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  • 1.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westin, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    Luftfartsverket, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis and conceptual designing for unmanned air traffic management in cities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in high-stakes domains, such as Air Traffic Management (ATM). It provides focus on human expert performance in regular as well as contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system, since there is nothing to analyze before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this paper we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA for UTM as a first-of-a-kind system.

  • 2.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis in the conceptual design of first-of-a-kind systems - designing urban air traffic management2018In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 904-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in design for high-stakes domains, such as air traffic management (ATM) since it focuses on human expert performance in regular and contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system since there is nothing to analyse before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned air traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this research-through-design study, we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA in the design of a first-of-a-kind UTM system. In a series of co-design workshops, we identified future services, traffic patterns, and regulations that framed the design of UTM system concepts. They were based on combinations of four basic building blocks: points, lines, planes, and volumes. Concepts of point-based control, airport geofences, grid squares, layers, and tubes were discussed. Throughout the conceptual designing, results were documented in an evolving Work Domain Analysis (WDA), which is a cornerstone of CWA. This approach allowed us to bootstrap the CWA for a first-of-a-kind-system.

  • 3.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linder, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Know thy users by interpretative phenomenological analysis2018In: Journal of Interaction Science, E-ISSN 2194-0827, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to getting to know a user and understanding the user experience (UX) is phenomenology. Currently, there is a lack of clearly defined methods for phenomenological analysis of user experience in design projects. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is an approach developed in psychology, and in this article, it is adapted to the case of a pro bono design project at a UX design agency supporting a disadvantaged group of people, newly arrived immigrants to Sweden. The design project involved research on how the immigrants experienced a service that introduced them to the job market. The adapted method, UX IPA, contributed to the pro bono project with a focus on both experience and meaning, which is important in design projects that relate to major events in users’ lives. The method was considered less appropriate in UX projects for specific products with highly instrumental use. The method can, in many cases, be too costly. However, costs can possibly be reduced by top-down approaches. In commercial UX projects, the method may be appropriate for the fuzzy front-end of design and innovation, but clients may be unimpressed by the small sample size. This can potentially be alleviated by mixed-methods approaches.

  • 4.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resource integration as a perspective on value in interaction design2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-dominant logic (SDL) is a theoretical framework that has impacted the development of service design. Resource integration, a core concept in SDL, provides a distinctive perspective that changes the perception of value in situations of interaction. In this paper, we explore the implications of applying the resource integration view on interaction in the context of an illustrative design project. We argue that considering the resources of each actor in a design situation elevates the discussion towards a more strategic level of service and value creation. Through the example, we draw implications of utilising this perspective in specifying, positioning and shaping interactions in the system to provide value for different actors.

  • 5.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ragnemalm, Eva L.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simulated provocations: A hypermedia radio theatre for reflection on classroom management2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 98-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Learning to manage a classroom is a difficult but important part of teacher education. Earlier research on simulations for learning classroom management has highlighted the difficulty of supporting reflection.

    Purpose. This case study explores and evaluates the design of a simulation for student teachers’ reflection on classroom management.

    Design. The design process resulted in the scenario-based SIMPROV simulation, which was made in the form of a hypermedia radio theatre that students go through in pairs or triads. Authoritarian, authoritative, democratic, and compliant leadership styles were built into the choices student teachers made.

    Evaluation. The simulation was evaluated in two courses where the participants’ level of reflection and perceived knowledge improvement was measured using a questionnaire. Forty three first-year student teachers, 48 third-year student teachers, and 38 of the student teachers’ mentors participated in the evaluation.

    Results. The results indicate that participants engaged in reflection and understanding to a high degree, and only to a low degree in critical reflection or habitual action.

    Conclusions. The conclusions are that the scenario-based simulation designed as a hypermedia radio theatre supported knowledge improvement, understanding, and reflection and that social interaction during and after simulation sessions was an important feature.

  • 6.
    Stergiadis, Dimitris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The user repertory grid technique to crowdsourced user research analysis: A mixed-methods approach to creating personas2018In: DS 91: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018 / [ed] Ekströmer, Philip; Schütte, Simon and Ölvander, Johan, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different methods for analysing user research data in user-centred design. One method is to create personas. Personas are fictive characters with a name and a face. They are based on data about the users, and designers and other stakeholders can engage in them and empathize with them as a proxy for the actual users. Personas are communication tools that make it easier for a large group of developers and designers to focus on a shared view of whom the design is for. There are different ways of creating personas, including analysis of behavioural variables and goals, thematic analysis, and mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Creating personas relies heavily on the expertise of the user researcher and others in the design team. The creation of personas could potentially benefit from crowdsourcing the analysis of user data and hence counteract the subjectivity inherent in persona creation. The aim of this case study is to tentatively explore the possibilities and difficulties of crowdsourcing persona creation facilitated by the repertory grid technique (RGT). RGT is a mixed-methods approach that combines qualitative and quantitative data and we used it to investigate individual participants’ view on the summaries and the views of the pool of participants. It is a method derived from personal construct theory (PCP), in which an individual is posed to have personal theories and expectations that direct how he or she views things (in this case a number of interview summaries). In the context of user research, we call the method User Repertory Grids. We had 28 participants in our crowdsourced analysis of five summarized user interviews. The participants’ personal constructs of the summarized interviews were elicited. We then visualized the results in Bertin plots and biplots, and we calculated the importance and dominance of the constructs. We conclude that User Repertory Grids has potential to complement other methods in user modelling, but it is, in the end, no escape from subjectivity. Using this method, the subjectivity of experts is transferred to a subjectivity of the crowd.

