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  • 1.
    Li, Qifan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Jun-Da
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Tiefeng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    van der Pol, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Qilun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Jeong, Sang Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, SE-60221 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Silan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, SE-60221 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, SE-60221 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    A Highly Conductive n-Type Conjugated Polymer Synthesized in Water2024In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is a benchmark hole-transporting (p-type) polymer that finds applications in diverse electronic devices. Most of its success is due to its facile synthesis in water, exceptional processability from aqueous solutions, and outstanding electrical performance in ambient. Applications in fields like (opto-)electronics, bioelectronics, and energy harvesting/storage devices often necessitate the complementary use of both p-type and n-type (electron-transporting) materials. However, the availability of n-type materials amenable to water-based polymerization and processing remains limited. Herein, we present a novel synthesis method enabling direct polymerization in water, yielding a highly conductive, water-processable n-type conjugated polymer, namely, poly[(2,2 '-(2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)diacetic acid)-stat-3,7-dihydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b ']difuran-2,6-dione] (PDADF), with remarkable electrical conductivity as high as 66 S cm(-1), ranking among the highest for n-type polymers processed using green solvents. The new n-type polymer PDADF also exhibits outstanding stability, maintaining 90% of its initial conductivity after 146 days of storage in air. Our synthetic approach, along with the novel polymer it yields, promises significant advancements for the sustainable development of organic electronic materials and devices.

  • 2.
    Ngok, Sreymean
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Razmi, Nasrin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mustafa, Elfatih Mohammed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Royal Univ Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical, synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction for sensing application2024In: NANO SELECT, ISSN 2688-4011, article id e2300155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature hydrothermal methods have been utilized to synthesize Hematite/Zinc oxide alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction nanorods grown on FTO glass substrates while monitoring the effect of different concentrations of urea on the morphology of the composite nano-heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of the alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO different samples. UV-visible spectroscopy was used for the characteristic absorbance versus wavelength of alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO composite nano-heterojunction which shows an absorption edge from 400 to 560 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied to study of chemical composition of the alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO and the obtained information demonstrated a pure phase alpha-Fe2O3/ZnO has been achieved. The best efficiency among urea concentrations for the best composite nano-heterojunction sample was achieved when using 0.2 M of urea. The electrochemical properties of the composite nano-heterojunction were investigated using a three-electrode electrochemical cell. Estimation of the electrochemical area shows that both the composite nano-heterojunction and the bare alpha-Fe2O3 have similar values. This confirms that the enhanced electrochemical property of the composite nano-heterojunction is due to a synergetic effect as expected.

  • 3.
    Wang, Hongyu
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Guoqing
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Xiao, Yao
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhengfei
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Li, Meng
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    You, Henghui
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Res Inst Environm Protect Co Ltd, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Zhenxin
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.
    Exploration of selective copper ion separation from wastewater via capacitive deionization with highly effective 3D carbon framework-anchored Co(PO3)2 electrode2024In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 336, article id 126205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing amount of heavy metal copper ions (Cu2+) in industrial emissions, poses a serious threat to human health, biological environment, and resource scarcity. Capacitive deionization (CDI) is considered as a green and efficient method for desalination. It is crucial to develop high-performance electrodes for efficient operation of CDI that go beyond conventional carbon and yield considerable environmental benefits. Here, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) derived carbon-loaded cobalt metaphosphate (NC-Co(PO3)2) was prepared by lowtemperature gas-solid phosphating for Cu2+ removal as CDI electrode for the first time. NC-Co(PO3)2 demonstrated superior electrode structure and function due to the synergistic effects of electric double layer coupling PO bonds, the binding tendency of metaphosphate groups with Cu2+, and interfacial redox reactions induced by the labile valence state of cobalt. The optimal electrosorption capacity of NC-Co(PO3)2 was 95.41 mg g-1 at 1 V in 50 mL Cu2+ solution with splendid cyclic regeneration capability. Moreover, NC-Co(PO3)2 exhibited excellent selectivity and outstanding electrosorption performance in the presence of multiple coexisting ions and this CDI system realized the purification of actual copper-containing wastewater. A series of characterizations further revealed the specific mechanism of Cu2+ in adsorption-desorption process. Our finding strongly supported NCCo(PO3)2 electrode can extend the CDI platform's capability for effectively removing and retrieving Cu2+ from wastewater.

  • 4.
    Yann, Rem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Royal Univ Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Ngok, Sreymean
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Royal Univ Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Mustafa, Elfatih Mohammed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Royal Univ Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth of Ag2S-sensitizer on MoS2/ZnO nanocable arrays for improved solar driven photoelectrochemical water splitting2024In: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 147, article id 107379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demonstration of an efficient nanostructure that provides acceptable photoelectrochemical water splitting properties using the sun visible radiation is an appealing issue. In this connection, a new ternary nanocomposite of Ag2S/MoS2/ZnO photoanode is subsequently fabricated via hydrothermal, solvothermal and SILAR methods. Different properties of the nanocomposite are characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS, UV-Vis-IR spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The post-grown annealed 8-Ag2S/MoS2/ZnO photoanode exhibits a good performance with a photocurrent density of 2 mA/cm2 at a bias potential 1.23 V vs. RHE. The photocurrent of the post-grown annealed 8-Ag2S/MoS2/ZnO photoanode is 71.42 times, 40 times and 2 times higher compares to the pure ZnO, post-grown annealed MoS2/ZnO, and post-grown annealed 8-Ag2S/ZnO photoanodes, respectively. The enhanced PEC performance may originate from the combination of different effects such as the expansion of light absorption and energy band alignment (type II heterostructures), [SO4] acted as a charge -transfer medium, and electrode-electrolyte interface kinetic reactions.

  • 5.
    Dávid, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Morat, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Mengyun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mapping Uncharted Lead-Free Halide Perovskites and Related Low-Dimensional Structures2024In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 17, no 2, article id 491Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on perovskites has grown exponentially in the past decade due to the potential of methyl ammonium lead iodide in photovoltaics. Although these devices have achieved remarkable and competitive power conversion efficiency, concerns have been raised regarding the toxicity of lead and its impact on scaling up the technology. Eliminating lead while conserving the performance of photovoltaic devices is a great challenge. To achieve this goal, the research has been expanded to thousands of compounds with similar or loosely related crystal structures and compositions. Some materials are "re-discovered", and some are yet unexplored, but predictions suggest that their potential applications may go beyond photovoltaics, for example, spintronics, photodetection, photocatalysis, and many other areas. This short review aims to present the classification, some current mapping strategies, and advances of lead-free halide double perovskites, their derivatives, lead-free perovskitoid, and low-dimensional related crystals.

  • 6.
    Zhang, Liping
    et al.
    Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yeying
    Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Ruping
    Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qiu, Junxiao
    Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Jingkun
    Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Baoyang
    Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Qin, Leiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jiang, Jianxia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jiangxi Sci & Technol Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    MXene-Stabilized VS2 Nanostructures for High-Performance Aqueous Zinc Ion Storage2024In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) based on vanadium oxides or sulfides are promising candidates for large-scale rechargeable energy storage due to their ease of fabrication, low cost, and high safety. However, the commercial application of vanadium-based electrode materials has been hindered by challenging problems such as poor cyclability and low-rate performance. To this regard, sophisticated nanostructure engineering technology is used to adeptly incorporate VS2 nanosheets into the MXene interlayers to create a stable 2D heterogeneous layered structure. The MXene nanosheets exhibit stable interactions with VS2 nanosheets, while intercalation between nanosheets effectively increases the interlayer spacing, further enhancing their stability in AZIBs. Benefiting from the heterogeneous layered structure with high conductivity, excellent electron/ion transport, and abundant reactive sites, the free-standing VS2/Ti(3)C(2)Tz composite film can be used as both the cathode and the anode of AZIBs. Specifically, the VS2/Ti3C2Tz cathode presents a high specific capacity of 285 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1). Furthermore, the flexible Zn-metal free in-plane VS2/Ti3C2Tz//MnO2/CNT AZIBs deliver high operation voltage (2.0 V) and impressive long-term cycling stability (with a capacity retention of 97% after 5000 cycles) which outperforms almost all reported Vanadium-based electrodes for AZIBs. The effective modulation of the material structure through nanocomposite engineering effectively enhances the stability of VS2, which shows great potential in Zn2+ storage. This work will hasten and stimulate further development of such composite material in the direction of energy storage.

