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  • 1.
    Yakymenko, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakymenko, Irina I.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Basic modelling of effects of geometry and magnetic field for quantum wires injecting electrons into a two-dimensional electron reservoir2019In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 31, no 34, article id 345302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) which resides at the interface between GaAs and AlGaAs layered semiconductors has been used experimentally and theoretically to study ballistic electron transport. The present paper is motivated by recent experiments in magnetic electron focusing. The proposed device consists of two quantum point contacts (QPCs) serving as electron injector and collector which are placed in the same semiconductor GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Here we focus on a theoretical study of the injection of electrons via a quantum wire/QPC into an open two-dimensional (2D) reservoir. The transport is considered for non-interacting electrons at different transmission regimes using the mode-matching technique. The proposed mode-matching technique has been implemented numerically. Electron flow through the quantum wire with hard-wall rectangular, conical and rounded openings has been studied. We have found for these three cases that the geometry of the opening does not play a crucial role for the electron propagation. When a perpendicular magnetic field is applied the electron paths in the 2D reservoir are curved. We analyse this case both classically and quantum-mechanically. The effect of spin-splitting due to exchange interactions on the electron flow is also considered. The effect is clearly present for realistic choices of device parameters and consistent with observations. The results of this study may be applied in designing magnetic focusing devices and spin separation.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-06-04 08:00
  • 2.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tellander, Felix
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Yakymenko, Iryna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Basic modelling of transport in 2D wave-mechanical nanodots and billiards with balanced gain and loss mediated by complex potentials2018In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 30, no 20, article id 204003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-Hermitian quantum mechanics with parity-time (PT) symmetry is presently gaining great interest, especially within the fields of photonics and optics. Here, we give a brief overview of low-dimensional semiconductor nanodevices using the example of a quantum dot with input and output leads, which are mimicked by imaginary potentials for gain and loss, and how wave functions, particle flow, coalescence of levels and associated breaking of PT symmetry may be analysed within such a framework. Special attention is given to the presence of exceptional points and symmetry breaking. Related features for musical string instruments and wolf-notes are outlined briefly with suggestions for further experiments.

  • 3.
    Karlsson, H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakymenko, Iryna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nature of magnetization and lateral spin-orbit interaction in gated semiconductor nanowires2018In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 30, no 21, article id 215302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor nanowires are interesting candidates for realization of spintronics devices. In this paper we study electronic states and effects of lateral spin-orbit coupling (LSOC) in a one-dimensional asymmetrically biased nanowire using the Hartree-Fock method with Dirac interaction. We have shown that spin polarization can be triggered by LSOC at finite source-drain bias,as a result of numerical noise representing a random magnetic field due to wiring or a random background magnetic field by Earth magnetic field, for instance. The electrons spontaneously arrange into spin rows in the wire due to electron interactions leading to a finite spin polarization. The direction of polarization is, however, random at zero source-drain bias. We have found that LSOC has an effect on orientation of spin rows only in the case when source-drain bias is applied.

  • 4.
    Jones, A.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Systems, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA.
    Cahay, M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Systems, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA.
    Yakimenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chapter 5: Signatures of Spin Polarization In Four-Gate Quantum Point Contact Structures2017In: Contemporary Topics in Semiconductor Spintronics, World Scientific, 2017, p. 123-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) approach, a set of experiments is suggested which can provide indirect evidence of the fine and non-local electrostatic tuning of the onset of spin polarization in two closely spaced quantum point contacts (QPCs) with two sets of in-plane side gates (SGs) in the presence of lateral spin-orbit coupling (LSOC). The conductance of the two closely spaced QPCs or four-gate QPC is studied for different biasing conditions applied to two leftmost and rightmost SGs. When calculated as a function of the common sweep voltage Vsweep applied to two of the SGs, the conductance plots show several conductance anomalies, i.e., below G0 = 2e2/h, characterized by intrinsic bistability, i.e., hysteresis loops due to a difference in the conductance curves for up and down sweeps of the common gate voltage. The hysteresis loops are related to the co-existence of multistable spin textures in the narrow channel of the four-gate QPC and are very sensitive to the biasing conditions on the four SGs. The shape of the conductance anomalies and size of hysteresis loops are different when the biasing conditions on the leftmost and rightmost SGs are swapped. This rectifying behavior is an additional indirect evidence for the onset of spontaneous spin polarization in nanoscale devices made of QPCs. These results show that the onset and fine tuning of conductance anomalies in QPC structures are highly sensitive to the non-local action of closely spaced SGs. This effect must therefore be taken into account in the design of all electrical spin valves making use of middle gates to fine tune the spin precession between QPC based spin injector and detector contacts.

