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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hermelin, Brita
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Smas, Lukas
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integrating environmental sustainability into strategic spatial planning: the importance of management2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 1321-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning has been suggested as a means for environmental sustainability. However, there are significant challenges with operationalising and integrating policy-driven strategic spatial planning within the standardised and process-oriented management systems of local authorities. This aspect has motivated discussions on how implementation of strategic spatial planning with a focus on environmental sustainability is conditioned by management systems. The empirical case is local planning and management practices in a local authority in Sweden. Interviews with planners, together with planning and policy documents, make up the empirical material. The analysis proposes that the integration of environmental perspectives into strategic spatial planning processes depends on (i) the overall concerns for environmental issues in local policy, and (ii) how administrative management systems can facilitate transformative practice in planning. In conclusion, this article illustrates how environmental sustainability in strategic spatial planning is formed and conditioned through interplay between local policy and administrative management procedures.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Municipalities as intermediaries for the design and local implementation of climate visions2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a sustainable society requires the development of visions paving the way for socio-technical changes. In recent years, the literature on sustainable transitions and urban planning has highlighted the intermediation role of municipalities to implement international and national goals and visions at a local level. Yet, empirical research studying municipalities from the lens of the intermediation theory are sparse. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of what strategies municipalities use when intermediating between and within different scales of governance (i.e. local, national and international), and what factors influence the choice of strategies. Through semi-structured interviews and document studies, three Swedish municipalities are studied. Results show that these municipalities translate the visions through local experiments, task delegation and coalitions. Additionally, the analysis indicates that the local circumstances, rather than the relations between the local level and the higher levels of governance or the guidance of national policies, influence the choice of intermediation strategy. Particularly, whether the management approach is centralized or decentralized, result- or process-oriented, participative or exclusive, is determinant. Results also indicate that municipalities perform both top-down and bottom-up intermediation, i.e. closing the loop from the local to the national and/or international levels.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    ÅF infrastructure, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategic spatial planning -a missed opportunity to facilitate district heating systems based on excess heat2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning is important for developing long-termvisions and strategies towards regional and local sustainability.This paper explores if and how strategic spatial planning could beuseful for overcoming some barriers related to new sustainableways of heating residential areas, using district heating systemsbased on industrial excess heat. This longitudinal study builds oninterviews with municipal and private actors in six Swedishmunicipalities. It highlights that important barriers can beovercome by influencing the design and location of residentialdistricts and industrial activities. Further, it identifies missedopportunities in local spatial planning practice as stakeholders areinvolved late in the planning when much is set, leaving littlespace for stakeholders to have an impact. Consequently, theremight be a lack of knowledge and expertise in how such issuescould enhance planning. Strategic spatial planning could facilitateconditions for excess heat-based systems of district heating as itimplies a broader systems perspective which could enhance abroader planning scope. Plan programs could bring about morestrategic spatial planning processes as these require earlystakeholder involvement. If taking stakeholder involvement onestep further to stakeholder collaboration or co-production, aneven broader planning scope would be achieved.

  • 4.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to and enablers of district cooling expansion in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Sweden is a northern country with fairly low outdoor temperatures most of the year, its districtcooling (DC) systems are expected to expand. Some actors claim that there is potential for at least adoubling of DC in Sweden. One reason for this is that demand for cooling increases with the increaseduse of electronics such as computers, resulting in higher indoor temperatures from waste heat production.Although DC should have considerable growth potential based on its convenience and climatebenefits, its growth has been surprisingly slow.This article discusses the barriers to and enablers of DC expansion. We examine how energy companies,property owners, and tenants perceive the barriers to and enablers of installing and using DC.How do these actors view the present and future need for cooling? What would make DC more attractiveaccording to these actors? These questions were studied using surveys and in-depth interviews.The results indicate that lack of information is the most important current barrier to DC expansion, abarrier that could easily be addressed, making information an enabler of DC. Earlier grid-based energysystems in Sweden were established through publiceprivate collaboration, and such collaboration couldpromote the ongoing expansion of DC. For example, municipalities played an important role whendistrict heating was built, but this has not been the case for DC. Another possible enabler is the ecolabellingof DC, which has so far played a minor role in the Swedish system.

  • 5.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland.
    Implementing the global sustainable goals (SDGs) into municipal strategies applying an integrated approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Springer, 2018, p. 301-316Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN emphasises the importance of collaboration and integrated approaches to effectively implement the SDGs. Much of the action will have to take place locally where municipalities will play an important role in coordinating the efforts towards SDG fulfilment. They are constant local actors close to citizens and they can also influence other actors through their strategies. This paper reflects on how the SDGs can be integrated into existing strategies in order to avoid parallel non-effective processes and to avoid the risk of the SDGs to become marginalised. Furthermore, the paper discusses roles and preconditions of municipalities in the SDG implementation process. This study focuses the implementation of the SDGs into a regional municipality’s strategic planning and management, Region Östergötland, Sweden. The challenges and opportunities connected to implementing the SDGs will be problematized, and the paper gives recommendations on how this type of organisations can implement the SDGs taking advantage from qualities in already existing management and working procedures.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland.
    Implementing the Global SustainableGoals (SDGs) into Municipal Strategies: Applying an Integrated Approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research: World Sustainability Series, / [ed] Walter Leal, Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN emphasises the importance of collaboration and integrated approachesto effectively implement the SDGs. Much of the action will have to take placelocally where municipalities will play an important role in coordinating theefforts towards SDG fulfilment. They are constant local actors close to citizensand they can also influence other actors through their strategies. This paperreflects on how the SDGs can be integrated into existing strategies in order toavoid parallel non-effective processes and to avoid the risk of the SDGs tobecome marginalised. Furthermore, the paper discusses roles and preconditionsof municipalities in the SDG implementation process. This study focuses theimplementation of the SDGs into a regional municipality’s strategic planningand management, Region Östergötland, Sweden. The challenges and opportunitiesconnected to implementing the SDGs will be problematized, and the papergives recommendations on how this type of organisations can implement theSDGs taking advantage from qualities in already existing management andworking procedures.

  • 7.
    Fältström, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sweden Water Research, Lund, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hagman, Marinette
    Sweden Water Research, Lund, Sweden.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    Sweden Water Research, Lund, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kommunperspektiv på uppströmsarbete i Sverige i dag och i framtiden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Upstream work is an important measure to reduce environmental pollu­tion in society and prevent pollution that has already been introduced to society from entering the water- or nutrient cycle. Although upstream work started in the 1960’s there is still little documentation on its practice. We have investigated how the upstream work is carried out in Swedish water and wastewater organisations, and potential future directions, for wastewa­ter, raw water and stormwater. The intention was also to provide munici­palities with the opportunity to express needs and contribute with success stories from their own work. The report is to be seen as a qualitative inves­tigation rather than a broad survey of the upstream work. The project was financed by Svenskt Vatten Utveckling and Sweden Water Research. The main author is Emma Fältström, PhD-candidate at Sweden Water Research and Linköping University.

    A literature review identified tools that are used or have the potential to be used in upstream work. After, a survey was conducted with 44 water and wastewater organisations. Based on the survey, 12 organisations were selected for interviews.

    The majority of respondents had some kind of existing upstream work today. The upstream work seem to work mostly well and the majority of respondents saw upstream work as an important part of the water and wastewater sector’s responsibilities. However, several municipalities feel a need to do more and most survey respondents have less than one full-time employment dedicated to upstream work. Several municipalities also state that upstream work needs higher priority. It was, however, experienced as difficult to allocate time and money when it is not clear what the work entails, and when the measurable positive effects are not always obvious.

    How the work is practically executed in the municipalities differs. There­fore, there is no consensus about the needs for future development of upstream work. As the work largely differs, a national coordinating function could facilitate exchange of experiences between municipalities. A confer­ence or seminar focusing on upstream work could also contribute to the exchange of knowledge. Specific guidance on grease, general guidance for stormwater, as well as overarching guidance for upstream work in general was put forward as important issues by several municipalities. Amount and quality of the cooperation with e.g. the municipal environmental depart­ment and county administrative board also differ between municipalities. This issue require further attention and in-depth studies.

    The results from this study provide a first insight into how upstream work is carried out in the municipalities. Primary beneficiaries of these results are personnel at water and wastewater utilities and municipal environmental departments. Further, the report provides a first insight into what could be included in upstream work. This contribute to an increased understanding of the work, which should be interesting for water and wastewater managers as well as different municipal departments and other authorities.

