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  • 1.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bjellerup, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Business model development for sustainable apparel consumption The case of Houdini Sportswear2019In: Journal of Strategy and Management., ISSN 1755-425X, E-ISSN 1755-4268, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 481-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify key aspects of business model development for sustainable apparel consumption, as actors show an increasing interest in product-service systems. This purpose should be seen from a retailers perspective so as to develop sustainable solutions for long-term survival in the apparel industry when meeting consumer preferences for fashion as well as an increasing interest in consuming less. Further, this is from a perspective in an economy where sharing and circularity are potential drivers for changing consumer patterns. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on the apparel retailer Houdini Sportswear and its business model development from a traditional model of selling sportswear to a more future-oriented model where sustainability is more salient. The data for analysis were collected through interviews with employees within the studied company. The interviews have been guided by overarching themes covering relevant areas of interest for this study. Findings Overall, the paper shows how sustainability can be included in strategic development, from product idea, product development, production and sales/rental to repair, reuse and finally recycling. The paper also highlights potential obstacles in a developed business model with increased sustainability, including technological platforms, distribution networks for collecting and returning products and consumer consumption preferences. There are a few intertwined factors to be considered on different societal levels to achieve long-term success. Originality/value This study contributes an increased understanding of how more sustainable solutions can be included when developing business models. While the manufacture, distribution and consumption of clothes have an impact on the environment, some retailers and producers want to reduce this environmental impact. One alternative is to change the way clothes are consumed, to include more sharing and circularity.

  • 2.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supplier Relationships at Stake in Mergers and Acquisitions2013In: Mergers and Acquisitions: The Critial Role of Stakeholders / [ed] Helén Anderson, Virpi Havila, and Fredrik Nilsson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 168-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A merger or acquisition is usually a challenging endeavor with a single ultimate aim: to create value for the owner. However, stakeholder theory shows how such a narrow and one-sided focus is detrimental to value-creation in general – not only for other stakeholders within and outside the organization, but also for the owner. Especially in a merger or an acquisition, it is evident that there are many groups and individuals who have a stake in the success or failure of a business.

    So far, the overwhelming majority of research in the field of mergers and acquisitions has focused on the merging organizations, and so researchers have mainly studied internal stakeholder groups, such as employees and managers. This book shows how different stakeholders, internal and external, may play a critical role during a merger or an acquisition process. The book builds on empirical examples that illustrate how various stakeholders play active roles throughout the different phases, and, thus, ultimately affect the outcome and the value formation process of the merger or the acquisition. There is still much debate on how and when to best measure the outcome of a merger or an acquisition. With its comprehensive focus on stakeholders, this volume explores why some mergers and acquisitions fail while others succeed.

  • 3.
    Anderson, Helen
    et al.
    Jonköping International Business School.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oberg, Christina
    Lund University.
    Do Competition Authorities Consider Business Relationships?2012In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 67-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Companies engage in business relationships for a variety of reasons, including specialization, product development, and building competitive networks. Research has demonstrated that mergers and acquisitions (Mandamp;As) may challenge ongoing business relationships. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and how competition authorities consider business relationships when evaluating Mandamp;As. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethodology: The article uses the documentation from 450 Mandamp;As reported to the Swedish competition authority to capture the way in which an authority evaluates Mandamp;As. The Swedish competition authority evaluation corresponds to other national and international evaluation procedures. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFindings: The findings indicate that the competition authorities neglect an important aspect of business life, namely companies forming business relationships. The competition authorities evaluate Mandamp;As on the basis of risk for price increases, and consequently disregard such issues as heterogeneity in demand and offerings, and values built into existing business relationships. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanOriginality/Value/Contribution: The article contributes to research on business relationships through exploring how a public authority deals with such relationships. It also contributes to research on mergers and acquisitions through examining how these activities are evaluated by competition authorities. Furthermore, the article contributes to competition research by reflecting on competition law concerning Mandamp;A regulations in relation to business relationships.

