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  • 1.
    Carvalho, Andre F.
    et al.
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Perez, Augusto
    Corp Nuevos Rumbos, Colombia.
    Probst, Charlotte
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Rehm, Jurgen
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Russia.
    Alcohol use disorders2019In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 394, no 10200, p. 781-792Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use disorders consist of disorders characterised by compulsive heavy alcohol use and loss of control over alcohol intake. Alcohol use disorders are some of the most prevalent mental disorders globally, especially in high-income and upper-middle-income countries; and are associated with high mortality and burden of disease, mainly due to medical consequences, such as liver cirrhosis or injury. Despite their high prevalence, alcohol use disorders are undertreated partly because of the high stigma associated with them, but also because of insufficient systematic screening in primary health care, although effective and cost-effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions do exist. Primary health care should be responsible for most treatment, with routine screening for alcohol use, and the provision of a staggered treatment response, from brief advice to pharmacological treatment. Clinical interventions for these disorders should be embedded in a supportive environment, which can be bolstered by the creation of alcohol control policies aimed at reducing the overall level of consumption.

  • 2.
    Böhme, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hauser, Steven
    Univ Virginia, VA 22904 USA.
    Gerling, Gregory J.
    Univ Virginia, VA 22904 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Distinction of self-produced touch and social touch at cortical and spinal cord levels2019In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 6, p. 2290-2299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation between self-produced tactile stimuli and touch by others is necessary for social interactions and for a coherent concept of "self." The mechanisms underlying this distinction are unknown. Here, we investigated the distinction between self-and other-produced light touch in healthy volunteers using three different approaches: fMRI, behavioral testing, and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) at spinal and cortical levels. Using fMRI, we found self-other differentiation in somatosensory and sociocognitive areas. Other-touch was related to activation in several areas, including somatosensory cortex, insula, superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, striatum, amygdala, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex. During self-touch, we instead found deactivation in insula, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and prefrontal areas. Deactivation extended into brain areas encoding low-level sensory representations, including thalamus and brainstem. These findings were replicated in a second cohort. During self-touch, the sensorimotor cortex was functionally connected to the insula, and the threshold for detection of an additional tactile stimulus was elevated. Differential encoding of self-vs. other-touch during fMRI correlated with the individual self-concept strength. In SEP, cortical amplitudes were reduced during self-touch, while latencies at cortical and spinal levels were faster for other-touch. We thus demonstrated a robust self-other distinction in brain areas related to somatosensory, social cognitive, and interoceptive processing. Signs of this distinction were evident at the spinal cord. Our results provide a framework for future studies in autism, schizophrenia, and emotionally unstable personality disorder, conditions where symptoms include social touch avoidance and poor self-vs.-other discrimination.

  • 3.
    Johnstone, Andrea L.
    et al.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA; Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA; EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Andrade, Nadja S.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Khomtchouk, Bohdan B.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA; Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Rienas, Christopher A.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Lowe, Kenneth
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Van Booven, Derek J.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Domi, Esi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Esanov, Rustam
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Vilca, Samara
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Tapocik, Jenica D.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Rodriguez, Keli
    EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Maryanski, Danielle
    EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Keogh, Michael Christopher
    EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Meinhardt, Marcus W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Sommer, Wolfgang H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Zeier, Zane
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Wahlestedt, Claes
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Dysregulation of the histone demethylase KDM6B in alcohol dependence is associated with epigenetic regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways2019In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, article id UNSP e12816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic enzymes oversee long-term changes in gene expression by integrating genetic and environmental cues. While there are hundreds of enzymes that control histone and DNA modifications, their potential roles in substance abuse and alcohol dependence remain underexplored. A few recent studies have suggested that epigenetic processes could underlie transcriptomic and behavioral hallmarks of alcohol addiction. In the present study, we sought to identify epigenetic enzymes in the brain that are dysregulated during protracted abstinence as a consequence of chronic and intermittent alcohol exposure. Through quantitative mRNA expression analysis of over 100 epigenetic enzymes, we identified 11 that are significantly altered in alcohol-dependent rats compared with controls. Follow-up studies of one of these enzymes, the histone demethylase KDM6B, showed that this enzyme exhibits region-specific dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats. KDM6B was also upregulated in the human alcoholic brain. Upregulation of KDM6B protein in alcohol-dependent rats was accompanied by a decrease of trimethylation levels at histone H3, lysine 27 (H3K27me3), consistent with the known demethylase specificity of KDM6B. Subsequent epigenetic (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP]-sequencing) analysis showed that alcohol-induced changes in H3K27me3 were significantly enriched at genes in the IL-6 signaling pathway, consistent with the well-characterized role of KDM6B in modulation of inflammatory responses. Knockdown of KDM6B in cultured microglial cells diminished IL-6 induction in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Our findings implicate a novel KDM6B-mediated epigenetic signaling pathway integrated with inflammatory signaling pathways that are known to underlie the development of alcohol addiction.

  • 4.
    Filipcic, Igor
    et al.
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia; Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Croatia; Univ Zagreb, Croatia.
    Filipcic, Ivona Simunovic
    Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Croatia.
    Milovac, Zeljko
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Sucic, Strahimir
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Gajsak, Tomislav
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Ivezic, Ena
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia; Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Croatia.
    Basic, Silvio
    Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Croatia; Dubrava Univ Hosp, Croatia.
    Bajic, Zarko
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using a figure-8-coil or an H1-Coil in treatment of major depressive disorder; A randomized clinical trial2019In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 114, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an evidence-based treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, comparisons of efficacy between the two FDA-approved protocols of rTMS modalities are lacking. The aim of this industry-independent, randomized-controlled, single-blind trial was to evaluate clinical outcome of the two FDA-approved rTMS protocols delivered by H1-coil and the figure-8-coil, in MDD patients. A total of 228 MDD patients were randomized to 20 sessions of H1-coil or 8-coil as an adjunct to standard-of-care pharmacotherapy, or standard-of-care pharmacotherapy alone. Baseline MDD symptom severity was almost the same in the three groups. Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D17) mean score was 17 (5.3) in H1-coil, 17 (5.4) in 8-coil, and 19 (6.1) in control group. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving remission defined as HAM-D17 score amp;lt;= 7 at end-of-treatment at week-4. In the intention-to-treat analysis odds ratio for remission was 1.74 (CI95% 0.79-3.83) in H1-coil compared to the 8-coil group. The difference between two rTMS protocols was not significant. Remission rate was significantly greater in both HF-rTMS groups compared to the control: 60% (CI95% 48-71%), 43% (C195% 31-55%) and 11% (CI95% 5-20%) respectively. The response was significantly better in H1-coil, than in 8-coil group OR = 2.33; CI95% 1.04-5.21 (P = 0.040). The HAM-D17 was lowered by 59% in the H1-coil, 41% in the 8-coil (P = 0.048), and 17% in the control group (P amp;lt; 0.001 vs H1-coil; P = 0.003 vs 8-coil). Safety, tolerability, and the changes in quality of life were comparable. We confirmed the safety and efficacy of both FDA-approved protocols as adjunctive treatments of MDD. Better response rate and greater reduction of depression severity were observed in the H1-coil group, but without a significant difference in the remission rate between the two rTMS modalities.