  • 7.
    Ylirisku, Salu
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The varieties of good design2018In: Advancements in the philosophy of design / [ed] Pieter E. Vermaas and Stéphane Vial, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 51-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of the notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumental goodness, technical goodness, medical goodness, hedonic goodness, and the good of man. We discuss these different kinds of goodness in relation to six design traditions that we identify, namely conceptual design, usability design, engineering design, ergonomics design, experience design and sustainability design. We argue that the design traditions are grounded in different appreciations of goodness, and that designers and design researchers can benefit from a more precise discernment of values that underpin design processes and design critique in different traditions. von Wright’s treatise serves as a point of departure for the appraisal of the multifaceted and relational character of the idea of good design and of the values of design. 

  • 8.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bardzell, Jeffrey
    Indiana University, USA.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What we mean by interactive form2018In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The following blog post is edited from an email conversation between the authors about the concept of interactive form, which incidentally is the name of a course given at Linköping University. If you do teach a course, it might be a good idea to understand the meaning of the course name.

  • 9.
    Johan, Linder
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    IPA in UX Research: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a User Experience Design Practice2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    One approach to user experience (UX) is phenomenology, but there are no well-defined methods for how to conduct UX research using phenomenology, especially not in a professional design practice. One well-defined approach developed in psychology is Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which in this paper is adapted to professional UX research practice. The adaptation is put to test in the case of understanding how newly-arrived immigrants to Sweden experience a start-up service that introduce them to the job market. Contributions and shortcomings of the method in the views of professional UX researchers and designers are documented and discussed. It is concluded that IPA contributes to UX research by investigating both experience and meaning, and by providing holistic insights appropriate for service design and the fuzzy front-end of innovation.

  • 10.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wahlman, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Lifelogging in User Experience Research: Supporting Recall and Improving Data Richness2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, p. S3954-S3965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of lifelogging is to help users collect data for self-monitoring and reflection. We have in this study explored how lifelogging technology (a camera and a heart rate monitor) can change user experience (UX) research, and we describe a novel approach. Data was collected for three days with four participants, and a 4-6-hours co-creation workshop with stimulated recall interview was held with each of them to create an experience timeline. The timeline includes selfreported key experiences, lifelog stimulated experiences, heart rate, decisions, and valence. The results show that the number of experiences in the timeline that come from data points stimulated by the lifelogging, are as many as the self-reported data points. Lessons learned include that the use of lifelogging produces highly detailed UX research, but it is very time consuming, due to the sheer amount of data.

  • 11.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What Is It Like to Be a Bot?: Toward More Immediate Wizard-of-Oz Control in Social Human–Robot Interaction2017In: HAI 2017 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York, NY.: ACM Press, 2017, p. 435-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Wizard-of-Oz techniques have been developed to make robots appear autonomous and more social in human-robot interaction. Many of the existing solutions use control interfaces that introduce significant time delays and hamper the robot operator's ability to produce socially appropriate responses in real time interactions. We present work in progress on a novel wizard control interface designed to overcome these limitations:a motion tracking-based system which allows the wizard to act as if he or she is the robot. The wizard sees the other through the robot's perspective, and uses his or her own bodily movements to control it. We discuss potential applications and extensions of this system, and conclude by discussing possible methodological advantages and disadvantages.

  • 12.
    Skågeby, Jörgen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rahm, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Editorial: Transhumanist Politics, Education, and Design2016In: Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics, ISSN 2001-4562, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Confero takes its start in an essay by John Mazarakis who presents an overarching perspective on the underpinning politics of transhumanism. Considering theoretical debates and differences in the transhumanist movement over the last two decades, Mazarakis proposes the emergence of two distinct political stances: the techno-progressive and the technolibertarian. Using Lyotardian concepts, Mazarakis questions the latent legacy of ‘the grand narratives of modernism’ and their potential to function as a basis for theorizing a transhuman future.

  • 13.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hägglund, Sture
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Hult, Lars
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Katarina, Bohm
    Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset.
    Multi-Touchpoint Design of Multimodal Healthcare Services2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify research themes and outline a research-through-design project that will explore opportunities and challenges in human-centred multi- touchpoint design for multimodal emergency calls, healthcare counselling, and elderly patient monitoring. Relevant research areas for the project include multimodal user interfaces and interaction, transmodality, accessibility, and multi-touchpoint user experience (UX) and service design. Research questions will primarily focus on opportunities and challenges of interaction and visualisation; dialogue and communication; and operations and organisation. On a higher level, beyond the specific case, the overarching research questions concern what roles modalities play in multi-touchpoint UX and service design. The knowledge contribution is a better understanding of how different modalities can be designed, employed, combined, and transduced in and between multiple touchpoints. 

  • 14.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Perception, meaning and transmodal design2016In: Proceedings of DRS 2016: Design Research Society 50th Anniversary Conference, 2016, Vol. 3, p. 1089-1100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our perceptual system allows us to experience and make meaning of the world through different modalities. We can move between feeling, seeing and hearing things and still makes sense of our world. Our cognitive activities are transmodal. In interaction design this means that both our design processes and our users’ interactions are transmodal. We have gained insights into how transitions between modalities, both in the design context and in the users’ interaction context, modulate meaning and experience, by analysing three interactive systems: SimProv, VibEd, and Sightlence. We propose that a transmodal design approach facilitate designers to realize the communicative potential of different modalities, and hence present users with a transmodal perspective on their interaction space that allow for continuous rearrangement and use of modalities.

  • 15.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Design Ways to Value-In-Use2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 530-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do we mean if we say that a service design work is an example of good design? This paper presents a provisional typology for the ways in which a service design proposal can contribute to value-in-use. The typology covers instrumentality, technical excellence, usefulness, social significance, mutual advantage, collective welfare, and aesthetic values. Moral implications related to norms, power structures and tensions between stakeholders are also considered. It is argued that the typology can facilitate service designers and researchers in framing and re-framing a design effort and conceptualise a value proposition. 

