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  • 1.
    Stenlund, Jörgen Ingemar
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tibell, Lena Anna Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Visualizing macroevolutionary timescales: students’ comprehension of different temporal representations in an animation2019In: Evolution: Education and Outreach, ISSN 1936-6426, E-ISSN 1936-6434, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Macroevolutionary time is a difficult idea to grasp and is considered to be a threshold concept in teaching and learning evolution. One way of addressing this subject is to use animations that represent evolutionary time. The aim of this descriptive and exploratory study was to investigate how various representations of time in an animation affect the way undergraduate students comprehend different temporal aspects of hominin evolution. Two factors, namely differences in timelines (the number of timelines with different scales) and the mode of the default animated time rate (either constant throughout the animation or decreasing as the animation progressed) were combined to give four different time representations. The temporal aspects were investigated using undergraduate students’ ability to find events at specific times, to comprehend relative order, to comprehend concurrent events, to estimate the duration of time intervals and their ability to compare the lengths of time intervals.

    Results: The results revealed that “finding events at specific times” near to the end of the animation (closer to present time), where the sequence of events appeared very quickly, was more difficult for groups working with animations with only one timeline. We also found that the ability to comprehend concurrent events can be impaired if several timelines are displayed and the animation speed is relatively high. The ability to estimate the duration of a time interval was more difficult for groups working with animations with only one timeline, especially at the end of the animation where the sequence of events occurred quickly. Making correct comparisons of time intervals was relatively independent of which animation was used with one notable exception: groups working with an animation featuring several timelines and a decreasing default animated time rate performed worst at comparing events with intervals that spanned parts of the timeline with different scales.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that the choice of animation should depend on the teaching intention. However, a visualization with several timelines, and an animated time which slowed down toward present time, generated the best results for the majority of items tested. Temporal scale shift may interfere with the perception of time in cases where durations are compared.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What’s in the body? Children’s annotated drawings2019In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of children’s ideas of the body’s internal structure. Children between four and 13 years (N = 170) individually produced drawings. During each drawing session the children explained their drawings to a facilitator and added written labels either by them- selves or, if they were too young to write, with the facilitator’s help. The results provide an updated comprehensive picture of children in differ- ent age groups and their views on the internal structure of the body. The type and numbers of organs drawn are similar to those documented in previous studies. However, in comparison to recent studies, the children drew more organs, the brain was indicated almost as often as the heart, and the Valentine heart was frequently used as a symbol. In contrast with previous research, children drew connections between organs. This result calls for caution regarding conclusions made from decontextua- lized questions. The importance of providing children with the opportu- nity to clarify their drawings is emphasised since it otherwise becomes a question of the researcher’s interpretation. The connections they draw, and explanations they give to their drawings, have interesting implica- tions for understanding children’s ideas, and hence both for teaching and learning and for science education research.

  • 3.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploranation: A New Science Communication Paradigm2018In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 13-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Science communication is facing a paradigm shift, based on the convergence of exploratory and explanatory visualization. In this article, we coin the term exploranation to denote the way in which visualization methods from scientific exploration can be used to communicate results and how methods in explanatory visualization can enrich exploration.

  • 4.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance2018In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is typically used to justify education about evolution, as evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes of resistance and possible countermeasures. It has also been promoted as a useful context for teaching natural selection, because its potency as a selection factor, in combination with the very short generation times of bacteria, allows observation of rapid selection. It is also amenable to animations, which have potential for promoting conceptual inferences. Thus, we have explored the potential benefits of introducing antibiotic resistance as a first example of natural selection, in animations, to novice pupils (aged 13–14 years). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3–5 (total n = 32). Data were collected at individual (pre-/post- test) and group (collaborative group questions) levels. In addition, the exercise was video-recorded and the full transcripts were analysed inductively. The results show that most of the pupils successfully applied basic evolutionary reasoning to predict antibiotic resistance development in tasks during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be an effective approach. Pedagogical contributions include the identification of certain characteristics of the bacterial context for evolution teaching, including common misunderstandings, and factors to consider when designing animations.

  • 5.
    Höst, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fröcklin, Henry
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What Biological Visualizations Do Science CenterVisitors Prefer in an Interactive Touch Table?2018In: Education Sciences, ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hands-on digital interactivity in science centers provides new communicative opportunities. The Microcosmos multi-touch table allows visitors to interact with 64 image “cards” of (sub)microscopic biological structures and processes embedded across seven theme categories. This study presents the integration of biological content, interactive features and logging capabilities into the table, and analyses visitors’ usage and preferences. Data logging recorded 2,070,350 events including activated category, selected card, and various finger-based gestures. Visitors interacted with all cards during 858 sessions (96 s on average). Finger movements covered an average accumulated distance of 4.6 m per session, and about 56% of card interactions involved two fingers. Visitors made 5.53 category switches per session on average, and the virus category was most activated (average 0.96 per session). An overall ranking score related to card attractive power and holding power revealed that six of the most highly used cards depicted viruses and four were colourful instrument output images. The large finger traversal distance and proportion of two-finger card interaction may indicate the intuitiveness of the gestures. Observed trends in visitor engagement with the biological visualizations are considered in terms of construal level theory. Future work will examine how interactions are related to potential learning of biological content.

  • 6.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 7-9, p. 975-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In this study, we therefore analyzed the content of 60 videos accessed through the Internet, using a criteria catalog with 38 operationalized variables derived from research literature. The variables were sorted into four categories: (a) key concepts (e.g. limited resources and inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (abstract concepts with a transforming and integrative function), (c) misconceptions (e.g. that evolution is driven by need), and (d) organismal context (e.g. animal or plant). The results indicate that some concepts are frequently communicated, and certain taxa are commonly used to illustrate concepts, while others are seldom included. In addition, evolutionary phenomena at small temporal and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, are rarely covered. Rather, the focus is on population-level events over time scales spanning years or longer. This is consistent with an observed lack of explanations regarding how randomly occurring mutations provide the basis for variation (and thus natural selection). The findings imply, among other things, that some components of natural selection warrant far more attention in biology teaching and science education research.

  • 7.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Harms, Ute
    IPN Leibniz Institute Science and Math Educ, Germany.
    Biological Principles and Threshold Concepts for Understanding Natural Selection Implications for Developing Visualizations as a Pedagogic Tool2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 7-9, p. 953-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern evolutionary theory is both a central theory and an integrative framework of the life sciences. This is reflected in the common references to evolution in modern science education curricula and contexts. In fact, evolution is a core idea that is supposed to support biology learning by facilitating the organization of relevant knowledge. In addition, evolution can function as a pivotal link between concepts and highlight similarities in the complexity of biological concepts. However, empirical studies in many countries have for decades identified deficiencies in students scientific understanding of evolution mainly focusing on natural selection. Clearly, there are major obstacles to learning natural selection, and we argue that to overcome them, it is essential to address explicitly the general abstract concepts that underlie the biological processes, e.g., randomness or probability. Hence, we propose a two-dimensional framework for analyzing and structuring teaching of natural selection. The first-purely biological-dimension embraces the three main principles variation, heredity, and selection structured in nine key concepts that form the core idea of natural selection. The second dimension encompasses four so-called thresholds, i.e., general abstract and/or non-perceptual concepts: randomness, probability, spatial scales, and temporal scales. We claim that both of these dimensions must be continuously considered, in tandem, when teaching evolution in order to allow development of a meaningful understanding of the process. Further, we suggest that making the thresholds tangible with the aid of appropriate kinds of visualizations will facilitate grasping of the threshold concepts, and thus, help learners to overcome the difficulties in understanding the central theory of life.