  • 8.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andréen, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Local spatial planning processes and integration of sustainability perspective through a broad systems perspective and systematic approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 567-580Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities play an important role in forwarding sustainability. In Sweden,municipalities have a monopoly on spatial planning and are, therefore, keyactors for developing sustainable cities. Through integrating sustainabilityconcerns early in the planning processes they have a significant possibility tohave an impact on other actors’ towards increased sustainability. The aim of thispaper is to discuss a process for how sustainability concerns can be addressed inmunicipalities’ spatial planning. It is based on experiences from an on-goingplanning process in Linköping, Sweden. There is a rapid increase in the numberof index-based assessment and planning tools for sustainable cities (e.g.BREEAM communities, LEED neighbourhood, CASBEE-City). In Sweden,there is a newly developed tool: Citylab action, which has clear connections tothe UN sustainable development goals. However, from a city planningperspective the existing tools are often complex and lack conformity with othermunicipal processes. There is therefore a need for municipalities to reflect onwhich tools that are useful, what the local needs for support are, and to developinclusive and broad planning processes with a broad systems perspective inwhich actor involvement is key, and where the city’s overall strategies andpolicies, as well as national and international goals, are clearly disseminated.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andréen, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Local Spatial Planning Processesand Integration of Sustainability Perspective Through a Broad Systems Perspective and Systematic Approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research: World Sustainability Series, / [ed] Walter Leal, Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities play an important role in forwarding sustainability. In Sweden,municipalities have a monopoly on spatial planning and are, therefore, keyactors for developing sustainable cities. Through integrating sustainabilityconcerns early in the planning processes they have a significant possibility tohave an impact on other actors’ towards increased sustainability. The aim of thispaper is to discuss a process for how sustainability concerns can be addressed inmunicipalities’ spatial planning. It is based on experiences from an on-goingplanning process in Linköping, Sweden. There is a rapid increase in the numberof index-based assessment and planning tools for sustainable cities (e.g.BREEAM communities, LEED neighbourhood, CASBEE-City). In Sweden,there is a newly developed tool: Citylab action, which has clear connections tothe UN sustainable development goals. However, from a city planningperspective the existing tools are often complex and lack conformity with othermunicipal processes. There is therefore a need for municipalities to reflect onwhich tools that are useful, what the local needs for support are, and to developinclusive and broad planning processes with a broad systems perspective inwhich actor involvement is key, and where the city’s overall strategies andpolicies, as well as national and international goals, are clearly disseminated.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedström, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vasilev, Dimitar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lokal implementering av Agenda 2030 och Globala målen: en kort översikt av regioners och kommuners erfarenheter, möjligheter och utmaningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med Agenda 2030 och FN:s 17 Globala mål för hållbar utveckling initierades en ny era för det globala hållbarhetsarbetet med tydligt fokus på målstyrning, där samverkan och integration är nyckelbegrepp. Globala målen skulle kunna bidra till ett mer proaktivt och allomfattande hållbarhetsarbete genom att arbetet bättre operationaliseras och integreras i såväl internationella, nationella, regionala som lokala policyer och strategier. Men det kan också finnas en risk att denna nya globala Agenda kan leda till det bara är retoriken och inramningen som ändras och inte praktiken. Hur man ska gå tillväga på regional och lokal nivå för att implementera Globala målen finns inte särskilt tydligt beskrivet i Agenda 2030. Det pågår dock mycket aktivitet kopplat till de globala målen på såväl regional som lokal nivå, vilket betyder att erfarenhetsbanken för implementering av de globala målen växer för varje dag.

    Regioner och kommuner är institutioner som står för kontinuitet och långsiktighet i det lokala och regionala hållbarhetsarbetet. Då flera av målen är av mellankommunal och kommunal art skulle de regionala och lokala nivåerna kunna utgöra eller bidra till plattformar och ha samordnande roller för strategisk samverkan kring hållbarhetsfrågor i allmänhet och de globala målen i synnerhet.

    Det finns redan ett utvecklat hållbarhetsarbete inom kommuner och regioner. Därför är det viktigt att reflektera över hur det kan förhållas till de Globala målen för undersöka hur de kan integreras i processerna istället för att bli separata projekt. Det är även viktigt att reflektera över redan existerande samverkansformer och arenor. De globala målen skulle kunna ses som ett instrument för att samordna den flora av hållbarhetsinitiativ som redan finns i de regionala och kommunala kontexterna, vilket skulle kunna bidra till att man ökar verkningsfullheten i det existerande hållbarhetsarbetet och ”levlar” (höjer) hållbarhetsprestandan till nästa nivå.

    Den här rapporten, som är en förstudie, är den första inom forskningsprojektet ”Förbättrad regional och lokalhållbarhetsprestanda genom integrering av FN:s globala hållbarhetsmål (LETS[1]). Projektet fyller en viktig funktion i att samla, sammanställa, analysera och kommunicera erfarenheter och därmed bidra med ny kunskap och inspiration till tillvägagångssätt för regioner och kommuner som står i begrepp att integrera de globala målen. Syftet med den här studien, som är en förstudie till LETS, och den här rapporten är inte att var heltäckande och allomfattande, utan den fyller främst funktionen att utgöra underlag för de kommande etapperna i forskningsprojektet LETS vad gäller tex. urval av djupstudieobjekt, litteratursökning etc. Den ger en översiktlig bild av kunskapsläget våren 2018 med utgångspunkt från forskningsfrågorna i forskningsprojektet LETS. Syftet med att sammanställa det här underlaget i en rapport fyller förhoppningsvis en funktion som inspiration till de kommuner och regioner som idag är i eller ska påbörja processen att implementera Globala målen.

    Studien baseras på dels en genomgång av vetenskaplig litteratur och andra rapporter och dels en övergripande intervjustudie med miljö/hållbarhetsstrateger (eller motsvarande) i 15 kommuner och 4 regioner i Sverige. Medan litteraturstudien har ett internationellt perspektiv är intervjustudien mer fokuserad till svenska förhållanden (vilket också är fokus för forskningsprojektet LETS).

    I litteraturundersökningen har vi även gått tillbaka till tidigare globala initiativ, som Agenda 21 och Milleniemålen, för att reflektera över vilka lärdomar som kan dras från dessa processer och hur det kan utnyttjas i arbetet med de Globala målen.

    De globala målen har beskrivits i en rad olika publikationer under de senaste åren, men är först nyligen dessa har börjat ge exempel på hur målen omsatts i praktik, vilket ju inte är särskilt överraskande. Utifrån de artiklar och rapporter vi studerat för den här rapporten har vi valt ut ett antal teman, utifrån forskningsprojektets övergripande syfte och frågeställningar. Rapporten ger bland annat exempel på de utmaningar och möjligheter med regional och lokal implementering som vi identifierat i litteraturen. Många av både möjligheterna och utmaningarna som litteraturen beskriver handlar om samverkan och det tvärsektoriella arbetssättet. Den inneboende komplexiteten hos de Globala målen seglar upp som en av utmaningarna, och detta kopplat till hur En av utmaningarna, som nämns på flera ställen i litteraturen är Globala målens inneboende komplexitet och svårigheten att anpassa målen och indikatorerna till lokal nivå. Andra utmaningar som identifierats är svårigheten att samla intressenter med rätt kunskap och engagemang. Vidare diskuteras data som en utmaning och då handlar det om tillgång till data och tillgång till tillförlitliga data. Samordning kunskap är andra aspekter som pekas ut som utmaningar. Bland de möjligheter som vi identifierat i litteraturgenomgången. När det gäller utmaningar handlar det mycket om att hållbarhetsarbetet kan få ett uppsving, att det kan underlätta beslutsfattande, öka resurseffektivitet samt underlätta för kunskapsbyggande. Vidare nämns att detta gemensamma ramverk skulle kunna underlätta för att visualisera och jämföra hållbarhetsarbetet mellan olika organisationer samt att det kn underlätta för samarbete kring dessa frågor eftersom man pratar samma hållbarhetsspråk.

    Det finns även ett stort antal vetenskapliga artiklar och olika rapporter som beskriver olika slags verktyg som ska stötta och underlätta för implementeringen av Globala målen. Det finns verktyg som ger stöd till såväl inventering som mätning och uppföljning. Men det finns också verktyg för att underlätta samverkan mellan olika aktörer.