  • 7.
    Mopoung, Kunpot
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dávid, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spin Centers in Vanadium-Doped Cs<sub>2</sub>NaInCl<sub>6</sub> Halide Double Perovskites2024In: ACS Materials Letters, E-ISSN 2639-4979, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 566-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide direct evidence for a spin-active V4+ defect center, likely in the form of a VO2+ complex, predominantly introduced in single crystals of vanadium-doped Cs2NaInCl6 halide double perovskites grown by the solution-processed hydrothermal method. The defect has C-4v point group symmetry, exhibiting an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum arising from an effective electron spin of S = 1/2 and a nuclear spin of I = 7/2 (corresponding to V-51 with nearly 100% natural abundance). The determined electron g-factor and hyperfine parameter values are g(perpendicular to)= 1.973, g(parallel to) = 1.945, A(perpendicular to) = 180 MHz, and A(parallel to) = 504 MHz, with the principal axis z along a &lt; 001 &gt; crystallographic axis. The controlled growth of V-doped Cs2NaInCl6 in an oxygen-free environment is shown to suppress the V4+ EPR signal. The defect model is suggested to have a VOCl5 octahedral coordination, where one of the nearest-neighbor Cl- of V is replaced by O2-, with octahedral compression along the V-O axis. This VO complex formation competes with the isolated V3+ substitution of In3+, which in turn provides a means for the charge-state tuning of V ions. This finding calls for a better understanding and control of defect formation in solution-grown halide double perovskites, which is critical for optimizing and tailoring material design for solution-processable optoelectronics and spintronics.

  • 8.
    Zhao, Meng
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Lirong
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Weiwen
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Shaojian
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Qihang
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Tao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Guoqing
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Huicai
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Dai, Junxi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Meng
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Three-dimensional cross-linked sugarcane bagasse carbon material: A substitute for graphene with excellent performance in capacitive deionization and highly efficient Cu2+removal2024In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 684, article id 133090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a high-performance, low-energy consumption, and environmentally friendly water treatment technology with a broad application prospect in heavy metal removal. Selecting electrode materials with high capacitance and low resistance is essential for improving CDI's desalting efficiency. This article discusses the utilization of sugarcane bagasse (C-N-X) and the production procedures of CDI materials. The unique 3D cross-linked structure of C-N-X provides excellent mass transfer properties and significant advantages in capacitance and conductivity. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) show that bagasse biochar with graphene-like structure and abundant functional groups provides active sites for Cu2+ removal. In this paper, C-N-X is first used as CDI electrode material to remove Cu2+. Electrochemical tests show that the specific capacitance of C-N-X is still stable at about 47 F g ? 1, and the removal capacity of Cu2+ (25 mg L-1) reaches 66.79 mg g-1 within 4 h after 700 cycles. The experimental results and DFT calculations confirm the adsorption selectivity of C -N-700 for Cu2+.

  • 9.
    Li, Junyi
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    UO2 dissolution in aqueous halide solutions exposed to ionizing radiation2024In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 646, article id 158955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we have experimentally studied UO2 dissolution in pure water and in 1 M aqueous solutions of either Cl- or Br- exposed to gamma-radiation. It has previously been found that high ionic strength can facilitate adsorption of dissolved UO?+ on UO2 surfaces. The adsorption is also affected by the solution pH relative to the point of zero charge of UO2. In our experiments, Br3 -was observed in 1 M Br- solution exposed to gamma-radiation. Experiments confirmed that Br3 -can quantitively oxidize UO2. XPS and UPS were used to characterize potential surface modifications after exposure. The XPS results show that the UO2 surfaces after exposure to gamma-radiation in pure water and in 1 M aqueous solutions of either Cl- or Br- were significantly oxidized with U(V) as the dominating state. U 4f7/2 and O 1 s spectra of the UO2 surface after exposure to gamma-radiation in pure water demonstrates the formation of uranyl peroxide secondary phases. UPS results indicate that there is a large percentage of U(VI) on the ultra-thin outer layer of UO2 after exposure to gamma-radiation in 1 M aqueous solutions of Br- and Cl-, and 100 % of U(VI) in the pure water case.

  • 10.
    Li, Yaohui
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Xiang
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zuo, Guangzheng
    Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yufei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Yanxian
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Bolun
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Xu-Hui
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Hongbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qing, Jian
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    An n-n Heterojunction Configuration for Efficient Electron Transport in Organic Photovoltaic Devices2023In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 33, no 9, article id 2209728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective electron transport and extraction are essential to the operation of photovoltaic devices. Electron transport layer (ETL) is therefore critical to organic photovoltaics (OPV). Herein, an ETL configuration is presented comprising a solution-processed n-n organic heterojunction to enhance electron transport and hole blocking, and boost power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OPV. Specifically, the n-n heterojunction is constructed by stacking a narrow-band n-type conjugated polymer layer (PNDIT-F3N) and a wide-band n-type conjugated molecule layer (Phen-NaDPO). Based on the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and numerical simulation of current density-voltage characteristics, the formation of the built-in potential is investigated. In three OPVs with different active layers, substantial improvements are observed in performance following the introduction of this ETL configuration. The performance enhancement arises from the combination of selective carrier transport properties and reduced recombination. Another contributing factor is the good film-forming quality of the new ETL configuration, where the surface energies of the related materials are well-matched. The n-n organic heterojunction represents a viable and promising ETL construction strategy for efficient OPV devices.

  • 11.
    Wang, Qingqing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Jinpeng
    Yangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anisotropic valence band dispersion of 2D molecular crystals of C6-DPA and its charge transport dependence2023In: Materials Advances, E-ISSN 2633-5409, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 2201-2206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique properties and potential optoelectronic applications of two-dimensional molecular crystals (2DMCs) of organic semiconductors make them fascinating research subjects. With advancements in crystal engineering, it is becoming reality to produce 2DMCs with molecular-level thickness and large areas up to the centimeter scale, enabling us to directly explore the electronic structure of 2DMCs and to correlate them with their electrical properties. Here, we investigated the electronic structure of 2DMCs of C6-DPA using photoemission spectroscopy and electrical properties based on organic field-effect transistors. Our findings indicate that anisotropic band dispersion is present in the ab plane of the 2DMCs of C6-DPA which is in good agreement with the in-plane anisotropic mobility, i.e., the direction of the strongest molecular overlap coincides with the direction of the highest mobility.

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  • 12.
    Wang, Hongyu
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    You, Henghui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Res Ctr City Management Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Guoqing
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Yuanke
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Mingjie
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Yuanlin
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jianxin
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Co/Fe co-doped ZIF-8 derived hierarchically porous composites as high-performance electrode materials for Cu2+ions capacitive deionization2023In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 460, article id 141621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a threat to human life from heavy metal ions pollution, unprecedented interest has been gained in the development of water purification technologies. Here, we explore another new approach to exploit a prospective carbon material for removing copper ions from aqueous solution based on rapid and easy capacitive deionization (CDI). Reasonable carbon materials modification with ideal composition and improved morphological structure is essential to additionally optimize the capabilities of CDI. We prepared a nitrogen-rich hierarchically porous carbon composites (CoFe-NC) with uniform cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) doped metal in carbon skeleton by a simple impregnation and pyrolysis method, derived from zeolitic imidazolate framework-8, to use as highly effective CDI electrode for copper ions removal. The addition of Fe can facilitate the uniform dispersion of metals, and enable the formation of a stable carbon cage after pyrolysis. It can sufficiently expose active sites of the electrode materials and promote interfacial charge transfer, thus improving CDI electrosorption efficiency. CoFe-NC composites electrode can achieve outstanding deionization capacity (91.31 mg g-1) in 25 mg L-1 CuSO4 solu-tion. The carbon cage structure of CoFe-NC not only prevents aggregation of metals and avoids destruction of rich multistage pore system by pyrolysis, but also induces a faster ions transport rate. In addition, density functional theory calculations demonstrated that the co-doping of Co and Fe can remarkably increase the adsorption en-ergies of Cu2+ ions, leading to excellent selectivity, which indicates that CoFe-NC composites can be a desired CDI electrode material.