  • 4.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Helén
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Connected Synergy: a case study of mergers and acquisitins within business networks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions are frequent phenomena in everyday business activities (Holtström,2008). For a merger or an acquisition, expected synergy is of fundamental importance. Thesynergy-concept emerged in the business strategy literature in the 1960s and has since then gainedimmense influence as a strategic tool for CEOs and company boards. In both theory and practice,synergy describes value creation of some kind (Pernod Ricard, 2008; Arya, 2002; Rozemeijer,2000; Tapper, 1999; Larsson & Finkelstein, 1999; SvD, 1998; Olsson, 1997; Chandler, 1992;Trautwein, 1990; Porter, 1987; Rydén, 1971; Ansoff, 1965). Having a business network structureperspective as point of departure, we assume that mergers and acquisitions will involve andintegrate not only the acquirer or the acquired company but also connected companies such ascustomers and suppliers (Holtström, 2008; 2003; Öberg, 2008; 2004; Dahlin, 2007; Öberg &Holtström, 2006; Anderson, Havila & Salmi, 2000; Havila & Salmi, 2000; Bengtsson, 1994).Synergy as concept (cf. Goold & Campbell, 1998; Itami, 1987; Lubatkin, 1983; Ansoff, 1965) isin this paper further developed and extended to comprise also synergy in the integratingcompanies’ business network. The paper aims to develop a framework to describe synergy inbusiness relationships with customers and suppliers. To achieve this we first need to analyse howsynergy is realised within a company. The analysis is based on a case study of mergers andacquisitions among industrial companies having business in Sweden.Our findings indicate that within a company synergy is the result of the interplay between creationof value, alignment between strategic prioritisations and functional performance. Thus theintegrating companies are at the core. The application of synergy in the M&A-companies businessnetwork is to include also their business relationships with other actors. So in a second analysis,we show that synergy in business relationships can be seen as the result of how companies a) adaptto changes in the business network, b) how the changes affects interdependency among actors, c)to what extent there is a co-ordination of activities between actors, but most importantly d) howthis is carried out over time.The resulting framework on connected synergy, combines the perspectives on synergy describedabove with also the development over time. Within the M&A-companies, two forms of synergyappears; (i) planned in the early phases of integration and, (ii) emerging over time. In the M&Acompanies’business relationship synergy can appear as (iii) something planned by the integratingcompanies to purposely influence other actors and, (iv) developing when different actors adapt tothese changes over time.

  • 5.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hur nås höga kursutvärderingar?: En studie av korrelationen mellan kursutvärderingar, nedlagd tid och studenters resultat på kurser2009In: Ingår i rapporten: Ett år med Bologna - vad har hänt vid LiU? / [ed] E. Edvardsson Stiwne, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009, 1, p. 91-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kursutvärderingar har blivit allt viktigare. De fyller idag inte enbart en funktion av att utgöra underlag för förbättringar inom utbildningen, utan används även för att utvärdera lärarens insatser. I och med detta skulle det också kunna uppkomma intressen att försöka styra undervisningen för att uppnå höga kursutvärderingar. Diskussioner har bland annat handlat om att höga krav på studenterna påverkar kursutvärderingar negativt (se exempelvis Bjuremark, 2008) samt om det går att få bättre kursutvärderingar genom att ge studenter höga betyg. Syftet med detta papper är att undersöka sambanden mellan det betyg studenterna ger en kurs, deras studiearbetstid och det slutbetyg studenterna erhållit från kursen. Inom Linköpings universitet används det elektroniska kursutvärderingssystemet KURT där man bland annat frågar efter hur studenterna bedömer kursen som helhet på en femgradig skala och där studenterna ska ange genomsnittlig studiearbetstid under kursen. Genom att jämföra dessa värden med studenternas studieresultat avser pappret att besvara följande frågor: Finns det något samband mellan studenternas slutbetyg och det betyg de ger kursen?, Finns det något samband mellan nedlagd studietid och studenternas slutbetyg? Och, finns det något samband mellan nedlagd tid och det betyg studenterna ger kursen? Som underlag för undersökningen använder vi data från 230 kurser inom ekonomi på teknisk fakultet vid Linköpings Universitet. Vi drar slutsatsen att medan det inte finns någon signifikant korrelation mellan nedlagd tid och studieresultat eller mellan kursutvärdering och studieresultat, så finns positiv korrelation mellan nedlagd tid och kursutvärdering. Dessa slutsatser är intressanta att lyfta fram kopplat till diskussioner om kursutvärderingar och studieprestationer, då de indikerar att (i) det inte lönar sig att ge enkla kurser för att få en bra kursutvärdering, (ii) en hög arbetsinsats primärt premierar kursen, medan studenten faktiskt inte når en bättre prestation, och (iii) att ge höga betyg till studenter inte premierar kursutvärderingen.

  • 6.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Synergi?: En studie av några industriföretag2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synergy is of fundamental interest in mergers and acquisitions. The point of departure in this thesis is that synergy, both theoretically as well as in practice, is used to describe different types of value creation. Mergers and acquisitions is a frequent phenomenon in business and many actors will be affected by such changes, e.g. employees, company management and owners. Company integrations can be assumed to affect the involved actors in the merger or acquisition. Also other actors such as customers and suppliers can be affected by the change a merger or acquisition creates in the business network. This background is of interest in the study of the relationship between synergy and company integrations.

    The thesis studies synergy as a concept to enhance the understanding of synergy, within a company and in the integrating companies’ business network. The aim with the thesis is to elaborate on how synergy is implemented in mergers and acquisition and in business relationships with customers and suppliers.

    Based on mergers and acquisitions among industrial companies the realisation of synergy within a company is analysed. The thesis concludes that synergy is the result of the interplay between creating value, alignment between strategic prioritisations and functional performance. Synergy within a company is something the company management plans and intends to carry out. The integrating companies are at the centre and the intention is to affect the companies’ business environment. In the integrating companies business environment there are actors such as customers and suppliers. These actors are also of interest when studying synergy realisation.

