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  • 1.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wollin, Johan
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Birgitta
    IVL, Swedish Environmental Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Approaching Sustainable Energy Management Operations in a Multinational Industrial Corporation2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the energy efficiency improvement measures available for industrial companies remains unadopted due to the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. One of the main means of overcoming barriers to energy efficiency is via energy management operations. The major parts of the published scientific papers have covered energy management on a company level or on a sector level. However, so far, the literature is scarce regarding empirical studies on energy management on a corporate level. With the aim of filling the research gap, the aim of this paper is to empirically assess the performance of an in-house energy management program adoption from the year of initiation and four years ahead in the multinational company Volvo CE. The paper was conducted as a case study including a participative approach, which has not previously been done in energy management research. This paper adds value, through complementing the existing literature on energy management on a factory or sector level, by highlighting the importance of leadership, speed of execution, and cultural transformation on a corporate level.

  • 2.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Rokonuzzaman, Mohammad
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    East West Univ, Bangladesh.
    Salimullah, Shah Md.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Ullah, Mahfuz
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, Taiyeb Hasan
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Drivers and Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency in Textile Industries of Bangladesh2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy management at the industrial sector ensures the proper utilization of energy. Energy management and its efficiency in the textile industries of Bangladesh are studied in this paper. The outcomes demonstrate several barriers to energy management practices which are inadequate technical cost-effective measures, inadequate capital expenditure, and poor research and development. However, this study also demonstrates that the risk of high energy prices in the future, assistance from energy professionals, and an energy management scheme constitute the important drivers for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the studied textile mills. The studied textile industries seem unaccustomed to the dedicated energy service company concept, and insufficient information regarding energy service companies (ESCOs) and the shortage of trained professionals in energy management seem to be the reasons behind this. This paper likewise finds that 3-4% energy efficiency improvements can be gained with the help of energy management practices in these industries.

  • 3.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 223, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has revealed the existence of an energy-efficiency gap – the difference between optimal and actual energy end-use, suggesting that energy efficiency can be improved. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, due to various barriers, the full potential of EnM is not realised. Several studies have addressed drivers and barriers to energy efficiency but few to EnM. This study aims to identify EnM practices, the most important perceived drivers and barriers for EnM, and relations among them in the energy-intensive Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI), which has the longest experience internationally of practising EnM systems, and has worked according to the standards since 2004. Our results show that, altogether, the PPI works regularly and continuously with EnM, with a clear division of responsibilities. The highest maturity for EnM practices was for energy policy, followed by organization, investments, and performance measurement. The study also shows that communication between middle management and operations personnel has potential for improvement. The most important categories of drivers were economic, whereas for barriers they were organizational. Nevertheless, knowledge-related barriers and drivers were amongst the most important, suggesting that the absorptive capacity for energy issues could be improved.

  • 4.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

  • 5.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Rakib
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    East West Univ, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, Taiyeb Hasan
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Empirical Investigation of Barriers and Driving Forces for Efficient Energy Management Practices in Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing Industries of Bangladesh2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is being considered as one of the significant challenges to mitigating climate change all over the world. While developed countries have already adopted energy management and auditing practices to improve energy efficiency, the developing countries lag far behind. There are a limited number of studies which have been conducted in the context of developing countries, which mostly revolve around highly energy-intensive sectors. This study looks into the existence and importance of the challenges to and motivating forces for the adoption of energy management practices in Bangladesh, a developing country, focusing on the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Conducted as a multiple case study, the results indicate the existence of several barriers towards adopting and implementing the management of energy practices in the non-energy-intensive industries of Bangladesh, where among them, other preferences for capital venture and inadequate capital expenditure are the most dominant. This study also identified a number of driving forces that can accelerate the acceptance of energy efficiency practices, such as the demands from the owner, loans, subsidies, and a lowered cost-benefit ratio. Findings of this study could assist the concerned stakeholders to develop beneficial policies and a proper regulatory framework for the non-energy-intensive industries of developing countries like Bangladesh.

  • 6.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Tranås Energi AB.
    Energieffektivisering: Energikartläggning, energiledning och styrmedel2019 (ed. 1:1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektiv energianvändning i svensk tillverkningsindustri är en nyckelfaktor för att svenska företag, branscher och industrin som helhet även fortsättningsvis ska vara konkurrenskraftiga på en global marknad med knappare resurser. Denna bok är ett led i den riktningen.



    Boken är uppdelad i tre delar: Del I har sin utgångspunkt i energi­effektiviseringsgapet och fokuserar på energikartläggning och energieffektivisering av företag, framför allt ur ett tekniskt perspektiv. Del II har sin utgångspunkt i energiledningsgapet och fokuserar på energiledning samt hinder och incitament för energieffektivisering i svensk tillverkningsindustri. Del III har sin utgångspunkt i styrmedelsgapet och inriktas mot styrmedel för energieffektivisering och hur dessa kan designas, implementeras och utvärderas. 