  • 13.
    Ghorbani Shiraz, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pere, Daniel
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Coppel, Yannick
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chmielowski, Radoslaw
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Kahn, Myrtil L.
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Oxygen Poisoning on the Bidirectional Hydrogen Electrocatalysis in TaS2 Nanosheets2023In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 127, no 12, p. 5825-5832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable production of hydrogen gas, a green energy carrier of high density, is possible only by electrolysis of water based on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, we report the effect of oxygen poisoning on the efficiency of hydrogen production and the consumption by the HER and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), respectively, on the interface of platinum group metal-free electrocatalyst TaS2 in pristine form and intercalated by the organic Lewis base hexylamine. The state of the surface probed by photoelectron spectroscopy was significantly altered by both Lewis base doping and oxygen poisoning. This alteration dramatically affects the hydrogen production efficiency in the HER, while the back process by the HOR was less sensitive to the changes in the surface states of the electrocatalysts. The oxygenated and intercalated electrocatalyst shows more than 2 x 105 times lower exchange current density of the HER compared to pristine oxygenated materials.

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  • 14.
    Mustafa, Elfatih Mohammed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dawi, E. A.
    Ajman Univ, U Arab Emirates.
    Ibupoto, Z. H.
    Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Ibrahim, A. M. M.
    Jazan Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tahira, A.
    Shah Abdul Latif Univ Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan.
    Elhadi Adam, Rania Elhadi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Efficient CuO/Ag2WO4 photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting using solar visible radiation2023In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 13, no 17, p. 11297-11310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water splitting energy production relies heavily on the development of high-performance photoelectrochemical cells (PECs). Among the most highly regarded semiconductor materials, cupric oxide (CuO) is an excellent photocathode material. Pristine CuO does not perform well as a photocathode due to its tendency to recombine electrons and holes rapidly. Photocathodes with high efficiency can be produced by developing CuO-based composite systems. The aim of our research is to develop an Ag2WO4/CuO composite by incorporating silver tungstate (Ag2WO4) nanoparticles onto hydrothermally grown CuO nanoleaves (NLs) by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). To prepare CuO/Ag2WO4 composites, SILAR was used in conjunction with different Ag2WO4 nanoparticle deposition cycles. Physicochemical characterization reveals well-defined nanoleaves morphologies with tailored surface compositions. Composite CuO/Ag2WO4 crystal structures are governed by the monoclinic phase of CuO and the hexagonal phase of Ag2WO4. It has been demonstrated that the CuO/Ag2WO4 composite has outstanding performance in the PEC water splitting process when used with five cycles. In the CuO/Ag2WO4 photocathode, water splitting activity is observed at low overpotential and high photocurrent density, indicating that the reaction takes place at low energy barriers. Several factors contribute to PEC performance in composites. These factors include the high density of surface active sites, the high charge separation rate, the presence of favourable surface defects, and the synergy of CuO and Ag2WO4 photoreaction. By using SILAR, silver tungstate can be deposited onto semiconducting materials with strong visible absorption, enabling the development of energy-efficient photocathodes.

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  • 15.
    Graf, Lukas
    et al.
    IFW Dresden, Germany.
    Knupfer, Martin
    IFW Dresden, Germany.
    Wang, Qingqing
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exciton dispersion in two-dimensional organic perylene crystal indicates substantial charge-transfer exciton coupling2023In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 107, no 11, article id 115201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional, high-quality perylene single crystals were grown with a space-confined strategy method. The grown films crystallize in the alpha form, as is confirmed by a combination of techniques. Polarization -dependent optical absorption measurements show a strong anisotropy in very good agreement with the literature data, and the anisotropic mobility data in field-effect transistors document the very high crystalline order. Momentum-dependent studies using electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a negative dispersion of the first exciton along the crystal b direction with an exciton bandwidth of 72 meV. We argue that this behavior is a result of charge-transfer exciton coupling between the perylene dimers in the unit cell.

  • 16.
    Li, Junyi
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Exploring the Change in Redox Reactivity of UO2 Induced by Exposure to Oxidants in HCO3-Solution2023In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 62, no 19, p. 7413-7423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the possible change in UO2 surface reactivity after exposure to oxidants is of key importance when assessing the impact of spent nuclear fuel dissolution on the safety of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In this work, we have experimentally studied the change in UO2 reactivity after consecutive exposures to O2 or gamma-radiation in aqueous solutions containing 10 mM HCO3-. The experiments show that the reactivity of UO2 toward O2 decreases significantly with time in a single exposure. In consecutive exposures, the reactivity also decreases from exposure to exposure. In gamma-radiation exposures, the system reaches a steady state and the rate of uranium dissolution becomes governed by the radiolytic production of oxidants. Changes in surface reactivity can therefore not be observed in the irradiated system. The potential surface modification responsible for the change in UO2 reactivity was studied by XPS and UPS after consecutive exposures to either O2, H2O2, or gamma-radiation in 10 mM HCO3- solution. The results show that the surfaces were significantly oxidized to a stoichiometric ratio of O/U of UO2.3 under all the three exposure conditions. XPS results also show that the surfaces were dominated by U(V) with no observed U(VI). The experiments also show that U(V) is slowly removed from the surface when exposed to anoxic aqueous solutions containing 10 mM HCO3-. The UPS results show that the outer ultrathin layer of the surfaces most probably contains a significant amount of U(VI). U(VI) may form upon exposure to air during the rinsing process with water prior to XPS and UPS measurements.

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  • 17.
    Zhong, Kengqiang
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    You, Henghui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Res Ctr City Management Technol, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Han
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Linzhe
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Facile gas-steamed synthesis strategy of N, F co-doped defective porous carbon for enhanced oxygen-reduction performance in microbial fuel cells2023In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 579, article id 233232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metal-free carbon-based catalyst with low cost and high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity is urgently desired to satisfy the demands of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, it is still a great challenge to develop a facile and feasible strategy to construct efficient active sites of heteroatom doping for carbon-based electrocatalyst. Herein, we report a strategy based on an ammonium fluoride (NH4F) gas-steamed metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to heighten structural defects and density of N, F active sites of metal-free catalyst. Oxygen temperature-programmed deposition and density functional theory results confirm that the NH4F gas-steamed process greatly enhances the adsorption affinity of O2 and oxygen intermediates on the catalysts. The resulted N and F co-doped porous carbon cage (FNC-15) demonstrates outstanding ORR catalytic activity and long-term stability in alkaline and neutral electrolytes. This work proposes a facile and efficient in situ gas-steamed strategy to develop metal-free cathode catalysts with superior performance.

  • 18.
    Huang, Linzhe
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Kengqiang
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Yuhua
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Yi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Facile synthesis of hollow carbon spheres by gas-steamed bifunctional NH4F for efficient cathodes in microbial fuel cells2023In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 207, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile gas-steamed strategy is reported for preparing heteroatom dual-doped hierarchical porous hollow carbon catalysts via carbonization of a mixture of carbon sphere precursor and ammonium fluoride (NH4F). Notably, NH4F can be decomposed into NH3 and HF by pyrolysis, in which HF gas can etch SiO2 pellets to form hollow structure while the N and F atoms can be introduced at the same time. The FCS-900 exhibits admirable elec-trocatalytic properties with the highest onset potential and limiting current density in neutral electrolytes (0.944 V vs. RHE and 6.44 mA cm-2). In comparison to MFC-Pt, much higher output voltage and power density (0.617 V and 1093.6 +/- 6.26 mW m-2) are obtained by MFC-900. Such results can be attributed to the largest specific surface area of FCS-900 to supply exposed active sites and fast transportation channels. Based on X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, the FCS-900 catalyst possesses the active substances of pyridinic/graphitic N and C-F bonds. The synergism of N and F can effectively facilitate the adsorption of O2 during ORR, as further supported by density functional theory calculation. The facile and green synthesis strategy can be extended to design metal -free carbon-based electrocatalysts with superior electrocatalytic performance.

  • 19.
    Massetti, Matteo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Silan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Burtscher, Bernhard
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fully 3D-printed organic electrochemical transistors2023In: NPJ FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are being researched for various applications, ranging from sensors to logic gates and neuromorphic hardware. To meet the requirements of these diverse applications, the device fabrication process must be compatible with flexible and scalable digital techniques. Here, we report a direct-write additive process to fabricate fully 3D-printed OECTs, using 3D printable conducting, semiconducting, insulating, and electrolyte inks. These 3D-printed OECTs, which operate in the depletion mode, can be fabricated on flexible substrates, resulting in high mechanical and environmental stability. The 3D-printed OECTs have good dopamine biosensing capabilities (limit of detection down to 6 mu M without metal gate electrodes) and show long-term (similar to 1 h) synapse response, indicating their potential for various applications such as sensors and neuromorphic hardware. This manufacturing strategy is suitable for applications that require rapid design changes and digitally enabled direct-write techniques.

