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  • 1.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Laboratory Of Electrochemistry, Intelligent Materials And Devices, Cartagena, Spain.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Laboratory Of Electrochemistry, Intelligent Materials And Devices, Cartagena, Spain.
    An actuator, a sensor and a battery working simultaneously into a multifunctional conducting polymer device to improve energetic efficiency2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers are very promising materials for the development of soft actuators (also called soft motors or ‘artificial muscles’, as they mimic processes and materials of natural muscles) for many different applications. They are multifunctional materials changing different properties such as volume, electrical potential or stored charge at the same time driven by the same reversible electrochemical reaction. Here we explore the simultaneous change on the three properties mentioned above to develop actuators that, while moving, are able to sense mechanical conditions (such as any lifted mass) and store charge. It is possible then to recover up to 83% of the consumed charge during de-bending and increase the energetic efficiency of the actuator by several orders of magnitude.  Three tools (actuator-sensor-battery) work simultaneously in a trilayer driven by oxidation/reduction reactions of the constitutive polypyrrole films. Only two connecting wires contain, simultaneously, actuating, sensing and battery magnitudes.

  • 2.
    Mashayekhimazar, Fariba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Malek Ashtar Univ Technol, Iran.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tyagi, Manav
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alijanianzadeh, Mahdi
    Kharazmi Univ, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield Univ, England.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Artificial Muscles Powered by Glucose2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 32, article id 1901677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untethered actuation is important for robotic devices to achieve autonomous motion, which is typically enabled by using batteries. Using enzymes to provide the required electrical charge is particularly interesting as it will enable direct harvesting of fuel components from a surrounding fluid. Here, a soft artificial muscle is presented, which uses the biofuel glucose in the presence of oxygen. Glucose oxidase and laccase enzymes integrated in the actuator catalytically convert glucose and oxygen into electrical power that in turn is converted into movement by the electroactive polymer polypyrrole causing the actuator to bend. The integrated bioelectrode pair shows a maximum open-circuit voltage of 0.70 +/- 0.04 V at room temperature and a maximum power density of 0.27 mu W cm(-2) at 0.50 V, sufficient to drive an external polypyrrole-based trilayer artificial muscle. Next, the enzymes are fully integrated into the artificial muscle, resulting in an autonomously powered actuator that can bend reversibly in both directions driven by glucose and O-2 only. This autonomously powered artificial muscle can be of great interest for soft (micro-)robotics and implantable or ingestible medical devices manoeuvring throughout the body, for devices in regenerative medicine, wearables, and environmental monitoring devices operating autonomously in aqueous environments.

  • 3.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conjugated Polymer Actuators and Devices: Progress and Opportunities2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1808210Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers (CPs), as exemplified by polypyrrole, are intrinsically conducting polymers with potential for development as soft actuators or artificial muscles for numerous applications. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of these materials and the actuation mechanisms, aided by the development of physical and electrochemical models. Current research is focused on developing applications utilizing the advantages that CP actuators have (e.g., low driving potential and easy to miniaturize) over other actuating materials and on developing ways of overcoming their inherent limitations. CP actuators are available as films, filaments/yarns, and textiles, operating in liquids as well as in air, ready for use by engineers. Here, the milestones made in understanding these unique materials and their development as actuators are highlighted. The primary focus is on the recent progress, developments, applications, and future opportunities for improvement and exploitation of these materials, which possess a wealth of multifunctional properties.

  • 4.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asadi, Milad
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart yarns as the building blocks of textile actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of smart textile actuators has been progressing rapidly during the last years. Smart textiles are a class of textile products which exploit the determinant feature of responding to a stimulus, input, which can be chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic or electrical. The building block for fabrication of such products is smart yarn. However, most smart textiles are focused on receiving an input stimulus (sensors) and only a few are dedicated to providing an output response (actuators). Yarn actuators show strain or apply force upon application of electrical stimulation in isotonic or isometric conditions, respectively. A small actuation in the yarn scale can be amplified by knitting or weaving the smart yarns into a fabric. In this work, we have investigated the effect of inherent properties of different commercial yarns on the linear actuation of the smart yarns in aqueous media. Since actuation significantly depends on the structure and mechanical properties of the yarns, elastic modules, and tenacity of the yarns were characterized. Investigating the actuation behavior, yarns were coated with PEDOT:PSS to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole which provides the electromechanical actuation was electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. Finally, linear actuation of the prepared smart yarns was investigated under aqueous electrolyte in both isotonic and isometric conditions.

