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  • 1.
    Lambe, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Ran, Ylva
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Jurisoo, Marie
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muhoza, Cassilde
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Kenya.
    Johnson, Oliver
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Osborne, Matthew
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Embracing complexity: A transdisciplinary conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in the context of development-focused interventions2020In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 126, article id 104703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many interventions that aim to improve the livelihoods of vulnerable people in low-income settings fail because the behavior of the people intended to benefit is not well understood and /or not reflected in the design of interventions. Methods for understanding and situating human behavior in the context of development interventions tend to emphasize experimental approaches to objectively isolate key drivers of behavior. However, such methods often do not account for the importance of contextual factors and the wider system. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework to support intervention design that links behavioral insights with service design, a branch of the creative field of design. To develop the framework, we use three case studies conducted in Kenya and Zambia focusing on the uptake of new technologies and services by individuals and households. We demonstrate how the framework can be useful for mapping individuals experiences of a new technology or service and, based on this, identify key parameters to support lasting behavior change. The framework reflects how behavior change takes place in the context of complex social-ecological systems - that change over time, and in which a diverse range of actors operate at different levels - with the aim of supporting the design and delivery of more robust development-oriented interventions. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2.
    Caic, Martina
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden; Hanken Sch Econ, Finland.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mahrz, Dominik
    Hanken Sch Econ, Finland; Serv Sci Factory, Netherlands; Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Odekerken-Schroder, Gaby
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Beneficiaries View of Actor Networks: Service Resonance for Pluralistic Actor Networks2019In: International Journal of Design, ISSN 1991-3761, E-ISSN 1994-036X, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 69-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In design for service, understanding the social fabric of the service system demands special focus, because the networks of actors that collaboratively create value strongly affect the multitude of service values for the beneficiaries of the system. This article explores mental models of actor networks from the phenomenological perspective of the beneficiaries, who ultimately determine the value of the service. The authors argue for a visual phenomenology and leverage the resourcefulness of individual network actors through a qualitative interpretive study that relies on in-depth interviews supported by generative card activities. By asking service beneficiaries (in this case, the elderly) to map their care-based network contexts, this method encourages human-centered, participatory approaches that reveal service systems from beneficiaries perspectives. With an analysis of constructed visual artefacts and data-rich narratives that uncover the instrumentality of visualizations, the authors further identify different types of networks and the dominant values held by each networks focal actors. The authors hence suggest that not only should value creation as such be viewed as idiosyncratic, but so should the networks of actors that co-create value. Finally, the concept of service resonance is suggested to aid in accounting for the pluralistic perspectives of the network actors.

  • 3.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westin, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    Luftfartsverket, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis and conceptual designing for unmanned air traffic management in cities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in high-stakes domains, such as Air Traffic Management (ATM). It provides focus on human expert performance in regular as well as contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system, since there is nothing to analyze before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this paper we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA for UTM as a first-of-a-kind system.

  • 4.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis in the conceptual design of first-of-a-kind systems - designing urban air traffic management2018In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 904-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in design for high-stakes domains, such as air traffic management (ATM) since it focuses on human expert performance in regular and contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system since there is nothing to analyse before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned air traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this research-through-design study, we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA in the design of a first-of-a-kind UTM system. In a series of co-design workshops, we identified future services, traffic patterns, and regulations that framed the design of UTM system concepts. They were based on combinations of four basic building blocks: points, lines, planes, and volumes. Concepts of point-based control, airport geofences, grid squares, layers, and tubes were discussed. Throughout the conceptual designing, results were documented in an evolving Work Domain Analysis (WDA), which is a cornerstone of CWA. This approach allowed us to bootstrap the CWA for a first-of-a-kind-system.

  • 5.
    Ekholm, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Idrott för integration – så blir satsningen hållbar2018In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 25 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrott används allt oftare som verktyg för integration och mot utanförskap. Midnattsfotboll är ett exempel. Hur organiserar man en sådan verksamhet och vad är avgörande för att den ska fungera långsiktigt?

    Det blir allt vanligare att använda idrott som ett verktyg för sociala ändamål, både internationellt och i Sverige. Ofta sker det i samverkan mellan kommuner och idrottsföreningar.

    Vi studerar två fall av så kallad Midnattsfotboll i två svenska städer. Verksamheten arrangeras i samverkan mellan en nationell stiftelse, lokala idrottsföreningar, kommun och sponsorer. Vi tittar på hur man går tillväga för att etablera respektive verksamhet, för att identifiera vad som är viktigt för att de ska överleva och bli långsiktiga.