  • 8.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolving germs – Introducing novice pupils to the evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a dual relationship between antibiotic resistance and biological evolution. Antibiotic resistance is typically used as a motivation for why we need an efficient evolution education given that evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes and suggested countermeasures. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance has also been suggested as a useful context in which evolution can be taught, based primarily but not solely on the quick generation times of bacteria. In the present study, we explore the potential benefits with using antibiotic resistance as an example when introducing evolution to novice pupils (aged 13-14). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3-5 (total n=32). Data was collected on both individual (pre-posttest) and group (collaborative group questions) level. In addition, the exercise was video-taped and the full transcripts were analyzed inductively. The results show that a majority of the pupils succeeded in applying basic evolutionary reasoning to make predictions on antibiotic resistance during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be a successful approach. Cautions to be aware of include pupils’ use of teleological and antropomorphic reasoning, especially in discussions on submicroscopical phenomena such as genetic processes. Implications for teaching include both lessons from the design of animations as well as the identification of common misunderstandings. The analysis also identifies and points toward several possible future research endeavours.

  • 9.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Department of Biology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    NTA-Digital – Tema Kroppen2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tema Kroppen är ett nytt digitalt tema inom NTA (Naturvetenskap och Teknik för Alla) som erbjuds årskurs 4-7 i alla anslutna skolor och kommuner. Det sjösätts tillsammans med ett nyproducerat tema om rymden under 2016 efter ett utvecklingsarbete som pågått sedan 2013. Sedan temat öppnade i slutet av våren har drygt 8 000 konton skapats. Projektledningen gav ”Visuellt lärande och kommunikation” (vid LiU och Norrköpings Visualiseringscenter) i uppdrag att, under ledning av Lena Tibell och Marie Rådbo, utforma en web-plattform samt innehåll och struktur för de två temana. Projektet har möjliggjorts genom ekonomiskt stöd från Marcus och Amalia Wallenbergs minnesfond.

    I tema Kroppen arbetar eleverna sig framåt i en historia genom att lösa uppgifter kopplade till ett antal av kroppens fysiologiska system (cirkulations-systemet, andning, matspjälkning, hormoner och nervsystemet). Till sin hjälp har de en interaktiv tredimensionell modell av människokroppen med integrerat faktamaterial och ett flertal simulatorer. För att lösa uppdragen krävs en kombination av arbete inne i portalen och fysiska laborationer som de utför i klassrummet. Utöver detta finns en inbyggd digital infrastruktur inom vilken eleverna lämnar in svar på uppgifter och kan kommunicera med sin lärare.

    Utvecklingsarbetet har utgått från tanken att kroppens system inte är isolerade från varandra utan står i ständig samverkan och påverkan. Ett flertal didaktiska hänsyn och frågeställningar har präglat arbetet; däribland lärande med modeller och representationer, att röra sig mellan olika skalnivåer, begreppssvårigheter och skildring av dynamiska förlopp.

    Vi kommer både visa upp exempel på hur temat och modellerna fungerar samt diskutera lärdomar och svårigheter som uppstått i utvecklingsarbetet. 

  • 10.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Härting, Jennifer
    IPN- Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik.
    Harms, Ute
    IPN- Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Criteria Catalogue Covering Multiple Evolutionary Aspects Including Threshold Concepts for Assessment of Animations Explaining Evolution2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Göransson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenlund, Jörgen
    Örebro University.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A Novel Computer Application for Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Visual Analogies of Randomness and Natural Selection2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A E
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenging Students’ Intuitions: The Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students’ Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly2015In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 663-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-ordered biological complex can be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble. This is a concept that incorporates issues that may contradict students’ everyday experiences and intuitions. In previous studies, we have shown that a tangible model of virus self-assembly, used in a group exercise, helps students to grasp the process of self-assembly and in particular the facet “random molecular collision”. The present study investigates how and why the model and the group exercise facilitate students’ learning of this particular facet. The data analysed consist of audio recordings of six group exercises (n = 35 university students) and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 5 university students). The analysis is based on constructivist perspectives of learning, a combination of conceptual change theory and learning with external representations. Qualitative analysis indicates that perceived counterintuitive aspects of the process created a cognitive conflict within learners. The tangible model used in the group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. In particular, the tangible model appeared to provide cues and possible explanations and functioned as an “eye-opener” and a “thinking tool”. Lastly, the results show signs of emotions also being important elements for successful accommodation.

  • 13.
    Orraryd, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creative evolution: Students generating stop-motion animations of evolutionary change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    iagrams have been used to visualize evolutionary relationships for more than 150 years, and are today readily found in many areas such as textbooks, media, museums and the scientific literature. The tree of life metaphor, where the diagram takes the form of an organic vertical tree has been used almost as long and is still used to a high degree in textbooks and at museums. Despite this high prevalence the instructional needed to develop tree-thinking abilities are often lacking, potentially leading to interpretational misconceptions of the evolutionary concepts presented.

    In this study 5 exhibitions with evolutionary content in natural science museums in the Nordic countries have been analysed in order to understand how evolutionary tree diagrams are incorporated in these exhibitions, what design is used and what instructional support is available to the visitor. A multi-modal social semiotic approach was used, where 3 functional levels were analysed together in order to assess the meaning making potential of the evolutionary trees in these exhibitions; i) content, representational process and design. ii) instruction and interactivity. iii) spatial and organizational composition. The analyses show a wide range of communication strategies; reaching from the evolutionary tree diagrams having a pivotal role in the exhibition narrative to being placed purely in the margin with no explicit connection to the overall evolutionary content. The instructional support is in many cases lacking but is sometimes incorporated in the presentational text of specific parts of the evolutionary tree, and the design ranges from tree of life type iconic visualisations to highly abstract renderings. Overall the evolutionary tree as a visual tool to communicate important evolutionary concepts seems to be used to a high degree but important aspects in order to better afford scientific correct interpretations of the trees are sometimes lacking.

  • 14.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diverse use of threshold concepts - A content analysis of online dynamic visualizations describing evolution.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an abundance of dynamic visualizations (animations, videos and simulations) that claim to explain evolution available on the Internet. The present study explores what aspects of evolution that are represented in these potential learning tools. A criteria catalogue covering 40 operationalized variables was used as a content analysis grid in the analysis of 71 dynamic visualizations. The concepts, derived from research literature, were operationalized into variables sorted into four different categories: (a) content-specific concepts (such as limited resources or inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (core concepts that transform and integrate understanding within a subject), (c) alternative conceptions (such as teleological explanations or anthropomorphism), and (d) model organism. The results indicate that some concepts are dominantly communicated while others are seldom or never included in online visualizations. Regarding the proposed threshold concepts, evolutionary events happening on small time- and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, were seldom observed. Rather, the focus was on events happening at a population level in time scales spanning from years and longer. This echoes with an observed lack of explanations regarding randomly occurring mutations providing the basis for variation. Implications include that there are components of evolution that would benefit from being addressed with an increased focus in biology teaching and science education research. The results may also serve as a useful toolkit in the design of new educational material.

