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  • 1.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

  • 2.
    Bernacka Wojcik, Iwona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huerta, Miriam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karady, Michal
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljung, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implantable Organic Electronic Ion Pump Enables ABA Hormone Delivery for Control of Stomata in an Intact Tobacco Plant2019In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 15, no 43, article id 1902189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control of biological processes with bioelectronic devices holds promise for sophisticated regulation of physiology, for gaining fundamental understanding of biological systems, providing new therapeutic solutions, and digitally mediating adaptations of organisms to external factors. The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides a unique means for electronically-controlled, flow-free delivery of ions, and biomolecules at cellular scale. Here, a miniaturized OEIP device based on glass capillary fibers (c-OEIP) is implanted in a biological organism. The capillary form factor at the sub-100 mu m scale of the device enables it to be implanted in soft tissue, while its hyperbranched polyelectrolyte channel and addressing protocol allows efficient delivery of a large aromatic molecule. In the first example of an implantable bioelectronic device in plants, the c-OEIP readily penetrates the leaf of an intact tobacco plant with no significant wound response (evaluated up to 24 h) and effectively delivers the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) into the leaf apoplast. OEIP-mediated delivery of ABA, the phytohormone that regulates plants tolerance to stress, induces closure of stomata, the microscopic pores in leafs epidermis that play a vital role in photosynthesis and transpiration. Efficient and localized ABA delivery reveals previously unreported kinetics of ABA-induced signal propagation.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-08 15:37
  • 4.
    Paulsen, B.D.
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rivnay, J.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States; Simpson Querrey Institute, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors2019In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials that efficiently transport and couple ionic and electronic charge are key to advancing a host of technological developments for next-generation bioelectronic, optoelectronic and energy storage devices. Here we highlight key progress in the design and study of organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors (OMIECs), a diverse family of soft synthetically tunable mixed conductors. Across applications, the same interrelated fundamental physical processes dictate OMIEC properties and determine device performance. Owing to ionic and electronic interactions and coupled transport properties, OMIECs demand special understanding beyond knowledge derived from the study of organic thin films and membranes meant to support either electronic or ionic processes only. We address seemingly conflicting views and terminology regarding charging processes in these materials, and highlight recent approaches that extend fundamental understanding and contribute to the advancement of materials. Further progress is predicated on multimodal and multi-scale approaches to overcome lingering barriers to OMIEC design and implementation.

  • 5.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Jee Woong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Glucose Export from Isolated Chloroplasts Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1900262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) are attractive devices for real-time monitoring of biological processes. The direct coupling between the channel of the OECT and the electrolyte enables intimate interfacing with biological environments at the same time bringing signal amplification and fast sensor response times. So far, these devices are mainly applied to mammalian systems; cells or body fluids for the development of diagnostics and various health status monitoring technology. Yet, no direct detection of biomolecules from cells or organelles is reported. Here, an OECT glucose sensor applied to chloroplasts, which are the plant organelles responsible for the light-to-chemical energy conversion of the photosynthesis, is reported. Real-time monitoring of glucose export from chloroplasts in two distinct metabolic phases is demonstrated and the transfer dynamics with a time resolution of 1 min is quantified, thus reaching monitoring dynamics being an order of magnitude better than conventional methods.

  • 6.
    Gladisch, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Giovannitti, Alexander
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Moser, Maximilian
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Imperial Coll London, England; KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reversible Electronic Solid-Gel Switching of a Conjugated Polymer2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, article id 1901144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers exhibit electrically driven volume changes when included in electrochemical devices via the exchange of ions and solvent. So far, this volumetric change is limited to 40% and 100% for reversible and irreversible systems, respectively, thus restricting potential applications of this technology. A conjugated polymer that reversibly expands by about 300% upon addressing, relative to its previous contracted state, while the first irreversible actuation can achieve values ranging from 1000-10 000%, depending on the voltage applied is reported. From experimental and theoretical studies, it is found that this large and reversible volumetric switching is due to reorganization of the polymer during swelling as it transforms between a solid-state phase and a gel, while maintaining percolation for conductivity. The polymer is utilized as an electroactive cladding to reduce the void sizes of a porous carbon filter electrode by 85%.