  • 6.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perceived Action Potential: A strong concept in development2018In: ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept, Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 Conference, 18-20 June, Milano, Italy / [ed] Anna Meroni, Ana María Ospina Medina and Beatrice Villari, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, Vol. 150, p. 1162-1174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service encompasses multiple interaction processes among many different actors. Comprehending the subtleties of what drives actors resource integration activities could therefore be valuable when designing for service. However, these nuances are not necessarily always captured in early representations such as prototypes of service due to variation in individual interpretation of situations. This paper draws on strong concepts from interaction design as a generative intermediate-level form of knowledge, to conceptualise perceived action potential (PAP) as a strong concept through the use of illustrative examples. PAP refers to the subjective interpretation of an individualï¿œs (own) scope of action in new or unforeseen situations. This paper elucidates the implications of PAP for service design and suggests future research opportunities. In introducing strong concepts to service design, it also translates how strong concepts might be identified and subsequently constructed in service design research in order to aid practice.

  • 7.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resource integration as a perspective on value in interaction design2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-dominant logic (SDL) is a theoretical framework that has impacted the development of service design. Resource integration, a core concept in SDL, provides a distinctive perspective that changes the perception of value in situations of interaction. In this paper, we explore the implications of applying the resource integration view on interaction in the context of an illustrative design project. We argue that considering the resources of each actor in a design situation elevates the discussion towards a more strategic level of service and value creation. Through the example, we draw implications of utilising this perspective in specifying, positioning and shaping interactions in the system to provide value for different actors.

  • 8.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards a structured way to represent future service roles2018In: Proceedings of the the 5th Participatory Innovation Conference (PIN-C), 2018, p. 345-348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service designs suggest changes in service systems, that – when implemented – change roles of actors in such systems. To fulfil their new role, actors in a service need to know what is expected of them and be both willing and able to perform this new role. Combining data from an ongoing service development project with existing knowledge of external representations used in service design and Role Theory, we propose a framework showing the extent to which different aspects of envisioned roles are included in different types of service representations. This provides a structured way to describe and evaluate roles, adjust them if needed and prepare service actors for their own and others’ new roles.

  • 9.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Čaić, Martina
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mahr, Dominik
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Understanding generalisability from network-conscious service design projects2018In: Service Design Proof of Concept: Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 conference / [ed] Anna Meroni, Anna María Ospina Medina and Beatrice Villari, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, p. 368-385, article id 030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of technology on value co-creation practices of service actors has been studied from a service encounter perspective, during or after technology introduction. We contribute to this existing research by introducing a multi-actorperspective to study such changes priorto technology deployment. We provide two illustrative cases that show how this can be done. In addition, we study the generalisability of findings from such research projects, through an exploratory qualitative comparison of the projects. We make a second contribution by providing five contextual aspects for other researchers to use when assessing 1) generalisability of our findings and 2) to what contexts their research results can be transferred. Finally, we make a third contribution by positing that literature on roles and role change supports service researchers and designers to make sense of the ways in which service actors perceive that technology deployment will influence value co-creation in service systems. 

  • 10.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bardzell, Jeffrey
    Indiana University, USA.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What we mean by interactive form2018In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The following blog post is edited from an email conversation between the authors about the concept of interactive form, which incidentally is the name of a course given at Linköping University. If you do teach a course, it might be a good idea to understand the meaning of the course name.

  • 11.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conceptualising touchpoint containers to enhance multi-actor experience2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing and managing services, customer journey mapping and

    service blueprints are often used to described and understand the specific

    service. However, in many services, when implemented, actual customer

    journeys are intersecting in specific spaces. This paper introduces the

    touchpoint container as a strong concept to understand resource

    integration in spaces where touchpoints from different customer journeys

    have been collected. We provide an empirical illustration on what a

    touchpoint container is and highlight the features of such a container.

  • 12.
    Foglieni, Francesca
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Determining Service Value: Exploring the Link Between Value Creation and Service Evaluation2017In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the evolution of the service-dominant logic and critiques emerging from this, the purpose of this paper is to explore the link between value creation and service evaluation in order to understand what can be evaluated in a service, when and from which perspective, to ascertain its value.

    Even though in theory of service logic there is a quite clear understanding of service value creation dynamics, a reflection is missing on how to measure that value. The authors thus take on the concept of service evaluation as a further development of service logic, introducing a possible way to approach it.