  • 5.
    Nguyen, Quang Khuyen
    et al.
    Ton Duc Thang Univ, Vietnam.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Politecn Cartagena Aulario II, Spain.
    Kaasik, Friedrich
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Tamm, Tarmo
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Univ Politecn Cartagena Aulario II, Spain.
    Kiefer, Rudolf
    Ton Duc Thang Univ, Vietnam.
    Solvent effects on carbide-derived-carbon trilayer bending actuators2019In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 247, p. 170-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bending actuators were prepared by depositing carbide-derived carbon, a material typical for electric double layer capacitors, on both sides of poly-vinylidenefluoride membranes, forming CDC-trilayers. Their actuation properties were studied using 0.5 M solutions of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) in different solvents: water, ethylene glycol, acetonitrile, and propylene carbonate. The goal of this work was to study the actuation mechanism, charging-discharging properties in these solvents, as well as to establish the optimal solvent for maximum bending displacement. It was found that while the actuation direction was the same for all solvents, pointing to similar mechanism, the exchanged charge and the displacement differed considerably. Moreover, the highest specific capacitance found in ethylene glycol did not bring along the highest displacement, neither was the highest exchanged charge of propylene carbonate the most efficient option, the acetonitrile was the clear winner. The available electrochemical windows for the reversible charging also differed considerably.

  • 6.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Politecn Cartagena, Spain.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Univ Politecn Cartagena, Spain.
    Three electrochemical tools (motor-sensor-battery) with energy recovery work simultaneously in a trilayer artificial muscle2019In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 294, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological evolution has developed organs able to perform different functions as sensing and tactile motors (haptic muscles). There, different tools (one motor and several sensors) work simultaneously driven by biochemical reactions. Here we present electrochemical triple-tool (actuator-sensor-battery) trilayer artificial muscles driven by reversible electrochemical reactions including two films of conducting polymers (CPs) where every CP chain acts as a multistep molecular machine. Any imposed constant current drives the reversible oxidation of one of the CP films and the simultaneous reduction of the second CP film. The symmetric change of the reaction-driven film volume variations originates the macroscopic bending movement of the polymeric motor. The bending angle follows a linear function of the consumed charge. The simultaneous reaction-driven divergent composition (polymer/ion) variation of the two films originates a change of the potential gradient between them: the muscle potential. The evolutions of: the muscle potential, the consumed electrical energy or the consumed power are a function of (sense) the mass trailed by the muscle: the muscle senses the working mechanical conditions. The increase of the muscle potential during actuation indicates the charge of a battery. Here the trilayer is studied as a battery that charges during bending, rending back up to 83% of the charge and a fraction of the electrical energy consumed to bend the muscle during de-bending. Considering such energy recovery, the efficiency of the actuators may increase up to one order of magnitude. Three tools (actuatorsensor- battery) work simultaneously in a trilayer driven by oxidation/reduction reactions of the constitutive polypyrrole films. Only two connecting wires contain, simultaneously, actuating, sensing and battery magnitudes. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-17 16:09
  • 7.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klaus, Richter
    ITP GmbH Gesellschaft für Intelligente Produkte (ITP), Weimar, Germany.
    Nils-Krister, Persson
    University of Borås, Smart Textiles, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Use of conducting yarns to develop textile actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of textile actuators and their advantages to develop soft actuators with synergetic actuation have been proven. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer that provides the mechanical motion. Until now, a two-step coating process was followed to make the textile actuators: a first coating that provided conductivity to the passive fabrics and, once conducting, a second coating by electropolymerization was used to get a highly electroactive (moving as much as possible) material. To simplify the fabrication process, we here used different commercially available conducting yarns (polyamide+carbon, silicon+carbon, polyamide+silver coated, cellulose+carbon, polyester+2 × INOX 50 μm, polyester+2 × Cu/Sn and polyester+gold coated) to develop such textile actuators.

    Thus, it was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical synthesis, avoiding the first step, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices.

  • 8.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Escobar, Freddy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milad, Milad Asadi Miankafshe
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diseases of the nervous system, traumas, or natural causes can reduce human muscle capacity. Robotic exoskeletons are forthcoming to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assist walking or aid rehabilitation. Current available devices are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators, making them noisy, heavy, stiff and noncompliant. We are developing textile based assistive devices that can be worn like clothing being light, soft, compliant and comfortable. We have merged advanced textile technology with electroactive polymers. By knitting and weaving electroactive yarns, we are developing soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles") that can be used in wearable assistive devices. We will present the latest progress increase the performance and to rationalise the fabrication. In addition we will show some demonstrators of the textile exoskeletons.