  • 5.
    Tellander, Felix
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spectra, current flow, and wave-function morphology in a model PT-symmetric quantum dot with external interactions2017In: PHYSICAL REVIEW A, ISSN 2469-9926, Vol. 95, no 4, article id 042115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use numerical simulations to study a two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot (cavity) with two leads for passing currents (electrons, photons, etc.) through the system. By introducing an imaginary potential in each lead the system is made symmetric under parity-time inversion (PT symmetric). This system is experimentally realizable in the form of, e.g., quantum dots in low-dimensional semiconductors, optical and electromagnetic cavities, and other classical wave analogs. The computational model introduced here for studying spectra, exceptional points (EPs), wave-function symmetries and morphology, and current flow includes thousands of interacting states. This supplements previous analytic studies of few interacting states by providing more detail and higher resolution. The Hamiltonian describing the system is non-Hermitian; thus, the eigenvalues are, in general, complex. The structure of the wave functions and probability current densities are studied in detail at and in between EPs. The statistics for EPs is evaluated, and reasons for a gradual dynamical crossover are identified.

  • 6.
    Ohlin, Kjell
    et al.
    Ohlin Labs, Sweden.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patterns beyond Faraday waves: observation of parametric crossover from Faraday instabilities to the formation of vortex lattices in open dual fluid strata2016In: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 045803-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faraday first characterised the behaviour of a fluid in a container subjected to vertical periodic oscillations. His study pertaining to hydrodynamic instability, the Faraday instability, has catalysed a myriad of experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for the transition of a system at rest to a new state of well-ordered vibrational patterns at fixed frequencies. Here we study dual strata in a shallow vessel containing distilled water and high-viscosity lubrication oil on top of it. At elevated driving power, beyond the Faraday instability, the top stratum is found to freeze into a rigid pattern with maxima and minima. At the same time there is a dynamic crossover into a new state in the form of a lattice of recirculating vortices in the lower layer containing the water. Instrumentation and the physics behind are analysed in a phenomenological way together with a basic heuristic modelling of the wave field. The study, which is based on relatively low-budget equipment, stems from related art projects that have evolved over the years. The study is of value within basic research as well as in education, especially as more advanced collective project work in e.g. engineering physics, where it invites further studies of pattern formation, the emergence of vortex lattices and complexity.

  • 7.
    Tellander, Felix B. A.
    et al.
    Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund Univer-sity, SE- 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Ulander, Johan E. M.
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Irina I., Yakimenko
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Probability Current and a Simulation of Particle Separation2016In: Journal of Young Investigators, Vol. 31, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of scattered wave fields and currents is of interest in a variety of fields within physics such as quantum mechanics and optics. Traditionally two-dimensional structures have been investigated; here we focus on three-dimensional structures. We make a generic study of three dimensional quantum box cavities, and our main objective is to visualize the probability current. Visualizations are achieved for complex linear combinations of wave functions with different excitations and with boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed. By using different boundary conditions, the results reported here are relevant to many different wave analogues such as microwave billiards and acoustic cavities. Visualization was mainly done through animated images, but a chaotic state was visualized by 3D printing. Our results suggest that if the state of excitation is the same in the different boundary conditions, the current is the same, except at the boundaries of the box. Application to sort nanoparticles in acoustic cavities is considered.