    Bridging service logic studies and evaluation studies in the field of social sciences, this paper identifies temporal aspects of service evaluation, and possible evaluation objects and objectives that are meaningful for the service provider in value-facilitation activities and for the service user in value-creation activities. A framework is developed and some considerations are done upon shifting the reflection on value creation from theory to an evaluation practice.

  • 13.
    Esperance Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Discovering Service Variations through Service Prototyping2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, p. S2247-S2257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing services require embracing the variability that makes it unique. This paper investigates how the use of a service prototyping technique enables participants to explore the variations inherent in services. The video data are analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the articulated variations are abstracted as categories. The resulting categories are then mapped across the service logic framework and the corresponding provider, joint and patient spheres. This paper aims to contribute to research on service prototyping by augmenting the use of prototyping methods to gain an understanding of the sources and possibly types of variations in a particular service. It clarifies how prototyping a service allows people untrained in design to diagnose variations that may occur in a future service and the decision-making process in accommodating variation. Further, the knowledge gained enables improved value co-creation opportunities in a service.

  • 14.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Discovering Service Variations through Service Prototyping2017In: Design for Next: Proceedings of the 12th European Academy of Design Conference. Sapienza University of Rome, 12-14 April 2017supplement of The Design Journal / [ed] Loredana Di Lucchio, Lorenzo Imbesi, Paul Atkinson, Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group , 2017, p. S2247-S2257Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing services require embracing the variability that makes it unique. This paper investigates how the use of a service prototyping technique enables participants to explore the variations inherent in services. The video data are analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the articulated variations are abstracted as categories. The resulting categories are then mapped across the service logic framework and the corresponding provider, joint and patient spheres. This paper aims to contribute to research on service prototyping by augmenting the use of prototyping methods to gain an understanding of the sources and possibly types of variations in a particular service. It clarifies how prototyping a service allows people untrained in design to diagnose variations that may occur in a future service and the decision-making process in accommodating variation. Further, the knowledge gained enables improved value co-creation opportunities in a service.

  • 15.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evolutions of service actor roles towards future service2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realising new ways of value co-creation involves changes in the roles of actors in a service system. Role Theory and its concepts have been used in service research to articulate dynamics in service actor roles in existing value co-creation situations, but they are not applied to evaluate roles in future situations of service. Several methods exist in (service) design that can be used to describe existing roles in service systems and to suggest possible futures based on these descriptions, but describing roles in these futures in a structured way is not a part of these methods.

    Structured ways to describe service actor roles in envisioned services are thus lacking, which makes it difficult to assess the feasibility of the evolution from contemporary service actor roles towards realising services. In this paper, we suggest how Role Theory and theatre-inspired methods in design can complement one-another to fill this gap. We use interview data from the evaluation of an envisioned service scenario to show how Role Theory can be used as an analytical perspective to describe roles in this envisioned service. Finally, we suggest possible directions for future research.

  • 16.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implementation during design: Developing understanding about service realisation before implementation2017In: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6965, Vol. 20, no sup 1, p. 4409-4421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design has been mentioned as potential support in the shift from a valuein-exchange to a value-in-use perspective that is part of servitization. However, thesediscussions pay little attention to the role of design(ers) for implementing 1) thechange in perspective of the organisation and 2) specific (product) service systems,which are both required for successful servitization.We argue that implementation as a concept needs to be part of service designprocesses in order to timely articulate how to implement new services, and whatresources need to be shaped in service system(s) involved for successful value cocreation.We analyse a workshop in a technology-dominant service developmentproject and show that using a service (process) perspective and concrete cases couldbe a way to integrate conversations about implementation in the design phase of PSSand service development. For technology-dominant services specifically, this canuncover factors for successful integration of technology and service.

  • 17.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roles of in-house designers towards service implementation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study roles that in-house service designs take towards service implementation. We frame implementation from a service-dominant logic and service systems perspective as shaping service system resources (people, language, organisation technology) for resource exchange and integration (i.e. value co-creation). We analyse interviews with nine in-house service designers and show how in-house designers work with shaping the four service system resource types. We discuss implications for in-house designers and (their) managers. We reflect on using service-dominant logic and service systems as a lens for analysing in-house designers’ efforts related to service implementation. We make suggestions for future research.