  • 15.
    Granklint Enochson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Dempster, Edith R.
    University of KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa.
    Tibell, Lena Anna Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ideas about the Human Body among Secondary Students in South Africa2015In: African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1028-8457, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on how South African students’ ideas about the human body are constituted in their descriptions of three different scenarios involving the pathway of a sandwich, a painkiller and a glass of water through the body. In particular, we have studied the way in which the students transferred ideas between the sandwich and the painkiller compared with the students’ ability to explain the water pathway. The study surveyed 161 ninth-grade students in five different schools in South Africa. Data collection methods used were: drawings, written questions (open-ended items) and interviews with selected students. The questions emerged from the three scenarios—what happens in the body when you eat a sandwich, swallow a painkiller and drink a glass of water. We report that it is difficult for the students to transfer knowledge of the digestive system horizontally from the sandwich scenario to descriptions of the painkiller and water scenarios. The integration of three organ systems (digestive, circulatory and excretory) to describe the water scenario was even more difficult for the students than the horizontal transfer from the sandwich scenario. The students also showed a diversity of nonscientific descriptions, especially concerning the water scenario. The paper discusses why a large percentage of the students (50%) included non-scientific ideas in their decriptions of the water scenario.

  • 16.
    Hennig, Janosch
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen GmbH, Germany; Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Andrésen, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Museth, Anna Katrine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. CALTECH, CA 91125 USA.
    Lundström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local Destabilization of the Metal-Binding Region in Human Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase by Remote Mutations Is a Possible Determinant for Progression of ALS2015In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 323-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 100 distinct mutations in the gene CuZnSOD encoding human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) have been associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), a fatal neuronal disease. Many studies of different mutant proteins have found effects on protein stability, catalytic activity, and metal binding, but without a common pattern. Notably, these studies were often performed under conditions far from physiological. Here, we have used experimental conditions of pH 7 and 37 degrees C and at an ionic strength of 0.2 M to mimic physiological conditions as close as possible in a sample of pure protein. Thus, by using NMR spectroscopy, we have analyzed amide hydrogen exchange of the fALS-associated I113T CuZnSOD variant in its fully metalated state, both at 25 and 37 degrees C, where (15)N relaxation data, as expected, reveals that CuZnSOD I113T exists as a dimer under these conditions. The local dynamics at 82% of all residues have been analyzed in detail. When compared to the wild-type protein, it was found that I113T CuZnSOD is particularly destabilized locally at the ion binding sites of loop 4, the zinc binding loop, which results in frequent exposure of the aggregation prone outer beta-strands I and VI of the beta-barrel, possibly enabling fibril or aggregate formation. A similar study (Museth, A. K., et al. (2009) Biochemistry, 48, 8817-8829) of amide hydrogen exchange at pH 7 and 25 degrees C on the G93A variant also revealed a selective destabilization of the zinc binding loop. Thus, a possible scenario in ALS is that elevated local dynamics at the metal binding region can result in toxic species from formation of new interactions at local beta-strands.

  • 17.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Harms, Ute
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, Germany.
    Lowering the Threshold - New Approaches for Teaching and Learning Evolution2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of evolution is widely considered to be one of the most important and groundbreaking theories in science history and essentially underpins all modern biology, from ecology through to medicine. Darwin's theory of evolution explains how all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor. Since the theory of evolution was first presented more than 150 years ago, results from across the life sciences have verified and enhanced details of this theory. There are a multitude of implications of direct societal importance for evolutionary aspects, e.g. antibiotic resistance, emergence of new diseases as well as responses and adaptations to climate change. Therefore, a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory is essential for many areas of individual, social and scientific life. However, science education research has shown that the theory of evolution presents severe problems to learners, and many teaching strategies have failed or proven to be inefficient to solve them (e.g. Kampourakis & Zogza, 2008). Taking this knowledge into account the aim of our contribution is to propose new ways of teaching, learning and probing understanding about evolution. The first study applies the method of learning with worked examples to learning evolution. Worked examples have been shown to support the understanding of demanding scientific contents as well as of contents in other disciplines by empirical investigations (Chi et al., 1994). Here, worked examples are used in a very differentiated way, i.e. adjusted to the prior knowledge of the students. The second study attempts a new way to explore students’ conceptions of evolution by using student-generated animations. In many studies, students’ conceptions of evolution have been probed using interviews as well as paper and pencil tests, ranging from multiple-choice questionnaires to essays (e.g. Balgopal & Montplaisir, 2009). However, Nehm and Schonfeld (2008) showed that students’ results are strongly dependent on the particular method applied. The second study investigates a new method of exploring students’ conceptions of evolution, i.e. animations, which were generated by the students themselves in a collaborative setting.

    Nehm and Reilly (2007) have suggested targeting misconceptions and core concepts as tools for explaining particular evolutionary scenarios. This would be in line with well-established conceptual change theories in science education (Strike & Posner 1992). The third, fourth and fifth study of our symposium is linked to these considerations. They focus on fundamental features of the evolutionary concept, i.e. thresholds concepts such as randomness, probability or spatio-temporal scales, which the authors hypothesize to be necessary to grasp the theory of evolution. The construct of evolution is composed of fundamental abstract ideas. Some of these concepts are in fact contra-intuitive and have to be connected in complex conceptual patterns for a full comprehension of evolution theory. Evolution spans spatial and temporal scales, from the development of life and species over millions of years, to the explanations of events that occur at the cellular and molecular level, and in time scales from microseconds to minutes and hours. Some kinds of visualizations are needed for making these concepts tangible for learners. Thousands of animations, dealing with evolution, are available on the Internet. The third paper presented proposes a criteria catalogue covering multiple evolutionary aspects including threshold concepts for the evaluation of animations meant for explaining evolution. The aim of this study was to map the presence (or absence) of important concepts in dynamic educational visualizations on evolution. By using the developed criteria catalogue, the study elucidates what concepts are focused on in animations, video clips and simulations and whether there are relevant evolutionary concepts in these media that are seldom represented or not represented at all. Paper four goes one step further: the explorative study shows the development and evaluation of a novel interactive visualization application intended to convey key mechanisms of natural selection such as random variation, selection and development over generations. The aim was to investigate students reasoning while working with this interactive simulation application stressing the threshold concept of randomness in the context of genetic variation. The final study presented in this contribution aims to investigate if problems in understanding evolution as well as in the development of misconceptions can be overcome by fostering the understanding of the threshold concept randomness.

    Through this contribution, the authors aim to contribute to further development of the teaching and learning of evolution at secondary as well as higher educational levels.