  • 5.
    Nelson, Britta S.
    et al.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Fulenwider, Hannah D.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Nennig, Sadie E.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Smith, Britessia M.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Sequeira, Michelle K.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Chimberoff, Scott H.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Richie, Christopher T.
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Cheng, Kejun
    NIAAA, MD USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA; US FDA, MD USA.
    Rice, Kenner C.
    NIAAA, MD USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Harvey, Brandon K.
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Schank, Jesse R.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Escalated Alcohol Self-Administration and Sensitivity to Yohimbine-lnduced Reinstatement in Alcohol Preferring Rats: Potential Role of Neurokinin-1 Receptors in the Amygdala2019In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 413, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic factors significantly contribute to the risk for developing alcoholism. To study these factors and other associated phenotypes, rodent lines have been developed using selective breeding for high alcohol preference. One of these models, the alcohol preferring (P) rat, has been used in hundreds of preclinical studies over the last few decades. However, very few studies have examined relapse-like behavior in this rat strain. In this study, we used operant self-administration and yohimbine-induced reinstatement models to examine relapse-like behavior in P rats. Our previous work has demonstrated that P rats show increased expression of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and this functionally contributes to escalated alcohol consumption in this strain. We hypothesized that P rats would show increased sensitivity to yohimbine-induced reinstatement that is also mediated by NK1R in the CeA. Using Fos staining, site-specific infusion of NK1R antagonist, and viral vector overexpression, we examined the influence of NK1R on the sensitivity to yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. We found that P rats displayed increased sensitivity to yohimbine-induced reinstatement as well as increased neuronal activation in the CeA after yohimbine injection compared to the control Wistar strain. Intra-CeA infusion of NK1R antagonist attenuates yohimbine-induced reinstatement in P rats. Conversely, upregulation of NK1R within the CeA of Wistar rats increases alcohol consumption and sensitivity to yohimbine-induced reinstatement. These findings suggest that NK1R upregulation in the CeA contributes to multiple alcohol-related phenotypes in the P rat, including alcohol consumption and sensitivity to relapse. (C) 2019 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Rehm, Juergen
    et al.
    CAMH, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; IM Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Russia.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Gual, Antoni
    Hosp Clin Barcelona, Spain; IDIBAPS Inst Recerca Biomed Agusti Pi and Sunyer, Spain; Inst Carlos III, Spain.
    ICD-11 for Alcohol Use Disorders: Not a Convincing Answer to the Challenges2019In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Mayo, Leah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    In the face of stress: Interpreting individual differences in stress-induced facial expressions2019In: NEUROBIOLOGY OF STRESS, ISSN 2352-2895, Vol. 10, article id 100166Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is an inevitable part of life that can profoundly impact social and emotional functioning, contributing to the development of psychiatric disease. One key component of emotion and social processing is facial expressions, which humans can readily detect and react to even without conscious awareness. Facial expressions have been the focus of philosophic and scientific interest for centuries. Historically, facial expressions have been relegated to peripheral indices of fixed emotion states. More recently, affective neuroscience has undergone a conceptual revolution, resulting in novel interpretations of these muscle movements. Here, we review the role of facial expressions according to the leading affective neuroscience theories, including constructed emotion and social-motivation accounts. We specifically highlight recent data (Mayo et al, 2018) demonstrating the way in which stress shapes facial expressions and how this is influenced by individual factors. In particular, we focus on the consequence of genetic variation within the endocannabinoid system, a neuromodulatory system implicated in stress and emotion, and its impact on stress-induced facial muscle activity. In a re-analysis of this dataset, we highlight how gender may also influence these processes, conceptualized as variation in the "fight-or-flight" or "tend-and-befriend" behavioral responses to stress. We speculate on how these interpretations may contribute to a broader understanding of facial expressions, discuss the potential use of facial expressions as a trans-diagnostic marker of psychiatric disease, and suggest future work necessary to resolve outstanding questions.

  • 8.
    Spagnolo, Primavera A.
    et al.
    NINDS, MD 20892 USA.
    Kimes, Alane
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Thada, Shantalaxmi
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Phillips, Karran A.
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Diazgranados, Nancy
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Preston, Kenzie L.
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Herscovitch, Peter
    NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Tomasi, Dardo
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Ramchandani, Vijay A.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Striatal Dopamine Release in Response to Morphine: A [C-11]Raclopride Positron Emission Tomography Study in Healthy Men2019In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 356-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical and human positron emission tomography studies have produced inconsistent results regarding the effects of opioids on mesolimbic dopamine (DA). Here, we quantify striatal DA release (measured by [C-11]raclopride displacement) in response to an intravenous infusion of morphine, and its relationship with morphine-induced subjective effects, in healthy, nondependent opioid-experienced participants. METHODS: Fifteen healthy male participants were initially included. Sessions were on separate days. On session 1, participants received intravenous morphine (10 mg/70 kg) in the clinic to ensure tolerability. Participants without adverse reactions (n = 10) then received intravenous morphine and placebo (saline) sessions, in counterbalanced order, while undergoing [C-11]raclopride positron emission tomography scans. Subjective and physiological responses were assessed. Region-of-interest and voxelwise image analyses were used to assess changes in [C-11]raclopride nondisplaceable binding potential. RESULTS: Morphine produced marked subjective and physiological effects and induced a significant decrease in [C-11]raclopride nondisplaceable binding potential, particularly in the nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus, where the change in [C-11]raclopride nondisplaceable binding potential was approximately 9%. However, the subjective effects of morphine did not show a simple pattern of correlation with DA release. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first study providing in vivo human evidence that DA transmission in the ventral striatum is affected by morphine. Further studies are required to fully delineate the DA contribution to the reinforcing effects of opioids.

  • 9.
    Ree, Anbjorn
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Morrison, India
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sailer, Uta
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Mayo, Leah
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Using Facial Electromyography to Assess Facial Muscle Reactions to Experienced and Observed Affective Touch in Humans2019In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 145, article id e59228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective

  • 10.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Löfberg, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Variation in the mu-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Does Not Moderate Social-Rejection Sensitivity in Humans2019In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1050-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given previous findings from animal studies and small-scale studies in humans, variation in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been proposed as a strong biological candidate for moderating sensitivity to social rejection. Using a substantially larger sample (N = 490) than previous studies, a prospective genotyping strategy, and preregistered analysis plans, we tested the hypotheses that OPRM1 variation measured by the functional A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) moderates (a) dispositional sensitivity to rejection and feelings of distress following social exclusion and (b) decision making involving social cognition. In three experimental tasks commonly used to assess altruism, reciprocity, and trust in humans, we found no evidence in favor of the hypotheses; nine main tests were preregistered, and all of them yielded small and statistically insignificant estimates. In secondary analyses, we used Bayesian inference and estimation to quantify support for our findings. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the link between OPRM1 A118G variation and social-rejection sensitivity is weaker than previously thought.

  • 11.
    Kalafateli, Aimilia Lydia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vallof, Daniel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jornulf, Julia Winsa
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Jerlhag, Elisabet
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A cannabinoid receptor antagonist attenuates ghrelin-induced activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mice2018In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 184, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghrelin has been attributed various physiological processes including food intake and reward regulation, through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Reward modulation involves the mesolimbic dopamine system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons targeting nucleus accumbens (NAc), a system that ghrelin activates through VTA-dependent mechanisms. In the first study, we found that systemic intraperitoneal (ip) administration of rimonabant attenuated intracerebroventricular (icv) ghrelins ability to cause locomotor stimulation and NAc dopamine release in mice. Ghrelin-induced (icv) chow intake was not altered by rimonabant administration (ip). Finally, we showed that bilateral VTA administration of rimonabant blocks the ability of intra-VTA administered ghrelin to increase locomotor activity, but does not affect food intake in mice. Collectively, these data indicate clear dissociation between regulation of food intake and activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system.

  • 12.
    Mayo, Leah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    A Hippocampal Signature of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Vulnerability2018In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 78-79Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 13.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dulman, Russell S
    Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    Licheri, Valentina
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Domi, Esi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Farris, Sean
    The Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
    Nätt, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mayfield, R Dayne
    The Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
    Adermark, Louise
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    A molecular mechanism for choosing alcohol over an alternative reward.2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6395, p. 1321-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol addiction leads to increased choice of alcohol over healthy rewards. We established an exclusive choice procedure in which ~15% of outbred rats chose alcohol over a high-value reward. These animals displayed addiction-like traits, including high motivation to obtain alcohol and pursuit of this drug despite adverse consequences. Expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-3 was selectively decreased within the amygdala of alcohol-choosing rats, whereas a knockdown of this transcript reversed choice preference of rats that originally chose a sweet solution over alcohol. GAT-3 expression was selectively decreased in the central amygdala of alcohol-dependent people compared to those who died of unrelated causes. Impaired GABA clearance within the amygdala contributes to alcohol addiction, appears to translate between species, and may offer targets for new pharmacotherapies for treating this disorder.