  • 18.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björndal, Petra
    ABB Corporate Research; Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mapping What Actors Know When Integrating Resources: Towards a Service Information Canvas2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen and Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 544-550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though service is described as actors integrating resources to achieve values, research on perspectives on knowledge that these actors have when integrating resources has not been part of service design research. In this paper we experiment with a technique, based in a service scenario, to map what actors know as a consequence of the events in the service process. We suggest that the technique called Service Information Canvas is valuable in a service design toolbox, and give access to understanding of service processes that is not currently available through other design tools.

  • 19.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multi-service touchpoint experience: Variation at single-point of entry2016In: NordiCHI'16 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Workshop in conjunction with NordiCHI’16 conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, October 23-27, 2016, 2016, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many service organizations that run several parallel services in the same physical space often incorporate a reception on their premises. The same goes for a trend in public services, where one-stop shops are being designed, online as well as in office environments. The experience such a “portal” creates depends on how well this portal can adapt. In this instance, the reception as a portal can be seen as a touchpoint in the different services of which it is a part. In this paper we will develop an idea around such a single-point of entry for multi-service touchpoint experiences, based on the concepts of variation and adaptability. This paper introduces the concept of touchpoint containers and draws attention to the coordination across services and adaptability required by such portals.

  • 20.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multi-Touchpoint Design of Services for Troubleshooting and Repairing Trucks and Buses2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For professional transport companies, the time that a vehicle is not used for work – the downtime of a vehicle – is costly. In this paper, we introduce a research project that aims to speed up troubleshooting for trucks and buses through a combination of process improvements and development of software support. The result is a service that consists of multi-touchpoint encounters. During the project, we want to investigate how multi-touchpoint encounters can be represented, introduce the concept of implementation during the design of multi-touchpoint services and explore the consequences of the presence of multiple (non-)human actors that follow from multi-touchpoint encounters. We discuss preliminary results regarding these aspects. Thereby, we contribute with knowledge about how multi-touchpoint service encounters can be explored and how their implementation can be discussed as part of the process of designing them.

  • 21.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overkamp, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Research in the first four service design and innovation (ServDes) conferences2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 167-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we take a closer look at the papers published during the first four Service design and innovation (ServDes) conferences and sources that the authors of those papers have referenced. The analysis uses the academic search engine Scopus and the references found in the conferences’ Proceedings. In total 206 authors have contributed to the 105 research papers presented at ServDes, and 53% of all ServDes papers have been referenced at a later ServDes. ServDes authors are informed by research published mainly after 1999 (79,2%), primarily within the fields of Business, Computer Science and Engineering. We also look at what authors publish their research at ServDes and the percentage of self-referencing (27%) as well as within-conference referencing (2,4% of references) to examine the progression within the field through the research published at ServDes.

  • 22.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Design Ways to Value-In-Use2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 530-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do we mean if we say that a service design work is an example of good design? This paper presents a provisional typology for the ways in which a service design proposal can contribute to value-in-use. The typology covers instrumentality, technical excellence, usefulness, social significance, mutual advantage, collective welfare, and aesthetic values. Moral implications related to norms, power structures and tensions between stakeholders are also considered. It is argued that the typology can facilitate service designers and researchers in framing and re-framing a design effort and conceptualise a value proposition. 

  • 23.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Views on implementation and how they could be used in service design2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen and Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 205-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although service designers have proven their abilities in the fuzzy front end of service development, their skills regarding implementation have been criticised and many service designs are not implemented successfully. So far, there has been little discussion concerning service implementation in service design research and there is potential for further development of this aspect of the design of services. This paper intends to contribute to this development by presenting different views on implementation from fields that are related to service design, such as product and interaction design. These fields mostly see implementation as the delivery of generic resources and process models, whereas service implementation (also) involves development and change of the (service) organisation as well as adaptation in use of resources and service processes models. Still, if discussions on implementation in these related fields are translated to a service context, they can provide inspiration for (future research on) service implementation.

  • 24.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clatworthy, Simon
    Linköping University.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ways of seeing the design material of service2016In: Service Design Geographies. Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes a contribution to the current conceptualisation of service as a design material from three different perspectives. We use definitions of the term material, the connection with service logic and the techniques that service designers use to discuss ways to understand service from a design perspective. Service designers have tools for working with components, things, locations, actions, procedures, interactions and experiences at their disposal. Service designers work with a meta-material for the most part, which is a material representation of the services they are (re-)designing. Unlike fields where the material is worked into a finished form, the material of service design traverses between the concrete and the abstract throughout the design process.