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  • 20.
    Wu, Guoqing
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Hongyu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Linzhe
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Xuanxuan
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiao, Yao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gas exfoliation induced N, S-doped porous 2D carbon nanosheets for effective removal of copper ions by capacitive deionization2023In: Desalination, ISSN 0011-9164, E-ISSN 1873-4464, Vol. 565, article id 116881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using capacitive deionization to remove heavy metal ions from water has received much attention, but the inferior salt adsorption capacity (SAC) of electrode materials has always limited its practical application. Herein, N, S co-doped two-dimensional (2D) porous glucose derived carbon nanosheets (NSPGC) was successfully fabricated, utilizing the gas exfoliation by calcination of thiourea. The NSPGC demonstrates distinct 2D lamellas, high specific surface area (2529 m2 g-1), hierarchical pore structure and high wettability. In electrochemical tests, a high specific capacitance (127 F g-1) and electrons/ions transport performance can be achieved in the NSPGC, moreover it showed a prominent SAC of 206.57 mg g-1 and recoverability in 100 mg L-1 CuSO4 solution. Moreover, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation manifested the intrinsic affinity of Cu2+ improved by N, S co-doping, which played an essential role in enhancing the Cu2+ removal performance of CDI. Our work provided a new insight into the preparation of high-performance CDI electrode materials for Cu2+ removal and promoted the application of CDI in heavy metal wastewater.

  • 21.
    Liu, Tiefeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heimonen, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Qilun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Huang, Jun-Da
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    van der Pol, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Yuxuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jeong, Sang Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Marks, Adam
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Xin-Yi
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shimolo, Asaminew Yerango
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Silan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Qifan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massetti, Matteo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Pei, Jian
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Ground-state electron transfer in all-polymer donor:acceptor blends enables aqueous processing of water-insoluble conjugated polymers2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 8454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-based conductive inks are vital for the sustainable manufacturing and widespread adoption of organic electronic devices. Traditional methods to produce waterborne conductive polymers involve modifying their backbone with hydrophilic side chains or using surfactants to form and stabilize aqueous nanoparticle dispersions. However, these chemical approaches are not always feasible and can lead to poor material/device performance. Here, we demonstrate that ground-state electron transfer (GSET) between donor and acceptor polymers allows the processing of water-insoluble polymers from water. This approach enables macromolecular charge-transfer salts with 10,000x higher electrical conductivities than pristine polymers, low work function, and excellent thermal/solvent stability. These waterborne conductive films have technological implications for realizing high-performance organic solar cells, with efficiency and stability superior to conventional metal oxide electron transport layers, and organic electrochemical neurons with biorealistic firing frequency. Our findings demonstrate that GSET offers a promising avenue to develop water-based conductive inks for various applications in organic electronics. Chemical approaches to improve aqueous dispersions of conjugated polymers are limited by the feasibility of modifying the backbone or lead to poor performance. Here, Liu et al. show that ground-state electron transfer in donor:acceptor blends aids aqueous dispersion, for high conductivity and solubility.

  • 22.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Riera-Galindo, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strakosas, Xenofon
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlopoulou, E.
    Fdn Res & Technol, Greece.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hadziioannou, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improved Performance of Organic Thermoelectric Generators Through Interfacial Energetics2023In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 10, no 20, article id 2206954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfacial energetics are known to play a crucial role in organic diodes, transistors, and sensors. Designing the metal-organic interface has been a tool to optimize the performance of organic (opto)electronic devices, but this is not reported for organic thermoelectrics. In this work, it is demonstrated that the electrical power of organic thermoelectric generators (OTEGs) is also strongly dependent on the metal-organic interfacial energetics. Without changing the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of polythiophene-based conducting polymers, the generated power of an OTEG can vary by three orders of magnitude simply by tuning the work function of the metal contact to reach above 1000 mu W cm(-2). The effective Seebeck coefficient (S-eff) of a metal/polymer/metal single leg OTEG includes an interfacial contribution (V-inter/Delta T) in addition to the intrinsic bulk Seebeck coefficient of the polythiophenes, such that S-eff = S + V-inter/Delta T varies from 22.7 mu V K-1 [9.4 mu V K-1] with Al to 50.5 mu V K-1 [26.3 mu V K-1] with Pt for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluenesulfonate [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)]. Spectroscopic techniques are used to reveal a redox interfacial reaction affecting locally the doping level of the polymer at the vicinity of the metal-organic interface and conclude that the energetics at the metal-polymer interface provides a new strategy to enhance the performance of OTEGs.

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  • 23.
    Zhang, Qilun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In situ near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the effects of water, oxygen and light on the stability of PM6:Y6 photoactive layers2023In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 3112-3118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) has taken a further leap in the past three years owing to the emergence of Y6; however, their inferior stability hinders commercialization. Understanding the ambient degradation mechanism of photovoltaic materials is a key component to address this challenge. In this study, we first used in situ near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) to investigate the effects of water, oxygen and absorbed photons on the stability of PM6 and Y6. The studied materials PM6 and Y6 show instability to oxygen and water, respectively, possibly due to the weak interaction between PM6 backbone sulphur and oxygen, and Y6 end cyano groups show instability to water. In addition, the stability of Y6 in blended PM6:Y6 films is enhanced, which is confirmed by the performance of OSCs with blended or quasi-bilayer PM6:Y6 photoactive layers. Our findings reveal PM6 and Y6 degradation on ambient exposure and predict a possible way to prevent the degradation of Y6 in OSCs.

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  • 24.
    Jiang, Sheng
    et al.
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Shaobing
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Hongbo
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Dongyang
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    You, Xiaomeng
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Yehui
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jia, Menghui
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Wei
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yao, Yefeng
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Zhenrong
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bao, Qinye
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Fudan Univ, Peoples R China; Shanxi Univ, Peoples R China.
    In Situ Reconstruction of Hole-Selective Perovskite Heterojunction with Graded Energetics Toward Highly Efficient and Stable Solar Cells2023In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 13, no 27, article id 2300983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency, however, the large energy loss due to non-radiative recombination is the main challenge for further performance enhancement. Here, a surface treatment strategy is developed by heat-induced decomposition of a thin interlayer 2,7-Naphthaleneditriflate (NAP) to in situ reconstruct perovskite energetics. It is verified that the reconstructed perovskite surface energetics match better with the upper hole transport layer compared to the intrinsic condition. Spontaneous generation of n/n(-) homojunctions between the perovskite film bulk and the surface region promotes hole extraction, enhancing built-in electric field, and thus significantly suppresses charge recombination at such perovskite hole-selective heterojunctions. Moreover, the surface decomposed fluorine-rich complexes passivate the defects and improve the crystallinity of the perovskite film. These advantages are confirmed by a remarkably improved efficiency from 20.52% for the control device to 23.37% for the treated one with excellent stability. The work provides a promising approach of in situ reconstructing perovskite surface and interface for the design of highly efficient and stable PSCs.