  • 14.
    Aoun, E. G.
    et al.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA.
    Jimenez, V. A.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Vendruscolo, L. F.
    Scripps Res Inst, CA 92037 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Walter, N. A. R.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ferrulli, A.
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Haass-Koffler, C. L.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Darakjian, P.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Lee, M. R.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Addolorato, G.
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Hitzemann, R.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Koob, G. F.
    Scripps Res Inst, CA 92037 USA; NIAAA, MD 20852 USA.
    Grant, K. A.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Leggio, L.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    A relationship between the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway and alcohol drinking: preliminary translational findings across rats, monkeys and humans2018In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1466-1473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aldosterone regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis through binding to the mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). Previous work provides evidence for a role of aldosterone in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We tested the hypothesis that high functional activity of the mineralocorticoid endocrine pathway contributes to vulnerability for AUDs. In Study 1, we investigated the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels, ethanol self-administration and the expression of CYP11B2 and MR (NR3C2) genes in the prefrontal cortex area (PFC) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in monkeys. Aldosterone significantly increased after 6- and 12-month ethanol self-administration. NR3C2 expression in the CeA was negatively correlated to average ethanol intake during the 12 months. In Study 2, we measured Nr3c2 mRNA levels in the PFC and CeA of dependent and nondependent rats and the correlates with ethanol drinking during acute withdrawal. Low Nr3c2 expression levels in the CeA were significantly associated with increased anxiety-like behavior and compulsive-like drinking in dependent rats. In Study 3, the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels, alcohol drinking and craving was investigated in alcohol-dependent patients. Non-abstinent patients had significantly higher aldosterone levels than abstinent patients. Aldosterone levels positively correlated with the number of drinks consumed, craving and anxiety scores. These findings support a relationship between ethanol drinking and the aldosterone/MR pathway in three different species.

  • 15.
    Schroeder, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins Bayview Med Ctr, MD 21224 USA.
    Phillips, Karran A.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Epstein, David H.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Jobes, Michelle L.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Furnari, Melody A.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Kennedy, Ashley P.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Preston, Kenzie L.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Assessment of pioglitazone and proinflammatory cytokines during buprenorphine taper in patients with opioid use disorder2018In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 235, no 10, p. 2957-2966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Preliminary evidence suggested that the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone reduces opioid-withdrawal symptoms, possibly by inhibiting increases in proinflammatory cytokines. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted utilizing two different study designs (entirely outpatient, and a combination of inpatient and outpatient) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone as an adjunct medication for people with opioid physical dependence undergoing a buprenorphine taper. Participants were stabilized on buprenorphine/naloxone (sublingual, up to 16/4 mg/day), then randomized to receive oral pioglitazone (up to 45 mg/day) or placebo before, during, and after buprenorphine taper. Outcome measures included the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) and Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, use of rescue medications to alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms, and opioid-positive urine specimens. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma were collected during the taper in a subset of participants for measurement of proinflammatory cytokines. Results The clinical trial was prematurely terminated due to slow enrollment; 40 participants per group were required for adequate statistical power to test study hypotheses. Twenty-four participants enrolled; 17 received at least one dose of study medication (6 pioglitazone, 11 placebo). SOWS scores were higher in the pioglitazone arm than in the placebo arm after adjusting for use of rescue medications; participants in the pioglitazone arm needed more rescue medications than the placebo arm during the post-taper phase. SOWS scores were positively correlated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in CSF (r = 0.70, p = 0.038) and plasma (r = 0.77, p = 0.015). Participants having higher levels of plasma MCP-1 reported higher SOWS, most notably after the buprenorphine taper ended. Conclusions Results from this study provide no evidence that pioglitazone reduces opioid withdrawal symptoms during buprenorphine taper. High correlations between MCP-1 and opioid withdrawal symptoms support a role of proinflammatory processes in opioid withdrawal.

  • 16.
    Badiani, Aldo
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Sussex Addiction Research and Intervention Centre (SARIC), University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
    Berridge, Kent C.
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nutt, David J.
    Imperial College, London, UK.
    Robinson, Terry E.
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Comments: Addiction research and theory: a commentary on the Surgeon Generals Report on alcohol, drugs, and health2018In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred by a biased viewpoint on the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. We highlight here four controversial issues that were depicted as facts in the Report, thereby potentially misleading non-expert readers about the current state-of-the-art understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. It will be important to recognize a fuller range of scientific viewpoints in addiction neuroscience to avoid amplifying this bias in the coming years.

  • 17.
    Malik, Saima
    et al.
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Jacobs, Mark
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Cho, Sang-Soo
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Boileau, Isabelle
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Blumberger, Daniel
    Univ Toronto, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Wilson, Alan
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Daskalakis, Zafiris J.
    Univ Toronto, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Strafella, Antonio P.
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Zangen, Abraham
    Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Israel.
    Le Foll, Bernard
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Deep TMS of the insula using the H-coil modulates dopamine release: a crossover [C-11] PHNO-PET pilot trial in healthy humans2018In: Brain Imaging and Behavior, ISSN 1931-7557, E-ISSN 1931-7565, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1306-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modulating the function of the insular cortex could be a novel therapeutic strategy to treat addiction to a variety of drugs of abuse as this region has been implicated in mediating drug reward and addictive processes. The recent advent of the H-coil has permitted the targeting of deeper brain structures which was not previously feasible. The goal of this study was to bilaterally target the insular region using the H-coil with repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and subsequently measure changes in dopamine levels using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [11C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin (PHNO). This was a within-subject, crossover, blinded and sham-controlled pilot study. Eight healthy, right-handed subjects, aged 19-45, participated in the investigation. All subjects underwent 3 PHNO-PET scans preceded by rTMS (sham, 1Hz or 10Hz), on 3 separate days. Low frequency rTMS (1Hz), targeting the insular cortex, significantly decreased dopamine levels in the substantia nigra, sensorimotor striatum and associative striatum. Replicating this study in tobacco smokers or alcoholics would be a logical follow-up to assess whether H-coil stimulation of the bilateral insula can be employed as a treatment option for addiction. Trial registration: NCT02212405

  • 18.
    Heilig, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Tagil, Magnus
    Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Do we have an opioid crisis in Scandinavia? Time to act? in ACTA ORTHOPAEDICA, vol 89, issue 4, pp 368-3682018In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 368-368Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 19.
    Lee, Ji Soo
    et al.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Sorcher, Jill L.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Rosen, Allison D.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Damadzic, Ruslan
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Sun, Hui
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Kelly, John
    Johns Hopkins Univ, MD 21205 USA.
    Mauro, Kelsey L.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Luo, Audrey
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Rosoff, Daniel
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Muench, Christine
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Jung, Jeesun
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Kaminsky, Zachary A.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, MD 21205 USA.
    Lohoff, Falk W.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Genetic Association and Expression Analyses of the Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase (PIP5K1C) Gene in Alcohol Use DisorderRelevance for Pain Signaling and Alcohol Use2018In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1034-1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe gene encoding phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K1C) has been recently implicated in pain regulation. Interestingly, a recent cross-tissue and cross-phenotypic epigenetic analysis identified the same gene in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given the high comorbidity between AUD and chronic pain, we hypothesized that genetic variation in PIP5K1C might contribute to susceptibility to AUD. MethodsWe conducted a case-control association study of genetic variants in PIP5K1C. Association analyses of 16 common PIP5K1C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were conducted in cases and controls of African (427 cases and 137 controls) and European ancestry (488 cases and 324 controls) using standard methods. In addition, given the prominent role of the opioid system in pain signaling, we investigated the effects of acute alcohol exposure on PIP5K1C expression in humanized transgenic mice for the -opioid receptor that included the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism, a widely used mouse model to study analgesic response to opioids in pain. PIP5K1C expression was measured in the thalamus and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in mice after short-term administration (single 2g/kg dose) of alcohol or saline using immunohistochemistry and analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. ResultsIn the case-control association study using an NIAAA discovery sample, 8 SNPs in PIP5K1C were significantly associated with AUD in the African ancestry (AA) group (pamp;lt;0.05 after correction; rs4807493, rs10405681, rs2074957, rs10432303, rs8109485, rs1476592, rs10419980, and rs4432372). However, a replication analysis using an independent sample (N=3,801) found no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. In the humanized transgenic mouse model with the OPRM1 polymorphism, PIP5K1C expression was significantly different between alcohol and saline-treated mice, regardless of genotype, in both the thalamus (pamp;lt;0.05) and BLA (pamp;lt;0.01). ConclusionsOur discovery sample shows that genetic variants in PIP5K1C are associated with AUD in the AA group, and acute alcohol exposure leads to up-regulation of PIP5K1C, potentially explaining a mechanism underlying the increased risk for chronic pain conditions in individuals with AUD.

