher levels of depression at baseline and more comorbidity, both in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms and on recovery rates. In the subgroup with lower baseline scores of depression, few differences were seen between treatments and the discussion group. Conclusions: This study shows that tailored Internet-based treatment for depression is effective and that addressing comorbidity by tailoring may be one way of making guided self-help treatments more effective than standardized approaches in the treatment of more severe depression.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2012
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79824 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0036905 (DOI)000305336300049 ()
    Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2021-06-14
    3. Psychodynamic Guided Self-Help for Adult Depression through the Internet: A Randomised Controlled Trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychodynamic Guided Self-Help for Adult Depression through the Internet: A Randomised Controlled Trial
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    2012 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. e38021-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but not all clients with MDD can receive psychotherapy. Using the Internet to provide psychodynamic treatments is one way of improving access to psychological treatments for MDD. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based psychodynamic guided self-help treatment for MDD.

    Methods

    Ninety-two participants who were diagnosed with MDD according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were randomised to treatment or an active control. The treatment consisted of nine treatment modules based on psychodynamic principles with online therapist contact. The active control condition was a structured support intervention and contained psychoeducation and scheduled weekly contacts online. Both interventions lasted for 10 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

    Results

    Mixed-effects model analyses of all randomised participants showed that participants receiving Internet-based PDT made large and superior improvements compared with the active control group on the BDI-II (between-group Cohen's d = 1.11). Treatment effects were maintained at a 10-month follow-up.

    Conclusions

    Internet-based psychodynamic guided self-help is an efficacious treatment for MDD that has the potential to increase accessibility and availability of PDT for MDD.

    National Category
    Psychology Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77847 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0038021 (DOI)000305349600055 ()
    Note

    http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038021

    Available from: 2012-05-31 Created: 2012-05-31 Last updated: 2021-06-14
    4. Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial
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    2013 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 1, p. e102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT), as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders.

    Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average) in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up.

    Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size of Cohen’s d = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.37–1.18) was found on the PHQ-9 and a moderately large between-group effect size d = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.08–0.87) was found on the GAD-7. The number of patients who recovered (had no diagnoses of depression and anxiety, and had less than 10 on both the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7) were at post-treatment 52% in the treatment group and 24% in the control group. This difference was significant, χ2(N = 100, df = 1) = 8.3, p < .01. From post-treatment to follow-up, treatment gains were maintained on the PHQ-9, and significant improvements were seen on the GAD-7.

    Conclusion. This study provides initial support for the efficacy of Internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The results support the conclusion that psychodynamic treatment approaches may be transferred to the guided self-help format and delivered via the Internet.