  • 25.
    Zhang, Qilun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Tiefeng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wilken, Sebastian
    Abo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Xiong, Shaobing
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Huotian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ribca, Iuliana
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Liao, Mingna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Bao, Qinye
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Oesterbacka, Ronald
    Abo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Industrial Kraft Lignin Based Binary Cathode Interface Layer Enables Enhanced Stability in High Efficiency Organic Solar Cells2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, a binary cathode interface layer (CIL) strategy based on the industrial solvent fractionated LignoBoost kraft lignin (KL) is adopted for fabrication of organic solar cells (OSCs). The uniformly distributed phenol moieties in KL enable it to easily form hydrogen bonds with commonly used CIL materials, i.e., bathocuproine (BCP) and PFN-Br, resulting in binary CILs with tunable work function (WF). This work shows that the binary CILs work well in OSCs with large KL ratio compatibility, exhibiting equivalent or even higher efficiency to the traditional CILs in state of art OSCs. In addition, the combination of KL and BCP significantly enhanced OSC stability, owing to KL blocking the reaction between BCP and nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs). This work provides a simple and effective way to achieve high-efficient OSCs with better stability and sustainability by using wood-based materials. This work introduces industrial solvent fractionated LignoBoost kraft lignin (KL) in highly efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) by binary cathode interface layer (CIL) strategy, which can significantly improve the stability of both binary and ternary photoactive layer (PAL) OSC, owing to the passivation of diffusion and reaction between bathocuproine (BCP) and nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs). The results combine sustainable wood-based material with classic interface materials in advance NFA-OSCs.image

  • 26.
    Chen, Mengyun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Tiankai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Yonghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Quasi-Square CsPbI<sub>3</sub> Nanoplatelets with Excellent Stability2023In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoplatelets (NPLs) share excellent luminescent properties with their symmetric quantum dots counterparts and entail special characters benefiting from the shape, like the thickness-dependent bandgap and anisotropic luminescence. However, perovskite NPLs, especially those based on iodide, suffer from poor spectral and phase stability. Here, stable CsPbI3 NPLs obtained by accelerating the crystallization process in ambient-condition synthesis are reported. By this kinetic control, the rectangular NPLs into quasi-square NPLs are tuned, where enlarged width endows the NPLs with a lower surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V ratio), leading to lower surficial energy and thus improved endurance against NPL fusion (cause for spectral shift or phase transformation). The accelerated crystallization, denoting the fast nucleation and short period of growth in this report, is enabled by preparing a precursor with complete transformation of PbI2 into intermediates (PbI3-), through an additional iodide supplier (e.g., zinc iodide). The excellent color stability of the materials remains in the light-emitting diodes under various bias stresses.

  • 27.
    Wu, Tao
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Xingwen
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Meng
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Su, Minhua
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    MoS2-encapsulated nitrogen-doped carbon bowls for highly efficient and selective removal of copper ions from wastewater2023In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 304, article id 122284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacitive deionization has been considered as a promising wastewater treatment technology because of its low-cost and highly efficient. Herein, we prepared hollow bowl-type carbon materials loaded with molybdenum sulfide (HBC-MoS2) composites and fabricated it as an innovative electrode material to remove Cu2+ in a multi -ion coexistence system. With the synergistic effect of electric double layer (EDL) and complexation between MoS2 and Cu2+, the HBC-MoS2-0.02 electrode achieved effective removal of copper ions from low concentration wastewater (25 mg/L) and high electrosorption capacity of 28.97 mg g-1 at 1.0 V. Even in the presence of competing ions (Na+/Zn2+/Cu2+), the HBC-MoS2-0.02 electrode still can effectively remove Cu2+ with a final adsorption capacity of 28 mg g-1, showing its superiority. The mechanism of Cu2+ removal by HBC-MoS2 is mainly due to the synergistic effect of EDL and complexation.

  • 28.
    Pan, Jiaxin
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Chen, Ziming
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Zhang, Tiankai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Beier
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Ning, Haoqing
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Meng, Zhu
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Su, Ziyu
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Nodari, Davide
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Xu, Weidong
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Min, Ganghong
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Chen, Mengyun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gasparini, Nicola
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Haque, Saif A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Barnes, Piers R. F.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bakulin, Artem A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Operando dynamics of trapped carriers in perovskite solar cells observed via infrared optical activation spectroscopy2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 8000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional spectroscopies are not sufficiently selective to comprehensively understand the behaviour of trapped carriers in perovskite solar cells, particularly under their working conditions. Here we use infrared optical activation spectroscopy (i.e., pump-push-photocurrent), to observe the properties and real-time dynamics of trapped carriers within operando perovskite solar cells. We compare behaviour differences of trapped holes in pristine and surface-passivated FA(0.99)Cs(0.01)PbI(3) devices using a combination of quasi-steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved pump-push-photocurrent, as well as kinetic and drift-diffusion models. We find a two-step trap-filling process: the rapid filling (similar to 10 ns) of low-density traps in the bulk of perovskite, followed by the slower filling (similar to 100 ns) of high-density traps at the perovskite/hole transport material interface. Surface passivation by n-octylammonium iodide dramatically reduces the number of trap states (similar to 50 times), improving the device performance substantially. Moreover, the activation energy (similar to 280 meV) of the dominant hole traps remains similar with and without surface passivation.

  • 29.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    et al.
    Ocean Univ China, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weidong
    Ocean Univ China, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Qi
    Shanghai Univ Engn Sci, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Qinye
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Organic Semiconductor Interfaces and Their Effects in Organic Solar Cells2023In: Chinese journal of chemistry, ISSN 1001-604X, E-ISSN 1614-7065Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy levels and energy level alignment at interfaces play a decisive role in designing efficient and stable organic solar cells (OSCs). In this review two usually used technologies in organic photovoltaic communities for measuring energy levels of organic semiconductors, photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical methods, are introduced, and the relationships between the values obtained from the corresponding techniques are compared. The energy level and energy level alignment across the interfaces involved in solution processed organic photovoltaics are described, and the corresponding integer charge transfer model for predicting and explaining energy level alignment is presented. The effects of the interface properties in designing efficient binary and ternary OSCs were discussed. The effects of environmental factors mainly including water vapor, oxygen gas and thermal annealing on energy levels and energy level alignment involved in photoactive layers, and the subsequent effects on the corresponding OSC properties are given.

  • 30.
    Chen, Zhan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Heyong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Photoluminescence Enhancement for Efficient Mixed-Halide Blue Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes2023In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 2202528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of highly efficient blue perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) remains a big challenge, requiring more fundamental investigations. In this work, significant photoluminescence enhancement in mixed halide blue perovskite films is demonstrated by using a molecule, benzylphosphonic acid, which eventually doubles the external quantum efficiency to 6.3% in sky-blue PeLEDs. The photoluminescence enhancement is achieved by forming an oxide-bonded perovskite surface at grain boundaries and suppressing electron-phonon interaction, which enhances the radiative recombination rate and reduces the nonradiative recombination rate, respectively. Moreover, severe thermal quenching is observed in the blue perovskite films, which can be explained by a two-step mechanism involving exciton dissociation and electron-phonon interaction. The results suggest that enhancing the radiative recombination rate and reducing the electron-phonon interaction-induced nonradiative recombination rate are crucial for achieving blue perovskite films with strong emission at or above room temperature.

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  • 31.
    Li, Xiane
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Qilun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pinning energies of organic semiconductors in high-efficiency organic solar cells2023In: JOURNAL OF SEMICONDUCTORS, ISSN 1674-4926, Vol. 44, no 3, article id 032201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emergence of new materials for high-efficiency organic solar cells (OSCs), understanding and finetuning the interface energetics become increasingly important. Precise determination of the so-called pinning energies, one of the critical characteristics of the material to predict the energy level alignment (ELA) at either electrode/organic or organic/organic interfaces, are urgently needed for the new materials. Here, pinning energies of a wide variety of newly developed donors and non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) are measured through ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The positive pinning energies of the studied donors and the negative pinning energies of NFAs are in the same energy range of 4.3-4.6 eV, which follows the design rules developed for fullerene-based OSCs. The ELA for metal/organic and inorganic/organic interfaces follows the predicted behavior for all of the materials studied. For organic-organic heterojunctions where both the donor and the NFA feature strong intramolecular charge transfer, the pinning energies often underestimate the experimentally obtained interface vacuum level shift, which has consequences for OSC device performance.

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  • 32.
    Dai, Junxi
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Zhongyi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Huihui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arulmani, Samuel Raj Babu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiao, Tangfu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Promoted Sb removal with hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cell by ZIF-67-derived modified sulfate-reducing bacteria bio-cathode2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 856, article id 158839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-cathode Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been widely discovered for heavy metals removal and hydrogen production. However, low electron transfer efficiency and heavy metal toxicity limit MEC treatment efficiency. In this study, ZIF-67 was introduced to modify Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bio-cathode to enhance the bioreduction of sulfate and Antimony (Sb) with hydrogen production in the MEC. ZIF-67 modified bio-cathode was developed from a bio-anode microbial fuel cell (MFC) by operating with an applied voltage of 0.8 V to reverse the polarity. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were done to confirm the performance of the ZIF67 modified SRB bio-cathode. The synergy reduction of sulfate and Sb was accomplished by sulfide metal precipitation reaction from SRB itself. Maximum sulfate reduction rate approached 93.37 % and Sb removal efficiency could reach 92 %, which relies on the amount of sulfide concentration generated by sulfate reduction reaction, with 0.923 +/- 0.04 m(3) H-2/m(3) of hydrogen before adding Sb and 0.857 m(3) H-2/m(3) of hydrogen after adding Sb. The hydrogen was mainly produced in this system and the result of gas chromatography (GC) indicated that 73.27 % of hydrogen was produced. Meanwhile the precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm Sb2S3 was generated from Sb (V).