  • 20.
    Cortes, Carlos R.
    et al.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Grodin, Erica N.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Mann, Claire L.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Mathur, Karan
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Kerich, Michael
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Zhu, Xi
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Diazgranados, Nancy
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    George, David T.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Momenan, Reza
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Insula Sensitivity to Unfairness in Alcohol Use Disorder2018In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Social decision making has recently been evaluated in alcohol use disorder (AUD) using the ultimatum game (UG) task, suggesting a possible deficit in aversive emotion regulation elicited by the unfairness during this task. Despite the relevance to relapse of this possible faulty regulation, the brain correlates of the UG in AUD are unknown. Methods: In total, 23 AUD and 27 healthy controls (HC) played three consecutive fMRI runs of the UG, while behavioral and brain responses were recorded. Results: Overall, acceptance rate of unfair offers did not differ between groups, but there was a difference in the rate of behavioral change across runs. We found significant anterior insula (aINS) activation in both groups for both fair and unfair conditions, but only HC showed a trend towards increased activation during unfair vs. fair offers. There were not overall whole-brain between-group significant differences. We found a trend of signal attenuation, instead of an increase, in the aINS for AUD when compared to HC during the third run, which is consistent with our recent findings of selective insula atrophy in AUD. Conclusion: We found differential group temporal dynamics of behavioral response in the UG. The HC group had a low acceptance rate for unfair offers in the first two runs that increased markedly for the third run; whereas the AUD group was consistent in their rejection of unfair offers across the three runs. We found a strong significant decrease in neural response across runs for both groups. Short summary: This fMRI study of UG in alcohol use disorder found behavioral group differences in acceptance rate across runs, which together with significant BOLD-signal decrease across runs in UG-related regions in both groups, highlights the impairment of strategy in AUD and the effect of repetitive exposure to unfairness in this task.

  • 21.
    Grodin, Erica N.
    et al.
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Sussman, Lauren
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Sundby, Kelsey
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Brennan, Grace M
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Diazgranados, Nancy
    Office of the Clinical Directory, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Momenan, Reza
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Neural Correlates of Compulsive Alcohol Seeking in Heavy Drinkers2018In: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, ISSN 2451-9022, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 1022-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compulsive alcohol use, the tendency to continue alcohol seeking and taking despite negative consequences, is a hallmark of alcohol use disorder. Preclinical rodent studies have suggested a role for the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and nucleus accumbens in compulsive alcohol seeking. It is presently unknown whether these findings translate to humans. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and tested the hypothesis that heavy drinkers would compulsively seek alcohol despite the risk of an aversive consequence, and that this behavior would be associated with the activity of frontostriatal circuitry.

  • 22.
    Van Hedger, Kathryne
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Keedy, Sarah K.
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Mayo, Leah M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    de Wit, Harriet
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Neural responses to cues paired with methamphetamine in healthy volunteers2018In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 1732-1737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug cues, or conditioned responses to stimuli paired with drugs, are widely believed to promote drug use. The acquisition of these conditioned responses has been well characterized in laboratory animals: neutral stimuli paired with drugs elicit conditioned responses resembling the motivational and incentive properties of the drug itself. However, few studies have examined acquisition of conditioning, or the nature of the conditioned response, in humans. In this study, we used fMRI to examine neural responses to stimuli that had been paired with methamphetamine or placebo in healthy young adults. Participants first underwent four conditioning sessions in which visual-auditory stimuli were paired with either methamphetamine (20 mg, oral) or placebo. Then on a drug-free test day, the stimuli were presented during an fMRI scan to assess neural responses to the stimuli. We hypothesized that the stimuli would elicit drug-like brain activity, especially in regions related to reward. Instead, we found that the methamphetamine-paired stimuli, compared to placebo-paired stimuli, produced greater activation in regions related to visual and auditory processing, consistent with the drugs unconditioned effects on sensory processing. This is the first study to demonstrate conditioned neural responses to drug-paired stimuli after just two pairings of methamphetamine in healthy adults. The study also illustrates that conditioned responses may develop to unexpected components of the drugs effects.

  • 23.
    Domi, Esi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Augier, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gehlert, D.
    Cerecor, MD USA; Matrix Pharmaceut Consulting, CO USA.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holm, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Preclinical evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders2018In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1805-1812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior work suggests a role of kappa-opioid signaling in the control of alcohol drinking, in particular when drinking is escalated due to alcohol-induced long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we examined the small molecule selective kappa antagonist CERC-501 in rat models of alcohol-related behaviors, with the objective to evaluate its potential as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders. We first tested the effect of CERC-501 on acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. CERC-501 was then tested on basal as well as escalated alcohol self-administration induced by 20% alcohol intermittent access. Finally, we determined the effects of CERC-501 on relapse to alcohol seeking triggered by both stress and alcohol-associated cues. Control experiments were performed to confirm the specificity of CERC-501 effects on alcohol-related behaviors. CERC-501 reversed anxiety-like behavior induced by alcohol withdrawal. It did not affect basal alcohol self-administration but did dose-dependently suppress self-administration that had escalated following long-term intermittent access to alcohol. CERC-501 blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by stress, but not when relapse-like behavior was triggered by alcohol-associated cues. The effects of CERC-501 were observed in the absence of sedative side effects and were not due to effects on alcohol metabolism. Thus, in a broad battery of preclinical alcohol models, CERC-501 has an activity profile characteristic of anti-stress compounds. Combined with its demonstrated preclinical and clinical safety profile, these data support clinical development of CERC-501 for alcohol use disorders, in particular for patients with negatively reinforced, stress-driven alcohol seeking and use.

  • 24.
    Mayo, Leah M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Asratian, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindé, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holm, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nätt, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Vecchiarelli, Haley A.
    Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada.
    Balsevich, Georgia
    Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada.
    Aukema, Robert J.
    Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Spagnolo, Primavera A.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, USA.
    Lee, Francis S.
    Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, USA.
    Hill, Matthew N.
    Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Protective effects of elevated anandamide on stress and fear-related behaviors: translational evidence from humans and mice2018In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating condition with limited treatment options. Extinction of fear memories through prolonged exposure therapy, the primary evidence-based behavioral treatment for PTSD, has only partial efficacy. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) produces elevated levels of anandamide (AEA) and promotes fear extinction, suggesting that FAAH inhibitors may aid fear extinction-based treatments. A human FAAH 385C-greater thanA substitution encodes an FAAH enzyme with reduced catabolic efficacy. Individuals homozygous for the FAAH 385A allele may therefore offer a genetic model to evaluate the impact of elevations in AEA signaling in humans, helping to inform whether FAAH inhibitors have the potential to facilitate fear extinction therapy for PTSD. To overcome the challenge posed by low frequency of the AA genotype (appr. 5%), we prospectively genotyped 423 individuals to examine the balanced groups of CC, AC, and AA individuals (n = 25/group). Consistent with its loss-of-function nature, the A allele was dose dependently associated with elevated basal AEA levels, facilitated fear extinction, and enhanced the extinction recall. Moreover, the A-allele homozygotes were protected against stress-induced decreases in AEA and negative emotional consequences of stress. In a humanized mouse model, AA homozygous mice were similarly protected against stress-induced decreases in AEA, both in the periphery, and also in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, brain structures critically involved in fear extinction and regulation of stress responses. Collectively, these data suggest that AEA signaling can temper aspects of the stress response and that FAAH inhibition may aid the treatment for stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as PTSD.

  • 25.
    Mayo, Leah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindé, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Morrison, India
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Putting a good face on touch: Facial expression reflects the affective valence of caress-like touch across modalities2018In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 137, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Touch plays a central role in interpersonal behavior, especially in its capacity to convey-and induce- changes in affect. Previous research has established that slow, caress-like stroking over the skin elicits positive subjective affective responses, with higher ratings of "pleasantness" compared to a faster-moving touch stimulus. Ratings of pleasantness are associated with increased activity of a distinct class of nerve fibers: C-tactile (CT) afferents. Here, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to determine if touch that optimally activates CT afferents also influences facial muscle activity believed to reflect changes in affect. We found that less pleasant, fast-moving stroking (30 cm/s) elicited robustly negative facial EMG responses, as indexed by stronger contraction of the corrugator muscle. In contrast, pleasant, slow-moving stroking (3 cm/s) that optimally activates CT afferents resulted in decreased negative facial affective responses, manifested as significant corrugator relaxation compared to fast stroking. Moreover, the facial tracking of affective valence during touch was supra-modal, with similar effects during both directly-experienced touch and viewing of touch videos. The results of this EMG study imply that touch that fails to optimally activate CT afferent produces a negative affective response, whereas pleasant, caress-like touch has not only subjective but expressive correlates, reflected in net positive affective changes in facial expression.