  • 16.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT, Linköping, Sweden.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transmodal interaction and user experience2016In: Proceedings of the 12'th SweCog Conference / [ed] Alexander Almér, Robert Lowe, Erik Billing, Skövde: The University of Skövde , 2016, p. 5-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are in a series of studies, ranging from news production to computer gaming, looking into the intersection of transmodal interaction and user experience. The purpose of this abstract is to outline the theoretical framework for that intersection. The first area we are studying is Transmodal Interaction, which is a concept that refer to a specific aspect of multimodal interaction. Human action is multimodal (Streeck, Goodwin, & LeBaron, 2011), and different sensory modes play an important role in action. However, little attention has been given to the intricate ways in which sensory modalities (seeing – drawing, hearing – saying, moving – touching, etc.) integrate, affect, and transform each other during the course of an activity. There are transformations of meaning in every new materialisation of an idea or a thought, partly depending on the communication potential of the sensory modality. This render what we refer to as a transmodal process where ideas and thoughts materialise action by action in an emergent sequence across relatively long and discontinuous timespans (Murphy, 2012). Over a sequence of actions, the meanings expressed in one modality, dynamically blend and shape what is expressed in other modalities. This produces, according to (Murphy, 2012) “a series of semiotic modulations in which certain core qualities persist, but others are noticeably transformed in the transition from one mode to another. (p. 1969)” We can, in intersemiotic translation (Jakobson, 1959) between modalities, address what is lost, how we introduce distortions, or even introduce perceptions of things that do not exist. A question is then how continuity of meaning and experience is preserved in modality changes. The second area we are studying is User Experience. The term refers to a person's perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service (ISO, 2010). We employ a three level model of user experience based on Leontiev’s account of consciousness (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2012; Leont ́ev, 1978), which also relate closely to Norman’s model of emotional design (Norman, 2005). The first level is the sensory fabric of consciousness, Norman refers to this as the visceral level. It is the largely subconscious level of how things feel. The second level is the personal meaning of things, related to what and how we do things action by action. Norman (ibid.) refers to this level as the behavioural level. The third level has to do with meaning, and what Norman refers to as a reflective level. It is the level of cultural meaning and what things mean for us in our socially and historically rooted activities. The intersection of these two areas constitutes our current focus of research. We are, in domains as different as news production and computer gaming, investigating persons’ perceptions and actions resulting from interaction with each other and with materialisations across different sensory modalities that give rise to intersemiotic translation effects. 

    References ISO. (2010). ISO 9241-210: 2010 Ergonomics of human-system interaction -- Part 210: Human-centred design. Geneva: International Standardization Organization. Jakobson, R. (1959). On linguistic aspects of translation. In R. A. Brower (Ed.), On translation (pp. 232-239). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Kaptelinin, V., & Nardi, B. (2012). Activity theory in HCI: Fundamentals and Reflections. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, 5(1), 1-105.  Leont´ev, A. N. (1978). Activity, Consciousness, and Personality. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall. Murphy, K. M. (2012). Transmodality and temporality in design interactions. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(14), 1966-1981. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.013 Norman, D. A. (2005). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York, NY.: Basic Books. Streeck, J. r., Goodwin, C., & LeBaron, C. (2011). Embodied interaction: language and body in the material

  • 17.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Boström, Emil
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vibed: A prototyping tool for haptic game interfaces2016In: iConference 2016 Proceedings, iSchools , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptics in the form of vibrations in game interfaces have the potential to strengthen visual and audio components, and also improve accessibility for certain populations like people with deafblindness. However, building vibrotactile game interfaces is difficult and time consuming. Our research problem was how to make a prototyping tool that facilitated prototyping of vibrotactile game interfaces for phones and gamepads. The results include a description of the prototyping tool we built, which is called VibEd. It allows designers to draw vibrotactile patterns, referred to as vibes, that can easily be tested on phones and gamepads, and exported to code that can be used in game development. It is concluded, based on user tests, that a haptic game interface prototyping tool such as VibEd, can facilitate haptic game interface design and development, and by that contribute to game accessibility for persons with deafblindness. 

  • 18.
    Edforss Fuchs, Inger
    et al.
    Västra Ramlösa skola, Helsingborg.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyman, Ingemar
    Miljöverkstaden, Helsingborg.
    Szczepanski, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts, Crafts and Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Final reporting for the VASS project: The virtual world meets the authentic world in sensuous and integrated learning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for the Vass project was to conduct a closer examination of how ICT works in an outdoor educational and curriculum controlled context with students in years 4, 5, 6 and 7. VASS stands for virtual world meets a real in sensuous and integrated learning.

    The VASS project has been carried out by Västra Ramlösa school and Miljöverkstaden in Helsingborg as well as National Centre for Outdoor Education (NCU) and SICS East Swedish ICT both based at Linköping University. The project, which has run during the period 2012 – 2015, was made possible through support from the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg foundation with 1,3 million SEK. Inger Edforss Fuchs, teacher leader at Västra Ramlösa School in Helsingborg has been the project leader.

    The project had three main starting points

    • The teaching is based on a curriculum which gives the starting point for the teaching and learning in school and therefore also for lessons connected to the project.
    • Where we conduct the teaching, meaning the relation to place, is of great importance for the students’ learning. This pedagogical perspective and outlook related to the where-aspect of teaching and learning characterises outdoor education.
    • Teaching in an outdoor educational context can be carried out with the help of ICT.

    There are a number of different examples of the use of ICT in combination with outdoor education, but the focus of this particular project was the close connection to the curriculum and its targets where outdoor education was included as a starting point.

    We choose to present the project here through four different essays which all represent different perspectives. Inger Edforss Fuchs starts by describing the work that has been carried out at her school in Helsingborg. Ingemar Nyman wants to show the gains in environmental theory of pedagogy the schools can make by using IT in outdoor pedagogical work. Mattias Arvola, who does research on the interface between people and digital devices, describes the development work that has been carried out within the framework for the project in his department at Linköping University. In the last essay Anders Szczepanski shares his view of how IT supported outdoor educational work affects the way students and teachers look at learning.

    We would like to thank the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg foundation for wanting to support this project. Without their help it would not have been possible to carry out the project, which would also have meant that we would not have got this far in the important work on developing the schools’ use of ICT in a curriculum based and outdoor educational context.