    De två första delarna riktar sig framför allt till studenter vid svenska läro­­säten samt till energi- och miljöansvariga, teknikkonsulter, kommunala tillsynstjänstemän och andra offentliga aktörer vid exempelvis regionala energikontor. Del III riktar sig i första hand till aktörer som administrerar och ansvarar för styrmedel på nationell, regional och lokal nivå. Denna del kan även vara till nytta för koncerner som vill ta ett helhetsgrepp på energifrågan samt till företag som vill minska energianvändningens negativa miljöpåverkan i hela värdekedjan, inklusive underleverantörer.

  • 7.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palm, Jenny
    IIIEE, International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Efficiency as a Wicked Problem2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with increased shares of renewable energy supply, improved energy efficiency is the foremost means of mitigating climate change. However, the energy efficiency potential is far from being realized, which is commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. Initially mentioned by Churchman, the term “wicked problems” became established in the 1970s, meaning a kind of problem that has a resistance to resolution because of incomplete, contradictory, or changing requirements. In the academic literature, wicked problems have later served as a critical model in the understanding of various challenges related to society, such as for example climate change mitigation. This aim of this paper is to analyze how the perspective of wicked problems can contribute to an enhanced understanding of improved energy efficiency. The paper draws examples from the manufacturing sector. Results indicate that standalone technology improvements as well as energy management and energy policy programs giving emphasis to standalone technology improvements may not represent a stronger form of a wicked problem as such. Rather, it seems to be the actual decision-making process involving values among the decision makers as well as the level of needed knowledge involved in decision-making that give rise to the “wickedness”. The analysis shows that wicked problems arise in socio-technical settings involving several components such as technology, systems, institutions, and people, which make post-normal science a needed approach.

  • 8.
    Trianni, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Bertolotti, Matteo
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management: A practice-based assessment model2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 1614-1636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is crucial for energy cost saving and sustainable competitiveness, but its potential is not exploited due to several barriers. Previous literature has pointed out that, among the most effective means, energy management in industrial companies could bring a valuable contribution. Therefore, it is crucial to assess and evaluate the energy management status in an organisation so to undertake the most appropriate improvement actions. So far, literature has neither described the fundamental characteristics of energy management practices, nor specifically developed an assessment model to support industrial decision-makers. Stemming from those research gaps, the present work presents and discusses an innovative energy management assessment model based on a novel characterization of energy management practices. We validated and applied the model through case studies among large Italian and Swedish manufacturing companies, both proving the model to be able to thoroughly describe the energy management status and benchmarking the adoption level of energy management practices with respect to specific baselines. The model highlights both strengths and critical areas in an industrial companys energy management, thus offering a valuable support to drive further improvement activities. The work concludes with interesting suggestions for industrial decision-makers and policy-makers, sketching also some further research avenues.

  • 9.
    Johnsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 187, article id 115919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most crucial actions for mitigating climate change. The lack of knowledge regarding energy end-use makes it difficult for companies to know in which processes the highest energy efficiency potential is located. Using a case study design, the paper provides a taxonomy for energy end-use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a process and energy carrier level. It can be seen that drying of wood is the largest energy using and GHG emitting process in the studied companies. The paper also investigates applied and potentially viable energy key performance indicators (KPIs). Suggestions for improving energy KPIs within the wood industry include separating figures for different wood varieties and different end-products and distinguishing between different drying kiln technologies. Finally, the paper presents the major energy saving and carbon mitigating measures by constructing conservation supply curves and marginal abatement cost curves. The energy saving potential found in the studied companies indicates that significant improvements might be achieved throughout the Swedish wood industry. Even though the scope of this paper is the Swedish wood industry, several of the findings are likely to be relevant in other countries with a prominent wood industry.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Key performance indicators for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 24, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries world-wide. In Sweden, most pulp and paper mills were certified with a standardized energy management system already in 2005. As Swedish mills have more than a decade of experience with energy management systems and energy key performance indicators (KPIs), studying KPIs within Swedish pulp and paper mills will enable both a state-of-the-art positioning of best-practice in relation to energy KPIs in pulp and paper mills, but also spot potential barriers and drivers in the utilization of energy KPIs. This paper studies the current level of implementation and operationalization of energy-related KPIs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. The results show a potential for improvement.