  • 8.
    Yakimenko, Irina I.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Probing dopants in wide semiconductorquantum point contacts2016In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1-10, article id 105801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of randomly distributed impurities on conductance, spin polarization and electronlocalization in realistic gated semiconductor quantum point contacts (QPCs) have beensimulated numerically. To this end density functional theory in the local spin-densityapproximation has been used. In the case when the donor layer is embedded far from thetwo-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) the electrostatic confinement potential exhibits theconventional parabolic form, and thus the usual ballistic transport phenomena take place bothin the devices with split gates alone and with an additional metallic gate on the top.In the opposite case, i.e. when the randomly distributed donors are placed not far away fromthe 2DEG layer, there are drastic changes like the localization of electrons in the vicinity ofconfinement potential minima which give rise to fluctuations in conductance and resonances.The conductance as a function of the voltage applied to the top gate for asymmetricallycharged split gates has been calculated. In this case resonances in conductance caused byrandomly distributed donors are shifted and decrease in amplitude while the anomaliescaused by interaction effects remain unmodified. It has been also shown that for a wide QPCthe polarization can appear in the form of stripes. The importance of partial ionization ofthe random donors and the possibility of short range order among the ionized donors areemphasized. The motivation for this work is to critically evaluate the nature of impurities andhow to guide the design of high-mobility devices.

  • 9.
    Yakymenko, Irina I.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correlation and random donors effects on electron transport in wide semiconductor quantum point contacts2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study effects of randomly distributed impurities on spin polarization and electronlocalization in realistic semiconductor quantum point contacts (QPCs). To this end we usedensity functional theory in local spin-density approximation (LSDA). Previous studies (as,for example, in [1]) have been restricted to the Thomas-Fermi approximation, and thus theeffects of electron correlation and realistic confinement potentials were beyond the subject.Our studies have been performed for the two geometries of the gates, the first one with onlysplit gates, and the other one with an additional top gate situated over the split gates. In thelatter case there is a possibility to vary electron density within a fixed confinement whichgives an opportunity to separate the effects on conductance caused by impurities and electronelectroninteractions in a more distinct way. In both cases we recover the conventionalfluctuation free parabolic electrostatic potential when the distance between the donor layerand the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) exceeds ~50 nm. In the opposite case, i.e.,when the randomly distributed donors are placed more close to the 2DEG layer, there aredrastic changes like the localization of electrons in the vicinity of the confinement potentialminima which gives rise to fluctuation in conductance and resonances. At the same time theusual conductance steps vanish. By charging asymmetrically the split gates voltage wecalculate the conductance as a function of the voltage applied to the top gate. In this way wefind that resonances in conductance caused by randomly distributed donors are shifted anddescreased in amplitude while the anomalies caused by interaction effects remain unmodified.Resonance peaks in the conductance derive from localized states within the QPC due torandom fluctuations. The nature of electron localization has been discussed in our previousstudy [2] where we stress the crucial role of the shape of confinement potential on theformation of electron localization. In the present study we have shown that electronlocalization may be caused by randomly distributed donors and play an important role inelectron transport, especially near the pinch-off regime. The results of our numericalsimulations agree qualitatively with experimental studies [3-4]. We have also shown that fora wide QPC spin polarization appears in the form of stripes. This finding may be interesting inview of experimental study in [5] where it has been shown that the structure of such kind canbe responsible for the anomalous behavior of the quantized conductance of a quantum wire inthe shallow confinement limit. We also discuss the diminished effect of partially ionizedrandom donors on the electronic potentials and the appearance of short-range order among thedonors. The results of the present study is important for applications. For example,homogeneity and order of an assembly of nanostructures are crucial for their use in largescaleelectronic and optical systems.[1] J.A. Nixon, J.H. Davies, and H.U. Baranger, Phys. Rev. B 43, 12638 (1991)[2] I. I. Yakimenko, V. S. Tsykunov and K.-F. Berggren, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25, 072201 (2013)[3] L.W. Smith, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, I. Farrer, J.P. Griffiths, G.A.C. Jones, J. ofPhys.: Conf. Series 376, 012018, (2012)[4] L. W. Smith, H. Al-Taie, F. Sfigakis, P. See, A. A. J. Lesage, B. Xu, J. P. Griffiths, H. E. Beere, G.A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, M. J. Kelly, and C. G. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045426 (2014).