    Helsingborg June 2015

    Inger Edforss Fuchs

    Project leader

    Mattias Arvola

    Ingemar Nyman

    Anders Szczepanski

  • 19.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Ragnemalm, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mathias, Nordvall
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simuleringar tränar förmågan att leda klassrummet2015In: Venue, ISSN 1652-3415, Vol. 12, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Edforss Fuchs, Inger
    et al.
    Västra Ramlösa skola, Helsingborg.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyman, Ingemar
    Miljöverkstaden, Helsingborg.
    Szczepanski, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts, Crafts and Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Slutrapportering av VASS-projektet “Virtuell värld möter autentisk värld i ett sinnligt, samlat lärande"2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Utgångspunkten för VASS-projektet var att närmare undersöka hur IKT fungerar i ett utomhuspedagogiskt och läroplansstyrt sammanhang med elever i årskurs 4, 5, 6 och 7. VASS står för virtuell värld möter en reell i ett sinnligt och samlat lärande.

    VASS-projektet har genomförts av Västra Ramlösa skola och Miljöverkstaden i Helsingborg samt Nationellt för centrum i utomhuspedagogik (NCU) och SICS East Swedish ICT Research Faculty båda vid Linköpings universitet. Projektet, som löpt under tiden 2012 – 2015, blev möjligt efter stöd från Marcus och Amalia Wallenbergs minnesfond på 1,3 miljoner kronor. Projektledare har varit Inger Edforss Fuchs som är förstelärare på Västra Ramlösa skola i Helsingborg.

    Det fanns tre huvudsakliga utgångspunkter i projektet:

    • Undervisningen styrs av en läroplan som ger en utgångspunkten för undervisningen i skolan och därmed också för lektioner som kopplats till projektet.
    • Var vi bedriver undervisningen, det vill säga platsrelationen, har en stor betydelse för elevernas lärande. Detta pedagogiska perspektiv och grundsyn relaterad till undervisningen och lärandets var-aspekt karakteriserar utomhuspedagogik.
    • En undervisning i ett utomhuspedagogiskt sammanhang kan bedrivas med hjälp av IKT.

    Det finns en del olika exempel på att använda IKT i kombination med utomhuspedagogik, men det centrala i just det här projektet var den nära anknytningen till läroplanen och dess mål där utomhuspedagogiken fanns med som en utgångspunkt.

    Vi väljer här att redovisa projektet med fyra olika essäer som var och en representerar olika perspektiv. Inger Edforss Fuchs inleder med att beskriva det arbete som bedrivits på hennes skola i Helsingborg. Ingemar Nyman vill framhålla de miljöpedagogiska vinster som skolorna kan nå genom att använda IT i ett utomhuspedagogiskt arbete. Mattias Arvola, som forskar i gränsytan mellan människa och digitala enheter, beskriver det utvecklingsarbete som bedrivits inom projektets ram på hans enhet vid Linköpings universitet. Till sist så ger Anders Szczepanski sin syn på hur ett utomhuspedagogiskt arbete, som är IT understött, påverkar elever och lärares syn på lärandet.

    Till sist vill vi tacka Marcus och Amalia Wallenbergs minnesfond för att de ville understödja projektet. Projektet hade inte kommit till stånd utan och vi hade då inte heller kunnat nå så långt med det viktiga arbetet med att utveckla skolornas användning av IKT i ett läroplansstyrt och utomhuspedagogiskt sammanhang.

    Helsingborg i juni 2015

    Inger Edforss Fuchs, Projektledare

    Mattias Arvola

    Ingemar Nyman

    Anders Szczepanski

  • 21.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Walfridsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Mediated Action Sheets: Structuring the Fuzzy Front-End of UX2015In: The fuzzy front end of experience design: Workshop proceedings / [ed] Eija Kaasinen, Hannu Karvonen, Yichen Lu, Jari Varsaluoma, Heli Väätäjä, Espoo: VTT , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions about what to design, for whom, and why to design it, are made during the fuzzy front of user experience (UX) design. Our approach to structure this process is to use a theoretical and methodological framework based on mediated action. This position paper describes how we put the framework, called the Mediated Action Sheets, to test in UX design practice. The test consisted of two workshops with professional designers. Transcripts of video recordings and results were qualitatively analyzed. The results are used to improve the framework. 

  • 22.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    User Experience Qualities and the Use-Quality Prism2015In: The fuzzy front end of experience design: Workshop proceedings / [ed] Eija Kaasinen, Hannu Karvonen, Yichen Lu, Jari Varsaluoma, Heli Väätäjä, Espoo: VTT , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding the desirable user experience qualities, i.e. UX goals, for a future product or service is important but difficult. This case study explores how a set of qualities is articulated in the concept design process. The case is a project aimed at exploring the use of smartphones to augment the childhood home of Astrid Lindgren—the children’s book author—with stories about her life and authorship. The results showed that articulated UX qualities focused the design work. It was also observed that one set of desirable qualities does not fit all phases in a project, and design consequences propagate between aspects of UX quality. 

  • 23.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holm, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Device-orientation is more engaging than drag (at least in mobile computing)2014In: NordiCHI '14 Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Fun, Fast, Foundational, New York: ACM Press, 2014, p. 939-942Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does device-orientation-based panning on mobile devices facilitate engagement? 20 users were asked to pan panoramas by turning around and changing the direction of the device, and by swiping with the finger on the touchscreen. The participants were also asked to rate how engaging they found it on the User Engagement Scale. It turned out that device-orientation-based panning was more engaging than drag-based panning. Moving your body to navigate information can pull you into an affective loop.