  • 33.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yan
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Tao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jianxin
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arulmani, Samuel Raj Babu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Weiting
    State Ocean Adm, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Su, Minhua
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rational design of porous Fex-N@MOF as a highly efficient catalyst for oxygen reduction over a wide pH range2023In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 944, article id 169039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics are well known to strongly rely on the activives of electro-catalysts. Herein, a Fe-N-doped porous carbon-based electrocatalyst combined with zinc (Zn)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Fex-N@MOF) was designed and successfully fabricated via a facile process combined immersion doping and pyrolysis. By controlling the formation of Fe3C, the physical structure of porous carbon was significantly altered, and the active chemical sites of Fe species can be formed to catalyze ORR. The uniform N-doped three-dimensional interpenetrating network structure yielded a high surface area. Both Fe3C and Fe-Nx could offer an abundance of active sites and thus promoted Fe0.05-N@MOF to exhibit high ORR activity in alkaline, neutral and acid electrolytes. Fe0.05-N@MOF showed extraordinary stability and methanol tolerance under a varied pH range conditions, it could be applied as cathode elec-trocatalyst in different fuel cells such as Zn-air fuel cell (ZFC), microbial fuel cells (MFCs), as well as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Fe0.05-N@MOF is a promising material to replace Pt-based electrocatalysts as non-precious metal catalysts.(c) 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Xiong, Shaobing
    et al.
    Fudan Univ, Peoples R China; East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Sheng
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yefan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lv, Zhiwei
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Ruirong
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Yuting
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Qi
    Shanghai Univ Engn Sci, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Xionghu
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ding, Liming
    Ctr Excellence Nanosci CAS, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Yuning
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Qinye
    Fudan Univ, Peoples R China; East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Shanxi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Revealing buried heterointerface energetics towards highly efficient perovskite solar cells2023In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 109, article id 108281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heterointerfaces of charge-selective contacts are crucial in determining efficiency and stability of perovskite optoelectronic devices, where the fundamental knowledge of the buried heterointerface between perovskite and bottom charge transport layer is less well understood compared to the top interface. Herein, we systematically investigate the energetics at the perovskite/SnO2 buried heterointerface for an n-i-p perovskite solar cell (PSC) and the perovskite/PEDOT:PSS buried heterointerface for a p-i-n one, respectively. In contrast to previous cognitions, we discover a perovskite transition phase at the buried interface region that originates from the chemical bonding interaction with the bottom charge transport layer. The transition phase causes an energy level barrier and induces defects, impeding charge transport across the heterointerface. These detrimental effects trigger significant nonradiative recombination and limit the attainable device photovoltage. We then develop the energetic models that describe such buried heterointerfaces. Moreover, we further test the proposed model -derived mechanisms via inserting a thin polyvinyl alcohol layer into the buried heterointerfaces of the de-vices. We demonstrate that chemical interactions and formation of the perovskite transition phase at the buried heterointerface thereby are fully restrained, leading to a diminished electron extraction barrier and improved charge transport. As a result, significant increases in open-circuit voltage and fill factor of the devices are ach-ieved. These results will help guide future efforts on developing suitable buried heterointerfaces for superior performance of perovskite optoelectronics.

  • 35.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Screen-Printed Corrosion-Resistant and Long-Term Stable Stretchable Electronics Based on AgAu Microflake Conductors2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 12372-12382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput production methods such as screen printing can bring stretchable electronics out of the lab into the market. Most stretchable conductor inks for screen printing are based on silver nanoparticles or flakes due to their favorable performance-to-cost ratio, but silver is prone to tarnishing and corrosion, thereby limiting the stability of such conductors. Here, we report on a cost-efficient and scalable approach to resolve this issue by developing screen printable inks based on silver flakes chemically coated by a thin layer of gold. The printed stretchable AgAu conductors reach a conductivity of 8500 S cm-1, remain conductive up to 250% strain, show excellent corrosion and tarnishing stability, and are used to demonstrate wearable LED and NFC circuits. The reported approach is attractive for smart clothing, as the long-term functionality of such devices is expected in a variety of environments.

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  • 36.
    Ghorbani Shiraz, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pere, Daniel
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Coppel, Yannick
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chmielowski, Radoslaw
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Kahn, Myrtil L.
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    3R-TaS2 as an Intercalation-Dependent Electrified Interface for Hydrogen Reduction and Oxidation Reactions2022In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 126, no 40, p. 17056-17065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen technology, as a future breakthrough for the energy industry, has been defined as an environmentally friendly, renewable, and high-power energy carrier. The green production of hydrogen, which mainly relies on electrocatalysts, is limited by the high cost and/ or the performance of the catalytic system. Recently, studies have been conducted in search of bifunctional electrocatalysts accelerating both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Herein, we report the investigation of the high efficiency bifunctional electrocatalyst TaS2 for both the HER and the HOR along with the asymmetric effect of inhibition by organic intercalation. The linear organic agent, to boost the electron donor property and to ease the process of intercalation, provides a higher interlayer gap in the tandem structure of utilized nanosheets. XRD and XPS data reveal an increase in the interlayer distance of 22%. The HER and the HOR were characterized in a Pt group metal-free electrochemical system. The pristine sample shows a low overpotential of -0.016 Vat the onset. The intercalated sample demonstrates a large shift in its performance for the HER. It is revealed that the intercalation is a potential key strategy for tuning the performance of this family of catalysts. The inhibition of the HER by intercalation is considered as the increase in the operational window of a water-based electrolyte on a negative electrode, which is relevant to technologies of electrochemical energy storage.

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  • 37.
    Li, Han
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Shi, HuiHui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Dai, Yi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    You, HengHui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arulmani, Samuel Raj Babu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Feng, Chunhua
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Tianyu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A co-doped oxygen reduction catalyst with FeCu promotes the stability of microbial fuel cells2022In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 628, p. 652-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air cathode microbial fuel cell (AC-MFC) cannot be used on a large scale because of its low oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) efficiency. Despite the fact that bimetallic catalysts can greatly enhance the oxygen reduction rate by regulating the electronic structure of the active site, the flaws of insufficient exposure of the active site and easy metal agglomeration limit its catalytic activity. Herein, we report on the preparation of a stable heteroatomic substrate using a copper material organic framework as a precursor, covered by Fe-based active sites. As a result of dipole-dipole interactions, the reduced product Fe2+ forms a weak Fe-O surface that is conducive to the adsorption of active substances. The presence of Fe-0 enhances the electrical conductivity of the catalytic, thus promoting ORR efficiency. Through redox coupling, the D -band center of Fe at FeCu@CN is optimized and brought close to the Fermi level to facilitate electron transfer. Notably, FeCu@CN demonstrates a superior power density of 2796.23 +/- 278.58 mW m(-3), far exceeding that of Pt/C (1363.93 +/- 102.56 mW m(-3)), in the application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Meanwhile, the MFC-loaded FeCu@CN maintains excellent stability and outstanding output voltage after 1000 h, which provides feasibility for large-scale application. (C) 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Meng, Lingyin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chirtes, Sorana
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    A green route for lignin-derived graphene electrodes: A disposable platform for electrochemical biosensors2022In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 218, article id 114742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tremendous growth of disposable electrode-based portable devices for point-of-care testing requires mass production of disposable electrodes in a low-cost and sustainable manner. Here, we demonstrate a green route for the conversion of biomass lignin, patterning, and reduction of the lignin-derived graphene electrodes by sequential laser lithography, water lift-off and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) treatment, and their use for electrochemical lactate biosensors. Energy-saving and localized laser lithography converted the aromatic ring-rich lignin into porous laser-induced graphene (LIG). The conductivity and attachment of the LIG to the substrate were optimized in a factorial experiment with laser power and scan speed as variables. Characterization results revealed the conversion of partial heteroatoms (e.g., Na, S, O) into granular inorganic compounds on the LIG surface under laser treatment. Water was used as an eco-friendly solvent for the patterning of the LIG (P-LIG) by a lift-off process, where the inorganic residues and un-reacted lignin were dissolved, exposing the macro-/micropores in the P-LIG. NaBH4 induced a reduction of the P-LIG (P-rLIG) resulting in improved electrochemical kinetics with lower charge transfer resistance (27.3 omega) compared to the LIG (248.1 omega) and the P-LIG (61.4 omega). The porous P-rLIG served as a 3D electrode for the deposition of Prussian blue and lactate oxidase for disposable electrochemical lactate biosensors, delivering a good analytical performance towards lactate detection with a linear range up to 16 mM and a high sensitivity (1.21 mu A mM-1). These lignin-derived disposable electrodes, utilizing renewable resources together with low-energy consumption fabrication and patterning, may contribute to the sustainable manufacturing of biosensors for point-of-care and point-of-use applications.