  • 25.
    Malmberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How Design Game Results Can Be Further Developed For Public and Policy Organizations2015In: PIN-C 2015 Reframeing Design: Proceedings of the 4th Participatory Innovation Conference PIN-C 2015 / [ed] Valkenburg Rianne, Dekkers Coen, Sluijs Janneke, 2015, p. 76-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have been done to understand similarities and differences of participative and co‑creative techniques and methods. However, most studies seem to assume that results from co‑creative sessions are easily transferred into the organisations for, and with, which they were created. With a gain in interest from public and policy sectors in using design approaches to challenges in society there is a need to look into how results of these approaches are transferred.

    We study the results from a co-creative design game session to see what kind of input it gave the participants. We also examine how the results can be further developed to give more value and support further work rather than being left open-ended.

    We conclude that delivering and communicating valuable results from design games to an organization is not just a matter of handing over the direct results from the game. Our analysis shows a need for additional analysis of the results, articulating how the organization can act and take a leading role for the results to give easy utilization and valuable input.

  • 26.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jamming to Direct Technology Development: An Analysis of Two Technology Jams2015In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the European Academy of Design: The Value of Design Research / [ed] Valentine, L., Borja de Mozota, B., Nelson, J., Merter, S. and Atkinson, P, Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University, UK , 2015, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When technology is taken as the starting point for the development of new products and services, there is a risk for so-called technology-push innovations. Instead, the technology-driven perspective could be complemented with a design driven perspective (Verganti, 2009), in order to help create a better balance in desirability, feasibility and viability (Brown 2009). However, design driven innovation processes usually are time-intensive. With the development of Technology Jams we aim to speed up the design driven process, while preserving its other characteristics.. These Technology Jams are inspired on musical jams and design jams, where people from different backgrounds explore ideas together in a hands-on way. However, technology Jams take a specific technology and a target context as a starting point for ideation of new products and services. Rapid prototypes are used to give shape to these ideas in order to explore and improve them. In this paper we introduce the concept of Technology Jams. Furthermore, we describe two Technology Jams that we have organised. We discuss how their respective theme, setup and provided working material affected the process and outcome of the Technology Jams. We conclude by pointing out directions for possible future development and additional research in order to iteratively improve the concept of Technology Jams.

  • 27.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Marionette prototyping for evaluating conceptual ubicomp applications in their context2015In: PIN-C 2015. Reframing Design. Proceedings of the 4th participatory innovation conference: reframing design / [ed] Rianne Valkenburg, Coen Dekkers and Janneke Sluijs, The Hague University of Applied Science /Syddansk Univeristet , 2015, p. 462-469Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many methods for the evaluation of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) applications. These evaluations usually require an autonomous system, or use scenarios or storyboards instead.

    We suggest Marionette Prototyping as a technique for ubicomp applications that can be used early in the design process. It allows participants to use a conceptual ubicomp application in a real-world context, followed by an evaluation that covers the participants understanding, experience and attitude with regard to the application. Marionette Prototyping is inspired by puppetry, especially the styles where the manipulator is in plain view. It combines principles from cardboard prototyping and Wizard-of-Oz and uses off-the-shelf tools and technology.

    We have used Marionette Prototyping in the evaluation of a ubicomp application. This evaluation has shown that Marionette Prototyping provides input on the understanding, experience and attitude of the user with regard to the ubicomp application in question. From this first step, we can continue to develop this method as a technique for early, in context evaluation of ubicomp applications. In this, Marionette Prototyping can overcome some of the issues with current evaluation methods for ubicomp applications 

  • 28.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Service Archetypes; a Methodological Consideration2015In: ServDes 2014: Service Futures / [ed] Daniela Sangiorgi,David Hands, Emma Murphy, Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 418-422, article id 043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In practice based research, especially when working with non-research organisations, sometimes researchers face challenges related to the willingness of participants to openly share experiences outside the realms of the project. As a consequence there are methodological challenges with showing results, and working with knowledge verification. In this paper we suggest that some of these obstacles might be dealt with by using service archetypes.

  • 29.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    User Experience Qualities and the Use-Quality Prism2015In: The fuzzy front end of experience design: Workshop proceedings / [ed] Eija Kaasinen, Hannu Karvonen, Yichen Lu, Jari Varsaluoma, Heli Väätäjä, Espoo: VTT , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciding the desirable user experience qualities, i.e. UX goals, for a future product or service is important but difficult. This case study explores how a set of qualities is articulated in the concept design process. The case is a project aimed at exploring the use of smartphones to augment the childhood home of Astrid Lindgren—the children’s book author—with stories about her life and authorship. The results showed that articulated UX qualities focused the design work. It was also observed that one set of desirable qualities does not fit all phases in a project, and design consequences propagate between aspects of UX quality. 