  • 24.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marcus, Samuelsson
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring Simulated Provocations: Supporting Pre-service Teachers' Reflection on Classroom Management2014In: Learning and Collaboration Technologies. Technology-Rich Environments for Learning and Collaboration / [ed] Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ioannou, Andri, Springer, 2014, p. 182-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our research project is to explore the design of game-like simulations that allow pre-service teachers to explore and experiment with problematic classroom situations to develop proficiency in classroom management. The research problem for this paper is how to design a plausible, valuable to learn, and interesting game-like simulation that also is usable and opens up for reflection on and understanding of the scenarios in the simulation. We used ‘research through design’ and combined interaction design and game design to develop the SimProv simulation. 21 pre-service teachers were invited to evaluate it in a play session with constructive interaction and questionnaires. SimProv consists of text-based scenarios where pre-service teachers can take actions corresponding to classic leadership styles. The results show that it provides a plausible, valuable, exploratory, playful, but not always interesting experience for pre-service teachers. The participants did engage in reflective discussions about the choices they made.

  • 25.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interaction and Service Design as Offering Perspectives in a Space of Action2014In: Proceedings of DRS 2014: Design's Big Debates / [ed] Youn-kyung Lim, Kristina Niedderer, Johan Redström, Erik Stolterman, Anna Valtonen, Umeå: Umeå Institute of Design, Umeå University , 2014, p. 7-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes the proposition that interaction and service design can be seen as offering perspectives in a space of action where acting agents grasp a finite perspective depending on objects of concern and equipment, and then reorganize the space. The meaning of this proposition is outlined in the paper, and it also presents a case study of client meetings at banks, which illustrates the proposition. That case show how equipment was used in the background while the clerk attended the client. The clerk made things available for the client in their shared region, directing the client’s perspective on the space of action. It was observed that equipment at times presented too rigid a perspective, not allowing the clerk to restructure it. Still, the clerk could make things available for himself or herself and for others, creating a multi-stable character of the region. Seeing interaction and service design in this way highlight the service moments as they appear to the individual agents who co-create the service throughout an encounter. The region set up by designers offers a frame of possible perspectives and an orientation in the service moment. 

  • 26.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interaktionsdesign och UX: om att skapa en god användarupplevelse2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Interaktionsdesign och UX handlar om tekniker för att utforma nyskapande interaktiva produkter och tjänster med god användarupplevelse. God användarupplevelse, eller UX (eng. user experience), är det övergripande målet för designarbetet. Den här boken är tänkt som ett praktiskt stöd under hela designprocessen: från initiala insikter och formulerade avsikter, till konceptidéer och test av prototyper. Tyngdpunkten ligger på de tidiga faserna där designens inriktning slås fast.

    Boken vänder sig till yrkesverksamma som vill lära sig nya tekniker och arbetssätt, och till studenter som ska arbeta konkret med design av interaktiva produkter och tjänster.

  • 27.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique2014In: Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014: Sand, Sea & Sky - Holiday HCI / [ed] Daniel Fitton, Matt Horton, Janet C Read, Gavin Sim, London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014, p. 171-176Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of service design calls for holistic design techniques that represent multiple service moments. One such technique is the service walkthrough that can be used to prototype and formatively evaluate services. A service walkthrough is an enactment of several consecutive service moments. This paper informs decisions about how to set up service walkthroughs by looking at two kinds of walkthroughs in a case study: with pauses for discussion and feedback after each service moment, and without pauses where the entire service journey is walked through before comments and feedback are collected. The case study did not show any differences in the content of the feedback, but more feedback was given in the walkthroughs with pauses. The feedback in the paused walkthroughs was also more detailed.

  • 28.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Mediated Action Sheets: A Framework for the Fuzzy Front-End of Interaction and Service Design2013In: Crafting the Future: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Design Conference, 2013, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The front-end of the design process is where the design work is framed for the first time. It is the early part of the design work where the design team decides what to design rather than how to design something. It is often referred to as fuzzy, since it is very tentative in nature and the design team has yet to develop a sense of direction. In product design, the team, however, already knows that they are to develop some kind of physical product. In graphic design, the team knows that some sort of visual artefact is to be produced. In interaction and service design, the design team has a wider scope, aiming to shape the activities people perform. The problem this paper addresses is what to focus on in the fuzzy front-end of interaction and service design. We propose using the Mediated Action Sheets, which provide a framework based on socio-cultural theories of mediated action to structure the user research and idea generation phases of the design process. The Mediated Action Sheets consist of The Persona Sheet that is a structure for user research and developing personas, and The Concept Design Sheet for thinking concept ideas through in more detail. The paper provides examples of how they can be incorporated into the craftsmanship of interaction and service design.

  • 29.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pezone, Giovanni
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Service Walkthrough in Astrid Lindgren's Footsteps2012In: Proceedings from ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services, The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, 8-10 February, Espoo, Finland, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 21-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can service prototypes be created and evaluated? This paper describes how methods like bodystorming and experience prototyping can be used in combination with pluralistic walkthrough in an evaluation method we call ‘service walkthrough’. We put the method to test in the development of augmented tourism services at the author Astrid Lindgren's childhood home. After initial design work, a mock-up and roleplay of a treasure hunt in the garden of the childhood home was made. It was evaluated using the service walkthrough method. The most important lesson learned was that a service walkthrough can be used to evaluate service prototypes and that it reveals information about practical as well as experiential issues for users.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Szczepanski, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts, Crafts and Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. NCU National Centre for Outdoor Education, Sweden.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Exploring Place and Direction: Mobile Augmented Reality in the Astrid Lindgren Landscape2012In: OzCHI '12 Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference / [ed] Vivienne Farrell, Graham Farrell, Caslon Chua, Weidong Huang, Raj Vasa and Clinton Woodward, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 411-419Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design process and user evaluation of an outdoor educational mobile augmented reality application. The main goal was to enhance and augment the experience of a visit to a culturally significant place, the childhood home of the children's book author Astrid Lindgren. Visiting sites of historical significance is not limited to the cultural experience itself, but can be seen as an opportunity for learning and exploring a place as it is now and as it has been in past times. By investigating the two design dimensions place and time, our application was conceived as a treasure hunt, where users activate content by moving between places and pointing the mobile device in different directions or at different markers. The application was field tested with mixed groups of children and adults. The evaluation indicates that the prototype did encourage both learning and exploring, which also was the design objective.

