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  • 1.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy renovation of multi-family buildings in Sweden: An evaluation of life cycle costs, indoor environment and primary energy use, and a comparison with constructing a new building2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential buildings account for 27% of the final energy use in the European Union. In cold climates, space heating represents the largest proportion of the energy demand in residential buildings. By implementing energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in existing buildings, energy use can be significantly reduced. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive states that renovations of buildings offer an opportunity to improve energy efficiency. Renovations that include measures implemented with the specific purpose of reducing energy use are referred to as energy renovations. In addition to improving energy efficiency, an energy renovation can also improve the indoor environment. Sweden, like many other European countries, faces the challenge of renovating an ageing building stock with poor energy performance. Improving energy efficiency and performing energy renovations in a cost-effective manner is central, and optimization approaches are often used to identify suitable EEMs and energy renovation approaches. New buildings usually feature better energy performance compared to older buildings, and one approach for reducing energy use in the building sector could be to demolish old buildings with poor thermal performance and build new buildings with better thermal performance.

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate energy renovations of multi-family buildings with regard to space heating demand, life cycle costs, indoor environment and primary energy use. The choice between energy renovation of a multi-family building and the demolition and construction of a new one is also investigated with regard to life cycle costs (LCCs). A Swedish multi-family building in which energy renovation has been carried out is used as a case study. The building was originally constructed in 1961 and has a lightweight concrete construction. The renovation included improving the thermal performance of the building envelope and replacing the exhaust air ventilation system with a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery.

    The methods used in the studies include dynamic whole building energy simulation, life cycle cost analysis and optimizations, and a questionnaire on indoor environment perception. Extensive field measurements have been performed in the building prior to and after renovation to provide input data and to validate numerical predictions. In addition to the studied building, the analysis of the choice between energy renovation and the demolition and construction of a new building includes three other building construction types, representing common Swedish building types from the 1940s, 1950s and 1970s.

    The analysis shows that the energy renovation led to a 44% reduction in space heating demand and an improved indoor environment. The indoor temperature was higher after the renovation and the perception of the indoor temperature, air quality and noise in the building improved. The EEMs implemented as part of the energy renovation have a slightly higher LCC than the optimal combinations of EEMs identified in the LCC optimization. It is not cost-optimal to implement any EEMs in the building if the lowest possible LCC is the objective function. Attic insulation has a low cost of implementation but has limited potential in the studied building with its relatively good thermal properties. Insulation of the façade is an expensive measure, but has a great potential to reduce heat demand because of the large façade area. Façade insulation is thus required to achieve significant energy savings. Heat recovery in the ventilation system is cost-effective with an energy saving target above 40% in the studied building. The primary energy factors in the Swedish Building Code favor ground source heat pumps as a heat supply system in the studied building.

    The LCC of renovation is lower compared to demolishing and constructing a new building. A large proportion of the LCC of demolition and new construction relates to the demolition of the existing building. In a building with a high internal volume to floor area ratio, it is not always possible to renovate to the same energy performance level as when constructing a new building. A more ambitious renovation approach is also needed compared to a building with a smaller volume to floor area ratio.

    List of papers
    1. Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden
    2017 (English)In: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 531-539Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is being directed towards reducing energy use in buildings, and implementing energy-saving measures when renovating buildings has become of central importance. The aim of this chapter is to study the effects on heat demand of a deep renovation of a Swedish post-war, multi-family building. The studied building was renovated in 2014, and the renovation measures included thermal improvement of the climate envelope and installation of a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery. The effect on heat demand is studied through a whole-building energy simulation, using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. The IDA model is empirically validated with regard to its ability to predict indoor temperature and energy use. The results indicate a technical potential for a 50.3 % reduction of heat demand from implemented renovation measures, but measured data indicate that actual energy use is around 15 % higher than the technical potential. The reasons for this gap could be overestimated heat recovery efficiency or airing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer International Publishing, 2017
    National Category
    Building Technologies Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160813 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-30746-6_39 (DOI)9783319307459 (ISBN)9783319307466 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Springer Cham
    Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09
    2. Measured and predicted energy use and indoor climate before and after a major renovation of an apartment building in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measured and predicted energy use and indoor climate before and after a major renovation of an apartment building in Sweden
    2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 146, p. 98-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a case study of a renovated Swedish apartment building with a common design built in 1961. The aim is to present numerical predictions, validation and evaluation of energy use and indoor climate for the building before and after renovation. Comprehensive field measurements were carried out before and after the renovation to be used as input data in the building energy simulation tool IDA ICE and for validation of model results. Indoor temperature is predicted with maximum standard deviation of 0.4 degrees C during winter. Annual heat demand is in good agreement with measurements. The building had an annual climate normalized district heat demand of 99.0 MWh before renovation and 55.4 MWh after, resulting in a 44% reduction. A slight under-prediction of the saving potential is noted, since the indoor air temperature has increased after the renovation. The results also show that assumptions of user behavior have significant impact on the energy-saving potential, and that choice of renovation measures, such as level of insulation, and efficiency of the ventilation heat recovery system need careful consideration. Choice of system boundaries also has a major effect on climate and resource impact from selected renovation measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2017
    Keywords
    Renovation; Multi-family buildings; Building energy simulation; Field measurements; Validation; Energy use; CO2 emissions; Primary energy
    National Category
    Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138876 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.04.042 (DOI)000403122200010 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council Formas

    Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2019-09-18
    3. Energy Use and Perceived Indoor Environment in a Swedish Multifamily Building before and after Major Renovation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Perceived Indoor Environment in a Swedish Multifamily Building before and after Major Renovation
    2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in the building sector is a central goal in the European Union and renovation of buildings can significantly improve both energy efficiency and indoor environment. This paper studies the perception of indoor environment, modelled indoor climate and heat demand in a building before and after major renovation. The building was constructed in 1961 and renovated in 2014. Insulation of the facade and attic and new windows reduced average U-value from 0.54 to 0.29 W/m(2).K. A supply and exhaust ventilation system with heat recovery replaced the old exhaust ventilation. Heat demand was reduced by 44% and maximum supplied heating power was reduced by 38.5%. An on-site questionnaire indicates that perceived thermal comfort improved after the renovation, and the predicted percentage dissatisfied is reduced from 23% to 14% during the heating season. Overall experience with indoor environment is improved. A sensitivity analysis indicates that there is a compromise between thermal comfort and energy use in relation to window solar heat gain, internal heat generation and indoor temperature set point. Higher heat gains, although reducing energy use, can cause problems with high indoor temperatures, and higher indoor temperature might increase thermal comfort during heating season but significantly increases energy use.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2018
    Keywords
    renovation; indoor environment; thermal comfort; building energy simulation; energy use; multifamily buildings
    National Category
    Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147818 (URN)10.3390/su10030766 (DOI)000428567100193 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council Formas

    Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2019-09-18
    4. Energy Renovation versus Demolition and Construction of a New Building: A Comparative Analysis of a Swedish Multi-Family Building
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Renovation versus Demolition and Construction of a New Building: A Comparative Analysis of a Swedish Multi-Family Building
    2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 2218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the life cycle costs (LCC) of energy renovation, and the demolition and construction of a new building. A comparison is made between LCC optimal energy renovations of four different building types with thermal performance, representing Swedish constructions from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, as well as the demolition of the building and construction of a new building that complies with the Swedish building code. A Swedish multi-family building from the 1960s is used as a reference building. LCC optimal energy renovations are identified with energy saving targets ranging between 10% and 70%, in addition to the lowest possible life cycle cost. The analyses show that an ambitious energy renovation is not cost-optimal in any of the studied buildings, if achieving the lowest LCC is the objective function. The cost of the demolition and construction of a new building is higher compared to energy renovation to the same energy performance. The higher rent in new buildings does not compensate for the higher cost of new construction. A more ambitious renovation is required in buildings that have a shape factor with a high internal volume to heated floor area ratio.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    renovation; energy renovation; demolition; new construction; energy use; energy performance; life cycle cost; optimization; OPERA-MILP; multi-family buildings
    National Category
    Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158988 (URN)10.3390/en12112218 (DOI)000472635900185 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council Formas