  • 26.
    Epstein, David H.
    et al.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Shaham, Yavin
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Science-Based Actions Can Help Address the Opioid Crisis2018In: TIPS - Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 0165-6147, E-ISSN 1873-3735, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 911-916Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemic of addiction and over-dose is real. Addiction among pain patients accounts for only a small proportion but a large number. Scientific opinion leaders can be most effective on two fronts, each relatively low-tech: dissemination and oversight of empirically established treatments, and promulgation of social-science-based strategies for population-level prevention.

  • 27.
    Nennig, S. E.
    et al.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Fulenwider, H. D.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Chimberoff, S. H.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Smith, B. M.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Eskew, J. E.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Sequeira, M. K.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Liang, C.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Chen, J. F.
    Univ Southern Calif, CA USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Schank, J. R.
    Univ Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Selective Lesioning of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Activated Cells in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Attenuates Alcohol Place Preference2018In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1032-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear factor.-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappa B) is a transcription factor commonly associated with innate immunity and is activated by infection and inflammation. NF-kappa B has recently gained attention as a mediator of complex psychiatric phenomena such as stress and addiction. In regards to alcohol, most research on NF-kappa B has focused on neurotoxicity and few studies have explored the role of NF-kappa B in alcohol reward, reinforcement, or consumption. In these studies, we used conditioned place preference to assess the activity of NF-kappa B in response to rewarding doses of alcohol. To measure NF-kappa B activity we used a line of transgenic mice that express the LacZ gene under the control of an NF-kappa B-regulated promoter. In these animals, staining for beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) identifies cells in which NF-kappa B has been activated. We then used the Daun02 inactivation method to specifically silence NF-kappa B-expressing cells during place preference conditioning. Daun02 is an inactive prodrug that is converted to the inhibitory molecule daunorubicin by beta-gal. After alcohol place conditioning, we observed increased beta-gal staining in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell and dorsal raphe nucleus, and found that disruption of NF-kappa B-expressing cells using Daun02 attenuated the development of alcohol place preference when infused into the NAC shell following conditioning sessions. We found this effect to be regionally and temporally specific. These results suggest that, in addition to its role in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity, NF-kappa B mediates the development of alcohol place preference via its actions in the NAC shell.

  • 28.
    Stojakovic, Andrea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Walczak, Magdalena
    Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Cieslak, Przemyslaw E.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Trenk, Aleksandra
    Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Sköld, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zajdel, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mirrasekhian, Elahe
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Blasiak, Tomasz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Several behavioral traits relevant for alcoholism are controlled by gamma 2 subunit containing GABA(A) receptors on dopamine neurons in mice2018In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1548-1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk factors for developing alcohol addiction include impulsivity, high sensitivity to the rewarding action of ethanol, and low sensitivity to its sedative and intoxicating effects. Genetic variation in GABA(A) receptor subunits, including the gamma 2 subunit (Gabrg2), affects the risk for developing alcoholism. Alcohol directly potentiates GABA(A) receptors and activates the mesolimbic dopamine system. Here, we deleted Gabrg2 selectively in dopamine cells of adult mice. The deletion resulted in elevated firing of dopamine neurons and made them less sensitive to drugs acting at GABA(A) receptors. At the behavioral level, the deletion increased exploratory behavior and augmented both correct and incorrect responding in the go/no-go task, a test often used to assay the response inhibition component of impulsivity. In addition, conditioned place preference to alcohol, but not to cocaine or morphine, was increased. Ethanol-induced locomotor activation was enhanced in the mice lacking Gabrg2 on dopaminergic cells, whereas the sedative effect of alcohol was reduced. Finally, the alcohol drinking, but not the alcohol preference, at a high concentration was increased in the mutant mice. In summary, deletion of Gabrg2 on dopamine cells induced several behavioral traits associated with high risk of developing alcoholism. The findings suggest that mice lacking Gabrg2 on dopaminergic cells could be used as models for individuals at high risk for developing alcoholism and that GABA(A) receptors on dopamine cells are protective against the development of excessive alcohol drinking.

  • 29.
    Hamilton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sacchet, Matthew D.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Hjornevik, Trine
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Norwegian Med Cyclotron Ctr, Norway; Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Chin, Frederick T.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Shen, Bin
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Kämpe, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Park, Jun Hyung
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Knutson, Brian D.
    Stanford Univ, CA USA.
    Williams, Leanne M.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Borg, Nicholas
    Stanford Univ, CA USA.
    Zaharchuk, Greg
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Camacho, M. Catalina
    Univ Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Mackey, Sean
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Drevets, Wayne C.
    Janssen Res and Dev LLC, NJ USA.
    Glover, Gary H.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Gambhir, Sanjiv S.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Gotlib, Ian H.
    Stanford Univ, CA USA.
    Striatal dopamine deficits predict reductions in striatal functional connectivity in major depression: a concurrent C-11-raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation2018In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 8, article id 264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the altered integration of reward histories and reduced responding of the striatum. We have posited that this reduced striatal activation in MDD is due to tonically decreased stimulation of striatal dopamine synapses which results in decremented propagation of information along the corticostriatal-pallido-thalamic (CSPT) spiral. In the present investigation, we tested predictions of this formulation by conducting concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and C-11-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) in depressed and control (CTL) participants. We scanned 16 depressed and 14 CTL participants with simultaneous fMRI and C-11-raclopride PET. We estimated raclopride binding potential (BPND), voxel-wise, and compared MDD and CTL samples with respect to BPND in the striatum. Using striatal regions that showed significant between-group BPND differences as seeds, we conducted whole-brain functional connectivity analysis using the fMRI data and identified brain regions in each group in which connectivity with striatal seed regions scaled linearly with BPND from these regions. We observed increased BPND in the ventral striatum, bilaterally, and in the right dorsal striatum in the depressed participants. Further, we found that as BPND increased in both the left ventral striatum and right dorsal striatum in MDD, connectivity with the cortical targets of these regions (default-mode network and salience network, respectively) decreased. Deficits in stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors in MDD could account in part for the failure of transfer of information up the CSPT circuit in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  • 30.
    Perini, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kämpe, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The salience of self, not social pain, is encoded by dorsal anterior cingulate and insula2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 6165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence. Forty healthy adolescents (N = 20 females) were tested in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We used a novel paradigm that balanced participants experience of rejection and acceptance. In addition, the paradigm also controlled for whether the social judgment was towards the participants or towards other fictitious players. By creating a "self" and "other" distinction, we show that right AI and dACC are involved in processing the salience of being judged by others, irrespective of the quality of this judgment. This finding supports the idea that these regions are not specific to social rejection or even to pain or metaphorically painful experiences, but activate to self-relevant, highly salient information.

  • 31.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dulman, Russell S.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Singley, Erick
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    A Method for Evaluating the Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol in Rats without Water Deprivation, Saccharin Fading or Extended Access Training2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 119, article id e53305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operant oral self-administration methods are commonly used to study the reinforcing properties of ethanol in animals. However, the standard methods require saccharin/sucrose fading, water deprivation and/or extended training to initiate operant responding in rats. This paper describes a novel and efficient method to quickly initiate operant responding for ethanol that is convenient for experimenters and does not require water deprivation or saccharin/sucrose fading, thus eliminating the potential confound of using sweeteners in ethanol operant self-administration studies. With this method, Wistar rats typically acquire and maintain self-administration of a 20% ethanol solution in less than two weeks of training. Furthermore, blood ethanol concentrations and rewards are positively correlated for a 30 min self-administration session. Moreover, naltrexone, an FDA-approved medication for alcohol dependence that has been shown to suppress ethanol self-administration in rodents, dose-dependently decreases alcohol intake and motivation to consume alcohol for rats self-administering 20% ethanol, thus validating the use of this new method to study the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats.