  • 11.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andrei, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several research studies have adopted specific energy consumption (SEC) as an indicator of the progress of improved energy efficiency, publications are scarce on critical assessments when using SEC. Given the increasing importance of monitoring improved industrial energy efficiency and the rising popularity of SEC as an energy key performance indicator (e-KPI), an in-depth analysis and problematization on the pros and cons of using SEC would appear to be needed. The aim of this article is to analyse SEC critically in relation to industrial energy efficiency. By using SEC in the pulp and paper industry as an example, the results of this exploratory study show that although SEC is often used as an e-KPI in industry, the comparison is not always straightforward. Challenges emanate from a lack of information about how SEC is calculated. It is likely that SEC is an optimal e-KPI within the same study, when all deployed SECs are calculated in the same way, and with the same underlying assumptions. However, before comparing SEC with other studies, it is recommended that the assumptions on which calculations are based should be scrutinized in order to ensure the validity of the comparisons. The paper remains an important contribution in addition to the available handbooks.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A review of barriers to and driving forces for improved energy efficiency in Swedish industry: Recommendations for successful in-house energy management2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 82, no Part 1, p. 618-628Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental point of view, reduced use of energy remains a cornerstone in global greenhouse gas mitigation. However, without full internalization of external costs, greenhouse gas mitigation as such may not be highly prioritized among business leaders. Rather, it is the magnitude of production costs and ultimately the size of market revenue that articulates success or failure for business leaders. Nevertheless, reduced energy use or improved energy efficiency can have a vast impact on profitability even for companies with low energy costs, as the reduced energy costs directly lead to increased profits. In this paper, a review of ten years of empirical research in the field of industrial energy management in Swedish industry is presented. Based on the review, the paper proposes success factors for efficient energy management, factors which could help guide individual energy managers as well as policy makers in order to close the energy efficiency and management gaps. The paper also presents an overview of important industrial energy management tools, which would facilitate in-house energy management in industry.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-06 12:45
  • 13.
    Soepardi, Apriani
    et al.
    Univ Natl Dev Vet, Indonesia.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis of Relationships among Organizational Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvement: A Case Study in Indonesias Steel Industry2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze and rank the managerial-organizational barriers to energy efficiency improvement from an industry perspective. To that end, this study utilizes the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) methodology to identify the contextual relationships among the barriers. In a focus group discussion forum, five practitioners from the steel industry were consulted to identify these mutual linkages. The results indicated that five of the eight barriers proposed are in the linkage category. These barriers include that the energy manager or people in charge of energy management lack influence, there are higher priorities to production activity, there is management resistance to change, there is inadequate management capacity, and there are conflicts of interest within the organization. The management should focus more attention on these barriers, because they have both high driving power and dependency. The findings are intended to help managers from manufacturing sectors identify key barriers and thus develop strategic plans to address these issues.

  • 14.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Rafiee, Majid
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Assessing Swedish Foundries Energy Management Program2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With regard to increased sustainability, managers not only need to know WHAT is needed for their company to improve, but also HOW to do so in detail is equally important. Energy management (EnM) is a pillar to the transformation of industrial energy systems towards enhanced energy efficiency and increased sustainability. One way to develop more and improve EnM both practically and theoretically is to shed light on how the combination of techniques and operation can contribute to successful EnM. This paper, therefore, through investigation of 10 Swedish foundries aims to present the structure of the energy strategy and associated practices at first; second, to assess industrys EnM program and maturity level; and third, to identify and understand the nature of energy efficiency promoting factors within studied cases.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 883-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-10 14:54
  • 16.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 1851Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful energy management is a way to achieve energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry (PPI), which is important for assuring energy supply security, for increasing economic competitiveness, and for mitigating greenhouse gases. However, research shows that although energy use within PPI can be reduced by 5.5-19.4% per year, some of this by energy management practices, energy management is not always implemented. Why is this so? What are the barriers to, and drivers of implementation? How can the barriers be overcome? A systematic review of barriers and drivers in energy management in the PPI within peer-reviewed scientific articles suggests that the world-wide events that affect energy supply, volatility, and use seemingly also affect the number and frequency of research articles on energy management in the PPI. The perception of energy management in the PPI seems to be dominated by the understanding that it can mostly be achieved through technological improvements aiming to improve energy efficiency. The main driver of energy management was shown to be economic conditions: high and unstable energy prices, followed by drivers such as the need to remain internationally competitive, collaboration and energy management systems. Meanwhile, examples of the most important barriers are technical risks, lack of access to capital, lack of time and other priorities, and slim organization. The success factors for enhancing drivers and overcoming barriers were continuous energy accounting, energy-related collaboration, energy-efficiency programmes, and benchmarking. Altogether, success factors for energy management for improved energy efficiency could be summarized in the 4M frameworkthe 4M for energy efficiency: mind, measure, monitor, and managethat could be used as the energy management memory-tool that could lead to improved energy efficiency in other sectors as well.