  • 10.
    Wahlstrand, B
    et al.
    HiQ Mälardalen AB, Arboga, Sweden.
    Yakymenko, Iryna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wave transport and statistical properties of an open non-Hermitian quantum dot with parity-time symmetry2014In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 89, no 062910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic quantum-mechanical model for wave functions and current flow in open quantum dots or billiards is investigated. The model involves non-Hertmitian quantum mechanics, parity-time (PT) symmetry, and PT-symmetry breaking. Attached leads are represented by positive and negative imaginary potentials. Thus probability densities, currents flows, etc., for open quantum dots or billiards may be simulated in this way by solving the Schrödinger equation with a complex potential. Here we consider a nominally open ballistic quantum dot emulated by a planar microwave billiard. Results for probability distributions for densities, currents (Poynting vector), and stress tensor components are presented and compared with predictions based on Gaussian random wave theory. The results are also discussed in view of the corresponding measurements for the analogous microwave cavity. The model is of conceptual as well as of practical and educational interest.

  • 11. Ohlin, Kjell
    et al.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att se toner bortom Faradays vågor2013In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 1, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Yakimenko, Iryna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tsykunov, V. S.
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine .
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bound states, electron localization and spin correlations in low-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs quantum constrictions2013In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 072201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the occurrence of local  magnetization and the effects of electron localization in different models of quantum point contacts (QPCs) using spin-relaxed density functional theory (DFT/LSDA) by means of numerical simulations. In the case of soft confinement potentials the degree of localization is weak and we therefore observe only traces of partial electron localization in the middle of the QPC. In the pinch-off regime there is, however, distinct accumulation at the QPC edges. At the other end, strong confinement potential, low-electron density in the leads and top or implant gates favor electron localization. In such cases one may create a variety of electron configurations from a single localized electron to more complex structures with multiple rows and Wigner lattices.

  • 13.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakymenko, Irina I.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    “Correlation and disorder effects on electron transport in modulation-doped semiconductor quantum point contacts” (invited)2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT We simulate effects of electron localization and quantum correlations in realistic GaAs/AlGaAs quantum point contacts (QPCs) in the presence of randomly distributed donors (1) using spin-relaxed density functional theory (DFT/LSDA). Two different configurations of gates defining the QPCs were studied: a split gate and a top gate in addition to the split gate. In both cases we recover the conventional fluctuation-free parabolic electrostatic potential when the distance between the donor layer and the 2D electron gas exceeds 70 nm.  Hence we also find ballistic phenomena such as integer conductance steps as well as the 0.7 anomaly. The electrostatic potential changes dramatically,however, when the random donors are placed closer to the 2D gas. Electron localization is then increased and conductance fluctuations and resonance peaks appear. At the same time the usual conductance steps vanish. By charging asymmetrically the split gates voltage we have found that conductance fluctuations caused by random donors are shifted while the anomalies caused by interaction effects may remain.  Resonance peaks in the conductance derive from localized states inside within the QPC. The nature of electron localization has been discussed in our previous study (2) where we stress the crucial role of confinement potential on the formation of electron localization. In the present study we have shown that electron localization may be caused by randomly distributed donors and play an important role in electron transport, especially near the pinch-off regime. The results of our numerical simulations agree with recent experimental studies (3). 

     

    (1) J.A. Nixon, J.H. Davies, and H.U Baranger, Phys. Rev. B 43, 12638 (1991) 

    (2) I. I. Yakimenko, V. S. Tsykunov and K.-F. Berggren, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 25, 072201 (2013)

    (3) L.W. Smith, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, I. Farrer, J.P. Griffiths, G.A.C. Jones,  J. of Phys.: Conf. Series  376, 012018,  (2012)