    Utifrån de intervjuer vi gjort för den här studien kan vi konstatera att många kommuner och regioner är i uppstartsfasen av att implementera Global målen. Det handlar i stor utsträckning om att integrera målen i strategier och att förankra och kommunicera. Utifrån intervjuerna kan vi utläsa att den främsta potentialen som kommunerna och regionerna i den här studien ser med Globala målen handlar om att få struktur och stöd i sina processer för hållbar utveckling. En annan potential är att få ett gemensamt hållbarhetsspråk som fungerar över organisationsgränser och nationsgränser. De hinder som kommunerna och regionerna upplever är framförallt koppade till svårigheten att konkretisera Globala målen och att omsätta dem i lokal praktik i kärnverksamheten. En annan utmaning som flera nämnde var svårigheten att mäta och följa upp arbetet med målen.

    Trots att vi har identifierat en mängd utmaningar, både genom litteraturgenomgången och i de intervjuer vi gjort för den här studien, ser vi också att det finns en tilltro till och en potential i att implementera Globala målen i regioner och kommuner. Genom att utgå från redan existerande hållbarhetsarbete, identifiera vad som redan görs och hur det kan stärkas upp genom tydligare koppling till Globala målen skulle de kunna underlätta för ett mer sammanhållet och systematiskt hållbarhetsarbete internt i organisationerna men även för samverkan kring dessa frågor med andra aktörer. Tid är en viktig resurs i detta sammanhang och därför behöver det avsättas tid för att jobba med dessa frågor i organisationerna och man måste låta arbetet ta tid. 2030 är inte långt borta, men hållbarhetsarbetet i kommunerna och regionerna behöver ett längre perspektiv än så.

  • 11.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostlänken och hållbar regional utveckling: förstudie med utgångspunkt i erfarenheter av höghastighetsjärnväg i EU2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar resultaten från en förstudie och har sin upprinnelse i planering och organisering inför utbyggnaden av Ostlänken, som är en höghastighetsjärnväg (HHJ) med sträckning från Järna strax söder om Stockholm till Linköping. Titeln för förstudien har varit ”Ostlänken och regional utveckling – en kunskapsöversikt”. De rådande tidsplanerna enligt Trafikverkets hemsida (vid tiden för denna rapports färdigskrivande) anger att Ostlänken beräknas vara färdig mellan 2033 och 2035. Detta är den första etappen i planer för ytterligare framtida investeringar för HHJ i Sverige som knyter ihop de tre största städerna; Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö.

    Rapporten redovisar en kunskapsöversikt vad gäller utbyggnad av HHJ med avseende på regionala e.ekter. Det bakomliggande motivet till att genomföra en sådan översikt är att den ska ligga till grund för att utforma framtida insatser för att den nya infrastrukturen ska stödja en hållbar regional utveckling. Ett särskilt intresse riktas mot hur strategisk planering och samverkansinsatser sker regionalt.

    Det studerade bakgrundsmaterialet berör Sverige och andra länder inom EU. För EU har utbyggnaden av HHJ genom programmet ”The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) varit ett framskrivet projekt sedan en tid tillbaka. Sett till EU:s medlemsländer är utbyggnaden av HHJ ojämn. De största systemen finns i Spanien, Frankrike och Tyskland. De länder som tidigast byggde ut sina nät för höghastighetståg var Frankrike, Spanien, Tyskland, Italien, Belgien och Nederländerna (Trafikverket uå). Ingen av de nordiska länderna har ännu någon byggd HHJ. Det har dock skett viss annan utbyggnad av banor i Sverige sedan 1990-talet. Erfarenheter från utbyggnaden av Botniabanan visar att omfattade miljöe.ekter uppstår vid byggnation av nya tågbanor. Det påminner om att miljövinsterna som uppstår genom att det är mer hållbart med resande på tåg behöver balanseras med de miljökostnader som byggandet innebär.

    Med utgångspunkter i EU:s storskaliga och långsiktiga program för utbyggnad av HHJ och planeringen av den första etappen av HHJ i Sverige genom Ostlänken samt målsättningar om hållbar regional utveckling syftar denna rapport till att sammanställa en kunskapsöversikt som kan utgöra underlag för strategisk planering och samverkansinsatser som sker regionalt i anslutning till utbyggnad av HHJ.

    Denna kunskapsöversikt utvecklas i rapporten utifrån två övergripande teman:

    1. Policy och planering som sker i samband med investeringar och utbyggnad av HHJ.
    2. Erfarenheter som finns med avseende på e.ekter av HHJ på hållbar regional utveckling.

    De stora investeringarna som genomförts och planeras för att bygga HHJ reflekterar stora förhoppningar på att detta stödjer hållbar regional utveckling. En viktig lärdom från tidigare forskning är emellertid att regionala och lokala e.ekter av HHJ varierar och att detta behöver förstås i ett kontextuellt perspektiv. Generellt sett uppstår positiva e.ekter för de största städerna. Vad gäller e.ekter för andra nivåer i de nationella systemen av städer visar sammanställningen i den här rapporten på högst varierande utvecklingsvägar. Några underliggande faktorer som skapar ojämna e.ekter av HHJ har samband med strukturella villkor som tidigare framvuxen fysisk struktur, de regionala näringslivsstrukturerna samt den relativa geografiska positionen för olika städer. Forskningen visar även att strategisk planering och policy för HHJ-investeringarna har e.ekter på hur investeringar för HHJ påverkar hållbar regional utvecklingen (Henriksson och Summerton 2016).

    Rapportens slutsatser utgår från att strategisk planering för HHJ behöver ske i samverkan, att planering och byggnationer i relation till HHJ-utbyggnad sker utifrån förväntade e.ekter samt att tidsperspektivet behöver beaktas vad gäller hur infrastruktur för transporter kan nyttjas i ett längre framtidsperspektiv. I den avslutande resultatdiskussionen lyfts några fokusområden fram som angelägna med avseende på hur utbyggnad av HHJ kan nyttiggöras för hållbar regional utveckling.

    • Att utveckla och konsolidera regionala samverkansstrukturer som en resurs för ändamålsenlig regional planering och andra regionala insatser.
    • Att stödja kunskapsspridning och kännedom om förväntade skärpta krav på miljöhänsyn vid byggnation.
    • Att organisera för kompetensförsörjning för att förstärka möjligheter att sysselsättningstillväxten vid byggnationen kan påverka arbetsmarknaden strukturellt.
    • Att organisera för policyintegrering i samband med planeringen av bostadsbyggandet för att stödja en sammanhållen utveckling.
    • Att integrera organisering och planering för resor och kollektivtrafik i relation till HHJ för att uppnå hållbar regional utveckling sett till dess olika dimensioner.

    Avslutningsvis är det viktigt att påminna om att denna rapport är en förstudie och det har varit nödvändigt att avgränsa diskussionen inom det breda fält som utbyggnad av HHJ relaterar till. Temat är stort och genom att inkludera flera studier, fördjupningar och policydokument skulle diskussionen ytterligare kunnat fördjupas.

  • 12.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moving from high-level words to local action: governance for urban sustainability in municipalities2017In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, no 26-27, p. 129-133Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development goals emphasize the need formulti-level governance to stimulate actions across many levelsand involving actors from multiple sectors. Cities and humansettlements are critical sites for implementation of theseuniversal objectives, indicating the need for local action thatserves global and local interests. This paper reviews recentliterature on this theme, illustrating challenges andopportunities influencing local action, with particular focus onmunicipalities. The partial implementation and limitedevaluation of previous initiatives such as Local Agenda 21 arehighlighted, suggesting past experiences offer insights intohow the SDGs may be implemented. The review suggestsresearch may support municipal action by illustrating how andin what ways municipalities can integrate the SDGs in strategy,policy and practice.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reflecting on Collaborative Networking and the Roles of Municipalities in Local Sustainable Development2016In: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABILITY POLICY AND PRACTICE, ISSN 2325-1166, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development must be addressed locally; therefore, local governments and municipalities play acritical role in most states, having different formal responsibilities and potentials to be accountable for outcomes.However, municipalities are far from the sole owners of sustainable development. This paper considers various aspectsof actor collaboration for sustainable development by conceptualizing who has responsibilities and opportunities tocollaborate with whom, regarding what, and when. This paper synthesizes results of earlier case studies of municipalsustainability policy and praxis as well as theoretical considerations regarding networked governance andaccountability. The empirical basis is derived from interviews, surveys, observations, and document studies of Swedishcases, but has more general implications as well. This examination interprets the meanings of local resources andconstraints in the networked governance of sustainable urban development. It contributes to local actors’ reflections oneach other’s “worlds” and collaboration agendas. Our analytical conceptualization distinguishes between groups ofactors and their relationships with the local community and specifies spheres of responsibility by identifying these actors’perceptions of their action space. By providing this analytical framework, the conceptualization can encourage moresustainable collaboration and practices.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reflecting on collaborative networking and the roles of municipalities in local sustainable development2016In: International Journal of Sustainability policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1166, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 12-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development must be addressed locally; therefore, local governments and municipalities play acritical role in most states, having different formal responsibilities and potentials to be accountable for outcomes.However, municipalities are far from the sole owners of sustainable development. This paper considers various aspectsof actor collaboration for sustainable development by conceptualizing who has responsibilities and opportunities tocollaborate with whom, regarding what, and when. This paper synthesizes results of earlier case studies of municipalsustainability policy and praxis as well as theoretical considerations regarding networked governance andaccountability. The empirical basis is derived from interviews, surveys, observations, and document studies of Swedishcases, but has more general implications as well. This examination interprets the meanings of local resources andconstraints in the networked governance of sustainable urban development. It contributes to local actors’ reflections oneach other’s “worlds” and collaboration agendas. Our analytical conceptualization distinguishes between groups ofactors and their relationships with the local community and specifies spheres of responsibility by identifying these actors’perceptions of their action space. By providing this analytical framework, the conceptualization can encourage moresustainable collaboration and practices.