  • 9.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhong, Yong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating Textiles: Next Generation of Smart Textiles2018In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1700397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles have been around for some decades. Even if interactivity is central to most definitions, the emphasis so far has been on the stimuli/input side, comparatively little has been reported on the responsive/output part. This study discusses the actuating, mechanical, output side in what could be called a second generation of smart textiles-this in contrast to a first generation of smart textiles devoted to sensorics. This mini review looks at recent progress within the area of soft actuators and what from there that is of relevance for smart textiles. It is found that typically still forces exerted are small, so are strains for many of the actuators types (such as electroactive polymers) that could be considered for textile integration. On the other side, it is argued that for many classes of soft actuators-and, in the extension, soft robotics-textiles could play an important role. The potential of weaving for stress and knitting for strain amplification is shown. Textile processing enables effective production, as is analyzed. Textile systems are made showing automatic actuation asked for in stand-alone solutions. It is envisioned that soft exoskeletons could be an achievable goal for this second generation of smart textiles.

  • 10.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Artificial muscles: Reducing the gap with natural muscles2018In: EuroEAP 2018 Eighth international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, Valpré Ecully, Lyon, France, 05/06/2018 - 06/06/2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans, animals and plants are a source of inspiration for developing robots. Materials and devices, including robots, are being developed with properties, appearance, kinds of movements or behavior similar to those of biological systems, so called biomimetic systems. However, the components of most of them are based on dry devices exploiting various physical phenomena such as variations in magnetic fields due to a current flow (electrical motors), variations in pressure (pneumatic and hydraulic motors).

    On the other hand, natural muscles are wet and composed by ordered cells in which chemical reactions promote the movement of the muscles. Those reactions involve the muscle cells themselves, composed up to around 75% of water (depending on the muscle), macromolecules forming the different parts of the cell, chemical reactions as ATP hydrolysis that involve ionic exchanges with the surroundings and conformational changes that constitute the movement of the muscle. Inspired by natural muscles, artificial muscles based on reversible reactions occurring in a dense gelare being developed, mimicking, in a very simple way, the intracellular matrix of the muscular cells.They are based on materials, such as conducting polymers immersed in an electrolyte, able to change their properties (e.g. volume, colour, porosity, and electrical potential)while changing their composition caused by the reaction in a reversible and reproducible way. Such reaction promotes ionic exchanges and conformational movements of the constitutive polymeric chains.

    For the first time, artificial proprioceptive devices(able to sense variables from the environment while moving)are being developed. They are able to move at a specific rate or up to a specific position while sensing mechanical (mass displaced or objects on its way, i.e. tactile artificial muscles), physical (temperature, applied current) and chemical variables (electrolyte concentration). All this valuable information is included in the only two connecting wires needed to close the electrical circuit. In contrary, robots need a motor to produce movement and different sensors to control that same movement. Humans and animals only have muscles. Using reactive artificial muscles, it is possible to get valuable information regarding the environment with no extra sensors nor connections, thus opening the possibility to develop cheaper, more reliable systems.

    Looking again to natural muscles, it is possible to clearly observe that muscle cells are perfectly aligned so all of them move in the same direction helping to the movement. In conducting polymer films, each of the constitutive polymer chains (basic molecular motor) it is placed in a different, random direction, which generates movement and forces in opposite directions, which considerably decreases the actuation. Recently, a way of aligning conducting polymers has been proposed. Using textile structures it has been possible to get cooperative and synergetic effects between the different fibres mimicking the structure of fibrils in natural muscles, getting strains and forces that increase up to more than one order of magnitude, depending on the textile material and construction

  • 11.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Klaus
    ITP GmbH Gesellschaft für Intelligente Produkte (ITP), Weimar, Germany.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Smart Textiles, Swedish School of Textiles (THS) , University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators2018In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 074004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile actuators are an emerging technology to develop biomimetic actuators with synergetic actuation. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer providing with mechanical motion. Here we used different conducting yarns (polyamide + carbon, silicon + carbon, polyamide + silver coated, cellulose + carbon, polyester + 2 x INOX 50µm, polyester + 2 x Cu/Sn and polyester + gold coated) to develop such textile actuators. It was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical methods, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices easier and cheaper to get and at the same time with good mechanical performance are envisaged.