  • 18.
    Göransson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Orraryd, Daniel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Searching for threshold concepts in evolution by using an open response instrument2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite decades of research evolution remains a challenge to teachers and learners. Student reasoning about evolutionary processes tend to lack important key concepts and exhibits a range of well documented alternative conceptions. New research in the domain of conceptual change has generated the notion of threshold concepts. Threshold concepts focus on abstract concepts thought to underlie difficult content in a discipline. The hope is that this research will contribute to better teaching practises as well as understanding of what makes certain discipline content difficult. Earlier research has revealed candidate threshold concepts underlying understanding of evolution. Our aim of this study was to pilot ways to assess if and which threshold concept student use in response to different items as well if different contexts facilitates integration of threshold concepts in explanations. We used a published evolution test instrument to assess the presence of evolution key concepts, threshold concepts. The test instrument was piloted on 113 Swedish upper secondary and university students. Analysis revealed the presence of evolution key concepts as well as threshold concepts and alternative conceptions. The context of the question seem to affect what threshold concepts are used by students. We also found indications of a relation between evolution key concepts and threshold concepts usage. Implications for future research as well as teaching are briefly discussed.

  • 19.
    Skar, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena A E
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The potential of the evolutionary tree as mediational means in museum exhibitions containing key evolutionary concepts2015In: Non-formal Learning Environments, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagrams have been used to visualize evolutionary relationships for more than 150 years, and are today readily found in many areas such as textbooks, media, museums and the scientific literature. The tree of life metaphor, where the diagram takes the form of an organic vertical tree has been used almost as long and is still used to a high degree in textbooks and at museums. Despite this high prevalence the instructional needed to develop tree-thinking abilities are often lacking, potentially leading to interpretational misconceptions of the evolutionary concepts presented.

    In this study 5 exhibitions with evolutionary content in natural science museums in the Nordic countries have been analysed in order to understand how evolutionary tree diagrams are incorporated in these exhibitions, what design is used and what instructional support is available to the visitor. A multi-modal social semiotic approach was used, where 3 functional levels were analysed together in order to assess the meaning making potential of the evolutionary trees in these exhibitions; i) content, representational process and design. ii) instruction and interactivity. iii) spatial and organizational composition. The analyses show a wide range of communication strategies; reaching from the evolutionary tree diagrams having a pivotal role in the exhibition narrative to being placed purely in the margin with no explicit connection to the overall evolutionary content. The instructional support is in many cases lacking but is sometimes incorporated in the presentational text of specific parts of the evolutionary tree, and the design ranges from tree of life type iconic visualisations to highly abstract renderings. Overall the evolutionary tree as a visual tool to communicate important evolutionary concepts seems to be used to a high degree but important aspects in order to better afford scientific correct interpretations of the trees are sometimes lacking.

  • 20.
    Göransson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenlund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    An interactive visualization for communicating troublesome concepts of natural selection.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Troublesome concepts such as randomness, probability and temporal scale have been suggested as important for understanding evolution. I e earlier research has shown that learners often fail to grasp the random component of natural selection and tend to conceptualize adaptation as directed or driven by the needs of the organism. There is some evidence in the literature that interventions targeting randomness in evolution might contribute to better understanding of natural selection. Since external representations such as visualizations has the potential help learners grasp difficult concepts in science, we designed an interactive visualization that focus on some of the troublesome concepts of evolution. The aim of the present pilot study was to explore possible effects of the application on students reasoning as part of a guided group exercise. In particular, we were interested in whether the aspects focused on in the application were discussed and if the students were able to transfer the symbolism in the application to the process of natural selection. The empirical data (recorded interviews and written answers) were collected during a biology course for primary teachers (n=14) and subjected to qualitative content analysis. We found that students’ engagement with the task and in the discussions was high. The transcripts revelead frequent analogies between the visualization and examples from evolution. Accumulated and gradual change over time  also was a recurrent theme. Thus, our preliminary results add support to reports suggesting that using interactive visualizations in combination with pre-worked tasks and peer-discussion can facilitate students’ cognitive development of troublesome concepts.

  • 21.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att se det osynliga: Visualiseringar som meningsskapande verktyg för kommunikation av molekylär livsvetenskap2014In: Resultatdialog 2014, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, p. 202-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med projektet var att studera visuella representationers roll som verktyg för kommunikation och lärande inom molekylär livsvetenskap utifråntre övergripande frågeställningar:

    • Vilka kritiska egenskaper hos visualiseringar är avgörande för hur de tolkas?
    • Hur påverkas lärandeprocessen av olika visuella representationer?
    • Hur påverkas lärandeprocessen av hur den visuella representationen används?

    Projektet har inbegripit såväl metodologisk utveckling som forskningsresultat som kan stödja konstruktionen och användandet av visualiseringar i kommunikativ praktik.

  • 22.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolution on the set – A conceptual characterization of online dynamic visualizations.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its recognized importance, the theory of evolution presents severe problems to learners. A common approach in science education research involves the division of evolution in conceptual constructs, lately also including the role of threshold concepts. These are seminal ideas that open up new ways of thinking about and interpreting previously known processes. For understanding of evolution, threshold concepts consist of, for example, randomness, probability and wide-stretched spatio-temporal scales. An abundance of dynamic visualizations (animations, videos and simulations), attempting to explain evolution, are available on the Internet. The aim with our study was to map what aspects of evolution that are represented in these visualizations. A criteria catalogue covering 42 operationalized variables was used as a content analysis grid in the analysis of a sample selection including 71 dynamic visualizations. The variables include evolution content concepts (such as limited resources and differential survival) and proposed threshold concepts (such as explicit mentioning of factors influenced by randomness or level of organization in space and time, including connections between submicro- and macro aspects). Furthermore, it includes common alternative conceptions (such as anthropomorphism or that evolution is driven by need). Two raters conducted the analysis with an overlapping reliability sample covering 23 visualizations. Intercoder reliability was calculated using Krippendorff’s alpha. The results indicate that some concepts are dominantly communicated while others are seldom or never included in online visualizations. Regarding the proposed threshold concepts, evolutionary events happening on small time- and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, were seldom observed. Rather, the focus was on events happening at a population level in time scales spanning from years and longer. Implications include that there are components of evolution that would benefit from being addressed more explicit. The results may also serve as a useful toolkit in the design of new educational material.

  • 23.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nationella forskarskolan i naturvetenskapernas, matematikens och teknikens didaktik: Lärarlyftet 1 – LicFontD12014In: Resultatdialog 2014, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, p. 210-217Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nationella forskarskolan i naturvetenskapernas, teknikens och matematikens didaktik (FontD) var ett samarbete mellan 10 lärosäten med Linköpings universitet (LiU), som värdlärosäte, partnerlärosätena Malmö högskola (MaH), Högskolan i Kalmar (HiK), Högskolan i Kristianstad (HKr), Karlstad Universitet (KaU), Umeå universitet (UmU), Mälardalens högskola (MdH), Högskolan i Halmstad (HiH), Mittuniversitetet (MiU), och Högskolan i Gävle (HiG). Verksamheten var ett samarbete mellan FontD, ämnesdidaktiska respektive disciplinära avdelningar vid Linköpings universitet (Institutionen för Samhälls och välfärdsstudier (ISV), Fysik, Kemi och Biologi (IFM), Institutionen för Teknik och naturvetenskap (ITN), Tema Vatten (TemaV), institutionen för Matematik (MAI), och motsvarande institutioner vid medverkande lärosäten. Inom LiU påtog sig Områdesstyrelsen för utbildningsvetenskap värdansvaret. Forskarskolan uppgift var att bedriva forskarutbildning med relevans för yrkesverksamma lärare. Alla inriktningar erbjöds inom forskarskolans ram men utbudet varierade mellan de ingående lärosätena.