    Keywords
    Depression, Anxiety, Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic therapy, Internet, Affect, Emotion, Internet-delivered treatments, e-health
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96838 (URN)10.7717/peerj.102 (DOI)23862104 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2024-02-19
    5. Using the Internet to Provide Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the Internet to Provide Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
    2013 (English)In: Psychodynamic Psychiatry, ISSN 2162-2590, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 513-540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last 15 years, there has been a substantial increase in research and clinical implementations of Internet-delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). Several studies on ICBT have been in the format of guided self-help where a therapist guides the patient throughout the whole treatment. ICBT is typically in the form of self-help material (e.g., text or video) which is provided to a client over the Internet with additional therapist contact by e-mail. ICBT has been shown to be effective for various conditions and, in some studies, has shown to be as effective as face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy for mild to moderate depression, anxiety disorders, and somatic problems. Recently, the field has expanded to include other orientations including psychodynamic psychotherapy. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that have tested the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy delivered in this format. The latest published trial focused on an affect-focused, psychodynamic psychotherapy delivered to a sample of participants with mixed depression and anxiety disorders. This article aims to provide a deeper understanding of the process of providing psychodynamic psychotherapy via the Internet. We will give a detailed description of our latest manual and show how psychotherapeutic work is conducted utilizing this text. Furthermore, we provide examples of dialogue between therapist and client from the online environment. Similarities and differences between psychodynamic psychotherapy delivered over the Internet and in face-to-face formats are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Guilford Press, 2013
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100384 (URN)10.1521/pdps.2013.41.4.513 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-11-04 Created: 2013-11-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
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    Treating depression and its comorbidity: From individualized Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy to affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy
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    omslag
  • 26.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frederick, Ronald J.
    Center for Courageous Living, California, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using the Internet to Provide Psychodynamic Psychotherapy2013In: Psychodynamic Psychiatry, ISSN 2162-2590, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 513-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last 15 years, there has been a substantial increase in research and clinical implementations of Internet-delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). Several studies on ICBT have been in the format of guided self-help where a therapist guides the patient throughout the whole treatment. ICBT is typically in the form of self-help material (e.g., text or video) which is provided to a client over the Internet with additional therapist contact by e-mail. ICBT has been shown to be effective for various conditions and, in some studies, has shown to be as effective as face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy for mild to moderate depression, anxiety disorders, and somatic problems. Recently, the field has expanded to include other orientations including psychodynamic psychotherapy. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that have tested the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy delivered in this format. The latest published trial focused on an affect-focused, psychodynamic psychotherapy delivered to a sample of participants with mixed depression and anxiety disorders. This article aims to provide a deeper understanding of the process of providing psychodynamic psychotherapy via the Internet. We will give a detailed description of our latest manual and show how psychotherapeutic work is conducted utilizing this text. Furthermore, we provide examples of dialogue between therapist and client from the online environment. Similarities and differences between psychodynamic psychotherapy delivered over the Internet and in face-to-face formats are discussed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Internet-based psychological treatments for depression2012In: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, ISSN 1473-7175, E-ISSN 1744-8360, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 861-870Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depression is highly prevalent, and is associated with high societal costs and individual suffering. Evidence-based psychological treatments obtain good results, but access to these treatments is limited. One way to solve this problem is to provide internet-based psychological treatments, for example, with therapist support via email. During the last decade, internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been tested in a series of controlled trials. However, the ICBT interventions are delivered with different levels of contact with a clinician, ranging from nonexisting to a thorough pretreatment assessment in addition to continuous support during treatment. In this review, the authors have found an evidence for a strong correlation between the degree of support and outcome. The authors have also reviewed how treatment content in ICBT varies among treatments, and how various therapist factors may influence outcome. Future possible applications of ICBT for depression and future research needs are also discussed.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekbladh, Sigrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hebert, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Petitt, Eleanor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Poysti, Stephanie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rousseau, Andréas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå universitet.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psychodynamic Guided Self-Help for Adult Depression through the Internet: A Randomised Controlled Trial2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. e38021-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but not all clients with MDD can receive psychotherapy. Using the Internet to provide psychodynamic treatments is one way of improving access to psychological treatments for MDD. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based psychodynamic guided self-help treatment for MDD.

    Methods

    Ninety-two participants who were diagnosed with MDD according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were randomised to treatment or an active control. The treatment consisted of nine treatment modules based on psychodynamic principles with online therapist contact. The active control condition was a structured support intervention and contained psychoeducation and scheduled weekly contacts online. Both interventions lasted for 10 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

    Results

    Mixed-effects model analyses of all randomised participants showed that participants receiving Internet-based PDT made large and superior improvements compared with the active control group on the BDI-II (between-group Cohen's d = 1.11). Treatment effects were maintained at a 10-month follow-up.