  • 17.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 153, p. 825-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) must increase energy efficiency to remain competitive on the global market, which has experienced entries from countries with cheaper energy and raw material supplies. Interactions among variables for energy use, production, energy management, electricity price and firm characteristics (FC), in different types of mills, i.e., pulp, paper and integrated mills, in Sweden from 2006 to 2015 indicate that correlations among the studied variables were different in different types of mills. This difference between types of mills seemed to originate partly from varying accessibility to production residue that could be used for energy. For all types of mills, variation of electricity prices did not correlate significantly with energy efficiency during the study period. The studied FC were firms age, number of employees, number of companies in company group, net sales and profit for the year. Energy efficiency was more affected by the variables characterizing energy and production compared to the variables representing FC. This study also suggested presence of possible discrepancies between FC that were perceived as barriers to energy management towards energy efficiency, according to previous studies, and what was shown by the data combining variables representing energy use, production and FC. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy end-use and efficiency potentials among Swedish industrial small and medium-sized enterprises - A dataset analysis from the national energy audit program2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 165-177Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most vital activities for the mitigation of climate change. Consequently, policy initiatives from governments addressing both energy-intensive and small and medium-sized industry have been enacted. In this paper, the energy end-use and the energy efficiency potential among industrial small and medium-sized companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program are reviewed. The three manufacturing industries of wood and cork, food products and metal products (excluding machinery and equipment) are studied. A unique categorization of their production processes energy end-use is presented, the results of which show that the amount of energy used in various categories of production processes differ between these industries. This applies to support processes as well, highlighting the problem of generalizing results without available bottom-up energy end-use data. In addition, a calculation of conservation supply curves for measures related to production processes is presented, showing that there still remains energy saving potential among companies participating in the Swedish Energy Audit Program. However, relevant data in the database used from the Swedish Energy Audit Program is lacking which limits the conclusions that can be drawn from the conservation supply curves. This study highlights the need to develop energy policy programs delivering high-quality data. This paper contributes to a further understanding of the intricate matters of industrial energy end-use and energy efficiency measures.

  • 19.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Hoq, Md Tanbhir
    Univ Asia Pacific, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management practices in Bangladeshs iron and steel industries2018In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 22, p. 230-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study energy management and improved energy efficiency among large iron and steel mills in Bangladesh. The results show that there are some barriers to energy management practices among large steel mills, the most important barriers being the perceived absence of cost-effective technical measures, high perceived risks due to uncertain future energy costs and poor information quality. However, this study has shown that the reduction in energy costs due to improved energy efficiency constitutes the most important driver for energy efficiency in the studied steel mills. The results also show that most of the steel mills have not had any technical energy efficiency improvement measures implemented in the production process. Moreover, the steel mills seem unfamiliar with the concept of including energy service companies, and the lack of information or awareness seems to be the main reason behind this. The paper also finds that energy efficiency is perceived to be able to be improved by 6%-8% through energy management practices.

  • 20.
    Trianni, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guest editorial note in ENERGY EFFICIENCY, vol 11, issue 5, pp 1053-10552018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1053-1055Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 21.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parra, Ricardo
    Consultora Crowsnest, Chile.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1281-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and resource scarcity drives industrial companies to cut costs. Energy can be a significant component of such cuts, particularly for energy-intensive companies. Improving energy efficiency in industry is complex, as it pertains to various energy-using processes that are heavily intertwined. One such process is the compressed air system (CAS), which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. Since energy efficiency improvement measures for various types of energy-using processes differ, technology-specific measures might encounter different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. The same applies to the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures; since measures vary between various energy-using processes, the perceived NEBs might be different as well. The aim of this paper is to study the barriers to, drivers for and NEBs of CAS energy efficiency improvement measures from the perspectives of three actors. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper merges the perspectives of users, audit experts and suppliers of CASs. The results showed that the major barriers are related to the investment, or are of an organisational character, and that organisational and economic factors seemed to be important for making positive decisions on energy efficiency investments and measures in CASs. Major NEBs for CASs include productivity gains and the avoidance of capital expenditures. The results of this study also address the importance of having a comprehensive approach to recognise additional effects of energy efficiency improvements in CASs.

  • 22.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rafiee, Majid
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Industrial Energy Management Systems and Energy-Related Decision-Making2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 2784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions is todays debate in almost all topics both in academia and practice. Energy transitions among others, have received relatively more attention, due to the global demand for increasing energy efficiency and lowering environmental impacts. In recent decades, energy management systems, through implementing energy management programs and related practices within industrial companies, have played a vital role in enhancing industrial energy efficiency performance levels. However, still there are problems at very first step of energy management program installation, which is decision-making. Despite market and non-market failures, lack of information, inadequate knowledge, the consequent increase in the perception of risk and uncertainty can be addressed as potential reasons for mentioned problems. Another essential reason can be explained through how an energy program is characterized by people who are attending at an energy-related decision desk. Keeping in mind that allocation of the budget for any investment should not only have financial conformation, but also a strategic value for the company, this paper aims to discuss the impacting parameters on industrial energy-related decision-making and behavior patterns with respect to the critical role of industrial energy management systems.