    Innehållet i forskningsutbildningen gällde naturvetenskap, matematik och teknik och hade en disciplinär och en ämnesdidaktisk inriktning. I forskarutbildningens kurser och seminarier ägnades särskild omsorg om frågor som gäller teoretiska och metodiska perspektiv, yrkes‐ och skolrelevans, samt att utveckla förmågan att professionellt och regelmässigt ta del av internationell och nationell forskning. Forskarskolan omfattade 25 forskarstuderande som antogs under hösten 2008.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Children's reasoning and representations about living and non-living things2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of the concept ‘life’ and what characterise ‘living things’ is important as a foundation for learning in biology. In a more general view, this understanding can make children develop awareness, respect and responsibility for life as members of a society and in decision making for sustainable development. The present pilot study aim to investigate 5-6 year old pre-school children’s reasoning and representations about living and nonliving things. In cognitive developmental research, the concept of life is well investigated but, questions still remain regarding how children reason around and represent these concepts. Previous research has found that children have difficulties in including plants as living things. Moreover, it is found that young children include e.g. the sun, clouds and rocks as living things. The methods that have been used are often quantitative and use picture-cards with different objects for the children to categorize. In the present pilot study a modified methodology was applied. Children’s drawings of what they consider as living and non-living were collected and picture-cards were used as point of departure for reasoning. In interviews the children were encouraged to explain and express their ideas. The drawings and the cards mainly worked as a meaning making tool for the children. Results from the study will be presented and discussed. 

  • 25.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Olson, Arthur
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Student Learning about Biomolecular Self-Assembly Using Two Different External Representations2013In: CBE - Life Sciences Education, ISSN 1931-7913, E-ISSN 1931-7913, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly is the fundamental but counterintuitive principle that explains how ordered biomolecular complexes form spontaneously in the cell. This study investigated the impact of using two external representations of virus self-assembly, an interactive tangible three-dimensional model and a static two-dimensional image, on student learning about the process of self-assembly in a group exercise. A conceptual analysis of self-assembly into a set of facets was performed to support study design and analysis. Written responses were collected in a pretest/posttest experimental design with 32 Swedish university students. A quantitative analysis of close-ended items indicated that the students improved their scores between pretest and posttest, with no significant difference between the conditions (tangible model/image). A qualitative analysis of an open-ended item indicated students were unfamiliar with self-assembly prior to the study. Students in the tangible model condition used the facets of self-assembly in their open-ended posttest responses more frequently than students in the image condition. In particular, it appears that the dynamic properties of the tangible model may support student understanding of self-assembly in terms of the random and reversible nature of molecular interactions. A tentative difference was observed in response complexity, with more multifaceted responses in the tangible model condition.

  • 26.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att inSe - Om visualisering i biologiundervisningen2012In: Bi-lagan, ISSN 2000-8139, no 3, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring childrens' views of what's inside the body2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of living a healthy life in an everyday context is promoted in schools and preschools. The discussion often focuses on what food is healthy, and that one should eat enough but not too much. The connection between food and beverages and their role in the body is seldom discussed. Students’ ideas about how the human body functions have been investigated in several studies but few have focused on young children. In this study, we investigate young children’s conceptions related to this topic and how their ideas develop. Seventy-nine pre- and primary school children, aged 4-11, participated in individual focus interviews wherein the children were asked to draw and explain their understanding. Our results confirm several findings observed by other workers. However, in contrast with earlier studies, 10 of seventeen 4-5 year-old children indicated the stomach, and more than half of those children described how food can be utilized in the body to extract energy. Furthermore, the brain was among the most commonly mentioned organs cross all age groups. Interestingly, the level of expertise varied and did not covariate with age. For example, five of eight of the 4 year-old children draw 5-8 organs, while a single 10 year-old child could only mention three. Similarly, two of thirteen 7-year old children provided an almost completely correct description of the digestive tract and its function, while most of the older children expressed a much less developed understanding. The results reflect the wide range of different conceptual ideas that teachers confront in a day-to-day classroom context.

  • 28.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Learning Goals and Conceptual Difficulties in Cell Metabolism: An explorative study of university lectures' views2012In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 447-461Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development and increasing inter- and multi-disciplinarity of life sciences call for revisions of life science course curricula, recognizing (inter alia) the need to compromise between covering specific phenomena and general processes/principles. For these reasons there have been several initiatives to standardize curricula, and various authors have assessed general curricular requirements. The results have shown that teacher preferences strongly influence both topic arrangement and course content, and generating consensus among scientists and lecturers is challenging. Applying a somewhat different approach, we have focused on a limited part of the curriculum (cell metabolism). Using Delphi methodology, in four rounds of surveys we investigated phenomena that 15 experienced, practicing lecturers consider to be central aspects for students to learn in the cell metabolism module of an introductory university course.

    The overall aim was to identify learning goals of special concern, i.e. aspects considered by the teachers to be both central and difficult for students to understand. Our informants emphasized learning goals of overarching and principal type, e.g. to be able to couple different system levels (from molecules to cells to organisms) and grasp the interactions between them. However, they also expect detailed knowledge, e.g. to know the structure of central biomolecules and metabolites. The main result of the study is a ranked list of learning goals of special concern in cell metabolism. We also identified both important learning goals and difficulties that have not been previously reported (even though they are covered by most textbooks), e.g. that energy production occurs in well-regulated steps and the necessity of proximity and common intermediates for coupled reactions.

  • 29.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Students’ Communicative Resources in Relation to Their Conceptual Understanding—The Role of Non-Conventionalized Expressions in Making Sense of Visualizations of Protein Function2012In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 891-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how students explain their conceptual understanding of protein function using visualizations. Thirteen upper secondary students, four tertiary students (studying chemical biology), and two experts were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water transport through a channel in the cell membrane. In the analysis of the transcripts, a score, based on the SOLO-taxonomy, was given to each student to indicate the conceptual depth achieved in their explanations. The use of scientific terms and non-conventionalized expressions in the students’ explanations were investigated based upon a semiotic approach. The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between use of scientific terms and level of education. However, there was no correlation between students’ use of scientific terms and conceptual depth. In the interviews, we found that non-conventionalized expressions were used by several participants to express conceptual understanding and played a role in making sense of the visualizations of protein function. Interestingly, also the experts made use of non-conventionalized expressions. The results of our study imply that more attention should be drawn to students’ use of scientific and non-conventionalized terms in relation to their conceptual understanding.