    Conclusions

    Internet-based psychodynamic guided self-help is an efficacious treatment for MDD that has the potential to increase accessibility and availability of PDT for MDD.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjögren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rousseau, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tailored vs. Standardized Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression and Comorbid Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Major depression can be treated by means of cognitive behavior therapy, delivered via the Internet as guided self-help. Individually tailored guided self-help treatments have shown promising results in the treatment of anxiety disorders. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an Internet-based individually tailored guided self-help treatment which specifically targeted depression with comorbid symptoms. The treatment was compared both to standardized (non-tailored) Internet-based treatment and to an active control group in the form of a monitored online discussion group. Both guided self-help treatments were based on cognitive behavior therapy and lasted for 10 weeks. The discussion group consisted of weekly discussion themes related to depression and the treatment of depression. Methods: A total of 121 participants with diagnosed major depressive disorder and with a range of comorbid symptoms were randomized to three groups. The tailored treatment consisted of a prescribed set of modules targeting depression as well as comorbid problems. The standardized treatment was a previously tested guided self-help program for depression. Results: From pre-treatment to post-treatment, both treatment groups improved on measures of depression, anxiety and quality of life. The results were maintained at a 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the tailored treatment was more effective than the standardized treatment among participants with higher levels of depression at baseline and more comorbidity, both in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms and on recovery rates. In the subgroup with lower baseline scores of depression, few differences were seen between treatments and the discussion group. Conclusions: This study shows that tailored Internet-based treatment for depression is effective and that addressing comorbidity by tailoring may be one way of making guided self-help treatments more effective than standardized approaches in the treatment of more severe depression.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Frederick, Ronald J
    Center for Courageous Living, Beverly Hills, California, USA .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transdiagnostic, affect-focused, psychodynamic, guided self-help for depression and anxiety through the internet: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2012In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Cognitive behaviour therapy delivered in the format of guided self-help via the internet has been found to be effective for a range of conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. Recent results indicate that guided self-help via the internet is a promising treatment format also for psychodynamic therapy. However, to date and to our knowledge, no study has evaluated internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy as a transdiagnostic treatment. The affect-phobia model of psychopathology by McCullough et al provides a psychodynamic conceptualisation of a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a transdiagnostic guided self-help treatment based on the affect-phobia model in a sample of clients with depression and anxiety.

    Methods and analysis This study will be a randomised controlled trial with a total sample size of 100 participants. The treatment group receives a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on the transdiagnostic affect-phobia model of psychopathology. The treatment consists of eight text-based treatment modules and includes therapist contact in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group receive similar online therapist support without any treatment modules. Outcome measures are the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale and the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures that concerns emotional processing and mindfulness are included. All outcome and process measures will be administered weekly via the internet and at 6-month follow-up.

    Discussion This trial will add to the body of knowledge on internet-delivered psychological treatments in general and to psychodynamic treatments in particular. We also hope to provide new insights in the effectiveness and working mechanisms of psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model.

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    fulltext
  • 31.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmdahl, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rydell, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rousseau, Andréas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An open study of the effectiveness of a tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy treatment for symptoms of depression and anxiety in a primary care setting2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    et al.
    Vrije University Amsterdam.
    Donker, Tara
    Vrije University Amsterdam.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mohr, David C.
    Northwestern University.
    van Straten, Annemieke
    Vrije University Amsterdam.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Self-Guided Psychological Treatment for Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A number of trials have examined the effects of self-guided psychological intervention, without any contact between the participants and a therapist or coach. The results and sizes of these trials have been mixed. This is the first quantitative meta-analysis, aimed at organizing and evaluating the literature, and estimating effect size. Method: We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase up to January 2010, and identified additional studies through earlier meta-analyses, and the references of included studies. We identified seven randomized controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria, with a total of 1,362 respondents. The overall quality of the studies was high. A post-hoc power calculation showed that the studies had sufficient statistical power to detect an effect size of d = 0.19. Results: The overall mean effect size indicating the difference between self-guided psychological treatment and control groups at post-test was d = 0.28 (pless than0.001), which corresponds to a NNT of 6.41. At 4 to 12 months follow-up the effect size was d = 0.23. There was no indication for significant publication bias. Conclusions: We found evidence that self-guided psychological treatment has a small but significant effect on participants with increased levels of depressive symptomatology.

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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjögren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rousseau, Andréas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-delivered Tailored Treatment of Depression, Comorbid Anxiety and Subclinical Symptoms2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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