  • 15.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden2016In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 272-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the factors influencing stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning, together with stakeholder experiences of participation in such processes. The article presents findings from a survey of 60 Swedish municipalities and detailed case studies of energy and climate planning in five Swedish municipalities to explore which stakeholders are involved, how and why they are involved, and the impacts of participation on both stakeholder experiences. The results of this study provide insight into the role of stakeholders in municipal energy and climate planning.The study proceeds as follows: the Introduction is followed by a discussion of theoretical perspectives on stakeholder participation and energy and climate planning. The Methods used to conduct the study are presented, followed by Results and Analysis. In the subsequent Discussion, the authors propose a conceptual approach that may assist municipalities in development of energy and climate strategies. The Analysis and Discussion inform Conclusions in which the authors advocate early and active stakeholder engagement in energy and climate strategy planning and emphasise the possible utility of their conceptual approach in supporting stakeholder participation.

  • 16.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Contesting sustainability in urban transport — perspectives from a Swedish town2015In: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a document study, survey, and workshops held in a Swedish municipality. The empirical focus of the study is on the role of transport in municipal planning and transport's potential contribution to urban sustainability in the municipality. The case study highlights a problem familiar to many municipalities — a transport sector largely dependent on fossil fuel private vehicles that generates significant impacts on the climate and environment, along with other economic and social costs. However, despite awareness of these negative impacts, it is difficult to implement measures to reduce the use of private vehicles and enable a transition towards a sustainable transport sector. In Sweden, municipalities have exclusive planning monopolies and an extensive range of other powers. Despite this, many municipalities are struggling to reduce car dependency and enable sustainable mobility. This paper questions the extent to which the municipality and its governance processes are capable of contributing toward sustainable development, both locally and globally, in the absence of radical measures. In particular, the paper considers why, despite having adopted objectives to promote sustainable mobility, does the municipality struggle with the implementation of measures to enable sustainable mobility? Why is there a difference between words and actions?

  • 17.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers2015In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 033117-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines the theoretical field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with a business model perspective to increase the knowledge about drivers and barriers behind the emergence of excess heat supply collaborations between district heating companies and industrial firms. The increased knowledge is gained by identifying and examining drivers and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industrial firms into district heating grids in Sweden. An increased recovery of excess heat has the potential to reduce the primary energy demands of district heating systems. This study examines both existing and potential developments of industrial collaborations of excess heat-based district heating systems. The focus of the study consists of two Swedish cases of existing collaboration between district heating companies and pulp and paper industries as well as 16 industrial firms that all produce unused excess heat as a by-product. Confirming earlier research results, this study shows that financial issues are both the main drivers and the main barriers behind the emergence and development of inter-organisational collaborations. In addition, this study confirms earlier research that found the trust, joint problem solving, and fine-grained information transfer are important elements of successful collaboration. This study complements and clarifies these three features by including honesty and shared visions on common goals as important qualities needed for well-functioning collaborations. Combining the IS and the business model perspective has made it possible to examine more factors related to collaboration. The business model perspective has contributed with knowledge about central components of the business agreement between the collaborating parties, and the IS-perspective has contributed knowledge of the important organisational factors behind the emergence and development of long-term sustainable business agreements between firms.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forskningssamverkan i politik och praktik: En översikt av initiativ och metoder för utvärdering av forskningskvalitet och genomslag2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten har utformats med utgångspunkt i LiUs arbete med att, utifrån ett organisatoriskt perspektiv, utveckla stöd för forskningssamverkansprocesser samt dokumentera forskningens samhälleliga genomslag. Syftet med rapporten är att ge en översiktlig omvärldsanalys för forskningssamverkan då detta aktualiserats såväl nationellt som internationellt. Förhoppningen är att denna rapport ska fungera som ett diskussionsunderlag för miljöernas forskare i syfte att bidra till utvecklingen av den egna verksamheten. Vår ambition är att sätta samverkan i ett historiskt perspektiv men också bygga vidare på den samverkanstradition som präglar LiU. Även om fokus för denna rapport är Linköpings universitet tror vi att de problem och utmaningar som LiU står inför gäller för fler lärosäten.

  • 19.
    Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Norrköpings kommun.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Förväntningar på megaprojekt: Kommunala strategier i Norrköping för Ostlänken2015In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När staten rullar ut sin matta av infrastruktursatsningar ställer det höga krav på de angörande kommunerna. Men det skapar också förväntningar som utgör en helt ny och omfattande grund för planering. I Norrköping förbereds nu för Ostlänken vilket innebär djupgående effekter på såväl organisation som processer, även om många ideal för samtidens stadsutveckling känns igen. Brita Hermelin, Fredrik Wallin och Sara Gustafsson beskriver projektet och de lokala planeringsförberedelserna.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning – Examples from Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to improving energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, municipalities are important actors. The Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities to support strategic energy activities at the local level. Participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies. This study gives a general overview of how the 60 participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program developed and used energy strategies. The paper focuses on analyses of whether energy plans or strategies are present, and if present, how the municipalities address the issues, what actors are involved, and whether follow-up of the strategies is pursued. The empirical data were collected using structured telephone interviews and other studies. The paper elucidates local energy strategies from a management perspective, discuss whether and how the composition of actors influences suggested goals and measures, and explore whether there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. The theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage efficient strategic energy planning with theories on how to achieve successful participation of stakeholders. These theories are used to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and potential improvements.

    The results from this paper show that only 75% of the municipalities adopted local energy strategies. In addition, it was revealed that the processes to develop the strategies generally included several municipal actors although other stakeholders were rarely represented. The strategies resulted in concrete measures; however, there were no clear correlations between included actors, suggested measures, and identified themes in the strategies. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies.

  • 21.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

  • 22.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tio utmaningar för ett hållbart Norrköping: Slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet Hållbara Norrköping (2010-2013)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städer är en viktig arena för arbetet för en mer hållbar utveckling. Det finns prognoser som förutspår att omkring 70% av jordens befolkning kommer att leva och bo i städer år 2050 (jämfört med dagens 50%). Detta, tillsammans med en generell förväntad befolkningsökning, ställer höga krav på hur städer utvecklas för att tillgodose staden med de resurser som krävs för att försörja dess invånare, utan att ytterligare överutnyttja jordens ekologiska bärkraftighet. Samtidigt som städer är källor till många av de globala miljöproblemen, är det också på stadsnivå som det finns stora möjligheter att agera och få genomslag för lösningar och förbättringar.

    I Sverige har kommunerna en nyckelroll eftersom det oftast är de som ska omsätta de internationella och nationella visionerna och målen om det hållbara samhället till konkreta åtgärder och processer. Genom att utveckla tekniska system som gör det enklare för varje enskild individ att leva mer hållbart kan kommunerna underlätta arbetet för en mer hållbar stadsutveckling. För att lyckas med det räcker det inte med stegvisa förbättringar av de redan befintliga teknikerna, utan flera tekniska system behöver förändras väsentligt. Detta förutsätter gränsöverskridande samverkan mellan olika samhällsaktörer, sektorer, organisationer och över geografiska territorier.