  • 32.
    Persson, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm Centre Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Back, Sudie E.
    Medical University of South Carolina, USA; Ralph H Johnson Vet Affairs VA Medical Centre, SC USA.
    Killeen, Therese K.
    Medical University of South Carolina, SC 29425 USA.
    Brady, Kathleen T.
    Medical University of South Carolina, SC 29425 USA; Ralph H Johnson Vet Affairs VA Medical Centre, SC USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Magnusson, Åsa
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm Centre Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure ( COPE): A Pilot Study in Alcohol-dependent Women2017In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 119-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders are highly comorbid. Effective treatments are largely lacking. This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of a novel intervention, Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE), in preparation for a randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-two treatment-seeking women with current DSM-IV-TR PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) were recruited. Participants received COPE. Safety and feasibility were evaluated, as were efficacy-related outcomes: PTSD and depression symptom severity, alcohol use, craving, and dependence severity. Results: No adverse events occurred. COPE was implemented in routine clinical practice. Among the assessed women, 95.8% were eligible to participate. Treatment attendance and completion were higher than in previous studies. Post treatment, all efficacy-related outcomes, including PTSD and depression symptom severity, alcohol use, craving, and dependence severity, were significantly reduced. Conclusions: COPE was safe and feasible to use. Concerns that trauma-focused, exposure-based therapy might promote relapse in this population appear unwarranted. Our findings provide initial evidence suggestive of COPE efficacy for comorbid PTSD and AD in women. These results provide a strong rationale for investigating the efficacy of COPE for comorbid PTSD and AD in women in a randomized controlled trial.

  • 33.
    Barbier, Estelle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johnstone, A. L.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Khomtchouk, B. B.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Tapocik, J. D.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Pitcairn, C.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Rehman, F.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Augier, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Borich, A.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Schank, J. R.
    University of Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Rienas, C. A.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Van Booven, D. J.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Sun, H.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Nätt, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wahlestedt, C.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA; University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry. NIAAA, MD USA.
    Dependence-induced increase of alcohol self-administration and compulsive drinking mediated by the histone methyltransferase PRDM22017In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 1746-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic processes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but the specific molecular mechanisms mediating dependence-induced neuroadaptations remain largely unknown. Here, we found that a history of alcohol dependence persistently decreased the expression of Prdm2, a histone methyltransferase that monomethylates histone 3 at the lysine 9 residue (H3K9me1), in the rat dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Downregulation of Prdm2 was associated with decreased H3K9me1, supporting that changes in Prdm2 mRNA levels affected its activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing showed that genes involved in synaptic communication are epigenetically regulated by H3K9me1 in dependent rats. In non-dependent rats, viral-vector-mediated knockdown of Prdm2 in the dmPFC resulted in expression changes similar to those observed following a history of alcohol dependence. Prdm2 knockdown resulted in increased alcohol self-administration, increased aversion-resistant alcohol intake and enhanced stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking, a phenocopy of postdependent rats. Collectively, these results identify a novel epigenetic mechanism that contributes to the development of alcohol-seeking behavior following a history of dependence.

  • 34.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Stiftelsen NEPI - nätverk för läkmedelsepidemiologi - Linköping, Sweden .
    Dynamiken i förskrivningen av opioider i Sverige 2000–2015 - Markanta omfördelningar inom opioidgruppen, men ingen »epidemi«2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opioid prescription changes in Sweden 2000-2015 In contrast to the well-established »opioid epidemic« in the US, very little is known about how the prescription of opioids in Sweden has developed during the last decade. Aggregated data from the open Statistical database of the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare were analyzed descriptively. The yearly prevalence of opioid prescription did not change 2006-2015, but there were dramatic shifts in the choice of opioids. During this period, dextropropoxyphene was pulled off the market. Tramadol was used by fewer individuals (-54 % over the decade), but dosages expressed as Defined Daily Dose/patient/year (DDD/pat/y) increased (+41 %). In contrast, oxycodone and morphine were used by more individuals (+465 % and +137 %, respectively), but DDD/pat/y decreased during the period (-56% and -54%). Studies on non-aggregated data from available registries are needed to further elucidate the circumstances and possible consequences of these shifts in opioid prescription patterns.

  • 35.
    Baker, Maggie
    et al.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Lindell, Stephen G.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Driscoll, Carlos A.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Zhou, Zhifeng
    NIAAA, USA.
    Yuan, Qiaoping
    NIAAA, USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Miller-Crews, Isaac
    NIAAA, USA.
    Simpson, Elizabeth A.
    Eunice Shriver Kennedy National Institute Child Health and Huma, MD 20837 USA.
    Paukner, Annika
    Eunice Shriver Kennedy National Institute Child Health and Huma, MD 20837 USA.
    Francesco Ferrari, Pier
    University of Claude Bernard Lyon, France.
    Kumar Sindhu, Ravi
    NIAAA, MD 20852 USA.
    Razaqyar, Muslima
    NIAAA, USA.
    Sommer, Wolfgang H.
    Heidelberg University, Germany; Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Lopez, Juan F.
    University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Thompson, Robert C.
    University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Goldman, David
    NIAAA, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Dee Higley, J.
    Brigham Young University, UT 84602 USA.
    Suomi, Stephen J.
    Eunice Shriver Kennedy National Institute Child Health and Huma, MD 20837 USA.
    Barr, Christina S.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Early rearing history influences oxytocin receptor epigenetic regulation in rhesus macaques2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 44, p. 11769-11774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptations to stress can occur through epigenetic processes and may be a conduit for informing offspring of environmental challenge. We employed ChIP-sequencing for H3K4me3 to examine effects of early maternal deprivation (peer-rearing, PR) in archived rhesus macaque hippocampal samples (male, n = 13). Focusing on genes with roles in stress response and behavior, we assessed the effects of rearing on H3K4me3 binding by ANOVA. We found decreased H3K4me3 binding at genes critical to behavioral stress response, the most robust being the oxytocin receptor gene OXTR, for which we observed a corresponding decrease in RNA expression. Based on this finding, we performed behavioral analyses to deter mine whether a gain-of-function nonsynonymous OXTR SNP inter acted with early stress to influence relevant behavioral stress reactivity phenotypes (n = 194), revealing that this SNP partially rescued the PR phenotype. PR infants exhibited higher levels of separation anxiety and arousal in response to social separation, but infants carrying the alternative OXTR allele did not exhibit as great a separation response. These data indicate that the oxytocin system is involved in social-separation response and suggest that epigenetic down-modulation of OXTR could contribute to behavior al differences observed in PR animals. Epigenetic changes at OXTR may represent predictive adaptive responses that could impart readiness to respond to environmental challenge or maintain proximity to a caregiver but also contribute to behavioral pathology. Our data also demonstrate that OXTR polymorphism can permit animals to partially overcome the detrimental effects of early maternal deprivation, which could have translational implications for human psychiatric disorders.

  • 36.
    Lindell, S. G.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Comparative Behavioral Genomics, NIH/NIAAA/LNG, USA; Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH Animal Center, USA.
    Schwandt, M. L.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH Animal Center, USA.
    Suomi, S. J.
    Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Animal Center, USA.
    Rice, K. C.
    Chemical Biology Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry. Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH Animal Center, USA.
    Barr, C. S.
    Laboratory of Comparative Behavioral Genomics, NIH/NIAAA/LNG, USA; Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH Animal Center, USA.
    Intermittent Access to Ethanol Induces Escalated Alcohol Consumption in Primates2017In: Journal of addictive behaviors, therapy and rehabilitation, ISSN 2324-9005, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escalation of voluntary alcohol drinking is characteristic of alcohol addiction and can be induced in rodents using intermittent access to alcohol. This model has been used to evaluate candidate therapeutics, but key systems involved in the transition into alcohol addiction, such as CRF, differ in their organization between rodents and primates. We examined the ability of an intermittent access schedule to induce escalation of voluntary alcohol drinking in non-human primates and used this model to assess the role of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF) signaling in this process.

  • 37.
    Barbier, Estelle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    mTORC and ProSAPiP1: How Alcohol Changes Synapses of Reward Circuitry2017In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 96, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol addiction is characterized by broad and persistent changes in brain function, but the underlying neural adaptations remain largely unknown. In this issue of Neuron, Laguesse et al. (2017) describe a neural mechanism through which long-term alcohol exposure induces structural and synaptic adaptations that promote excessive alcohol use.