  • 23.
    Soepardi, Apriani
    et al.
    Univ Natl Dev Vet, Indonesia; Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Pratikto, Pratikto
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Santoso, Purnomo Budi
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Tama, Ishardita Pambudi
    Brawijaya Univ, Indonesia.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linking of Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvement in Indonesias Steel Industry2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in Indonesias steel industry accounts for about 20-35% of total production costs. Consequently, energy end-use efficiency is a crucial measure that is used to reduce energy intensity and decrease production costs. This article aims to investigate the relationships among different barriers to energy efficiency improvement (EEI), using a framework with the following six constructs: government policy, the financial-economic factor, the managerial-organizational factor, the technological factor, workforce, and quality and type of feedstock and fuel used. The data were collected from steel firm practitioners in Indonesia, using a questionnaire to test our framework. The results demonstrate that the applied framework was applicable. We find that EEI is moderately influenced by all constructs but that the managerial-organizational factor has the greatest direct effect on improvements and is the most significant factor.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergstrand, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 2133-2139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Assessing the driving factors for energy management program adoption2017In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 74, p. 538-547Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of energy management (EnM) became a topical issue in industrial settings as a result of the energy crises that affected the global community in the 1970s. However, EnM was not implemented within industry with all its potential to improve energy security, raise the maturity level of EnM and increase sustainability. According to the results of previous empirical investigations, the expected interest in energy programs is not found and there is no clear understanding about program adoption criteria within an industry. Keeping in mind the adoption of energy investment through conformation with financial analysis and choosing the investments through contextual factors in the organization (e.g. organizational energy culture, power relationships, EnM system, expertise availability, managers mindset) together with characteristics of EnM program as two macro perspectives in energy efficiency literature, this paper aims to understand the main driving factors which lead organizations to either adopt or not adopt a particular program (always with respect to energy management). Moreover, it aims to express the impact of those driving forces of implementing a successful EnM program which could contribute to better understanding of suitable EnM configuration. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 15 manufacturing companies of varying size and in different sectors located in Sweden. After analyzing the minimum required steps to establish EnM, assessing the adoption of practices according to their energy strategy, and through assessing EnM maturity level, we found a low level of risk (which arises from lack of certainty and awareness) and the programs alignment with the core business as prominent driving factors for all sizes which foster positive investment decision making through top management. On the contrary, complexity of industry (for large manufacturing companies) and access to capital (for small and medium-sized companies) are the main barriers to adopting those programs.

  • 26.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Driving forces for and barriers to providing energy services: a study of local and regional energy companies in Sweden2017In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation, and energy services are portrayed as a promising market-based approach to achieve this. This paper examines the barriers to, and driving forces needed for, the implementation of energy services from the perspective of Swedish local and regional energy companies. This includes an analysis of the resources needed in three phases of energy service implementation, i.e., development, sales, and deployment. The results indicate a supply-side interest in providing energy services, with the major challenges being related to (a) intra-organizational issues such as a lack of strategic direction and intent and (b) a perceived lack of knowledge, interest, and trust on the part of potential energy service customers. The paper concludes with managerial and policy implications on how an increased focus and impact of energy service can be achieved among local and regional companies.

  • 27.
    Ricardo, Parra
    et al.
    Consultora Crowsnest Chile.
    Nehler, therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to, drivers for and non-energy benefits for industrial energy efficiency improvement measures in compressed air systems2016In: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings – Industrial Efficiency 2016: Going beyond energy efficiency to deliver savings, competitiveness and a circular economy, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and scarcity of resources drives industrial companies to cut costs where energy can be a significant part, not the least for energy-intensive companies. Improved energy efficiency in industry is complex as is regards numerous various energy using processes which are heavily intertwined. One such energy using process is compressed air systems (CAS) which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. With a few exceptions, previous research on barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency has treated energy efficiency improvement measures as one entity. However, since the characteristics of energy efficiency improvement measures differs, technology-specific measures will face different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency which will affect the investment decision accordingly. The same applies for the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures. The aim of this paper is to study barriers to, drivers for and NEBs for energy efficiency improvement measures in CASs. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper results show that the major barriers are related to the investment, e.g. other priorities for capital investments and access to capital. Major drivers are related to in-house energy management practices, and major benefits include productivity gains and avoidance of capital expenditure. Further research is emphasized in the CAS field.

  • 28.
    Carlén, Albin
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten.
    Rosenqvist, Marie
    Energimyndigheten.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Municion, Susana
    CIT Industriell Energi AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy effiency networks for small and medium sized enterprises: bosting the energy efficiency potential by joining forces2016In: ECEEE Industry Summer Study 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small –and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) remain a cornerstone in individual economies. In terms of improved energy efficiency potentials, the relative potential for SMEs is larger than for energy-intensive companies. However, the level of deployment, due to various barriers such as lack of information and high transaction costs in general remains low among industrial SMEs. The most common policy activity towards industrial SMEs are energy audit policy programs. Deployment levels from the Swedish energy audit program is roughly 50 percent of the detected cost-effective energy efficiency measures, which goes in line with results from the world’s largest program, the American IAC (Industrial Assessment Center). In order to enhance deployment levels, the Swedish Energy Agency has recently started up a national energy efficiency network program for SMEs, funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The aim of this paper is to present an ex-ante evaluation of the Swedish energy efficiency networks (EENet). The paper adds value to the growing scientific literature on energy efficiency network policy evaluation in order to further enhance scientific knowledge on energy efficiency network operationalization and evaluation. Including costs for the program administration, the subsidy effectiveness varied between 1.75 and 2.03 kWh/SEK for the different analyzed scenarios. The outcome of the paper results was that the Swedish Energy Agency reduced threshold for participation in the EENet from 2 GWh/year to 1 GWh/year in annual energy use.