  • 7.
    Zajdel, Tom J.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA; Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Baruch, Moshe
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maharbiz, Michel M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA; Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, CA USA.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    PEDOT:PSS-based Multilayer Bacterial-Composite Films for Bioelectronics2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 15293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial electrochemical systems provide an environmentally-friendly means of energy conversion between chemical and electrical forms, with applications in wastewater treatment, bioelectronics, and biosensing. However, a major challenge to further development, miniaturization, and deployment of bioelectronics and biosensors is the limited thickness of biofilms, necessitating large anodes to achieve sufficient signal-to-noise ratios. Here we demonstrate a method for embedding an electroactive bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, inside a conductive three-dimensional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix electropolymerized on a carbon felt substrate, which we call a multilayer conductive bacterial-composite film (MCBF). By mixing the bacteria with the PEDOT:PSS precursor in a flow-through method, we maintain over 90% viability of S. oneidensis during encapsulation. Microscopic analysis of the MCBFs reveal a tightly interleaved structure of bacteria and conductive PEDOT:PSS up to 80 mu m thick. Electrochemical experiments indicate S. oneidensis in MCBFs can perform both direct and riboflavin-mediated electron transfer to PEDOT:PSS. When used in bioelectrochemical reactors, the MCBFs produce 20 times more steady-state current than native biofilms grown on unmodified carbon felt. This versatile approach to control the thickness of bacterial composite films and increase their current output has immediate applications in microbial electrochemical systems, including field-deployable environmental sensing and direct integration of microorganisms into miniaturized organic electronics.

  • 8.
    Guex, Anne Geraldine
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Puetzer, Jennifer L.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Littmann, Elena
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Imperial Coll London, England.
    Giannelis, Emmanuel P.
    Cornell University, NY 14853 USA.
    Malliaras, George G.
    Ecole National Super Mines, France.
    Stevens, Molly M.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Highly porous scaffolds of PEDOT:PSS for bone tissue engineering2017In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 62, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been increasingly considered for the design of conductive materials in the field of regenerative medicine. However, optimal scaffold properties addressing the complexity of the desired tissue still need to be developed. The focus of this study lies in the development and evaluation of a conductive scaffold for bone tissue engineering. In this study PEDOT:PSS scaffolds were designed and evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteogenic precursor cells, and the cells were assessed for distinct differentiation stages and the expression of an osteogenic phenotype. Ice-templated PEDOT:PSS scaffolds presented high pore interconnectivity with a median pore diameter of 53.6 +/- 5.9 mu m and a total pore surface area of 7.72 +/- 1.7 m(2).g(-1). The electrical conductivity, based on I-V curves, was measured to be 140 mu S.cm(-1) with a reduced, but stable conductivity of 6.1 mu S.cm(-1) after 28 days in cell culture media. MC3T3-E1 gene expression levels of ALPL, COL1A1 and RUNX2 were significantly enhanced after 4 weeks, in line with increased extracellular matrix mineralisation, and osteocalcin deposition. These results demonstrate that a porous material, based purely on PEDOT:PSS, is suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering and thus represents a promising candidate for regenerative medicine. Statement of Significance Tissue engineering approaches have been increasingly considered for the repair of non-union fractions, craniofacial reconstruction or large bone defect replacements. The design of complex biomaterials and successful engineering of 3-dimensional tissue constructs is of paramount importance to meet this clinical need. Conductive scaffolds, based on conjugated polymers, present interesting candidates to address the piezoelectric properties of bone tissue and to induce enhanced osteogenesis upon implantation. However, conductive scaffolds have not been investigated in vitro in great measure. To this end, we have developed a highly porous, electrically conductive scaffold based on PEDOT:PSS, and provide evidence that this purely synthetic material is a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering. (C) 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 9.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, K. Peter R.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
    Singh, Sandeep Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Franco- Gonzalez, Juan Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Volkov, Anton V.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elgland, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor V.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In vivo polymerization and manufacturing of wires and supercapacitors in plants2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 11, p. 2807-2812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic plants, e-Plants, are an organic bioelectronic platform that allows electronic interfacing with plants. Recently we have demonstrated plants with augmented electronic functionality. Using the vascular system and organs of a plant, we manufactured organic electronic devices and circuits in vivo, leveraging the internal structure and physiology of the plant as the template, and an integral part of the devices. However, this electronic functionality was only achieved in localized regions, whereas new electronic materials that could be distributed to every part of the plant would provide versatility in device and circuit fabrication and create possibilities for new device concepts. Here we report the synthesis of such a conjugated oligomer that can be distributed and form longer oligomers and polymer in every part of the xylem vascular tissue of a Rosa floribunda cutting, forming long-range conducting wires. The plant’s structure acts as a physical template, whereas the plant’s biochemical response mechanism acts as the catalyst for polymerization. In addition, the oligomer can cross through the veins and enter the apoplastic space in the leaves. Finally, using the plant’s natural architecture we manufacture supercapacitors along the stem. Our results are preludes to autonomous energy systems integrated within plants and distribute interconnected sensor-actuator systems for plant control and optimization