    Innovation är en viktig komponent i hållbar stadsutveckling. Innovation rör inte bara inte tekniska lösningar utan även innovation av organisatoriska samarbetsformer där samverkan och lärande står i fokus. Hållbar utveckling är en stor utmaning med komplexa och flerdimensionella problem. För att klara denna krävs gemensamma ansträngningar och en vilja att arbeta över organisations- och sektorsgränser. Från forskningsprogrammets sida har vi gjort flera olika ansatser för att stimulera bred aktörssamverkan och gemensamt lärande för en mer hållbar stadsutveckling, till exempel genom att:

    • bjuda in till regelbundna möten med forskningsprogrammets referensgrupp som representerar olika lokala aktörsgrupper (se bilaga 1),
    • tillgängliggöra forskningen till en bredare målgrupp i visualiseringsproduktioner i samarbete med Interactive Institute (se bilaga 2),
    • arrangera konferenser och seminarier i syfte att sprida resultat och slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet och stimulera till diskussion om hållbar stadsutveckling (se bilaga 3)
    • publicera vetenskapliga och populärvetenskapliga artiklar, rapporter samt synliggöra forskningen i media (Bilaga 4)

    Forskningens syfte har varit att bidra till relevanta aktörers beslutsprocesser genom att bidra med kunskap och inspiration. Vi gör inte anspråk på att ha gjort en komplett genomlysning, utan de delprojekt som genomförts är valda utifrån att de ansågs vara särskilt värdefullt utifrån forskningsprogrammets syfte och inriktning.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toward sustainability with the coordinated freight distribution of municipal goods2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 194-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities play an important role in the development of sustainable societies, particularly by way of public procurement. Within this area, municipal governments can significantly impact the environment by placing environment-conscious demands on the products and services purchased. At the same time, municipalities are largely responsible when it comes to decreasing the fastest growing source of CO2 emissions in urban areas: road transport. Yet, while much has been done to curb the environmental impact of passenger transport, freight transport seems to have been nearly forgotten. Some Swedish municipalities have set a good example by coordinating the distribution of goods to their facilities and by separating the purchases of goods from those of distribution services. Although municipalities claim that cooperation and knowledge dissemination are central to developing sustainability management, it remains unclear how such should be applied to coordinated urban freight distribution. This paper thus aims to describe and analyse activities in Swedish municipalities' developmental processes of promoting the coordinated freight distribution of goods, in order to identify which activities of knowledge dissemination and collaboration should be prioritised. Empirical data were gathered from interviews, the Internet, and brochures for initiatives taken by Swedish municipalities. Results indicate that the initiatives demonstrate several similarities and differences, as well as provide examples of how knowledge can be integrated into municipal organisation. Above all, results indicate a need for increased collaboration among actors to make freight transport in Swedish cities more efficient, as well as that increased knowledge transfer can help municipalities to overcome several of their weaknesses.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Energikontoret Östra Götaland.
    Aktörssamverkan i lokala strategiska energi-och klimatplaneringsprocesser: Slutrapport från forskningsprojektet Hållbara energi-och klimatstrategier- lärdomar ch potential2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska kommuner har en lång tradition av energiplanering. Dock har verkningsfullheten avkommunernas energistrategiska arbete varit föremål för diskussion. Syftet med det här projektet vardärför att analysera kommuners arbete med att ta fram och genomföra kommunala energistrategiersamt att reflektera över hur/om ett vidgat systemperspektiv genom ökad aktörssamverkan kan bidramed kunskaper till det lokala energistrategiska arbetet.Utifrån projektets resultat har vi sammanställt ett antal rekommendationer som stöd till kommuner ideras arbete med att införa, implementera och utveckla det energistrategiska arbetet. Dessarekommendationer sammanfattar också de huvudsakliga resultat som vi vill skicka med kommunernai deras arbete. Det energistrategiska arbetet bör hanteras som en del i en långsiktig verksamhet och intesom ett projekt Både kommunens politiska majoritet och opposition bör vara med i processen att utvecklaenergistrategin och de ska ha en aktiv roll under hela processen Informera och utbilda politiker om de lokala energisystemen för engagemang och delaktighet Vid målformulering bör de som berörs av målen involveras Koppla mål och åtgärder till den ekonomiska uppföljning som redan görs i kommunen. Energistrategen bör sitta i ledningsgruppen för att möjliggöra att det energistrategiskaarbetet blir en del av det övergripande strategiska arbetet För att säkra kontinuitet i arbetet bör energistrategen ha en tillsvidareanställning och inteprojektanställning Det behövs stöd för kommunernas utåtriktade energistrategiska arbete från regional ochnationell nivå. Formulera en öppen process med en bred regional systemsyn Att samverka kan bidra till mycket positivt samtidigt som det kan göra processen merkomplex. Reflektera därför över vilka aktörer som bör vara med, varför de ska involveras, näri processen de ska involveras samt hur de ska involveras. Det är möjligt att det krävs olikametoder eller struktur för olika aktörsgrupper. Utveckla en förståelse för andra aktörersperspektiv och agendor. Det är viktigt att ha en fungerande samverkan mellan kommun och lokalt energibolag

  • 25.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coordinated distribution to municipality facilities; a Swedish perspective2013In: Proceedings from the 25th International NOFOMA conference, Göteborg, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Win-win - att använda pågående samhällsutvecklingsprocesse som levande labb i ingenjörsutbildningen2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar stadsutveckling förutsätter ett integrerat och gärna tvärvetenskapligt förhållningssätt. Dessutom fordras en helhetssyn inte bara i beträffande de för städernas hållbarhet helt centrala tekniska systemen utan även vad gäller de aktörer som har möjlighet att påverka stadens utformning. Hur väver en samman dessa aspekter till en kurs om hållbar stadsutveckling för studenter inom ingenjörsutbildningar? Och hur får en studenterna att tänka visionärt och utanför lådan utan att tappa förankringen till deras redan existerande kunskapsbas? Detta vill vi byta erfarenheter och reflektera kring under diskussionerna i rundabordssamtalet.

  • 27.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of excess heat-based district heating: A case study of the development of excess heat-based district heating in two Swedish communities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and elaborates on preconditions, drivers and barriers behind the development of excess heat based systems of district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat based district heating systems are considered generally resource-efficient since it could reduce the use of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases by saving primary energy for district heating companies supplying heat to their heating customers. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation has great potential to reduce primary energy demands.

    Collaboration around heat supply is relatively rare. There is an increase but still, the increase is low compared to the supply of excess heat from the industrial processes within the country. Increased knowledge of the important aspects necessary for the collaborations to evolve could mean greater opportunities to facilitate the development of excess heat based systems of district heating.

    The aim of the study is to investigate important preconditions behind the development of excess heat based systems of district heating. It includes two existing cases of excess heat-based district heating systems in two different Swedish communities. The results are analyzed based on previous findings of the emergence and development of industrial collaborations within the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS).

    The results from the study show that relations based on; trust, honesty, shared visions on common goals, information transfer and joint problem solving are necessary for these collaborations to develop.

    These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process. This since knowledge through participation from relevant stakeholders within the collaboration is required to understand and translate the common goals and objectives into practice.

    In addition, we argue that investment subsidies are important for the future development of excess heat based systems of district heating, as a way to facilitate and encourage the long-time environmental benefits for the parties involved as well as the society at large.

  • 28.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation of coordinated urban distribution and consolidation centres: –A Swedish municipality perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Freight transportation in urban areas is an important area in the development of more sustainable cities. Several Swedish municipalities have recognised the inefficiency in the flow of goods to their premises, resulting in negative environmental, economical and social impact. Some Swedish municipalities have started to consolidate their distribution, separate the purchase of goods from the purchase of transport services, as well as started to place demands on the transportation service purchased. However, different establishments are applied by different municipalities, and there is a lack of overview and knowledge exchange between different initiatives.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse activities in the Swedish municipalities’ development process of consolidated urban distribution in order to identify important knowledge dissemination and collaborative actions. Empirical data is gathered from interviews, internet information and brochures regarding initiatives taken by three Swedish municipalities.

    The investigation of the initiatives shows several similarities but also many differences. The results also provide examples of how knowledge can be integrated in the organisation. There is a need for an expanded collaboration between actors to make the freight transports in the cities more efficient. Increased knowledge transfer can help municipalities overcome several of these weaknesses. This area of research is still in its infancy and new areas for further research are identified in this paper.