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  • 39.
    Wang, Qingqing
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Jinpeng
    Yangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An organic memory phototransistor based on oxygen-assisted persistent photoconductivity2022In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 100, article id 106375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) behavior in organic phototransistors has fascinating potentials in applications of photoelectronic devices. A key issue is how the presence of air affects the PPC behavior. Here, combining with the theoretical and experimental results, the PPC behavior is associated with photogenerated electrons trapped in oxygen atom-induced the reduced Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbitals or oxygen molecule-induced new trap state within energy bandgap of organic semiconductor. Inspired by the potential applications arising from the PPC behavior, organic memory phototransistors (OMPTs) are achieved by light programming and electrical erasing. The OMPTs show bistable current states as well as long retention times. Our results suggested that oxygen in air plays a key role in PPC behavior and provides a guidance for controlling the PPC behavior toward integrated multifunctional optoelectronic devices.

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  • 40.
    Jiang, Sheng
    et al.
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Shaobing
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Wei
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Danqin
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Yuting
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jia, Menghui
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Dai, Yannan
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Qingbiao
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Kai
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ding, Liming
    Natl Ctr Nanosci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhenrong
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bao, Qinye
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Shanxi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Constructing Chromium Multioxide Hole-Selective Heterojunction for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells2022In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 9, no 30, article id 2203681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suffer from significant nonradiative recombination at perovskite/charge transport layer heterojunction, seriously limiting their power conversion efficiencies. Herein, solution-processed chromium multioxide (CrOx) is judiciously selected to construct a MAPbI(3)/CrOx/Spiro-OMeTAD hole-selective heterojunction. It is demonstrated that the inserted CrOx not only effectively reduces defect sites via redox shuttle at perovskite contact, but also decreases valence band maximum (VBM)-HOMO offset between perovskite and Spiro-OMeTAD. This will diminish thermionic losses for collecting holes and thus promote charge transport across the heterojunction, suppressing both defect-assisted recombination and interface carrier recombination. As a result, a remarkable improvement of 21.21% efficiency with excellent device stability is achieved compared to 18.46% of the control device, which is among the highest efficiencies for polycrystalline MAPbI(3) based n-i-p planar PSCs reported to date. These findings of this work provide new insights into novel charge-selective heterojunctions for further enhancing efficiency and stability of PSCs.

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  • 41.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Susta, Guangzhou, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Huihui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Hefei Hengli Equipment Ltd, Peoples R China.
    You, Henghui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Su, Minhua
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Zikang
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Citao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zuo, Jianliang
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiao, Tangfu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Tao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cu-doped CaFeO3 perovskite oxide as oxygen reduction catalyst in air cathode microbial fuel cells2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 214, article id 113968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathode electrocatalyst is quite critical to realize the application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Perovskite oxides have been considered as potential MFCs cathode catalysts to replace Pt/C. Herein, Cu-doped perovskite oxide with a stable porous structure and excellent conductivity was successfully prepared through a sol-gel method. Due to the incorporation of Cu, CaFe0.9Cu0.1O3 has more micropores and a larger surface area, which are more conducive to contact with oxygen. Doping Cu resulted in more Fe3+ in B-site and thus enhanced its binding capability to oxygen molecules. The data from electrochemical test demonstrated that the as-prepared catalyst has good conductivity, high stability, and excellent ORR properties. Compared with Pt/C catalyst, CaFe0.9Cu0.1O3 exhibits a lower overpotential, which had an onset potential of 0.195 V and a half-wave potential of 0.224 V, respectively. CaFe0.9Cu0.1O3 displays an outstanding four-electron pathway for ORR mechanism and demonstrates superiors corrosion resistance and stability. The MFC with CaFe0.9Cu0.1O3 has a greater maximum power density (1090 mW m(-3)) rather than that of Pt/C cathode (970 mW m(-3)). This work demonstrated CaFe0.9Cu0.1O3 is an economic and efficient cathodic catalyst for MFCs.

  • 42.
    Huang, Linzhe
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Kengqiang
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustainable Dev, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Guoqing
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Ruoyun
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Dongjiao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arulmani, Samuel Raj Babu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Facile synthesis of NS@UiO-66 porous carbon for efficient oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cells2022In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 544, article id 231884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting a facile way to synthesize low-cost and high-performance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts is a core issue in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Hence, a facile and extensible method has been developed to prepare efficient ORR catalysts by using robust UiO-66 as a precursor, modified with melamine and trithiocyanuric via the impregnation method. Benefiting from the hierarchical structure of UiO-66, the NS@UiO-66 has excellent stability, more active sites and improved mass transfer. Significantly, the half-wave potential and the current density of the NS@UiO-66 are 0.546 V vs. RHE and 6.19 mA cm(-2) respectively, which is better than that of benchmark Pt/C in neutral conditions. Furthermore, the power density of MFCs assembled with the NS@UiO-66 catalyst is 318.6 +/- 2.15 mW m(-2). The density functional theory calculation demonstrates that the reaction barrier can be reduced effectively for accelerating the ORR process through the synergistic effect of N and S. The NS@UiO-66, as an ideal candidate to substitute for the commercial Pt/C counterpart, is expected to promote the scaling-up production and application of MFCs due to low-cost elements doping and facilely synthetic method.

  • 43.
    Phelipot, Jonathan
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ledos, Nicolas
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Dombray, Thomas
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Duffy, Matthew P.
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Denis, Mathieu
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Wang, Ting
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Didane, Yahia
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Gaceur, Meriem
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Delugas, Pietro
    Ist Off Mat CNR IOM Cagliari, Italy.
    Mattoni, Alessandro
    Ist Off Mat CNR IOM Cagliari, Italy.
    Tondelier, Denis
    IP Paris, France.
    Geffroy, Bernard
    IP Paris, France; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bouit, Pierre-Antoine
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Joerg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Hissler, Muriel
    Univ Rennes, France.
    Highly Emissive Layers based on Organic/Inorganic Nanohybrids Using Aggregation Induced Emission Effect2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 2100876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescent nanohybrids, based on pi-extended hydroxyoxophosphole ligands grafted onto ZnO nanoparticles, are designed and studied. The restriction of the intramolecular motions of the organic fluorophore, through either aggregates formation in solution or processing into thin films, forms highly emissive materials due to a strong aggregation induced emission effect. Theoretical calculations and XPS analyses were performed to analyze the interactions between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Preliminary results on the use of these nanohybrids as solution-processed emissive layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) illustrate their potential for lighting applications.

  • 44.
    Chen, Jing-De
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Ling
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Chao-Chao
    Henan Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Hao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yan-Qing
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ou, Qing-Dong
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Guo, Jia-Jia
    Henan Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Shi-Jie
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Feng-Ming
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Jian-Xin
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Macau Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hot-electron emission-driven energy recycling in transparent plasmonic electrode for organic solar cells2022In: InfoMat, ISSN 2567-3165, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e12285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic metal electrodes with subwavelength nanostructures are promising for enhancing light harvesting in photovoltaics. However, the nonradiative damping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) during coupling with sunlight results in the conversion of the excited hot-electrons to heat, which limits the absorption of light and generation of photocurrent. Herein, an energy recycling strategy driven by hot-electron emission for recycling the SPP energy trapped in the plasmonic electrodes is proposed. A transparent silver-based plasmonic metal electrode (A-PME) with a periodic hexagonal nanopore array is constructed, which is combined with a luminescent organic emitter for radiative recombination of the injected hot-electrons. Owing to the suppressed SPP energy loss via broadband hot-electron emission, the A-PME achieves an optimized optical transmission with an average transmittance of over 80% from 380 to 1200 nm. Moreover, the indium-tin-oxide-free organic solar cells yield an enhanced light harvesting with a power conversion efficiency of 16.1%.