  • 29.
    Björkman, Thomas
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Cooremans, Catherine
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Management: a driver to sustainable behavioural change in companies2016In: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings – Industrial Efficiency 2016: Going beyond energy efficiency to deliver savings, competitiveness and a circular economy, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in mitigating climate change. One of the foremost means to improve energy efficiency in industry is energy management. A pioneer European policy program including energy management system components was the Swedish PFE, a voluntary long-term agreement programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industries, which was under operation from 2004 to 2014.The aim of this paper is to analyse the results of the 2004-2014 PFE using an interdisciplinary approach combining experience from this program with academic concepts in the field of change management and investment decision-making. Results show how academic conceptual frameworks in the field of change management and investment behaviour in industry can explain PFE results and, more generally, support improved policy evaluation further explaining voluntary agreement programs such as the PFE. Finally, we formulate future research suggestions to improve industrial energy policy conception and evaluation.

  • 30.
    Schulze, Mike
    et al.
    EBS Universität für Wirtschaft und Recht, EBS Business School, Strascheg Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SIIE), Rheingaustraße 1, 65375 Oestrich-Winkel, Germany.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in industry: a systematic review of previous findings and an integrative conceptual framework2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 3692-3708Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research points to a large energy efficiency potential in industry which is still left unexploited. One of the most promising means of reducing energy consumption and related energy costs is implementing an energy management. This paper provides a systematic review of existing academic journal publications on energy management in industry. Five essential key elements of an energy management based on overarching themes are identified within the body of literature (strategy/planning, implementation/operation, controlling, organization and culture) and the specific findings relating to each key element are synthesized. Subsequently a conceptual framework of an energy management is developed which illustrates that a comprehensive approach is necessary in order to effectively exploit the existing energy efficiency potential. Finally implications for further research are described.

  • 31.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 295-307Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, p. 932-949Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for 35%-40% of total energy use in Sweden, where 30% of industrial energy use comes from non-energy-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This sector has not historically received much attention when it comes to improving energy efficiency due to limited resources, lower priority given to energy issues, rather small energy-saving potential for a single company, and great heterogeneity of the SMEs. However, the accumulative energy-saving potential for SMEs can be quite high and achieved at very low costs, partly because most improvements are found in support processes and are relatively easy to implement. Various public policies, such as industrial energy audit programmes, serve as a means for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the sector of SMEs. One example is the Swedish Energy Audit Programme (SEAP), a stand-alone audit programme functioning between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this paper is to examine the programme by means of process and impact evaluation. The results show that the programme resulted in annual net energy efficiency savings equivalent to 340 GWh/year or 6% of the 713 participating companies energy end use. The implementation rate in the audit programme was 53%. On average, the public cost of one implemented measure was (sic)700. Derived from the amount of energy saved, the audit programmes annual cost-effectiveness is (sic)7/MWh saved energy. This paper adds a significant scientific contribution due to the method used for evaluation. Multiple company visits and availability of quantitative data from 713 companies gave the possibility to address the additionality effects and estimate net energy savings more precisely. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Wakabayashi, Masayo
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A review of industrial energy and climate policies in Japan and Sweden with emphasis towards SMEs2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 50, p. 504-512Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels stresses decision-makers to formulate and adopt policies towards different sectors of the economy. In light of the great earthquake in Japan 2011, energy efficiency also plays an important role in meeting the challenge of power supply shortage. Energy policies towards industry are of particular importance as a major part of the energy in the economy is used in industrial production. The number of papers investigating and presenting experience from energy end-use policies are scarce. Furthermore, for those present, they often only include a very brief analysis. From a public point of view, evaluations of energy programs are of major importance to measure the performance of the programs. From an energy policy designer point of view, it is of major importance to not only see the cost-effectiveness of the policy but also to understand the fundamental mechanisms for the success or failure of an industrial energy program, in order to learn how to improve future programs. The aim of this paper is to present a review of energy end-use policy instrument in Japan and Sweden towards the industrial sector from 1990 to 2014, with special emphasis on industrial SMEs. From the results presented some general-conclusions can be made, (1) results show that the cost-effectiveness differs substantially between the evaluated programs, and (2) that from a governmental point of view, subsidies towards energy audit programs seem like the most cost-effective policy. In addition to this (3) the results from the review also stress the importance of a clear strategy for every energy program on how the program is going to be evaluated, ex-ante or ex-post, and how the performance of the program is to be measured. This structure should be included from the start of the program. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An integrated dataset of energy efficiency measures published as linked open data2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1125-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an extensive energy efficiency potential, measures are sometimes not adopted due to barriers, such as lack of information. An integrated database of available energy efficiency measures, which has not existed previously, is one step towards overcoming such barriers. To address this, we present a dataset (i.e., data-base) integrating energy efficiency data from Sweden (from the Swedish Energy Agency) and the USA (from the Department of Energys Industrial Assessment Centers), and publishing the data on the Web, using standardized Web languages and following the principles and best practices of so-called linked data. Additionally, several demonstration interfaces to access the data are provided, in order to show the potential of the result. These are entirely novel results, since this is the first dataset we are aware of that publishes this type of data using linked data principles and standards, thus integrating data from entirely different sources making them jointly searchable and reusable. Our results show that such data integration is possible, and that the integrated dataset has several benefits for different categories of users, e.g., supporting industry and energy efficiency auditors in overcoming the information barrier for investment in energy efficiency measures, and supporting application developers to more easily integrate such data into support tools for energy efficiency assessment.