  • 30.
    Strömdahl, Helge
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tecken i tiden: utmaningar och inriktningar2012In: Skola och naturvetenskap: politik, praktik, problematik i ämnesdidaktisk belysning / [ed] Helge Strömdahl & Lena Tibell, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2012, 1, p. 327-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Didaktikforskning med inriktning mot naturvetenskap är ett forskningsfält som är under stark utveckling och tillväxt. Förutom dess förankring i de naturvetenskapliga disciplinerna är den ett multidisciplinärt område med inflöde från exempelvis vetenskapshistoria och filosofi, kognitiv psykologi, lingvistik, neurovetenskap och perceptionsforskning. Vi noterar dessutom ett ökat intresse för ämnesdidaktiksk forskning bland företrädare för de vetenskapliga disciplinerna och i lärarutbildningen. Direktiven för den nu aktuella nya lärarutbildningen och regeringens proposition, Bäst i klassen – en ny lärarutbildning (SOU 2009/10:89) talar ett tydligt språk i den riktningen genom att ämnesdidaktikens plats i ämnesstudierna poängteras. Förhoppningsvis innebär inflödet av forskningsbaserad didaktisk kunskap i lärarutbildningen att effektiv undervisning kommer till stånd i skola och högskola med åtföljande goda läranderesultat. I detta avslutande kapitel ger vi en kortfattad exposé över den forskning som speglas i antologins olika kapitel samt den naturvetenskapsdidaktiska forskning som är under framväxt. Syftet är att stimulera läsaren till att ta del av forskningsresultat, delta i forskningsprojekt eller att påbörja egen forskning.

  • 31.
    Akner-Kohler, Cheryl
    et al.
    Grythytte Academy, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aesthetics and nanostructure2011In: International Innovation, ISSN 2041-4552, p. 97-99Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Critical aspects and how students concretize their molecular understanding: benefits and potential pitfalls with an animation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effects of an animation of ATP synthesis in mitochondria on students understanding of the process. University students were exposed to the animation without narration before their introductory course in cell metabolism. Our intention was to identify any visual aspects of the animation that helped students to understand the process, and how the animation influenced their reasoning. In a mixed-method design, individual questionnaires were administered and group discussions performed. We identified three features of the animation which helped the students to understand critical aspects of the process, namely 1) molecular dynamics, 2) an explicitly visualized coupling between the flow of protons through the protein complex and ATP-synthesis 3) movements and induced conformational changes in the proteins during the process. We also observed that students showed difficulties in predicting the reversibility of the reaction. Analogies might enhance the meaningfulness and provide qualitative insights of sub-microscopic explanations. Albeit so, our preliminary analysis of the group discussions indicates that they are also sometimes misleading and can act as traps that induce erroneous chemical reasoning. 

  • 33.
    Bivall, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ainsworth, Shaaron
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, U.K..
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Do Haptic Representations Help Complex Molecular Learning?2011In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 700-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether adding a haptic interface (that provides users with somatosensory information about virtual objects by force and tactile feedback) to a three-dimensional (3D) chemical model enhanced students' understanding of complex molecular interactions. Two modes of the model were compared in a between-groups pre- and posttest design. In both modes, users could move and rotate virtual 3D representations of the chemical structures of the two molecules, a protein and a small ligand molecule. In addition, in a haptic mode users could feel the interactions (repulsive and attractive) between molecules as forces with a haptic device. Twenty postgraduate students (10 in each condition) took pretests about the process of protein--ligand recognition before exploring the model in ways suggested by structured worksheets and then completing a posttest. Analysis addressed quantitative learning outcomes and more qualitatively students' reasoning during the learning phase. Results showed that the haptic system helped students learn more about the process of protein–ligand recognition and changed the way they reasoned about molecules to include more force-based explanations. It may also have protected students from drawing erroneous conclusions about the process of protein–ligand recognition observed when students interacted with only the visual model.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring how a physical model can support students’ understanding of random molecular processes2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring relationships between students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2011In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 2095-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores tertiary students’ interaction with a haptic virtual model representing the specific binding of two biomolecules, a core concept in molecular life science education. Twenty students assigned to a haptics (experimental) or no-haptics (control) condition performed a “docking” task where users sought the most favourable position between a ligand and protein molecule, while students’ interactions with the model were logged. Improvement in students’ understanding of biomolecular binding was previously measured by comparing written responses to a target conceptual question before and after interaction with the model. A log-profiling tool visualized students’ movement of the ligand molecule during the docking task. Multivariate parallel coordinate analyses explored any relationships in the entire student data set. The haptics group produced a tighter constellation of collected final docked ligand positions in comparison with no-haptics students, coupled to docking profiles that depicted a more fine-tuned ligand traversal. Students in the no-haptics condition employed double the amount of interactive behaviours concerned with switching between different visual chemical representations offered by the model. In the no-haptics group, this visually intense processing was synonymous with erroneously ‘fitting’ the ligand closer distances to the protein surface. Students who showed higher learning gains tended to engage fewer visual representational switches, and were from the haptics group, while students with a higher spatial ability also engaged fewer visual representational switches, irrespective of assigned condition. From an information-processing standpoint, visual and haptic coordination may offload the visual pathway by placing less strain on visual working memory. From an embodied cognition perspective, visual and tactile sensorimotor interactions in the macroworld may provide access to constructing knowledge about submicroscopic phenomena. The results have cognitive and practical implications for the use of multimodal virtual reality technologies in educational contexts.

  • 36.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bivall, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring relationships between students’ interaction and learning with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2011Data set
  • 37.
    Olausson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Påhlsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Production and characterization of a monomeric form and a single-site form of Aleuria aurantia lectin2011In: Glycobiology, ISSN 0959-6658, E-ISSN 1460-2423, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lectins have been widely used in structural and functional studies of complex carbohydrates. Lectins usually bind carbohydrates with relatively low affinity but compensate for this by multivalency. When using lectins in different biological and analytical assays the multivalent nature of lectins can sometimes produce unwanted reactions such as agglutination or precipitation of target glycoproteins. The mushroom lectin Aleuria aurantia binds to fucose-containing oligosaccharides. It is composed of two identical subunits where each subunit contains five binding sites for fucose. In the present study two forms of recombinant AAL were produced using site-directed mutagenesis. A monomeric form of AAL was produced by exchange of Tyr6 to Arg6, and a monovalent fragment of AAL was produced by insertion of a NdeI restriction enzyme cleavage site and a stop codon in the coding sequence. The AAL forms were expressed as His-tagged proteins in E.coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Binding properties of the two AAL forms were performed using hemagglutination assay, surface plasmon resonance and enzyme-linked lectin assay analyses. Both the monomeric AAL form (mAAL) and the monovalent AAL form (S2-AAL) retained their capacity to bind fucosylated oligosaccharides. However, both constructs exhibited properties that differed from the intact recombinant AAL (rAAL). Monomeric AAL showed similar binding affinities to fucosylated oligosaccharides compared to rAAL but had less hemagglutinating capacity. S2-AAL showed a lower binding affinity to fucosylated oligosaccharides and, in contrast to rAAL and mAAL, S2-AAL did not bind to sialylated fuco-oligosaccharides such as sialyl-Lex. The study shows that molecular engineering techniques may be a tool for producing lectins with more defined properties such as decreased valency and defined specificities and affinities. This may be very valuable for development of reliable diagnostic and biological assays for carbohydrate analysis.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Trevor
    School of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using a teaching-learning sequence (TLS), based on a physical model, to develop students' understanding of self-assembly2011In: Authenticity in Biology Education: Benefits and Challenges / [ed] Yarden, A & Carvalho, G. S., Braga, Portugal: CIEC, Universidade do Minho , 2011, p. 67-77Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly is a biological process in which free subunits combine to form molecular complexes. Despite being considered one of the ‘big ideas’ in molecular life sciences, only limited education research has been performed on this topic. The objectives of this study were to investigate students’ learning of self-assembly in an authentic learning environment: a teaching-learning sequence (TLS). Twenty third-year biochemistry students in South Africa participated in the study. The TLS included a tutorial exercise with a physical model of a poliovirus capsid. A mixed-methods approach was employed to collect qualitative and quantitative data from interviews and written pre- and post-tests. A significant improvement in test scores was found, and it was observed that the TLS could support students’ understanding of self-assembly. Some conceptual and visualization difficulties were also identified. Using the model in a TLS was associated with positive attitudes and engagement among the participants.