  • 14.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drottningen och filosofen - mötet mellan Christina och Descartes2013In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 3, p. 22-22Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jakten på liv i universum2013In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 4, p. 26-26Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Yakymenko, Iryna I.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bound states and electron localization in low-dimensional semiconductor quantum point contacts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fortsatt förtroende - Fysikaktuellt nr 12012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fysik2012In: Naturvetarguiden / [ed] Marita Teräs, Nacka: Naturvetarna , 2012, 1, , p. 141Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parallella världar - Fysikaktuellt nr 22012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Matic, Aleksandar
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Science at the ESS: a brief outline2012In: In Pursuit of a Promise: Perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Olof Hallonsten, Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2012, p. 31-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they?It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project  but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks.The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance?This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It links the decisions taken to the history of Big Science in Europe and in Sweden. It looks at the dynamic political processes of establishing this megaproject in a small town in the south of Sweden. The eight chapters start from a paradoxical state of affairs: The ESS is not funded, and not formally decided in any binding agreements  yet it is treated as a future reality, locally and nationally, loaded with promises of scientific, economic and social returns.The book makes a much-needed first contribution to the analysis of the ESS project and its political, environmental, and social ramifications. It should be read by scholars of science and technology studies, politicians and the interested general public.

  • 21.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Signerat: Nya krafter vid rodret2012In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 4, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Slow physics2012In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 3, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Yakymenko, Iryna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spin magnetization and electron localization in semiconductor quantum wires and quantum point contacts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The physics of low-dimensional semiconductor structures such as quantum wires (QW) and quantum point contacts (QPCs) has developed into an important part of nanotechnology, especially in connection with spintronics and quantum information. In our current studies we focus on electronic states, effects of electron interactions and conductance anomalies in semiconductor quantum point contacts and wires with different geometries to a model GaAs/AlGaAs device [1]. Using the local spin density approximation (LSDA) we recover spin-polarized states in the middle of a conventional QPC results in the 0.7 (2e2/h) conductance anomaly as well as spin-split states near the two edges of the QPC that may be associated with the conductance anomaly in the vicinity of 0.25 (2e2/h). Effects of spontaneous magnetization might be also used for spintronics applications such as spin filters and all-electric QPC spin-polarizer. These systems are physically rich and constantly bring new experimental data such as the unusual conductance behavior in the case of shallow confinement potential in a low electron density regime, the anomalous properties of the 2DEG around the pinch-off regime and the formation of bound states with Kondo physics involved. This leads to the study of ballistic transport in low-dimensional semiconductor-based nanostructures in the ultralow electron density domain where the interaction-induced localization of electrons takes place. By means of LSDA we have shown that the localization of electrons within the barrier embedded in the wire and that the localization is highly dependent on the sharpness and length of the potential barrier. For a shallow barrier-free wire we retraced the structural transitions at low densities from a single chain of localized states to double and triple chains (Wigner spin lattices). We have found that the double chain appears as a double zig-zag co nfiguration [2] . Localized electrons may have interesting applications for semiconductor nanodevices. Indeed the formation of bound state and spin binding within QPC confinement potential opens possibilities to store information and to realize qubits in quantum circuits. We have studied the electron transport in a quantum wire in the presence of bias between source and drain [3]. Our work has confirmed that spontaneous spin splitting does occur within the wire and it is responsible for both the 0.25 and 0.85 plateaus. We have also shown that the 0.25 plateau consists of two regions, one that is spin polarized, and another that is degenerate with a conductance that remains essentially the same at both sides of the transition. This result is of potential interest for semiconductor spintronics since it opens a new possibility for spin manipulation by electric field. [1] K.-F. Berggren and I.I. Yakimenko. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 164203 (2008). [2] E. Welander, K.-F. Berggren, I. I. Yakimenko. Phys. Rev. B 82, 073307 (2010). [3] H. Lind, I. I. Yakimenko, K.-F. Berggren. Phys. Rev. B 83, 075308 (2011).

  • 24.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Timeline of major events2012In: In pursuit of a promise: Perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Olof Hallonsten, Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2012, p. 21-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they?It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project  but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks.The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance?This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It links the decisions taken to the history of Big Science in Europe and in Sweden. It looks at the dynamic political processes of establishing this megaproject in a small town in the south of Sweden. The eight chapters start from a paradoxical state of affairs: The ESS is not funded, and not formally decided in any binding agreements  yet it is treated as a future reality, locally and nationally, loaded with promises of scientific, economic and social returns.The book makes a much-needed first contribution to the analysis of the ESS project and its political, environmental, and social ramifications. It should be read by scholars of science and technology studies, politicians and the interested general public.