  • 35.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 169-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energy efficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and its related practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturing companies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy management practices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practices in foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through their definition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 37.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambuschini 4, Milano, Italy.
    Classification of Industrial Energy Management Practices: A case study of a Swedish foundry2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2581-2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, stricter legislation and inflated energy costs together yield improved energyefficiency as an important pillar in every industrial sector. Mindful of this challenge, energy management and itsrelated practices are deemed to be one of the major instruments to improve energy efficiency within manufacturingcompanies. Despite the importance of this issue, there is no precise and unanimous definition for energy managementpractices. Moreover, very few papers investigate energy efficiency opportunities and/or energy management practicesin foundry industry. This paper aims to identify, classify and characterize energy management practices through theirdefinition, with respect to energy efficiency, that could take place in a foundry industry.

  • 38.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energitjänster i energibolag: ett ökat värdeskapande med kunden i fokus2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med detta projekt var att undersöka förutsättningarna för att öka tjänsteinnehållet på den svenska energimarknaden utifrån ett energibolags perspektiv. Mer konkret omfattar rapporten följande:

    • Beskrivning och analys av implementeringsprocessen av energitjänster hos ett energibolag; detta skedde genom att följa implementeringen av vissa typer av energitjänster. Målet var att ta fram ett ramverk för hur energibolag kan arbeta för att effektivt implementera och leverera utvecklade energitjänster (checklistor, processteg etcetera) samt nyckelkriterier för att vara framgångsrik i detta.
    • Undersökning av vilka typer av avancerade energitjänster som kan utvecklas, och hur (till exempel hur dessa kan paketeras), med utgångspunkt i kundens behov och med kunden som medskapare. Detta skedde genom att identifiera dels de behov och de utmaningar som kunder står inför (oberoende av leverantör), dels de typer av tjänster som har potential att skapa värde (utifrån marknadens behov). Målet var att ta fram en typologi av energitjänster med typiska karaktärsdrag samt även klassificera vilket värde (för både kund och leverantör) som kan skapas. Denna typologi kan användas av energibolag (och andra) vid nyutveckling av tjänster men även vid kundkontakter och strategiutveckling.
    • Beskrivning av de framtida affärsmodeller som är möjliga för att ett energibolag på ett effektivt och lönsamt sätt ska ha potential att utveckla, sälja och leverera energitjänster.

    Det som gör denna rapport unik är att den ämnar kombinera energitjänsteforskningen med den numera rika flora av vetenskaplig litteratur kopplad till så kallad tjänstefiering. Främst har forskning inom tjänsteinnovation berört tillverkade företags produkt- och tjänsteportföljer. I denna rapport ämnar de rådande teoribildningarna inom forskningsfältet tjänsteinnovationer kopplas till den relativt sätt nya så kallade energitjänstemarknaden men där flera likheter med tillverkande industri finns, till exempel ett traditionellt sett starkt fokus på den produkt som säljs och inte kring tjänster kopplade till produkten.

  • 39.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maria, Johansson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in industry - success factors and way forward2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental point of view, reduced use of energy remains a cornerstone in global greenhouse gas mitigation. From a company point of view, greenhouse gas mitigation as such, may not yet, without full internalization of external costs, be the top priority among business leaders. Rather, it is the magnitude of production costs and the size of market revenue that articulates success or failure for business leaders. However, even for companies with low energy costs, reduced energy use or improved energy efficiency, can have a vast impact on profitability, as the reduced energy costs directly leads to increased profits. Naturally, this holds even more so for energy-intensive companies with high shares of energy costs and those companies have also often worked more extensively with improved energy efficiency. In this paper, a review of more than 10 years of empirical research in the field of industrial energy management is presented, followed by a short overview of important energy management tools. Results show that even for energy-intensive companies, energy management for most companies still has a large potential, calling for business leaders to take action, and for future policies to be designed to close this energy management gap.

  • 40.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 82, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program.

    The autis show that the firms’ average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6,980 -11,130 MWh / firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between € 74,100- € 113,000 / firm.

  • 41.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination2015In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 5694-5703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being situated and impossible to predict.

  • 42.
    Sa, Aida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Industrial Energy Management Gap Analysis2015In: Innovative Energy & Research, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency (EE) is recognized as an essential strategy in energy and climate change mitigation policies (IPCC, 2014). Greater competition, unpredictable energy markets and control on greenhouse gas emissions, drives manufacturing industries to manage their energy demand carefully and use it efficiently. Energy management (EnM) as a cost reduction and risk protection strategy against the unpredictable energy market is a robust tool and support function which helps industries to improve their EE level. However, since energy cost in comparison with total production costs in manufacturing companies has the small portion consequently it receives little attention.