  • 29.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industry's Perspective on Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind Excess Het Supply Collaborations with the District heating sector2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and examines the preconditions, drivers, and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industry into district heating grids in Sweden. Large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat could use this otherwise-wasted industrial excess heat in systems of district heating. Using excess heat recovery in district heating grids is currently one of the most cost effective ways of providing additional heat to district heating systems. This study examines what is required for industries with excess heat production to collaborate with the district heating sector. Specifically, we analyse the preconditions behind the development of successful heat supply collaborations from an Industrial Symbiosis (IS) perspective by examine 16 industries that all produce excess heat as a by-product that is not externally used. For the industries to be willing to  enter excess heat collaboration with the district heating sector, we found that the important preconditions are mainly financial. However, we also found that there are certain organizational issues, such as relationships based on trust and personal ties that play an important role in the development of long-term successful excess heat collaborations between companies or other organizations and the district heating sector.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning: – examples from Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental degradation and consumption of natural resources is a growing global concern, leading to the awareness that environmental sustainability is a critical new strategic objective. Municipalities are important actors when it comes to energy efficiency and improve environmental sustainability. One important tool to promote this work is implementing a local energy and/or climate strategy. How such local strategies are and could be designed in order to make a difference and promote sustainable energy solutions will be in focus for this paper. In order to promote strategic energy work at the local level, the, Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities. As a part of this program participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies.

    This paper aims at creating a general overview of approaches to, and uses of, local energy strategies among the participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program. This overview includes: analyzes of whether energy plans or strategies are present, which issues these plans address, what actors that are included, and whether follow-up is pursued.

    We will elucidate local energy strategies from a management perspective, and discuss if and how the composition of actors influence suggested goals and measures, if there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. Our theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage an efficient energy strategic planning and on how to achieve successful stakeholder participation. This in order to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and how to improve energy planning in relation to those theories.

    Document studies and structured telephone interviews with representatives from 60 municipalities were used to collect data. Around 75 percent of the municipalities in the study had adopted local energy strategies. This figure is surprisingly low; given that participation in the sustainable Municipalities program required energy strategies. In general, processes to develop a strategy included different parts of the municipality, and resulted in concrete measures. There were no correlations between included actors, and measures suggested and themes in the strategies. Most commonly occurring were strategies related to public buildings and other buildings owned by municipality owned companies. The most commonly suggested measures were related to transports. Almost all respondents claimed that they performed follow-ups and that this was planned for already in the set-up phase.

    Ten out of sixty respondents, who mainly were managers or strategists, meant that they were they alone were the main driving actors in strategic energy issues.

    The studied municipalities had not adopted energy plans or strategies to a higher degree compared to other Swedish municipalities. Cooperation is often broad within the municipalities but limited when it comes to external actors. The content of the energy plans do not always reflect the content of the measures and goals. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies in the organizations.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydholm, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyckelaktörer och processer i utvecklingen av ett mer hållbart transportsystem i Norrköpings kommun: en översikt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommuner har ett stort ansvar och stora möjligheter att bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling. Traditionellt sett har kommuner främst haft en roll som myndighetsutövare, men det har med tiden blivit allt vanligare att kommuner, på frivillig basis, har börjat arbeta mer med frivilliga proaktiva initiativ och därmed agera katalysatorer och starka pådrivare för en mer hållbar utveckling. Den här studien utforskar kommunens roll för utvecklingen av ett mer integrerat och hållbart transportsystem. I ett hållbart transportsystem (så som det är definierat i den här rapporten) är intermodalitet ett nyckelbegrepp och det förutsätter en bred systemsyn och aktörssamverkan.

    Syftet med rapporten är att ge en övergripande bild av de nyckelprocesser och aktörer samt samverkan dem emellan som har varit och är viktiga för utvecklingen av Norrköpings transportsystem utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. För att få flera perspektiv på kommunens arbete för ett mer hållbart transportsystem och de aktörer och processer som varit och är viktiga i detta sammanhang har vi gjort fyra delstudier som belyser detta utifrån olika perspektiv. Dels har vi inventerat offentliga aktörers och processers inverkan (på såväl nationell, regional som lokal och intern nivå), dels har vi analyserat vad lokal media uppmärksammar i transportsystemsammanhang och slutligen har vi gjort en översiktlig inventering internationellt av initiativ för mer hållbara transportsystem. I den fjärde delstudien har vi valt att studera logistikföretags syn på hållbara transporter, samverkan (inom logistikbranschen samt med kommunen) samt framtida utmaningar för ett mer hållbart transportsystem. Detta för att få ett externt perspektiv på kommunens roll för ett mer hållbart transportsystem.

    Resultaten från studierna i den här rapporten visar att Norrköpings kommun tar en aktiv roll i arbetet för ett mer hållbart transportsystem och att detta görs i en rad olika processer och med många involverade aktörer samt på olika nivåer i samhället. Vi har identifierat en tydlig vilja (både på politikernivå och tjänstemannanivå) att arbeta proaktivt och vara ett gott exempel inom detta område. Det visar sig bland annat genom att Norrköpings kommun har varit delaktig i flera nationella initiativ som på olika sätt stöttat utvecklingen. Det finns också en väl etablerad regional samverkan i detta sammanhang. Lokala och interna riktlinjer och styrdokument stöttar utvecklingen inom det geografiskt avgränsade området för Norrköping samt för den interna organisationen.

    Norrköpings kommun bidrar med såväl infrastruktur för ett mer hållbart transportsystem (som att medverka till etableringen av publika biogastankställen samt att driva kollektivtrafik på biogas och el) som med kunskap och beteendepåverkande åtgärder för ett mer hållbart agerande för gemene man. Trots att det finns många och bra processer och engagerade aktörer som på olika sätt bidrar till ett mer hållbart transportsystem i Norrköping saknas det ibland en koppling mellan dessa för att få till denna utveckling i praktiken. Vi har också identifierat en tydlig särkoppling mellan persontransporter och godstransporter. En bredare samverkan med externa aktörer (de som använder infrastrukturen) skulle kunna leda till en bredare systemsyn i trafikplaneringen och därmed bättre planeringsprocesser.  Att arbeta för ett mer hållbart transportsystem är en kontinuerlig process som inte har något egentlige slutmål (eftersom det är rörligt). Det betyder att trots att Norrköpings kommun är på god väg så återstår många utmaningar framöver. En av dem är att få till en bredare systemsyn och en tydligare samverkan mellan aktörer och processer.

  • 32.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind the Development of Excess Heat-Based Systems for District heating2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and elaborates on the preconditions, drivers, and barriers behind the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat-based district heating systems are generally considered resource-efficient because they reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation could significantly reduce primary energy demands.

    Although collaboration around heat supply in Sweden has increased, the utilization is low compared to the supply of excess heat produced as the result of industrial processes. Increased knowledge about how collaborations evolve could mean greater opportunities for the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating.

    The study includes two Swedish cases of excess heat-based district heating systems. Using approaches developed within Industrial Symbiosis (IS), we analyse how industrial collaborations with respect to excess heat-based systems emerge and develop. For these collaborations to develop, relationships based on trust, honesty, shared goals, information transfer, and joint problem solving were necessary. These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process because knowledge gained through the participation of stakeholders is required to understand common goals and objectives and to translate them into practice. The organisational features are also important in order to overcome financial and technical barriers to such collaboration.

    In addition, we argue that investment subsidies can encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating and can provide long-term environmental benefits for industry as well as for society at large.

  • 33.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the importance of strategic spatial planning associated with the existence and development of district heating. Within the planning of new residential developments in Sweden, local authorities have the authority to influence the future development of the energy systems. The aim of this study is two-fold: to examine whether and how district heating issues are addressed in municipal spatial planning of new residential areas and to discuss how Swedish planning legislation can improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating. The study includes an investigation of the planning process in six Swedish municipalities. The results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the planning process. This delay means that important information often fails to be exchanged between the local authorities and the district heating companies, a lack of communication that undermines a widened systemic approach and long-term planning which are important preconditions for effective decision-making.

  • 34.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five Swedish municipalities, how do municipalities include stakeholders in the process, and in what ways do stakeholders influence outcomes? Results suggest that a number of key factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders have been involved and feel included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. By illustrating the characteristics of the municipal climate and energy planning processes in five Swedish municipalities, the study makes a contribution to the research on local governments and sustainable development in general, and specifically to the growing literature on municipal climate and energy planning. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about the factors influencing municipal energy planning and the importance of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

  • 35.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. This will help answers the research questions: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five Swedish municipalities; and, what lessons can be learnt from these cases which may be applicable to other municipalities in Sweden, the EU and other countries?

  • 36.
    Fenton, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Energikontoret Östra Götaland.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish Municipalities2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report forms part of the research project “Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies – development and potential”, which is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency’s Sustainable Municipality programme. In this research project, case studies of the processes to develop energy strategies in five municipalities were prepared. The five municipalities were participants in the Sustainable Municipality programme’s second phase, which began in 2008, and represent different types of municipality, in terms of geography and population.