    Available from: 2019-07-19 Created: 2019-07-19 Last updated: 2019-11-11
  • 2.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Energy Renovation versus Demolition and Construction of a New Building: A Comparative Analysis of a Swedish Multi-Family Building2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 2218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the life cycle costs (LCC) of energy renovation, and the demolition and construction of a new building. A comparison is made between LCC optimal energy renovations of four different building types with thermal performance, representing Swedish constructions from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, as well as the demolition of the building and construction of a new building that complies with the Swedish building code. A Swedish multi-family building from the 1960s is used as a reference building. LCC optimal energy renovations are identified with energy saving targets ranging between 10% and 70%, in addition to the lowest possible life cycle cost. The analyses show that an ambitious energy renovation is not cost-optimal in any of the studied buildings, if achieving the lowest LCC is the objective function. The cost of the demolition and construction of a new building is higher compared to energy renovation to the same energy performance. The higher rent in new buildings does not compensate for the higher cost of new construction. A more ambitious renovation is required in buildings that have a shape factor with a high internal volume to heated floor area ratio.

  • 3.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Investigating cost-optimal energy renovation of a multifamily building in Sweden2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 203, article id UNSP 109438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant reduction in energy use in the building stock is a major challenge for the future, and doing this in a cost-effective manner is important. This study uses an optimization approach to identify life cycle cost (LCC) optimal energy efficiency measures (EEMs) to implement as part of a renovation of a multifamily building in Sweden. The studied building is a multifamily building with a lightweight concrete construction and an exhaust air ventilation system, built in 1961. The optimization tool OPERA-MILP is used. The energy renovation approaches are compared to both the performed energy renovation of the building and a validated dynamic energy simulation model in IDA ICE 4.8. The results show that under the given framework conditions and assumptions it is not cost-optimal to improve the thermal performance of the building envelope or to implement heat recovery ventilation measures to reduce the space heating demand in the building when considering a life cycle of 40 years. Balanced mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery is cost-effective when an energy saving target of 40% is introduced. The energy renovation of the building has a slightly higher LCC than the cost-optimal level, and it would have been more cost-effective to add more insulation to the facade instead of the attic to achieve the same level of energy saving. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to reveal the effect of the discount rate, energy price, cost of EEMs, thermal properties of the building envelope and windows solar heat gain factors on the LCC. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ödlund (Trygg), Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2199Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of multifamily buildings utilize district heat and a large portion is in need of renovation. The aim is to analyze the impact of renovating a multifamily building stock in a district heating and cooling system, in terms of primary energy savings, peak power demands, electricity demand and production, and greenhouse gas emissions on local and global levels. The study analyzes scenarios regarding measures on the building envelope, ventilation, and substitution from district heat to ground source heat pump. The results indicate improved energy performance for all scenarios, ranging from 11% to 56%. Moreover, the scenarios present a reduction of fossil fuel use and reduced peak power demand in the district heating and cooling system ranging from 1 MW to 13 MW, corresponding to 4–48 W/m2 heated building area. However, the study concludes that scenarios including a ground source heat pump generate significantly higher global greenhouse gas emissions relative to scenarios including district heating. Furthermore, in a future fossil-free district heating and cooling system, a reduction in primary energy use will lead to a local reduction of emissions along with a positive effect on global greenhouse gas emissions, outperforming measures with a ground source heat pump.

  • 5.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Energy Use and Perceived Indoor Environment in a Swedish Multifamily Building before and after Major Renovation2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in the building sector is a central goal in the European Union and renovation of buildings can significantly improve both energy efficiency and indoor environment. This paper studies the perception of indoor environment, modelled indoor climate and heat demand in a building before and after major renovation. The building was constructed in 1961 and renovated in 2014. Insulation of the facade and attic and new windows reduced average U-value from 0.54 to 0.29 W/m(2).K. A supply and exhaust ventilation system with heat recovery replaced the old exhaust ventilation. Heat demand was reduced by 44% and maximum supplied heating power was reduced by 38.5%. An on-site questionnaire indicates that perceived thermal comfort improved after the renovation, and the predicted percentage dissatisfied is reduced from 23% to 14% during the heating season. Overall experience with indoor environment is improved. A sensitivity analysis indicates that there is a compromise between thermal comfort and energy use in relation to window solar heat gain, internal heat generation and indoor temperature set point. Higher heat gains, although reducing energy use, can cause problems with high indoor temperatures, and higher indoor temperature might increase thermal comfort during heating season but significantly increases energy use.