  • 25.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åsikter om infrastruktursatsningarna2012In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 3, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Berdyugina, Svetlana
    et al.
    Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Tyskland.
    Harvey, Jack
    National Solar Observatory, Tuscon, Arizona, USA.
    Solanki, Sami
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, Tyskland.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edvardsson, David
    Vetenskapsrådet, Swedish Research Council.
    Assessment of Expressions-of-interests for hosting the Institute for Solar Physics - Panel's report2011Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimenko, Irina I
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electric-field control of magnetization in biased semiconductor quantum wires and point contacts2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 83, no 075308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    true origin of the 0.25 and 0.85 conductance features which have been observed in biased split-gatequantum wires and quantum point contacts in semiconductor heterostructures is debated in the literature; onesuggestion is that they are caused by spontaneous spin polarization due to the electron-electron interactions. Thepresent work confirms that spontaneous spin splitting may occur within the system and is responsible for boththe 0.25 and 0.85 plateaux. We have also shown that the 0.25 plateau consists of two regions, one that is spinpolarized, and one that is degenerate with a conductance that remains essentially the same at both sides of thetransition. This finding could be of interest for semiconductor spintronics because it opens the possibility for spinmanipulation by electric means only.

  • 28.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hur står det till med SFS?2011In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 4, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spännande program på Nordiska Fysikdagarna2011In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 2, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    All-Time High2010In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 4, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Irina I., Yakimenko
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Basic Modeling of Openness, Quantum States and Transport in Two- and Three-Dimensional Ballistic Cavities2010In: Journal of Siberian Federal University. Mathematics & Physics, Vol. 3, p. 280-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic model for particle states and current flow in open quantum dots/billiards are investigated. The model is unconventional and extends the use of complex potentials first introduced in phenomenological nuclear inelastic scattering theory (the optical model). Attached leads/source drain are represented by complex potentials. Probability densities and currents flows for open 2D quantum dots/billiards are calculated and the results are compared with microwave measurements used to emulate the dot. We also apply the model to a recangular enclosure and report on helical flows guided by nodal lines and disc-like accumulations of flow lines. The model is of conceptual as well as practical and educational interest.

  • 32.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pepper, Michael
    University College London.
    Electrons in one dimension2010In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 368, p. 1141-1162Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a summary of the current status of the study of the transport of electrons confined to one dimension in very low disorder GaAs–AlGaAs heterostructures. By means of suitably located gates and application of a voltage to ‘electrostatically squeeze’ the electronic wave functions, it is possible to produce a controllable size quantization and a transition from two-dimensional transport. If the length of the electron channel is sufficiently short, then transport is ballistic and the quantized subbands each have a conductance equal to the fundamental quantum value 2e2/h, where the factor of 2 arises from the spin degeneracy. This mode of conduction is discussed, and it is shown that a number of many-body effects can be observed. These effects are discussed as in the spin-incoherent regime, which is entered when the separation of the electrons is increased and the exchange energy is less than kT. Finally, results are presented in the regime where the confinement potential is decreased and the electron configuration relaxes to minimize the electron–electron repulsion to move towards a two-dimensional array. It is shown that the ground state is no longer a line determined by the size quantization alone, but becomes two distinct rows arising from minimization of the electrostatic energy and is the precursor of a two-dimensional Wigner lattice.

  • 33.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entanglement väcker språkdebatt2010In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 2, p. 5-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fors, Cecilia
    Fysikersamfundet 90 år2010In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 2, p. 12-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hur förstår man fysik?2010In: Fysikaktuellt, no 3, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    n/a