    This report presents analysis of the five case studies, using a policy theoretical perspective to focus on issues including how problems and solutions are identified and formulated, which solutions are proposed, which actors are included or excluded from the process, and which local resources are used or not used in the process. The report reflects on the implications of increasing stakeholder cooperation in energy planning processes and using different types of organisational approaches during the development of energy and climate strategies.

    Each case study began with an inventory of publically-available documents shaping the context for energy and climate strategies in each municipality. These documents were compiled in time lines showing the documents or decisions influencing energy planning in each municipality. Subsequently, group interviews were held with participants in planning processes in each of the five municipalities. In addition, individual interviews took place with stakeholders who had been active in the processes. Interviews were recorded and then transcribed. The results from the document study and interviews were then compiled in a summary of each municipality’s energy planning process, forming the basis for the analysis in this report.

    The case studies highlight both similarities and differences with regard to the organisation of work to develop and introduce energy strategies. All municipalities established, at an early stage, internal organisations for the process and throughout the processes, the organisational form, participants and their role, and division of tasks and responsibilities were fairly clear. For example, all five municipalities made use of Steering Groups and Working Groups, although the extent of the roles which these groups played – and the background of their members - varied. Four municipalities had a Reference Group in which external stakeholders were represented. A number of other constellations, including thematic working groups, were present in some but not all municipalities.

    The municipalities also took different steps in their energy planning processes and identified different drivers stimulating their activities. Participants from one municipality considered the Sustainable Municipality programme as a pivotal moment in their strategic energy work, whereas others felt the programme did not significantly influence their approach or outputs. The report identifies a number of factors influencing the development and implementation of municipal energy strategies, as well as a strategy’s scope and content.

  • 37.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Follow-up of local energy and climate strategies: A study of six small Swedish municipalities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities are important actors in the transition of energy systems towards renewable energy resources and efficient energy use. One mean to manage and develop local energy systems is using energy and climate strategies. Sweden has a long history of energy-planning, which effectiveness has been debated. However, in the light of climate change, many Swedish local authorities have adopted energy and/or climate strategies in recent years. These strategies are intended to clarify, prioritize and suggest measures for achieving energy and climate related goals. To be able to assess the strategies’ effectiveness it is important to identify progress and goal achievement. There is little knowledge whether and how local authorities do this kind of follow-up.The aim of this paper is to explore approaches to energy strategy follow-up in six small and medium-sized local authorities in Sweden. Based on interviews with representatives from six Swedish municipalities, this paper discusses prerequisites for energy and climate strategy follow-up. Challenges for the follow-up, such as methodological descriptions, organization and lack of high quality data are identified and discussed. A conceptual model for a systematic approach to follow-up is presented. Conclusions on how a systematic approach to follow-up could facilitate organizational learning and a more strategic approach to energy issues are drawn. It is also discussed how a developed practice could be beneficial in terms of common methodologies and possibilities to request better statistical data from the national level.

  • 38.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cherp, Aleh
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund.
    From tool technique to tool practice: Experiences from the project SEAMLESS: Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local authoritiES in Sweden.2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains the results from the project SEAMLESS, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local authoritiES in Sweden. The aim of SEAMLESS was to explore conceptual foundations as well as feasibility of establishing better operational and methodological linkages between tools for strategic environmental planning, assessment and management, especially between SEA (according to the EG directive 2001/42/EC and EMS based on the main principles of ISO 14001/EMAS) in local authorities. The rationale for the study was that local authorities are important actors on the environmental arena, which make and implement a large number of decisions directly and indirectly affecting the environment. A multitude of different systems and tools have been developed to support environmental management at local authorities and an integrated use of different tools can have various benefits.

    The SEAMLESS project has been realized through five main steps. First, a literature review and a survey of international practice were performed. Second, in parallel to the first step, an initial conceptual framework was constructed. The third step in the research process was to carry out case studies in six selected Swedish local authorities in order get a better understanding of how SEA and EMS are dealt with in practice. In the fourth step, the results from the previous steps in the research process were compiled and analyzed in order to develop and conduct a pilot study. Finally in the fifth step, general recommendations for integrated use of strategic planning, assessment and management tools were formulated.

    Theoretically, local sustainable development strategies could benefit from having influence from some of the main approaches and principles in SEA and EMS methodologies. Achieving this in practice, however, is a challenge that requires a wide systems perspective and a certain degree of maturity in the organization. At the time of SEAMLESS an integrated approach of SEA and EMS was not possible nor asked for by the studied local authorities.

    The SEAMLESS project’s core concepts tool technique and tool practice were used for explaining and analyzing the preconditions, possibilities and difficulties in integrating SEA and EMS. Tool technique addresses the more technical aspects of the tools use and integration, neglecting the context in which it is to be used. Applying a tool technique perspective there are several possible linkages between the studied tools that could enhance each tool, e.g. widening the scope of EMS and facilitating follow up of SEA. It is important to understand the context, since it influences the feasibility of tool integration; therefore a tool practice perspective is needed.

    Furthermore tool integration is another important concept in the SEAMLESS project, where three different stages of integration were identified: formal integration, learning integration and interactive integration. A too strong focus on formal integration (which is closely connected to tool technique) might lead to that potential linkages are not realized. To make such integration possible the focus should be more on learning integration. Interactive integration is hard to achieve and it can be questioned if it is desired. Too much focus on interactive integration might lead to complex resource demanding tool causing ineffectiveness and tool fatigue.

    The SEAMLESS project resulted in a set of recommendations based on that integration should not be seen as a goal in itself; that attempts of tool integration should focus on bridging the different professional cultures; and that a wide systems perspective is needed.

  • 39.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Gustafsson (f.d. Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategiskt och verkningsfullt?: Ledningsverktygs bidrag till kommuners hållbarhetsarbete2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommuner kan pekas ut som nyckelaktörer i arbetet för en mer hållbar utveckling. De verkar nära medborgarna och utgör en länk mellan medborgare och nationella/internationella myndigheter och aktörer. Vi har haft förmånen att under en tioårsperiod följa svenska kommuners arbete med att organisera och systematisera arbetet för ett mer hållbart lokalsamhälle. Under den tiden har vi sett en trend som innebär att det har blivit allt vanligare att kommuner tar på sig ansvar utöver det lagstadgade och arbetar mer proaktivt för ett hållbart lokalsamhälle. Det finns en uppsjö av verktyg som kommuner (och andra organisationer) kan använda för att få stöd i detta arbete. Många är förenklade och anpassade varianter av ISO 14001 och EMAS, som är internationellt accepterade verktyg, för att strukturera och systematisera miljöarbetet i en organisation.

    Den här rapporten är en syntes av de studier som vi har genomfört under det senaste decenniet. Det empiriska underlaget baseras främst på intervjuer (allt från fokusgruppintervjuer till telefonintervjuer), dokumentstudier och observationer. Rapporten syftar till att diskutera om och hur ledningsverktyg kan bidra till ett mer effektivt och verkningsfullt strategiskt miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i kommuner. Centralt för syntesen har varit att reflektera över de verktyg som kommunerna väljer att använda, på vilket sätt verktygen används samt hur detta arbete integreras i den kommunala organisationen.

    Vår forskning tar sin utgångspunkt i miljöperspektivet i hållbar utveckling i och med att vi initialt studerade hur kommuner arbetar med att införa standardiserade miljöledningssystem. Vi har följt många kommuner från deras första, ofta trevande, försök till att införa miljöledningssystem till att de har ledningssystem som integrerar miljöperspektivet med de övriga perspektiven i hållbar utveckling. Denna utveckling beskriver vi i de tre utvecklingsfaserna: interna miljöledningssystem, mogna miljöledningssystem samt hållbarhetsledningssystem. Utvecklingen har gått från en ganska snäv systemsyn, både vad gäller innehåll och aktörer i systemen, till en vidare systemsyn där olika perspektiv och flera aktörer involveras. Ett internt miljöledningssystem kännetecknas bland annat av att det främst är miljöexperterna i organisationen som är involverade, att miljöledningen sker särkopplat från verksamhetsstyrningen och att kommunerna ofta väljer att begränsa detta arbete till de tekniska förvaltningarna. I ett moget miljöledningssystem har miljöledningsarbetet en mer central roll i organisationen där de flesta verksamheter och de flesta anställda är involverade. Ett moget miljöledningssystem innebär också att kommunen har en större kunskap om vilket angreppssätt som passar de lokala förutsättningarna. Det resulterar ofta i lokalt utarbetade modeller för hur miljöledningssystemsarbetet ska organiseras och implementeras. Många kommuner inser efter en tid att det är svårt att hantera miljöfrågan i ett separat system som är skiljt från den övriga styrningen och flera upplever att de andra perspektiven i hållbar utveckling borde kunna hanteras med samma systematik som miljöfrågorna. Därför har det blivit allt vanligare att kommuners miljöledningssystem utvecklats till hållbarhetsledningssystem. Dessa har liknande egenskaper som ett moget miljöledningssystem vad gäller intern spridning och position, men det omfattar alla tre perspektiven i hållbar utveckling och bygger på en bredare samverkan där även externa intressenter är inkluderade.