  • 31.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grading in interaction design education using design practitioners conceptions of process quality2012In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The designed product is often assessed in interaction design education, but there are also courses that focus on learning the design process. It is then necessary to develop criteria for grading in such courses. To make a successful transfer from theory to practice, students also need to learn the criteria practitioners use, rather than the criteria that academically oriented teachers use. To do this, one approach is to align criteria with the conceptions practicing interaction designers have of process quality in design. Therefore, the research questions for this study are what those conceptions are, and how they can be utilized in grading criteria for interaction design projects in education. Interviews were made with 10 interaction designers. The interviews were qualitatively analyzed. The results demonstrate that practicing interaction designers conceptualize the quality of the design process in three ways: it is good if established methods are used and the design is managed within resource constraints, and within organizational and technological limitations, while also meeting stated objectives; it is even better if the design has a thought-through rationale; and ideally, the design should also be inspirational. These conceptions were transferred to points on a criteria-referenced grading scale which was used to develop course specific grading criteria. The criteria were evaluated in terms of comprehensibility and reliability. The evaluation showed that most of the students who also attended lectures understood the criteria. A high and significant covariation and a high level of agreement between the two teachers who graded the projects were shown. Further, the developed criteria should be generalizable to other process-centered interaction design courses and to assessment in other design disciplines.

  • 32.
    Manker, Jon
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och IT, Medieteknik.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping in game design: Externalization and internalization of game ideas2011In: HCI 2011: Health, Wealth & Happiness: The 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, July 4-8, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototyping is a well-studied activity for interaction designers, but its role in computer game design is relatively unexplored. The aim of this study is to shed light on prototyping in game design. Interviews were conducted with 27 game designers. The empirical data was structured using qualitative content analysis and analysed using the design version of The Activity Checklist. The analysis indicated that six categories of the checklist were significant for the data obtained. Thesecategories are presented in relation to the data. The roles of externalization and internalization are specifically highlighted.

  • 33.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karsvall, Arvid
    Södertörns Högskola, Institutionen för kommunikation, medier och IT, Medieteknik.
    Tholander, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Mobile Life.
    Values and qualities in interaction design meetings2011In: The Endless End: The 9th International European Academy of Design Conference. Porto, Portugal, May 4-7, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are values and qualities expressed in interaction design? Previous research into this topic has largely been conceptual. How interaction designers and clients actually reason has only been touched upon in empirical studies. The research question for this paper is how interaction designers, as a collective and in an unfolding design process, concretize values and qualities in meetings with clients. By way of video recordings, we have analyzed two interaction design workshops. The analysis indicated that values were concretized top-down, from general conceptions and the design brief given, while also explored bottom-up. Several kinds of communicative means (e.g. talk, gestures, whiteboards, post-it notes) were used to animate values and design visions. Mixing a top-down and bottom-up approach allowed the designers to be both prescriptive and sensitive the uniqueness of the design situation. Thedifferences in communicative means did not really matter for how values and qualities weremade concrete. What mattered was that people really started talking with each other.

  • 34.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of precedent designs: Competitive analysis meets genre analysis2010In: NordiCHI '10 Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries / [ed] Hvannberg, E. Þ., Lárusdóttir, M. K., Blandford, A., Gulliksen, J., New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers need to survey the competition and analyze precedent designs, but methods for that purpose have not been evaluated in earlier research. This paper makes a comparative evaluation between competitive analysis and genre analysis. A randomized between-group experiment was conducted where graphic design students were conducted one of the two analysis methods. There were 13 students in one group and 16 in the other. The results show that genre analysis produced more detailed descriptions of precedent designs, but its process was more difficult to understand. It is concluded that genre analysis can be integrated into competitive analysis, to make use of the strengths of both methods in the analysis of precedents.

  • 35.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment criteria for interaction design projects: Fostering professional perspectives on the design process2010In: When Design Education and Design Research meet…: The 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education / [ed] Boks, C., McMahon, C., Ion, W., Parkinson, B., Wiltshire: Institution of Engineering Designers, The Design Society , 2010, p. 432-437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quite often the product of design is assessed in interaction design education, but we need to develop criteria also for courses that focus on learning to conduct and manage the design process. An earlier approach to set grading criteria has been grounded in the SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) taxonomy. Students need, however, to learn practitionersᅵ criteria, rather than teachersᅵ criteria, to make a successful transfer to practice. One way of achieving that is to align criteria with the conceptions of design process quality used by professional interaction designers. The question is then what those conceptions are, and how they can be accounted for in assessment criteria for projects in interaction design education. A phenomenographic research method was used, and interviews were conducted with ten experienced interaction designers. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that professional interaction designers see design process quality as inspiration, a well-grounded rationale, employment of established methods, and constraints management. These conceptions are mapped to a criteria-referenced grading scale. The criteria should, with careful transfer, be applicable also in other design disciplines.

  • 36.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interaction design qualities: theory and practice2010In: NordiCHI '10 Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries / [ed] Hvannberg, E. Þ., Lárusdóttir, M. K., Blandford, A., Gulliksen, J., New York: ACM , 2010, p. 595-598Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of an action research project investigating the articulation of interaction design qualities for a web portal for urban planning and development. A framework for analyzing interaction design qualities is presented. The framework consists of the practical, the social, the aesthetic, the structural and the ethical quality dimensions, and it was tried out in practice with developers and designers of the portal. This provided experiences used to revise the framework. The results indicate that the framework can be improved by splitting the social quality dimension into a communicational dimension and an organizational dimension. The structural dimension is also renamed to the technical dimension.