  • 38.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schank, Jesse R.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
    Rehman, Faazal
    Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Stojakovic, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Björk, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Solomon, Matthew
    Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Tapocik, Jenica
    Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Proinflammatory signaling regulates voluntary alcohol intake and stress-induced consumption after exposure to social defeat stress in mice2017In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 1279-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proinflammatory activity has been postulated to play a role in addictive processes and stress responses, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) in regulation of voluntary alcohol consumption, alcohol reward and stress-induced drinking. Mice with a deletion of the IL-1 receptor I gene (IL-1RI KO) exhibited modestly decreased alcohol consumption. However, IL-1RI deletion affected neither the rewarding properties of alcohol, measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), nor stress-induced drinking induced by social defeat stress. TNF-a signaling can compensate for phenotypic consequences of IL1-RI deletion. We therefore hypothesized that double deletion of both IL-1RI and TNF-1 receptors (TNF-1R) may reveal the role of these pathways in regulation of alcohol intake. Double KOs consumed significantly less alcohol than control mice over a range of alcohol concentrations. The combined deletion of TNF-1R and IL-1RI did not influence alcohol reward, but did prevent increased alcohol consumption resulting from exposure to repeated bouts of social defeat stress. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-1RI and TNF-1R contribute to regulation of stress-induced, negatively reinforced drinking perhaps through overlapping signaling events downstream of these receptors, while leaving rewarding properties of alcohol largely unaffected.

  • 39.
    Heilig, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience.
    Johnstone, A. L.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Tapocik, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Meinhardt, M. W.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Pfarr, S.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Wahlestedt, C.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Sommer, W. H.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Reprogramming of mPFC transcriptome and function in alcohol dependence2017In: Genes, Brain and Behavior, ISSN 1601-1848, E-ISSN 1601-183X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 86-100Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its limited immediate reinforcement value, alcohol has a potent ability to induce neuroadaptations that promote its incentive salience, escalation of voluntary alcohol intake and aversion-resistant alcohol seeking. A constellation of these traits, collectively called post-dependent, emerges following brain exposure to repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its subdivisions exert top-down regulation of approach and avoidance behaviors, including those that lead to alcohol intake. Here, we review an emerging literature which indicates that a reprogramming of mPFC function occurs with prolonged exposure of the brain to cycles of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. This reprogramming results in molecular dysregulations that contribute to the post-dependent syndrome. Convergent evidence has identified neuroadaptations resulting in altered glutamatergic and BDNF-mediated signaling, and for these pathways, direct evidence for a mechanistic role has been obtained. Additional evidence points to a dysregulation of pathways involving calcium homeostasis and neurotransmitter release. Recent findings indicate that global DNA hypermethylation is a key factor in reprogramming the mPFC genome after a history of dependence. As one of the results of this epigenetic remodeling, several histone modifying epigenetic enzymes are repressed. Among these, PR-domain zinc-finger protein 2, a methyltransferase that selectively mono-methylates histone H3 at lysine 9 has been functionally validated to drive several of the molecular and behavioral long-term consequences of alcohol dependence. Information processing within the mPFC involves formation of dynamic neuronal networks, or functional ensembles that are shaped by transcriptional responses. The epigenetic dysregulations identified by our molecular studies are likely to alter this dynamic processing in multiple ways. In summary, epigenetic molecular switches in the mPFC appear to be turned on as alcoholism develops. Strategies to reverse these processes may offer targets for disease-modifying treatments.

  • 40.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Neuroscience Stockholm, Sweden .
    Landén, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Sweden.
    Waern, Magda
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Sweden.
    Socialstyrelsens målnivåer signalerar brist på tillit in Lakartidningen, vol 114, issue , pp2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Schank, Jesse R.
    et al.
    University of Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Substance P and the Neurokinin-1 Receptor: The New CRF2017In: ROLE OF NEUROPEPTIDES IN ADDICTION AND DISORDERS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION, ISSN 0074-7742, Vol. 136, p. 151-175Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide of the tachykinin family that preferentially activates the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). First isolated 85 years ago and sequenced 40 years later, SP has been extensively studied. Early studies identified a role for SP and the NK1R in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle, central pain processing, and neurogenic inflammation. An FDA-approved NK1R antagonist, aprepitant, is used clinically for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea, as the NK1R influences the activity of the brain stem emesis centers. More recently, SP and the NK1R have gained attention for their role in complex psychiatric processes including stress, anxiety, and depression. However, clinical development of NK1R antagonists for these indications has so far been unsuccessful. Several preclinical studies have also demonstrated a role of the NK1R in drug taking and drug seeking, especially as it relates to escalated consumption and stress-elicited seeking. This line of research developed in parallel with findings supporting a role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced drug seeking. Over this time, CRF arguably gained more attention as a target for development of addiction pharmacotherapies. However, this effort has not resulted in a viable drug for use in human populations. Given promising clinical findings for the efficacy of NK1R antagonists on craving in alcoholics, along with recent data suggesting that a number of negative results from NK1R trials were likely due to insufficient receptor occupancy, the NK1R merits being revisited as a target for the development of novel pharmacotherapeutics for addiction.

  • 42.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dulman, Russell S.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Damadzic, Ruslan
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Pilling, Andrew
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The GABA(B) Positive Allosteric Modulator ADX71441 Attenuates Alcohol Self-Administration and Relapse to Alcohol Seeking in Rats2017In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 1789-1799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol, and GABA(B) receptors have been proposed as a potential target for clinical treatment of alcoholism. The orthosteric GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to suppress operant self-administration of alcohol in animals and alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients, but its utility is limited by a narrow therapeutic index. We tested the effects of ADX71441, a novel GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulator, on alcohol-related behaviors in rats. We first assessed the effects of ADX71441 ( 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, I.P.) on both non-dependent and dependent male Wistar rats trained to self-administer 20% alcohol. We then determined the effects of ADX71441 on stress-induced as well as cue-induced relapse-like behavior. Finally, we sought to identify the brain regions through which ADX71441 may act to prevent relapse-like behavior by mapping the neuronal activation induced by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. ADX71441 dose-dependently decreased alcohol self-administration of both dependent and non-dependent animals, but its potency was higher in alcohol-dependent rats. Furthermore, both cue-and stress-induced alcohol seeking were blocked by the GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulator. Finally, pretreatment with 3 mg/kg of ADX71441 before stress-induced reinstatement significantly decreased c-Fos expression in a network of brain regions implicated in stress-induced relapse, comprising the nucleus accumbens shell, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings support a causal role of GABAB receptors in alcohol reinforcement and relapse to alcohol seeking. These effects are observed in the absence of significant sedative side effects. Jointly, these observations indicate that GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulators merit being tested clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. Our data also point to a potential biomarker of target engagement for early clinical studies.

  • 43.
    Bernardi, R. E.
    et al.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Zohsel, K.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hirth, N.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Treutlein, J.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Laucht, M.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Spanagel, R.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Sommer, W. H.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    A gene-by-sex interaction for nicotine reward: evidence from humanized mice and epidemiology2016In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 6, no e861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that vulnerability to nicotine addiction is moderated by variation at the mu-opioid receptor locus (OPRM1), but results from human studies vary and prospective studies based on genotype are lacking. We have developed a humanized mouse model of the most common functional OPRM1 polymorphism rs1799971_A4G (A118G). Here we use this model system together with a cohort of German youth to examine the role of the OPRM1 A118G variation on nicotine reward. Nicotine reinforcement was examined in the humanized mouse model using i.v. self-administration. Male (n = 17) and female (n = 26) mice homozygous either for the major human A allele (AA) or the minor G allele (GG) underwent eight daily 2 h sessions of nicotine self-administration. Furthermore, male (n = 104) and female (n = 118) subjects homozygous for the A allele or carrying the G allele from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were evaluated for pleasurable and unpleasant experiences during their initial smoking experience. A significant sex-by-genotype effect was observed for nicotine self-administration. Male 118GG mice demonstrated higher nicotine intake than male 118AA mice, suggesting increased nicotine reinforcement. In contrast, there was no genotype effect in female mice. Human male G allele carriers reported increased pleasurable effects from their first smoking experience, as compared to male homozygous A, female G and female homozygous A allele carriers. The 118G allele appears to confer greater sensitivity to nicotine reinforcement in males, but not females.