  • 6.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden2017In: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 531-539Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is being directed towards reducing energy use in buildings, and implementing energy-saving measures when renovating buildings has become of central importance. The aim of this chapter is to study the effects on heat demand of a deep renovation of a Swedish post-war, multi-family building. The studied building was renovated in 2014, and the renovation measures included thermal improvement of the climate envelope and installation of a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery. The effect on heat demand is studied through a whole-building energy simulation, using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. The IDA model is empirically validated with regard to its ability to predict indoor temperature and energy use. The results indicate a technical potential for a 50.3 % reduction of heat demand from implemented renovation measures, but measured data indicate that actual energy use is around 15 % higher than the technical potential. The reasons for this gap could be overestimated heat recovery efficiency or airing.

  • 7.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Measured and predicted energy use and indoor climate before and after a major renovation of an apartment building in Sweden2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 146, p. 98-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a case study of a renovated Swedish apartment building with a common design built in 1961. The aim is to present numerical predictions, validation and evaluation of energy use and indoor climate for the building before and after renovation. Comprehensive field measurements were carried out before and after the renovation to be used as input data in the building energy simulation tool IDA ICE and for validation of model results. Indoor temperature is predicted with maximum standard deviation of 0.4 degrees C during winter. Annual heat demand is in good agreement with measurements. The building had an annual climate normalized district heat demand of 99.0 MWh before renovation and 55.4 MWh after, resulting in a 44% reduction. A slight under-prediction of the saving potential is noted, since the indoor air temperature has increased after the renovation. The results also show that assumptions of user behavior have significant impact on the energy-saving potential, and that choice of renovation measures, such as level of insulation, and efficiency of the ventilation heat recovery system need careful consideration. Choice of system boundaries also has a major effect on climate and resource impact from selected renovation measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar Region Etapp 1: Energibolag och fastighetsbolag i samverkan2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Projekt Hållbar region har som syfte att visa hur energibolag och fastighetsbolag tillsammans kan driva utvecklingen till en hållbar och resurseffektiv region med minskad primärenergianvändning och minskad klimatpåverkan för fastighetsägare och energibolag. Projektet drivs av Linköpings universitet i nära samarbete med projektets partner och består av forskning av det sammansatta energisystemet av energibolag och större fastighetsbolag. Utifrån olika framtida scenarioalternativ studeras olika åtgärders effekt på pimärenergi och klimatpåverkan för det totala regionala energisystemet.

    Partner

    Under etapp 1 av projektet har, utöver Linköpings universitet, två energibolag samt fem större fastighetsägare varit aktiva inom projektet. Dessa är:

    • Akademiska Hus 
    • E.ON Sverige AB
    • Fastighets AB L E Lundbergs
    • Lejonfastigheter AB
    • AB Stångåstaden
    • Tekniska verken i Linköping AB
    • ÖrebroBostäder AB

    Genomförande

    Projektet har genomförts med gemensamma workshops samt med systemoptimering av det sammankopplade fjärrvärmesystemet av både tillförsel och efterfrågan. Modelleringar har utförs i programmen OPERA, IDA ICE och MODEST. Workshoparna har fungerat som kreativa övningar där utmaningar och behov identifieras och där sedan tidiga projektresultat har spridits och diskuterats. I workshoparna har det underlag som legat till grund för projektets frågeställningar itereras och förfinas kontinuerligt. Beräkningar har sedan utförts genom systemoptimeringar av frågeställningar baserat på det underlag som framkommit vid workshoparna. I samtliga workshopar har representanter från partner inom projektet deltagit.

    Resultat

    Resultatet från projektet kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt introduktion av FTX i de fjärvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien (fall 3) leder till halverat fjärrvärmebehov och ökade utsläpp av globala CO2eq med ca 1 300 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt FTX i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna leder till minskat elbehov med 38% och minskade utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 13 000 ton för en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de fjärrvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien minskar effektbehovet med 28%.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna minskar effektbehovet med 37%.
    • Byte av värmekälla från fjärrvärme till värmepump leder till ökade globaka utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 22 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Byte från fjärrvärme till värmepump i de fastigheter som genomfört både klimatåtgärder samt introducerat FTX ökar de globala utsläppen av CO2eq med ca 8 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Om 500 000 nya fastigheter, med en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 50 000 000 m2, byggs enligt BBRs krav på nära-nollenergibyggnader innebär uppvärmning med fjärrvärme istället för uppvärmning med värmepump att kraftbalansen förbättras med motsvarande ca 1 900 GWh/år.
    • 1 kWh fjärrvärme har inte samma värde som 1 kWh el. För att ta hänsyn till att el är en mer högvärdig energibärare bör en primärenergifaktor på 2,5 användas för el. När primärenergi inkluderas i jämförelse mellan att värma en fastighet med fjärrvärme eller med värmepump leder alternativet med fjärrvärme till en lägre energianvändning, och följaktligen till lägre globala emissioner av CO2eq.