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  • 45.
    Li, Yaohui
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yufei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zuo, Qiong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Bolun
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yukun
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qing, Jian
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yuan
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shi, Jifu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Improved efficiency of organic solar cell using MoS2 doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT) as hole transport layer2022In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 590, article id 153042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an efficient hole transporting layer (HTL) for organic solar cell (OSC) based on solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid composed of ultrasonic-exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets and dopamine-copolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivative (DA-P). The OSCs based on this new hybrid HTL show a marked performance improvement over those with single-component HTLs, and they retain up to 80% of their original power conversion efficiency after 35 days. Our investigations reveal that the boost in performance is due to a synergistic effect that improves both hole transport and extraction ability. This effect is mainly due to the doping of exfoliated-MoS2 nanosheets on DA-P. We employ a comprehensive range of spectroscopies to uncover that the dopant is derived from the oxidation products of MoS2 nanosheets during the ultrasonic exfoliation. Our work demonstrates an efficient hybrid HTL and offers new insights into the interaction of exfoliated-MoS2 nanosheets and the PEDOT derivatives.

  • 46.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kolhe, Nagesh B.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Jenekhe, Samson A.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In Situ Spectroscopic and Electrical Investigations of Ladder-type Conjugated Polymers Doped with Alkali Metals2022In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 55, no 16, p. 7294-7302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ladder-type conjugated polymers exhibit a remarkable performance in (opto)electronic devices. Their double-stranded planar structure promotes an extended pi-conjugation compared to inter-ring-twisted analogues, providing an excellent basis for exploring the effects of charge localization on polaron formation. Here, we investigated alkali-metal n -doping of the ladder-type conjugated polymer (polybenzimidazobenzophe-nanthroline) (BBL) through detailed in situ spectroscopic and electrical characterizations. Photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy indicate polaron formation upon potassium (K) doping, which agrees well with theoretical predictions. The semiladder BBB displays a similar evolution in the valence band with the appearance of two new features below the Fermi level upon K-doping. Compared to BBL, distinct differences appear in the UV-vis-NIR spectra due to more localized polaronic states in BBB. The high conductivity (2 S cm(-1)) and low activation energy (44 meV) measured for K-doped BBL suggest disorder-free polaron transport. An even higher conductivity (37 S cm(-1)) is obtained by changing the dopant from K to lithium (Li). We attribute the enhanced conductivity to a decreased perturbation of the polymer nanostructure induced by the smaller Li ions. These results highlight the importance of polymer chain planarity and dopant size for the polaronic state in conjugated polymers.

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  • 47.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interface-assisted cation exchange enables high-performance perovskiteLEDs with tunable near-infrared emissions2022In: Joule, E-ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 2423-2436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving high-quality cesium-formamidinium lead iodide (CsxFA1_xPbI3) perovskites with tunable band gaps is highly desired for optoelectronic applications including solar cells and light -emit-ting diodes (LEDs). Herein, by utilizing an alkaline-interface-assisted cation-exchange method, we fabricate highly emissive CsxFA1_x PbI3 perovskite films with fine-tunable Cs-FA alloying ratio for emis-sion-tunable near-infrared (NIR) LEDs. We reveal that the deproto-nation of FA+ cations and the formation of hydrogen-bonded gels consisting of CsI and FA facilitated by the zinc oxide underneath effectively removes the Cs-FA ion-exchange barrier, promoting the formation of phase-pure CsxFA1_xPbI3 films with tunable emis-sions filling the gap between that of pure Cs-and FA-based perov-skites. The obtained NIR perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) peaking from 715 to 780 nm simultaneously demonstrate high peak external quantum efficiencies of over 15%, maximum radiances exceeding 300 W sr_1 m_2, and high power conversion efficiencies above 10% at 100 mA cm_2, representing the best-performing LEDs based on solution-processed NIR emitters in a similar region.

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  • 48.
    Zhang, Tiankai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Hak-Beom
    Korea Inst Energy Res KIER, South Korea.
    Choi, In-Woo
    Korea Inst Energy Res KIER, South Korea.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cho, Eunkyung
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85721 USA.
    Konefal, Rafal
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Terado, Kosuke
    Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Kobera, Libor
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Chen, Mengyun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Mei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Bowen
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Suo, Jiajia
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Yang, Shih-Chi
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fu, Fan
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Yoshida, Hiroyuki
    Chiba Univ, Japan; Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brus, Jiri
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Coropceanu, Veaceslav
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85721 USA.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bredas, Jean-Luc
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85721 USA.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Dong Suk
    Korea Inst Energy Res KIER, South Korea.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion-modulated radical doping of spiro-OMeTAD for more efficient and stable perovskite solar cells2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 377, no 6605, p. 495-501, article id eabo2757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Record power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been obtained with the organic hole transporter 2,2,7,7-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Conventional doping of spiro-OMeTAD with hygroscopic lithium salts and volatile 4-tert-butylpyridine is a time-consuming process and also leads to poor device stability. We developed a new doping strategy for spiro-OMeTAD that avoids post-oxidation by using stable organic radicals as the dopant and ionic salts as the doping modulator (referred to as ion-modulated radical doping). We achieved PCEs of &gt;25% and much-improved device stability under harsh conditions. The radicals provide hole polarons that instantly increase the conductivity and work function (WF), and ionic salts further modulate the WF by affecting the energetics of the hole polarons. This organic semiconductor doping strategy, which decouples conductivity and WF tunability, could inspire further optimization in other optoelectronic devices.

  • 49.
    Li, Xiane
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Qilun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu, Jianwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Ye
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Huotian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mapping the energy level alignment at donor/acceptor interfaces in non-fullerene organic solar cells2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 2046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy level alignment (ELA) at donor-acceptor heterojunctions is of vital importance yet largely undetermined in organic solar cells. Here, authors determine the heterojunction ELA with (mono) layer-by-layer precision to understand the co-existence of efficient charge. Energy level alignment (ELA) at donor (D) -acceptor (A) heterojunctions is essential for understanding the charge generation and recombination process in organic photovoltaic devices. However, the ELA at the D-A interfaces is largely underdetermined, resulting in debates on the fundamental operating mechanisms of high-efficiency non-fullerene organic solar cells. Here, we systematically investigate ELA and its depth-dependent variation of a range of donor/non-fullerene-acceptor interfaces by fabricating and characterizing D-A quasi bilayers and planar bilayers. In contrast to previous assumptions, we observe significant vacuum level (VL) shifts existing at the D-A interfaces, which are demonstrated to be abrupt, extending over only 1-2 layers at the heterojunctions, and are attributed to interface dipoles induced by D-A electrostatic potential differences. The VL shifts result in reduced interfacial energetic offsets and increased charge transfer (CT) state energies which reconcile the conflicting observations of large energy level offsets inferred from neat films and large CT energies of donor - non-fullerene-acceptor systems.

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  • 50.
    Zhang, Qilun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Huotian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Ziang
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    Ocean Univ China, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Natural Product Betulin-Based Insulating Polymer Filler in Organic Solar Cells2022In: Solar RRL, E-ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 6, no 9, article id 2200381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of filler materials into organic solar cells (OSCs) are a promising strategy to improve device performance and thermal/mechanical stability. However, the complex interactions between the state-of-the-art OSC materials and filler require careful selection of filler materials and OSC fabrication to achieve lower cost and improved performance. In this work, the introduction of a natural product betulin-based insulating polymer as filler in various OSCs is investigated. Donor-acceptor-insulator ternary OSCs are developed with improved open-circuit voltage due to decreased trap-assisted recombination. Furthermore, filler-induced vertical phase separation due to mismatched surface energy can strongly affect charge collection at the bottom interface and limit the filler ratio. A quasi-bilayer strategy is used in all-polymer systems to circumvent this problem. Herein, the variety of filler materials in OSCs to biomass is broadened, and the filler strategy is made a feasible and promising strategy toward highly efficient, eco, and low-cost OSCs.

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