  • 43.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cornelis, Erwin
    VITO NV, Belgium.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Morales, Ines
    IAT, Spain.
    Pablo Jimenez Navarro, Juan
    IAT, Spain.
    International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 282-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, p. 472-483Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

  • 45. Sommarin, Per
    et al.
    Svensson, Anders
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A method for bottom-up energy end-use data collection – results and experience2014In: eceee 2014 Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. However, one of the major challenges today related to improved energy efficiency in industry is the lack of well-structured bottom-up data for various sectors. The aim of this paper is to present a structured method on the collection of industrial bottom-up data, and unique results from a case study of the Swedish foundry industry where the method has been applied. Results show that the method is useful in receiving unique energy-end-use data for the industry, and shows that the energy end-use for similar companies in regard to different process-specific energy users can be very large. Results also show how different energy end-users can be categorized and thus benchmarked in a structured way. The study was a part of the project Foundrybench, with the effort to develop a guideline on how an energy audit may be carried out in the foundry industry, and to develop industry-specific key performance indicators.

  • 46.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014In: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 47.
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Empirical investigation of barriers and drivers to the adoption of energy conservation measures, energy management practices and energy services in the Swedish iron and steel industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish iron and steel industry is focused on the production of advanced steel grades and accounts for about 5% of the countrys final energy consumption. Energy efficiency is according to the European Commission a key element for the transition towards a resource-efficient economy. We investigated four aspects that are associated with the adoption of cost-effective energy conservation measures: barriers, drivers, energy management practices and energy services. We used questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews to collect data from members of the Swedish steel association. The heterogeneous observations implied a classification into steel producers and downstream actors. For testing the significance, the Mann Whitney U test was used. The most important barriers were internal economic and behavioural barriers. Energy service companies, in particular third-party financing, played a minor role. In contrast, high importance was attached to energy management as the most important drivers originated from within the company. Energy management practices showed that steel companies are actively engaged in the topic, but need to raise its prioritisation and awareness within the organisation. When sound energy management practices are included, the participants assessed the cost-effective energy conservation potential to be 9.7%, which was 2.4% higher than the potential for solely adopting cost-effective technologies.

  • 48.
    Svetlana, Paramonova
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patrik, Thollander
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy efficiency potentials for different motor system levels – an empirical study of PFE implemented energy efficiency measures2014In: Motor Summit 2014: 5th International Motor Summit for Energy Efficiency powered by S.A.F.E. / [ed] Rita Werle, 2014, p. 16-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is a cornerstone in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of Energy-Efficiency Measures (EEMs) is the primary means of improving IEE. However, EEMs are not always stand-alone measures. Rather, they are intertwined in the production and other sub-systems calling for a systems approach to be applied. In industry, nearly 70 percent of the power use emanates from motor systems. Electric motor systems can be categorized into three system levels: motor, core motor system, and total motor system, where the large energy-efficiency potential is to be found in the upper system levels. However, previous research has been scarce in showing on which system levels the highest potential for improved IEE is found. Based on a dataset of electric motor system measures from the Swedish energy policy program for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive companies (PFE) consisting of about 1250 EEMs saving 900 GWh/year, the aim of this study is to analyze, using an extended version of the system level categorization, on which system levels the implemented measures are to be found.

  • 49.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimations of energy efficiency management potential in small and medium sized firms2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management; information and knowledge gained by continuous work and attention to energy use can help discover inefficiencies, malfunctioning equipment and assess the performance and operation. This paper investigates how small and medium sized firms and energy auditors estimate energy efficiency potentials from energy management measures by studying the firms that have participated in the Swedish energy audit program. The largest potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy audit reports is found in generic technologies and support processes, i.e. cross cutting technologies mainly in ventilation, space heating and lighting. Out of the suggested measures investments in new technology accounts for 48% of the estimated potential, and adjustments of existing technology for 27%. Behavioural changes in the energy audit reports accounts for a vanishingly small percentage of total suggested energy efficiency measures in the energy audit reports. Firms participating in the study estimate a higher potential for energy efficiency from behavioural changes than the energy auditors, as high as a quarter of the total potential. Implementation rates of suggested measures from the energy audit program rates are higher in the behavioural category. Despite this, the study shows that energy management practices at the firms are lacking. Energy auditors argue that energy management has low priority in firms because firm’s main focus on core business.

  • 50.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring Transactional Analysis in Relation to Post-Graduate Supervision—A Balancing Process2014In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PhD student supervision process is an important process, and the need for PhD students, who often form the backbone of the research community, to receive professional, inspiring and efficient supervision cannot be understated. This paper explores the benefits and values of Transactional Analysis (TA) as a way to further understand and work with PhD supervision. Using TA and the legitimacy ladder applied on PhD education, a modified model for increased understanding of the PhD student supervision process is presented, and is then related to empirical findings from a questionnaire among PhD students. The model shows for example the need for the supervisor to balance his or her role towards the PhD student, and suggests that professional PhD student supervision means moving from a Parent to Child relationship between the supervisor and the PhD student, towards a more mature Adult to Adult relationship.

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