  • 37.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interaction designers’ conceptions of design quality for interactive artifacts2010In: Design and Complexity,  DRS 2010 / [ed] Durling, D., Bousbaci, R., Chen, L., Gauthier, P., Poldma, T., Roworth-Stokes, S., Stolterman, E., Montréal: Université de Montréal , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to be aware of different ways of seeing design quality of interactive artifacts in order to appreciate the various aspects of a design, but how do professional interaction designers understand design quality? In theory, one way of approaching design quality of interactive artifacts has been the Vitruvian principles of commodity, firmness and delight, originally created for architecture. Such frameworks are, however, seldom directly employed in practice. This paper investigates what conceptions professional interaction designers have of design quality for interactive artifacts. Interviews were conducted with ten designers. The analysis disclosed four conceptions concerning: (a) Constraints & contexts, (b) motivations & purposes, (c) use-qualities of functions & content, and (d) experiential qualities of form & behaviour. An awareness of these conceptions may facilitate the appreciation for different aspects and opportunities in a design situation.

  • 38.
    Maijala, Markus
    et al.
    Medieteknik, Södertörns högskola.
    Nygard, Stefan
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The stone age trail: A mobile outdoors computer game for nature experience2010In: The virtual: interaction: a conference 2007 / [ed] Hernwall, P., Huddinge: School of Communication, Media and IT, Södertörn University , 2010, p. 30-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology can assist people as they pursue different kinds of nature experience. Some systems developed have been made for learning, social activities, and leisure. Our aim is to explore how to make use of the theoretical frameworks of embodied interaction and technology as experience in the design and reflection process of creating an interactive system that have the potential to augment visitorsᅵ experience of Tyresta national park. Design activities included contextual inquiries, sketching, prototyping and user testing. Two handheld computers and physical information boards were used in the prototype of a mobile outdoors game. The theoretical frameworks were used to set design objectives that could guide the design. When designing for nature experience we argue that one should design for an activity. The designed system should also be open for diverse ways of usage.

  • 39.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Nygard, Stefan
    IDA MDI.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Wentzel, Jonatan
    IDA MDI.
    Greta & Torsten: Två personas för äldre användare av hälsans nya verktyg2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsans nya verktyg är en satsning på tillväxt i östgötaregionen, där planen är att successivt närma sig den växande världsmarknaden inom hälsa och vård. Fokuserade områden är sport och idrott, personlig hälsa, distribuerad vård och egenvård. Som ett led i tillväxtsatsningen identifieras intressanta marknads- och kundsegment, och för dessa segment gäller det att lära känna målgruppen som kommer att använda och beröras av olika tjänster och produkter. Ett sätt att åstadkomma detta är att ta fram personor och scenarios som kan användas som ett led i designarbetet.

  • 40.
    Hernwall, Patrik
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola .
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Interaction design, pedagogical practice, and emancipation2008In: Tidsskriftet Digital kompetanse, ISSN 0809-6724, E-ISSN 0809-714X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 63-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In November 2007, the Research platform M3 [man medium machine]/the School of Communication, Technology & Design at Södertörn University College arranged, in collaboration with the ITU, Oslo University, a two-day workshop on the theme Interaction Design in Pedagogical Practice. There were 15 position papers submitted to the workshop, representing 15 different universities from four countries. Out of these, we now have the privilege to publish four of them in this special issue of the Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, together with a debate article. They are, in their own respect, modest witnesses, of the need for this dialogue between interaction design and pedagogical practice.

  • 41.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Artman, Henrik
    KTH CSC.
    Studio life: The construction of digital design competence2008In: Tidsskriftet Digital kompetanse, ISSN 0809-6724, E-ISSN 0809-714X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 78-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how interaction designers act and think in two different studio settings in order to understand what potential each setting presents for the development of digital design competence. We first observed interaction design students working in a design studio and then in a computer augmented interactive space. In the studio, the students oscillated continuously between individual and cooperative work, while in the interactive space, the work was focused on shared displays. The results describe how students collaborate to develop digital design competence, which not only includes competence in using digital media, but also competence in envisioning and articulating someone else’s future use of digital media.

  • 42. Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study of how user interface sketches, scenarios and computer prototypes structure stakeholder meetings2007In: The 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI...but not as we know it / [ed] Ball, L. J., Sasse, M. A., Sas, C., Ormerod, T. C., Dix, A., Bagnall, P., McEwan, T., Swinton: The British Computer Society , 2007, p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stakeholder meetings during an interaction design project, prototypes are commonly used for creating shared representations of design ideas. It can, however, be difficult for designers and meeting facilitators to know which prototyping technique to use. In this case study we compare user interface sketches, scenarios, and computer prototypes, and analyse video material from six stakeholder meetings. The scenario did not facilitate a focus on aesthetic or ethical perspectives, nor did it facilitate operational or perceptual issues. The prototype did not facilitate discussions on the overarching concept of the design, to the same extent as the sketches did, but it did facilitate operational issues. The sketches gave the broadest discussion. The groups also approached the design differently; for example, the system developers constantly returned to a constructional perspective. This means that the choice of prototyping technique should be made based on the composition of the group and the desired focus of the meeting.

  • 43.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    A Use-Qualities Approach: Judgements in Interactive Media Design2007In: The virtual : designing digital experience : a conference 2006 / [ed] Patrik Hernwall, Handen: School of Communication, Technology and Design Södertörn College University , 2007, p. 102-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity of judging design alternatives is without doubt one of the key activities for successful design work, but the criteria used for judging goodness are often implicit. This article is about how to work with ‘use-qualities’ when judging the goodness of interactive media systems. Use-qualities denote the attributes of artefacts in use (e.g. effectiveness, safety, awkwardness). A theoretical background to the concept of use-qualities is given, as well as examples of how to create criteria for judgements based on use-qualities. The examples are drawn from the design case a novel multimedia platform for domestic leisure use. During the design process three prototypes were developed, 56 hours of situated interviews were made in eight homes, and tests were performed with 21 users. This formed the empirical material used to identify desirable use-qualities that could be utilized as criteria for judging the goodness of design alternatives. The desirable use-qualities were also hierarchically organized to clarify them as design objectives that can be shared and discussed in a design team and among stakeholders in a project. It is finally argued that working explicitly with desirable use-qualities has the potential to increase the self-consciousness of judgement in interactive media design and that it can open up for challenge, examination, specification and revision of operative criteria.