    Synergy in the business network of a merging or acquiring company can be seen as broadening the concept of synergy. The thesis concludes that synergy as a concept also should include relationships in business networks. Thus, creating synergy includes the integrating companies as well as their business relationships with other actors, such as customers and suppliers. Synergy in business relationships can be seen as the result of how companies adapts to changes in the business network, how the changes affects interdependency among actors, in what extent there is a co-ordination of activities between actors, but most importantly how this is carried out over time.

    The thesis also combines the two perspectives on synergy with the development over time. Within the integrating companies, synergy appears in two forms, as planned in the early phases of integration and, as emerging over time. In the integrating companies’ business relationship synergy can appear as something planned by the integrating companies to purposely influence other actors. Synergy in business relationships can also appear when different actors adapt over time to these changes. The adaptation is not a passiveness but an expression of action and reaction.

    For practitioners, consequences of merging and acquiring companies’ integration are of interest to take into account in the business relationship to other actors. Companies need to be aware of the integration process. Mergers and acquisitions start a chain of activities. Over time, this can affect the potential result of the integration. Stability and dependence between different actors are also affected. Mergers and acquisitions can be a driving force for other actors needs to create growth. Other actors operating activities can also be affected by the changes initiated by a merger or an acquisition.

  • 7.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Många arbetstimmar för studenter ger höga kursutvärderingar! - Om korrelationen mellan kursutvärderingar, nedlagd tid och studenters resultat på kurser2008In: CUL Konferens,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 8.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Are mergers and acquisitions contagious?2006In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 1267-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In traditional literature on mergers and acquisitions (M&As), the reasons to merge or acquire are largely described as strategies of the merging or acquiring parties. This article suggests that M&As are contextually driven. Based on six case studies, the article pinpoints how M&As among customers lead to M&As among suppliers, and vice versa. The article launches the concept of parallel M&As to describe this phenomenon, and asks the following question: in what ways are M&As among customers and suppliers a driving force for M&As by the other party? Matching, dependence and keeping a power balance are found as key explanations for parallel M&As. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Are Mergers and Acquisitions Contagious? Conceptualising parallel M&A: s among customers and suppliers2005In: IMP Conference,2005, Rotterdam: RSM Erasmus University , 2005, p. 49-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Förändrade leverantörsroller - En studie av förändringsstrategi och -förlopp i två företag, Saab Aerostructures och Volvo Aero Corporation, från starkt fokuserad kundbas till mer diversifierad.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    M&A Effects on Procurement2004In: Annual IPSERA Conference,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Are mergers or acquisitions expected to affect customer and supplier relationships? An analysis of decisions taken by a competition authority2003In: IMP Conference,2003, Lugano: BI Norwegian School of Management , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Cross-border acquisitions - Effects on the acquired companies' customers and suppliers2003In: Nordic Workshop on Interorganisational Research,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Suppliers in mergers and acquisitions: a study of relationship changes and synergy realisation2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and Acquisitions seem to be a relatively frequent phenomenon in business life. Even though the number of mergers and acquisitions may seem low, these companies have important relationships with their customers and suppliers, meaning that the number of companies potentially affected by a merger or an acquisition will be many. The focus when studying mergers and acquisitions is normally on the merging and acquiring companies. This study focuses on connected companies and particularly on suppliers to merging and acquiring companies. The overall goal with this licentiate thesis is to explore and describe possible relationship changes and synergy realisation on suppliers connected to merging, acquiring companies.

    The overall goal with this licentiate thesis is to explore and describe possible relationship changes and synergy realisation on suppliers connected to merging, acquiring and acquired companies.

    The study reviews five cases. Three of them describe different types of supplier relationships within the manufacturing industry. One of these three cases gives a more 'dual' perspective on effects on connected companies since it discusses both customers, suppliers and competitors. The two other cases illustrate two other types of industry, a processing one and one with rather unique products, and very long-term supplier relationships.

    The supplier's position in the network is important for possible relationship changes as a consequence of the merger or the acquisition. Findings indicate that if there will be changes the type of products or service provided by the supplier is important and also the possibility to exchange the suppliers. Concentrations in industries indicate that companies need to grow in order to meet customer demands on undertaking larger engagements i.e. mergers and acquisitions initiate other mergers and acquisitions.

    Realising synergy is important for the merging companies. The study indicates that this possibly will have an effect also on connected companies. This depends on the type of supplier and also on the type of integration e.g. vertical or horisontal. The study further indicates that mergers and acquisitions have effects on supplier organisations. Time is an important factor when realising synergy. For merging and acquiring companies short-term synergy seem more important than long-term synergy. Suppliers, though, may face long-term effects due merging companies' efforts in realising synergy.

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