    Fortsatt arbete - etapp 2

    Projekt Hållbar region fortsätter med en etapp 2 där fokus kommer att ligga på tjänstedrivna affärsmodeller samt studier av hinder och drivkrafter för att genomföra identifierade lönsamma åtgärder för energibolag och fastighetsägare.

  • 9.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna C.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Assessment of social vulnerability: a literature review of vulnerability related to climate change and natural hazards2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will cause long term effects on ecosystems and human systems. Different systems are however not equally susceptible to and have different possibilities of coping with these effects. A system’s vulnerability refers to the degree to which the system can cope with changes and whether it is susceptible to it or not (Parry 2007). Vulnerability therefore depends on the exposure to climate change (the character, magnitude or rate of change or effect), the sensitivity and the adaptive capacity of the system. Still, all components and people in the system will not be affected equally and will have different vulnerabilities.

    This is a literature review of scientific studies in social vulnerability aiming at finding groups of people in a society who are vulnerable to the effects of climate change (such as heat waves, flooding and landslides/erosion). Much of the focus when it comes to social vulnerability studies have been in regards to natural hazards, and since the effect from climate change can be  similar,  this  literature  review  has  included  vulnerability  assessments  both  of  natural hazards risks and climate related risks or crisis. This is a summary of the findings where socio-economic vulnerability is presented together with common approaches for assessing vulnerability.

    A total of ten scientific articles were chosen as a basis for this summery, both from the natural hazards field and the field of climate change research. The articles were chosen to show a broad range of approaches to study and view social vulnerability, be suitable and useful for a Swedish setting and also to be relevant in relation to the goals of the project in which the study was made. One article (Füssel 2007) serves to give a general orientation in the field and a meta-analytical perspective, while the other texts provide examples of recent frameworks developed for assessing vulnerability (Cutter et al. 2003, Cutter et al. 2008, Wilhelmi and Hayden 2010, Holand et al. 2011, Reid et al. 2009), whereas some texts discuss the use of social  indicators  (King  and  MacGregor  2000),  seek  to  contextualize  social  vulnerability (Kuhlicke et al. 2011) or review recent finding on certain climate related risks (Oudin Åström et al. 2011, Rocklöv et al. 2011).  In addition to the scientific literature in the field, Swedish tools  designed  by  the  research  programme  CLIMATOOLS  for  the  specific  purpose  of assessing vulnerability have been included.

    The literature review was made as a background study for designing focus group interviews with vulnerable population segments, as part of the project Adapting cities to climate induced risks – a coordinated approach, which is a trans-disciplinary project aiming at developing methodology and knowledge on how to manage climate induced risk and increase resilience towards climate change in Swedish cities. This literature review is part of the work package aiming at developing a tool for assessing and finding vulnerable groups of people in Swedish cities or municipalities.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundgren, Lina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stratified Climate Vulnerability Analysis for HEat Waves in a Swedish City: Who is vulnerable and why?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing an increasing number of extreme climate events, such as floods, landslides and heat waves. Although all will be affected, exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vary among different population segments and the effects will be disproportionally distributed in a society.   The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of how factors related to the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity shape the vulnerability of different populations segments. It qualitatively explores how key stakeholders in municipalities perceive and construct social vulnerability in relation to climate change with a specific focus on thermal comfort (i.e. heat waves). Earlier literature on natural hazard vulnerability and social vulnerability has identified a number of factors that explains variance between different populations segments and differences in morbidity. We seek to understand how the planning and operational staff in municipalities, and the vulnerable themselves, understand social vulnerability and which adaptation responses at different levels they identify. Thus, the top-down approach from earlier literature is triangulated with a bottom-up approach.

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