    En av rapportens viktigaste slutsatser är att det är svårt för kommuner att styra i riktning mot en mer hållbar utveckling. En anledning till det är begreppet ”hållbar utvecklings” komplexitet. Det är ett begrepp som har visat sig ha olika innebörd för olika aktörer. Verksamhetsstyrning utgår från att man har tydliga mål och om man vill styra för en mer hållbar utveckling är det viktigt att ha en viss samsyn kring vad det är man vill uppnå. Ett sätt att underlätta införandet av ett miljö- och hållbarhetsledningssystem är att utgå från de strukturer och ansvarsposter som redan existerar i organisationen samt att utforma ett arbetssätt som är anpassat till dem som ska använda det. Annars riskerar ledningssystemet att bli en hyllvärmare, som inte får något genomslag i det praktiska arbetet, och som därmed begränsas i verkningsfullhet. Vi tror att ledningsverktyg kan bidra med struktur och inspiration för kommuners arbete med att organisera och systematisera sitt miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete, men det är viktigt att kommunerna reflekterar över varför de gör den här typen av insats samt om dessa gör nytta i förhållande till kommunens huvudprocesser.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Översiktlig kartläggning av kommuners erfarenheter kring energi- och klimatstrategiarbete: en enkätstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities play several important roles when it comes to promoting sustainable energy systems and can have a significant impact on the local development as planners, real estate owners, communicators and owners of local energy companies. According to Swedish legislation all local authorities establish a local energy plan; however several studies show that this law is poorly followed. Therefore, it is interesting to study and analyze whether and how the local strategic energy efforts could be designed in order to make a difference in local energy planning processes.

    This report presents the results from a telephone questionnaire survey that was performed in the winter 2010/2011 and serves as a pre-study in a research project aimed at studying and developing methods for developing and implementing local energy strategies. The survey was addressed to the local authorities within the Swedish Energy Agency’s program Sustainable Cities. The purpose of this report is to create a general overview and a snapshot of the selected local authorities approaches to energy strategies, and cover issues such as whether an energy plan or strategy is present, what issues it addresses, who took part in the development, which actors actuate work with energy issues at the strategic level, and whether follow-up is pursued. The survey was addressed to each local authority’s contact person for the Sustainable City program and it resulted in a response rate of 92 percent.

    A little more than 75 percent of the local authorities in the study had adopted local energy strategies. This figure is surprisingly low; given that one of the requirements for participation in the program Sustainable City was that the local authority should have an energy strategy in place. The results also show that the energy planning process generally included several parts of the local authority and municipal companies and had resulted in concrete measures. The most common theme in the respondent organization’s energy strategies were related to the real estates owned and run by the local authority, while the most common measures were related to transports. Almost all local authorities in this study claimed that the performed follow-ups of the energy strategy work and that this was planned for when the plan was designed and set up.

    The energy strategies used in the local authorities have been labeled differently and the focus varies. These varieties can be explained by the need to adopt the work to existing local conditions and working procedures. This may however lead to difficulties to compare energy strategies between local authorities and may inhibit collaboration with other local authorities. This will be analyzed further in the next part of the project.

    The respondents of the survey, who also were the local contact persons of Sustainable City, had a wide variety of titles of which the most common was related to manager or strategist. This means that they have a central role in the organization. Men were overrepresented in this group, even though there was an even share between male and female respondents. The next most common title was coordinator (environmental-, energy-, climate-) and this group was dominated by women. The respondents were asked who the key persons or functions were regarding the energy strategy efforts and ten out of sixty answered that they alone were the main pushers. However, the most common reply to this question was that it was a combination of officials and politicians that pushed this work forward.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Allt eller inget? Om kommunens roll i det hållbara lokalsamhället2010In: Samtal pågår... från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Tora Friberg och Sabrina Thelander, LiU Tryck , 2010, 1, p. 59-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det bättre med stora än med små kommuner? Kommer folkrörelsepartierna att bli mer kampanj- och väljarorienterade i framtiden? Hur formas en boendepolitik för det goda åldrandet? Lokala transportstrategier – hur och för vem? Hur påverkas kommunledningars samverkan om gymnasieskolan av att det finns friskolor? Är kulturekonomi framtidens lokala tillväxtmotor?</p><p>Dessa och andra frågor behandlas i denna bok. Den är ett led i Centrum för kommunstrategiska studiers, CKS, arbete med att bygga en dialog – utveckla goda samtal – mellan Linköpings universitet och medlemskommunerna i CKS. Den innehåller fjorton olika artiklar, inlägg, som forskare författat för att förmedla sina resultat, men också för att stärka en dialog med politiker och tjänstemän i kommunerna. Inläggen spänner över många olika ämnen och frågeställningar. De är i vissa fall konkreta och koncisa i andra fall beskrivande och reflekterande. Alla är de av kommunstrategisk karaktär.</p><p>I en kommun fattas en mängd olika politiska beslut kring de mest skiftande ämnen. Det kräver kunskap, reflektion och gedigna beslutsunderlag. Då kan forskares analyser och kunskapsproduktion vara till nytta. För att en fördjupad och samhällsrelevant forskning ska komma till stånd behövs emellertid reaktioner från politiker och tjänstemän. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende. Det kan hanteras genom samtal i vilka forskare, politiker och tjänstemän kan utbyta erfarenheter, tankar och kunskaper. Inläggen i denna bok visar att samtal pågår.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson (former Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sharifian, Ladan
    n/a.
    Managing environmental impact from organisations in the service sector2009In: Greening of Industry Network, 8-10 June 2009, City of allborg, North Denmark: Joint Actions on Climate Change, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindqvist Östblom, Annica
    Linköping University.
    Potential benefits of combining environmental management tools in a local authority context2009In: Tools, Techniques & Approaches for Sustainability: Collected Writings in Environmental Assessment Policy and Management / [ed] W.R Sheate, World Scientific, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards sustainability management systems in three Swedish local authorities2009In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 721-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development towards sustainability management systems (SMSs) in three Swedish local authorities. Many local authorities have extensive experience in using standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs). Recently EMSs have extended their reach by widening the scope of the systems including other dimensions of sustainable development. Case studies have been performed in three of the most EMS-experienced local authorities in Sweden. These authorities have extended their EMSs into a sustainability management approach in different ways. This paper discusses the development, possible contributions, and constraints with this development. Expanding EMSs into SMSs can be seen as a learning process in which a larger systems perspective leads to increased awareness that the management system becomes limited by only managing environmental issues. Expanding the EMSs into SMSs may lead to a more complete view of the organisation's total impact on nature and society, and issues that need to be managed.

  • 46.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    From Environmental Management Systems to Sustainability Managenment Systems in Swedish Local Authorities2008In: Facilitating Sustainable Innovations: Sustainable Innovation as a Tool for Regional Development,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rationale for the development of a Swedish local authority-adapted standard supporting sustainability management2008In: 11th QMOD ConferenceQuality Management and Organizational Development Attaining Sustainability From Organizational Excellence to SustainAble Excellence, 20-22 August, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Managing indirect environmental impact within local authorities' standardized environmental management systems2007In: Local Environment, ISSN 1354-9839, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many local authorities use standardized environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve their environmental management. These authorities often find it difficult to manage environmental impact caused by their exercise of authority i.e. indirect environmental impact (IEI) within their EMSs. Since this is connected to their core activities, it is important to understand how IEI could be more efficiently managed with respect to EMS work. The purpose for this paper is to study if and how IEI could be managed within the framework of EMS. In this study we have identified two different approaches to managing IEI. Because managing IEI is complex, it is often ignored when initiating EMSs or managed by explicitly avoid mentioning the concept. Managing IEI is seen as a matter of maturity within the organization. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding a developed definition of IEI and how management of IEI could be facilitated.

  • 49.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Miljöledningssystem och miljöhänsyn i fysisk planering - arbetsnotat från fallstudier i sex svenska kommuner2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 50. Cherp, Aleh
    et al.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local Authorities in Sweden2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

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