  • 44.
    Sells, Joanna R.
    et al.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; Uniformed Serv University of Health Science, MD 20814 USA.
    Waters, Andrew J.
    Uniformed Serv University of Health Science, MD 20814 USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, MD 20814 USA.
    Kwako, Laura E.
    NIAAA, MD 20814 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    George, David T.
    NIAAA, MD 20814 USA.
    Ramchandani, Vijay A.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Characterization of comorbid PTSD in treatment-seeking alcohol dependent inpatients: Severity and personality trait differences2016In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 163, p. 242-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with alcohol dependence (AD), but little is known about the characteristics of AD treatment-seeking inpatients with PTSD. We examined differences between treatment-seeking alcohol dependent inpatients with and without comorbid PTSD. We hypothesized that those with AD and PTSD would have higher levels of: (1) alcohol use and AD severity; (2) anxiety and mood disorders; (3) neuroticism. Methods: Individuals (N = 411, mean age = 41.7 +/- 10.0 years) with AD were monitored over 30 days in a suburban inpatient alcohol treatment setting. Patients were evaluated to identify AD and comorbid PTSD, mood and anxiety disorders, alcohol use and dependence severity, personality, and aggression. Results: Those with PTSD (19% of the sample) did not differ in the amount of alcohol consumed, but had greater: (1) severity of AD (p = 0.001, d = 0.44); (2) diagnosis of anxiety (p = 0.000, OR = 3.64) and mood (p = 0.000, OR = 4.83) disorders; and (3) levels of neuroticism (p amp;lt; 0.001, d = 0.67) and aggression (p amp;lt; 0.001, d = 0.81). Conclusions: AD patients with comorbid PTSD present a more severe phenotype across AD severity, frequency of anxiety and mood disorders, and levels of neuroticism and aggression. This group may benefit from concurrent treatment of both AD and PTSD. Future research can investigate neuroticism as a potential treatment target. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 45.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rehman, Faazal
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Damadzic, Ruslan
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Atkins, Alison Lynn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schank, Jesse R.
    University of Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Gehlert, Donald R.
    Lilly Research Labs, IN USA.
    Steensland, Pia
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Correction: The melanin-concentrating hormone-1 receptor modulates alcohol-induced reward and DARPP-32 phosphorylation (vol 233, nr 12, pp. 2355–2363, 2016)2016In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 233, no 21-22, p. 3825-3825Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 46.
    Heilig, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Carlezon, William A.
    Harvard University, MA USA.
    Editorial Material: Circumspectives: Cannabis and Psychiatric Illness: Blunt Thoughts in NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, vol 41, issue 2, pp 391-3922016In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 391-392Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 47.
    Spagnolo, Primavera A.
    et al.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Ramchandani, Vijay A.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Kwako, Laura E.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    George, David T.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Mayo, Leah
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Hillard, Cecilia J.
    Medical Coll Wisconsin, WI 53226 USA; Medical Coll Wisconsin, WI 53226 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    FAAH Gene Variation Moderates Stress Response and Symptom Severity in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence2016In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 2426-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundA common single nucleotide polymorphism (C385A) in the human fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene has been associated with decreased distress responses in healthy volunteers, but its role in psychiatric disorders remains unknown. Here, we obtained genotypes and carried out a secondary analysis of subjects from a trial of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD). We evaluated the effects of C385A variation on behavioral and biochemical biomarkers of distress responses. MethodsForty-nine patients with PTSD and AD were admitted for 4weeks to an experimental medicine unit at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Following detoxification, stress reactivity and peripheral endocannabinoid (eCB) levels were assessed in response to a challenge session using personalized auditory guided imagery. Over the course of the study, subjects were also evaluated for changes in PTSD symptom severity. ResultsFAAH C385A allele carriers showed a marked increase in serum anandamide levels at baseline and throughout the stress challenge procedure compared with C allele homozygotes, while levels of eCBs primarily metabolized through other enzymatic activity, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol, did not differ between genotype groups. FAAH C385A carriers also had decreased subjective anxiety responses to the stress challenge. Similar effects of FAAH C385A genotype were found at the level of clinical PTSD symptom severity, in particular in the arousal domain. ConclusionsThis is to our knowledge the first study showing that FAAH C385A variation modulates stress responses in subjects with disorders characterized by increased stress reactivity. These findings point to the eCB pathway as a promising target for future antistress therapeutics.

  • 48.
    Domi, Esi
    et al.
    University of Camerino, Italy.
    Uhrig, Stefanie
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Soverchia, Laura
    University of Camerino, Italy.
    Spanagel, Rainer
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hansson, Anita C.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ciccocioppo, Roberto
    University of Camerino, Italy.
    Ubaldi, Massimo
    University of Camerino, Italy.
    Genetic Deletion of Neuronal PPAR gamma Enhances the Emotional Response to Acute Stress and Exacerbates Anxiety: An Effect Reversed by Rescue of Amygdala PPAR gamma Function2016In: JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, ISSN 0270-6474, Vol. 36, no 50, p. 12611-12623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PPAR gamma is one of the three isoforms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). PPAR gamma is activated by thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone and is targeted to treat insulin resistance. PPAR gamma is densely expressed in brain areas involved in regulation of motivational and emotional processes. Here, we investigated the role of PPAR gamma in the brain and explored its role in anxiety and stress responses in mice. The results show that stimulation of PPAR gamma by pioglitazone did not affect basal anxiety, but fully prevented the anxiogenic effect of acute stress. Using mice with genetic ablation of neuronal PPAR gamma (PPAR gamma(NestinCre)), we demonstrated that a lack of receptors, specifically in neurons, exacerbated basal anxiety and enhanced stress sensitivity. The administration of GW9662, a selective PPAR gamma antagonist, elicited a marked anxiogenic response in PPAR gamma wild-type (WT), but not in PPAR gamma(NestinCre) knock-out (KO) mice. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we observed that acute stress exposure resulted in a different pattern of neuronal activation in the amygdala (AMY) and the hippocampus (HIPP) of PPAR gamma(NestinCre) KO mice compared with WT mice. No differences were found between WT and KO mice in hypothalamic regions responsible for hormonal response to stress or in blood corticosterone levels. Microinjection of pioglitazone into the AMY, but not into the HIPP, abolished the anxiogenic response elicited by acute stress. Results also showed that, in both regions, PPAR gamma colocalizes with GABAergic cells. These findings demonstrate that neuronal PPAR gamma is involved the regulation of the stress response and that the AMY is a key substrate for the anxiolytic effect of PPAR gamma

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aziz, Abdul Maruf Asif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rehman, Faazal
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Pitcairn, Caleb
    Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, NIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wendel Hansen, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gehlert, Don
    CNS Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
    Steensland, Pia
    Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Melanin-Concentrating Hormone and Its MCH-1 Receptor: Relationship Between Effects on Alcohol and Caloric Intake2016In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2199-2207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reward and energy homeostasis are both regulated by a network of hypothalamic neuropeptide systems. The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and its MCH-1 receptor (MCH1-R) modulate alcohol intake, but it remains unknown to what extent this reflects actions on energy balance or reward. Here, we evaluated the MCH1-R in regulation of caloric intake and motivation to consume alcohol in states of escalated consumption.

    Methods: Rats had intermittent access (IA) to alcohol and were divided into high- and low-drinking groups. Food and alcohol consumption was assessed after administration of an MCH1-R antagonist, GW803430. Next, GW803430 was evaluated on alcohol self-administration in protracted abstinence induced by IA in high-drinking rats. Finally, the effect of GW803430 was assessed on alcohol self-administration in acute withdrawal in rats exposed to alcohol vapor. Gene expression of MCH and MCH1-R was measured in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both acute and protracted abstinence.

    Results: High-drinking IA rats consumed more calories from alcohol than chow and GW803430 decreased both chow and alcohol intake. In low-drinking rats, only food intake was affected. In protracted abstinence from IA, alcohol self-administration was significantly reduced by pretreatment with GW803430 and gene expression of both MCH and the MCH1-R were dysregulated in hypothalamus and NAc. In contrast, during acute withdrawal from vapor exposure, treatment with GW803430 did not affect alcohol self-administration, and no changes in MCH or MCH1-R gene expression were observed.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest a dual role of MCH and the MCH1-R in regulation of alcohol intake, possibly through mechanisms involving caloric intake and reward motivation. A selective suppression of alcohol self-administration during protracted abstinence by GW803430 was observed and accompanied by adaptations in gene expression of MCH and MCH1-R. Selective suppression of escalated consumption renders the MCH1-R an attractive target for treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  • 50.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Substansrelaterade och addiktiva störningar2016In: Psykiatri / [ed] Jörgen Herlofson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, 2, p. 493-536Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Användning av psykoaktiva substanser (eller "droger") leder till omfattande folkhälsoproblem, men är inte lätt att få in i enkla diagnoskategorier. Det är omdebatterat hurvida substansbruk ska ses som en "sjukdom" och vara en angelägenhet för sjukvården. Vi ska emellertid se att substansbruk ofta uppvisar grundläggande likheter med andra kroniska sjukdomar.

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