  • 12.
    Ravichandran, Ranjithkumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Type I Collagen-Derived Injectable Conductive Hydrogel Scaffolds as Glucose Sensors2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 16244-16249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of home blood glucose monitoring revolutionized diabetes management, and the recent introduction of both wearable devices and closed-loop continuous systems has enormously impacted the lives of people with diabetes. We describe the first fully injectable soft electrochemical glucose sensor for in situ monitoring. Collagen, the main component of a native extracellular matrix in humans and animals, was used to fabricate an in situ gellable self-supporting electroconductive hydrogel that can be injected onto an electrode surface or into porcine meat to detect glucose amperometrically. The study provides a proof-of-principle of an injectable electrochemical sensor suitable for monitoring tissue glucose levels that may, with further development, prove clinically useful in the future.

  • 13.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting polymer actuators: from basic concepts to proprioceptive systems2017In: XXXVIII Reunión del Grupo de Electroquímica de la Real Sociedad Española de Química & XIX Encontro Ibérico Electroquímica, 05th -7th July 2017, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades about motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers sense working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables during their oxidation/reduction. Also, the evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials (such as intrinsically conducting polymers), and driven by constant currents, senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed [1]. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the motor characteristics (rate and sense of the movement, relative position, and required energy) and the working variables (temperature, electrolyte concentration, mechanical conditions and driving current). By changing working conditions experimental results overlap theoretical predictions. The ensemble computer-generator-muscle theoretical equation constitutes and describes artificial mechanical, thermal and chemical proprioception of the system. Proprioceptive tools and most intelligent zoomorphic or anthropomorphic soft robots can be envisaged. The author acknowledges the funding received from Carl Tryggers Stiftelse för Vetenskaplig Forskning.

  • 14.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Hogskolan i Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ELECTROACTIVE TEXTILES FOR EXOSKELETON LIKE SUITS2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for soft assistive robotic devices such as prosthetics, exoskeletons and robot assistants. One particular area of interest is robotic exoskeletons to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assisting or enhancing walking and rehabilitation. Although technologically advanced, current exoskeletons are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators making them noisy, heavy, stiff and non-compliant. Ideally, assistive devices would be shaped as an exoskeleton suit worn under clothing and well-hidden. By merging one of humankind oldest technology with one of the latest, that is by combining knitting and weaving with novel electroactive polymers, we have developed soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles"). In this paper we will present the textile actuators in more detail as well as share the latest progress in the development of textile actuators for soft robotics.

  • 15.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Textile actuators for wearable devices2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Martinez, J. G.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Politecn Cartagena, Spain.
    Otero, T. F.
    University of Politecn Cartagena, Spain.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemo-dynamical characterization of polypyrrole actuators coated on gold electrodes2016In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 827-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole coated gold wires were subjected to consecutive square current waves in LiClO4 aqueous solutions using the same constant anodic and cathodic charge. Parallel in situ diameter variations were followed using a laser scan micrometer. The procedure was repeated by changing one experimental variable every time: applied current, electrolyte concentration or working temperature to perform electrochemodynamical characterization of the system. On average, the diameter follows a linear variation of the consumed charge, as expected for any faradaic system, although a high dispersion was attained in the data. Such deviations were attributed to the presence of irreversible hydrogen evolution at the gold/polypyrrole interface at cathodic potentials more than 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, detected and quantified from separated coulovoltammetric responses. Despite this parallel hydrogen evolution the consumed energy during reactions is a robust sensor of the working conditions. In conclusion a gold support, the metal most used for technological applications of conducting polymers, should be avoided when a device is driven by current flow in the presence of aqueous solutions, water contamination or moisture: a fraction of the charge will be consumed by hydrogen generation with possible degradation of the device.

  • 17.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Technical University of Cartagena. Spain.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Technical University of Cartagena. Spain.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of the Electrolyte Concentration and Substrate on Conducting Polymer Actuators2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 3894-3904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the electrolyte concentration (NaCl aqueous electrolyte) on the dimensional variations of films of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate PPy(DBS) on Pt and Au wires was studied. Any parallel reaction that occurs during the redox polymeric reaction that drives the mechanical actuation, as detected from the coulovoltammetric responses, was avoided by using Pt wires as substrate and controlling the potential limits, thus significantly increasing the actuator lifetime. The NaCl concentration of the electrolyte, when studied by cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry, has a strong effect on the performance as well. A maximum expansion was achieved in 0.3 M aqueous solution. The consumed oxidation and reduction charges control the fully reversible dimensional variations: PPy(DBS) films are faradaic polymeric motors. Parallel to the faradaic exchange of the cations, osmotic, electrophoretic, and structural changes play an important role for the water exchange and volume change of PPy(DBS).

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