  • 36.
    Dehant, Véronique
    et al.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium.
    Sargent, Anneila
    California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Walmsley, Malcolm C.
    Arcetri Observatory, Florence,Italy.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edvardsson, David
    Vetenskapsrådet.
    International Evaluation of Onsala Space Observatory2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Welander, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakymenko, Iryna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Localization of electrons and formation of two-dimentional Wigner spin lattices in a special cylindrical semiconductor stripe2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, no 073307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D)electron gas residing on the surface of a cylinder of a given radius R in the presence of a parabolic confinement along the axis of the cylinder. In this way the system of electrons forms a closed cylindrical stripe (wire). Using the local spin-density technique we first consider localization of electrons within of a potential barrier embedded in the wire. Barriers with sharp retangularlike features are populated in steps because of Coulomb blockade. The nature of a single bound state in a short soft barrier (quantum point contacts) at pinch-off is discussed in terms Coulomb blockade. For a shallow barrier-free wire we retrace the structural transitions at low electron densities from a single chain of localized states to double and triple chains (Wigner spin lattices). The present system is related to the model of a inhomogeneous quantum wire introduced recently by Güçlü et al. [Phys. Rev. B 80, 201302(R) (2009)]. An important aspect is, however, the present extension into higher electron densities as well as to the low-density regime and the formation of 2D Wigner microlattices.

  • 38.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hakanen, Jani
    Ericsson AB.
    Modeling of open quantum dots and wave billiards using imaginary potentials for the source and the sink2010In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 12, no 073005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A heuristic model for particle states and current flow in open ballistictwo-dimensional (2D) quantum dots/wave billiards is proposed. The modelmakes use of complex potentials first introduced in phenomenological nuclearinelastic scattering theory (the optical model). Here we assume that externalinput and output leads connecting the system to the source and the drain regionsmay be represented by complex potentials. In this way, a current may be set upbetween the two ‘pseudo-leads’. Probability densities and current flows for anopen quantum dot are analyzed here numerically and the results are comparedwith the microwave measurements used to emulate the system. The model isof conceptual as well as practical interest. In addition to quantum billiards, itmay be used as a tool per se to analyze transport in classical wave analogues,such as microwave resonators, acoustic resonators, effects of leakage on suchsystems, etc.

  • 39.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Signerat; Välkommen till år 20102010In: Fysikaktuellt, ISSN 0283-9148, no 1, p. 3-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cederwall, Martin
    Chalmers.
    Forssell-Aronsson, Eva
    Sahlgrenska akademin.
    Fredriksson, Billy
    Vetenskapsrådets ämnesråd för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Goksör, Mattias
    Göteborgs universtitet.
    Häggström, Olle
    Chalmers.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Sandelius, Anna Stina
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wennberg, Ann-Marie
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Stärk matematiken och naturvetenskapen i nya gymnasiet2010In: NyTeknikArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    20 years in HPC 1989-20092009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Basic Modeling of Openess, Quantum States and Transport in Two- and Three-Dimensional Ballistic Cavities2009In: Basic Modeling of Openess, Quantum States and Transport in Two- and Three-Dimensional Ballistic Cavities, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Yakimenko, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Welander, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of the electron localization induced by interactions in one-dimensional circular quantum wires with a barrier2009In: Effects of the electron localization induced by interactions in one-dimensional circular quantum wires with a barrier, 2009, p. 299-299Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Welander, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electron localization and spin polarizationin circular quantum wires with a barrier2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malm, M
    Wärnsby, M
    Sjöberg, M
    ESS - European Spallation Source – tillstånd för miljö och utveckling2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46. Gustafsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bexell, Göran
    Etiska riktlinjer för mottagande av donationer till svenska universitet och högskolor2009Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljung, P.
    Siemens Corporate Research.
    Nature of streamlines for Berry-type wave functions in open 3D cavities2009In: MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WAVE PHENOMENA, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009, Vol. 1106, p. 253-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore preliminary a 3D wave cavity in which the interior complex wave functions are of Berry-type. Streamlines and novel disc-like features are uncovered by means of selective and interactive visualization.

  • 48.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    NSC during 20 years2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Yakymenko, Iryna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Tsykunov, V. S.
    University of Kiev.
    Shevchenko, V.P.
    University of Kiev.
    On the use of parallel computing in studies of physical properties of nanostructures2009In: Bulletin of University of Kiev: Physics and Mathematics, Vol. N4, p. 195-200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimenko, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Karl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spin Polarization of Quantum Wires under External Electric andMagnetic Fields2009Conference paper (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 113
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