  • 39.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Critical Features of Visualizations of Transport through the Cell Membrane: An Empirical Study of Upper Secondary and Tertiary Students' Meaning-Making of a Still Image and an Animation2010In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 223-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Images, diagrams and other forms of visualization are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science teaching and research, both for conveying information and as conceptual tools, transforming the way we think about the events and processes the subject covers. This study examines how upper secondary and tertiary students interpret visualizations of transport through the cell membrane in the form of a still image and an animation. Twenty upper secondary and five tertiary students were interviewed. In addition, 31 university students participated in a group discussion and answered a questionnaire regarding the animation. A model, based on variation theory, was then tested as a tool for distinguishing between what is expected to be learned, what is present in the visualizations, and what is actually learned by the students.

    Three critical features of the ability to visualize biomolecular processes were identified from the students’ interpretations of the animation: the complexity of biomolecular processes, the dynamic and random nature of biomolecular interactions, and extrapolation between 2D and 3D. The results of this study support the use of multiple representations to achieve different learning goals.

  • 40.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan A.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science- Characteristics and implications for education and research2010In: CBE - Life Sciences Education, ISSN 1931-7913, E-ISSN 1931-7913, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science is one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation, and biotechnology has profound effects on many aspects of daily life, often with deep ethical dimensions. At the same time the content is inherently complex, highly abstract and deeply rooted in diverse disciplines ranging from “pure sciences,” such as maths, chemistry, and physics, through “applied sciences”, such as medicine and agriculture, to subjects that are traditionally within the remit of humanities, notably philosophy and ethics. Together these features pose diverse, important, and exciting challenges for tomorrow’s teachers and educational establishments.

    With backgrounds in molecular life science research and secondary life science teaching, we (LT and CJR, respectively) bring different experiences, perspectives, concerns, and awareness of these issues. Taking the nature of the discipline as a starting point, we highlight important facets of molecular life science that are both characteristic of the domain and challenging for learning and education. Of these challenges we focus in most detail on content, reasoning difficulties, and communication issues. We also discuss implications for education research and teaching in the molecular life sciences.

  • 41.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA).
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Help-words – a Creative Way of Making Sense of visualizations in molecular life science2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When confronted with the representations and terms of science, students make meaning using the knowledge and language they possess. They make frequent use of conventional expressions, but they also use words that seemingly have no conventional meaning, here labelled help-words. This study explores the verbal resources upper secondary students use to make meaning of molecular life science. The paper gives a description of the phenomenon of non-conventionalised expressions, help-words, based on a study of 20 upper secondary students. The results indicate that help-words are meaningful in learning situations, especially in abstract disciplines such as molecular life science.

  • 42.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methods for investigating students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual biomolecular model2010In: Contemporary Science Education Research: International Perspectives / [ed] M.F. Taşar & G. Çakmakcı, Ankara: Pegem Akademi , 2010, p. 115-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although immersive haptic virtual technologies are emerging rapidly in modern education, few methods exist for delivering data on the pedagogical merits of such models in the molecular life sciences. This paper reports on a selection of methods that we have used to obtain and analyse data on students’ learning and interaction with a haptic virtual model of protein-ligand docking, previously designed by author PBP. The methods have been developed and employed during four consecutive years in which the model has been part of an advanced biomolecular interactions course. In this regard, we present data-collection methods that include written items, interviews, think-aloud tasks and automated time-stamped logs and, corresponding quantitative and qualitative analytical procedures such as pre/posttest statistical comparisons, word usage analysis and, visualised profiling of students’ interaction with the model. Our results suggest that these methods are useful for generating valuable information on students’ learning gain, changes in conceptual understanding, reasoning processes and patterns of interactivity with the model. Dissemination of such methods could provide an empirical contribution to the dearth of research instruments in this domain. Future research will develop these methodologies to explore the relationship between using the model and students’ conceptual and embodied learning.

  • 43.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Students’ Use of Terms and Conceptual Understanding inMaking Meaning of Visualizations of Protein Function2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular life science has become one of the fastest-growing fields regarding scientific and technical innovation. Images, diagrams and other forms of visualizations are playing increasingly important roles in molecular life science research, teaching and learning. This study examines how upper secondary students interpret visualizations of protein function. Thirteen upper secondary students and four tertiary students (majoring in biochemistry) were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were structured around two 2D illustrations of proteins and an animated representation of water molecules being transported through a channel in the cell membrane. In the analysis of the transcripts, a score, based on the SOLO-taxonomy, was developed to evaluate the depth of students’ conceptual understanding. Furthermore, the relative use of scientific terms, metaphors, deictic and non-conventionalized expressions in the students’ explanations was also disclosed. The results indicate that the beginner students frequently use metaphors which came from their school education or created by themselves, i.e. spontaneous metaphors. Students also make use of non-conventionalized expressions that seemingly have no meaning in relation to scientific concepts and processes. The results from this study indicated that there was no simple positive correlation between use of scientific terms and the depth of conceptual understanding. Interestingly, in the interviews, non-conventionalized expressions were used to express conceptual understanding and they play a role in the meaning-making of the students. Moreover, the results revealed that difficulties in science education may to a large degree be connected to the potential problems concerning communicating the precise and general nature of scientific terms.

  • 44.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Death of Metaphors in Life Science?: A study of upper secondary and tertiary students' use of metaphors and help-words in their meaning-making of scientific content.2009In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 10, no 3, p. Article 3-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported in this article investigated the use of metaphors by upper secondary and tertiary students while learning a specific content area in molecular life science, protein function. Terms and expressions in science can be used in such precise and general senses that they are totally dissociated from their metaphoric origins. Beginners in a scientific field, however, lack the experience of using a term of metaphorical origin in its domain-specific precise and general sense, and may therefore be more cognitively affected than the expert by the underlying metaphor. The study shows that beginners in the field of molecular life science use spontaneous metaphors and metaphors used in teaching in a way that demonstrates that they have difficulty using the proper scientific terminology. The results of this study indicate, among other things, that difficulties in science education may, to a large degree, be connected with problems of communicating the generality and precision of scientific terms and metaphors used in science. The article ends with a suggestion as how to enable students to move from general and vague metaphoric uses of scientific terms toward a more general and precise usage.