  • 10.
    Franco Gonzalez, Juan Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Bordeaux INP, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, LCPO UMR 5629, 33600 Pessac, France.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor V
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Morphology of a self-doped conducting oligomer for green energy applications2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 13717-13724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently synthesized self-doped conducting oligomer, salt of bis[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]3thiophene butyric acid, ETE-S, is a novel promising material for green energy applications. Recently, it has been demonstrated that it can polymerize in vivo, in plant systems, leading to a formation of long-range conducting wires, charge storage and supercapacitive behaviour of living plants. Here we investigate the morphology of ETE-S combining the experimental characterisation using Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (GIWAXS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The GIWAXS measurements reveal a formation of small crystallites consisting of π–π stacked oligomers (with the staking distance 3.5 Å) that are further organized in h00 lamellae. These experimental results are confirmed by MD calculations, where we calculated the X-ray diffraction pattern and the radial distribution function for the distance between ETE-S chains. Our MD simulations also demonstrate the formation of the percolative paths for charge carriers that extend throughout the whole structure, despite the fact that the oligomers are short (6–9 rings) and crystallites are thin along the π–π stacking direction, consisting of only two or three π–π stacked oligomers. The existence of the percolative paths explains the previously observed high conductivity in in vivo polymerized ETE-S. We also explored the geometrical conformation of ETE-S oligomers and the bending of their aliphatic chains as a function of the oligomer lengths.

  • 11.
    Volkov, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Singh, Sandeep Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruce, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spectroelectrochemistry and Nature of Charge Carriers in Self-Doped Conducting Polymer2017In: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 3, no 8, article id 1700096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently developed water-soluble self-doped sodium salt of bis[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene] 3thiophene butyric acid (ETE-S) is electropolymerized and characterized by means of spectroelectrochemistry, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, combined with the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations. The focus of the studies is to underline the nature of the charge carriers when the electrochemically polymerized ETE-S films undergo a reversible transition from reduced to electrically conductive oxidized states. Spectroelectrochemistry shows clear distinctions between absorption features from reduced and charged species. In the reduced state, the absorption spectrum of ETE-S electropolymerized film shows a peak that is attributed to HOMO. LUMO transition. As the oxidation level increases, this peak diminishes and the absorption of the film is dominated by spinless bipolaronic states with some admixture of polaronic states possessing a magnetic momentum. For fully oxidized samples, the bipolaronic states fully dominate, and the features in the absorption spectra are related to the drastic changes of the band structure, exhibiting a strong decrease of the band gap when a polymeric film undergoes oxidation.

  • 12.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gomez, Eliot
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Ove
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden..
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic plants2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 10, p. 1-8, article id e1501136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directlymerged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

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