  • 44.
    Bång, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cognitive ergonomics of digital desks for healthcare teams: A set of interaction techniques2007In: Work with Computer Systems, Stockholm, May 21-24, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinician workstation and electronic medial record software (EMR) have been criticised on several accounts. The terminal with its single keyboard, mouse and small display is developed solely for one person work and this setup makes it impractical for multiple data input and for face-to-face collaboration which is so common in clinical environments.

  • 45. Olovsson, Peter
    et al.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Design Against Fragmentation: Case Study of ICT in Healthcare2007In: Work with Computer Systems, Stockholm, May 21-24, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How does information and communication technology (ICT), such as telephones and computers, create interruptions for people at work, and how can fragmentation be counteracted? Empirical material was collected during 17 observation and interview sessions, at two surgical wards and one reception. The results show that the most important factor for counteracting fragmented work is that someone takes responsibility for the full picture when developing ICT. A naive user-centered design can produce applications that work well on its own but don’t work well together.

  • 46.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Developing a thematic design curricula as a Bologna master2007In: Shaping the Future?: 9th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education / [ed] Bohemia, E., Hilton, K., McMahon, C., Clarke, A., Wiltshire: Institution of Engineering Designers & The Design Society , 2007, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design education is taking on new forms at many universities around the world, since many people see that a designer today works in many different contexts with many different materials. In Europe, the Bologna reform of higher education is therefore timely. It offers a possibility to reflect and restructure design curricula for the changing world of design. In this paper we outline the development of a Bologna style curriculum for a Master of Science (two years) with a Major in Design at Linköpings universitet in Sweden. The Master’s Programme in Design is multidisciplinary, and the guiding principle is that a designer of tomorrow will work less with specific materials and more within differing design contexts. A problem we faced with the studio classes was how to define progression. In order to structure the progression we identified a set of core competences for designers. These competences are used to define areas within which learning outcomes can be defined. The competence fields are; Vision & concept, Design methods, Tools & materials, User & actor perspective, Versatility, Design theory & research and Continuous competency development. Our conclusion is progression in studio classes can be structured in relation to these fields.

  • 47.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Bornebusch, Johan
    Södertörns högskola.
    Tholander, Jakob
    Södertörns högskola.
    Hagen, Ulf
    Södertörns högskola.
    Dahlström, K
    Södertörns högskola.
    Johansson, B
    Södertörns högskola.
    Early Explorations of Interaction Design for Nature Experience2007In: 1st international conference on Cross-Media Interaction Design, CMID 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can interaction design be used to advance information design, interactive services, and in the end increase the tourist attraction at nature reserves and national parks? Based on sketching, field studies and analysis of the experience of visiting nature reserves and national parks, 60 interaction design and media technology students at the advanced level have developed initial concepts and early prototypes for interactive services. Based on their design alternatives, we develop a categorization of different kinds of applications: guides, routes, events, games, installations, and websites. We finally discuss briefly the design ideas in terms of cross-platform applications, multiple platform applications, embodied multimodal experiences, user generated content, and location-based information.

  • 48.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Artman, Henrik
    CSC KTH.
    Enactments in Interaction Design: How Designers Make Sketches Behave2007In: Artifact, ISSN 1749-3463, E-ISSN 1749-3471, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do designers of interactive media work on the dynamic aspects of their designs? Previous research has emphasized the role of gestures to express what users and computers do. This paper contributes with a detailed analysis of interaction designers' enactments in terms of what they express using a model of interaction design based on five domains: design concept, functions and content, structure, interaction, and presentation. Two enactive means of expression are identified: interaction walkthrough and improvised role play. Gestures drive the interaction walkthrough and scenarios created on the spot drive the improvised role play. In terms of the suggested model of interaction design, interaction walkthroughs start out in the domain of interaction, and improvised role play starts out in the domain of design concept. From these domains the designer can then see consequences for the other domains of interaction design. The five domains of interaction design can be used as an analytical tool for thoughtful reflection, and interaction walkthroughs and improvised role play can be articulated as conscious means of expression.

  • 49.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lessons Learned from Facilitation in Collaborative Design2007In: Proceeding AUIC '07 Proceedings of the eight Australasian conference on User interface - Volume 64 / [ed] Piekarski, W., Plimmer, B., Sydney , Australia: Australian Computer Society, 2007, p. 51-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a skilled facilitator in design meetings with users is often emphasized, but less is said about how to improve the facilitation process. This paper reports experiences and lessons learned from facilitation of cardbased sessions in three design cases through an analysis of two sessions with users, and one session with professional designers. The analysis showed that many alternatives were not documented in the sessions with users who designed primarily by talking, compared to the professional designers who primarily designed by placing cards. We propose that facilitation, in cases similar to those presented here, could be improved by suggesting alternatives and possible consequences, prompt the participants to explore the consequences, and graphic facilitation.

  • 50. Rutgersson, Sara
    et al.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    User Interfaces for persons with deafblindness2007In: Universal Access in Ambient Intelligence Environments / [ed] Stephanidis, C., Pieper, M., Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2007, p. 317-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the problems persons with deafblindness encounter when using computers, and what can be done to avoid the problems in the design of a communication tool. A qualitative study was conducted with 12 participants. The results show that a system needs to resolve issues of simplicity, flexibility, and feedback. In our redesign of the communication tool we employ what we call a screen reader use flow with precursor cues, to aid the user in getting an overview of the program and its functions. This is very difficult when using a Braille display. The screen reader use flow with precursor cues is one means to satisfy the demands of both users who use a visual display and users who use a Braille display.

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