  • 45.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improved Feature Detection over Large Force Ranges Using History Dependent Transfer Functions2009In: Third Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments and Teleoperator Systems, WorldHaptics 2009, IEEE , 2009, p. 476-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a history dependent transfer function (HDTF) as a possible approach to enable improved haptic feature detection in high dynamic range (HDR) volume data. The HDTF is a multi-dimensional transfer function that uses the recent force history as a selection criterion to switch between transfer functions, thereby adapting to the explored force range. The HDTF has been evaluated using artificial test data and in a realistic application example, with the HDTF applied to haptic protein-ligand docking. Biochemistry experts performed docking tests, and expressed that the HDTF delivers the expected feedback across a large force magnitude range, conveying both weak attractive and strong repulsive protein-ligand interaction forces. Feature detection tests have been performed with positive results, indicating that the HDTF improves the ability of feature detection in HDR volume data as compared to a static transfer function covering the same range.

  • 46.
    Museth, Anna Katrine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brorsson, Ann-Christin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology .
    Lundqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The ALS-Associated Mutation G93A in Human Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Selectively Destabilizes the Remote Metal Binding Region2009In: BIOCHEMISTRY, ISSN 0006-2960, Vol. 48, no 37, p. 8817-8829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 100 distinct mutations in the gene (SOD 1) for human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) have been associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Studies of these mutant proteins, which often have been performed under far from physiological conditions, have indicated effects oil protein stabilities, catalytic activity, kind metal binding affinities but with no common pattern. Also, with the knowledge that ALS is a late onset disease it is apparent that protein interactions which contribute to the disorder might, in the natural cellular milieu, depend on a delicate balance between intrinsic protein properties. In this study, we have used experimental conditions as near as possible to the in vivo conditions to reduce artifacts emanating from the experimental setup. Using H-1-N-15 HSQC NMR spectroscopy, we have analyzed hydrogen exchange at the amide groups of wild-type (wt) CuZnSOD and the fALS-associated G93A SOD variant in their fully metalated states. From analyses of the exchange pattern, we have characterized the local dynamics at 64% of all positions in detail in both the wt and G93A protein. The results show that the G93A mutation had no effect on the dynamics at a majority of the investigated positions. However, the mutation results in local destabilization at the site of the Mutation and also in stabilization at a few positions that were apparently scattered over the entire protein surface. Most remarkably, the mutation selectively destabilized the remote metal binding region. The results indicate that the metal binding region may affect the intermolecular protein-protein interactions which cause formation of protein aggregates.

  • 47.
    Ahl, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermodynamic Characterization of the Interaction between the C-Terminal Domain of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Heparin by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry2009In: BIOCHEMISTRY, ISSN 0006-2960, Vol. 48, no 41, p. 9932-9940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) interacts with heparin through its C-terminal domain. In this study we used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to get detailed thermodynamic information about the interaction. We have shown that the interaction between ECSOD and intestinal mucosal heparin (M-w 6000-30000 Da) is exothermic and driven by enthalpy at physiological salt concentration. However, the contribution from entropy is favorable for binding or small isolated heparin fragments. By studying different size-defined heparin fragments, we also concluded that it hexasaccharide moiety is sufficient for strong binding to ECSOD. The binding involves proton transfer from the buffer to the ECSOD-heparin complex, and the results indicate that the number of ionic interactions made between ECSOD and heparin upon binding varies from three to five for heparin and an octasaccharide fragment, respectively. Surprisingly and despite the many charges found oil both the protein and the polysaccharide, our results indicate that the nonionic contribution to the binding is large. From the temperature dependence we have calculated the constant pressure heat capacity change (Delta C-p) of the interaction to -644 J K-1 mol(-1) and -306 J K-1 mol(-1) for heparin and all octasaccharide, respectively

  • 48.
    Larsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olson, Arthur
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using a Dynamic Physical Model to help Students Visualize the Process of Self-assembly2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Olausson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Påhlsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Detection of a high affinity binding site in recombinantAleuria aurantia lectin2008In: Glycoconjugate Journal, ISSN 0282-0080, E-ISSN 1573-4986, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 753-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins that are involved in many recognition events at molecular and cellular levels. Lectin-oligosaccharide interactions are generally considered to be of weak affinity, however some mushroom lectins have unusually high binding affinity towards oligosaccharides with Kd values in the micromolar range. This would make mushroom lectins ideal candidates to study protein–carbohydrate interactions. In the present study we investigated the properties of a recombinant form of the mushroom lectin Aleuria aurantia (AAL). AAL is a fucose-binding lectin composed of two identical 312-amino acid subunits. Each subunit contains five binding sites for fucose. We found that one of the binding sites in rAAL had unusually high affinities towards fucose and fucosecontaining oligosaccharides with Kd values in the nanomolar range. This site could bind to oligosaccharides with fucose linked α1-2, α1-3 or α1-4, but in contrast to the other binding sites in AAL it could not bind oligosaccharides with α1-6 linked fucose. This binding site is not detected in native AAL (nAAL) one possible explanation may be that this site is blocked with free fucose in nAAL. Recombinant AAL was produced in E. coli as a His-tagged protein, and purified in a one-step procedure. The resulting protein was analyzed by electrophoresis, enzyme-linked lectin assay and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and compared to nAAL. Binding properties were measured using tryptophan fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance. Removal of the His-tag did not alter the binding properties of recombinant AAL in the enzyme-linked lectin assay. Our study forms a basis for understanding the AAL-oligosaccharide interaction and for using molecular techniques to design lectins with novel specificities and high binding affinities towards oligosaccharides.

  • 50.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ainsworth, Shaaaron
    University of Nottingham, Learning Sciences Research Institute School of Psychology.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haptic Influences on Reasoning and Learning in Protein Education2008In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education: Planning science instruction: From insight to learning to pedagogical practices. Theme 4: Pedagogical practices / [ed] Allyson Macdonald, Science Education Research Group, School of Education, University of Iceland , 2008, p. 165-168Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging viewpoint of cognition suggests that the body has a central role in shaping the mind and that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in the body´s interaction with the world that, “embodied cognition or learning”. If so, the documented difficulties for learners to grasp and to engage in molecular sciences might, at least in part, explained by the lack of direct experience of the micro world. The term haptics encompasses the tactual sensation and the human interaction with the external environment through touch. When integrated as part of a computer-based virtual environment, haptics refers to the artificial tactual sensation used to simulate the experience of actually touching or feeling a real object that occur in response to user movements.  The present work aims to evaluate the gains of a haptic element from a learning perspective, when haptics is added to an educational virtual reality environment for students learning the concepts of molecular interactions in proteins. A combined qualitative and quantitative approach is taken, using data from tests and interviews (with a subset of the subjects).  The study is an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the research about possible benefits from using force feedback technology, focusing specifically on the learning gains from a study of a virtual protein model. The computer model did not help the students to solve their tasks faster, but it appears to help them to gain a deeper understanding of the docking process, partly by challenging their preconceptions. Further, we propose that the force feedback might constitute a critical feature for understanding the involvement of the dynamics and forces involved in the process.

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