  • 30.
    Wetter Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan för Design och Konsthantverk, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sangiorgi, Daniela
    Lancaster University.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    CTF, Karlstad universitet.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christian, Grönroos
    Hanken.
    Mattelmäki, Tuuli
    Aalto University.
    Design for value co-creation: Towards an understanding fo the synergies between design for service and service logic2014In: Journal of Service Science, ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to bridge recent work on Service Logic with practice and research in the Design for Service to explore whether and how human-centered collaborative design approaches could provide a source for interpreting existing service systems and proposing new ones and thus realize a Service Logic in organizations. A comparison is made of existing theoretical backgrounds and frameworks from Service Logic and Design for Service studies that conceptualize core concepts for value co-creation: actors, resources, resource integration, service systems, participation, context, and experience.

    We find that Service Logic provides a framework for understanding service systems in action by focusing on how actors integrate resources to co-create value for themselves and others, whereas Design for Service provides an approach and tools to explore current service systems as a context to imagine future service systems and how innovation may develop as a result of reconfigurations of resources and actors. Design for Service also provides approaches, competences, and tools that enable involved actors to participate in and be a part of the service system redesign. Design for value co-creation is presented using this model.

    The paper builds on and extends the Service Logic research first by repositioning service design from a phase of development to Design for Service as an approach to service innovation, centered on understanding and engaging with customers' own value-creating practices. Second, it builds on and extends through discussing the meaning of value co-creation and identifying and distinguishing collaborative approaches for the generation of new resource constellations. In doing so, the collaborative approaches allow for achieving value co-creation in designing.

  • 31.
    Malmberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of Approach and Anchoring When Developing Design Capacity in Public Sectors2014In: Design Management in an Era of Disruption: Proceedings of the 19th DMI: Academic Design Management Conference / [ed] Erik Bohemia, Alison Rieple, Jeanne Liedtka, Rachel Cooper, Boston, MA: Design Management Institute , 2014, p. 2617-2633Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is increasingly seen as a potential driver for innovation and growth both in commercial and public and policy sectors. However this imply design capacity utilized as a strategic resource, which as Svengren Holm points out mean focusing not only on the product, but also the process (Svengren Holm, 2011). Many studies show however that companies with little prior experience of design have a traditional view of design mainly concerning styling thus focusing only on the outcome, the product (e.g. European commission, 2010; Acklin 2011a; Ward, Runcie & Evans, 2009). With design entering into new fields such as services and public and policy sectors it becomes necessary to look further at how higher design capacity can be achieved for inexperienced organizations within these contexts as well. In a forthcoming study, which is presented and discussed here, we look at integration for design capacity in public sector organizations in regard to issues seen in a previous study (Malmberg & Holmlid, 2013).

  • 32.
    Segelström, Fabian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Usify.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ethnography by design: On goals and mediating artefacts2014In: Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, ISSN 1474-0222, E-ISSN 1741-265X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design ethnography is the appropriation of ethnography for the purposes of informing design. This paper investigates the effects of these appropriations, through a comparative study of how designers and anthropologists approach the same field site and by a review of new techniques introduced by designers to do ethnography. The techniques reviewed all apply artefacts to mediate the ethnographic process. Conducting ethnography through artefacts can be done in a number of ways and three ways are discussed here, including techniques which remove the researcher from the context of study. The implications for design ethnography of the comparative study and the introductions of artefacts to facilitate ethnographic work are discussed. The implications focus on potential methodological pitfalls of the ‘designification’ of ethnography as design ethnography matures.

  • 33.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service2014In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate and develop a service supported by an IT (information technology) system the intentionto use the future service should be in focus. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the theoryof planned behaviour (TPB) can both provide knowledge about users’ intention to use a service,making them good models to base formative decisions on. Unlike TAM, TPB is concerned withspecific information related to the service context, and provide knowledge about what makes ITuseable.We used an adapted version of the TPB as the foundation for a formative service evaluationtechnique called F-SET.We applied the F-SET to a case where two subsequent versions of a serviceprototype were evaluated. The first prototype was a description of the service supported by Hi-Fidesign sketches showing what a web-based meal planning tool could look like. The second prototypeconsisted of both service processes and the web-based meal planning tool.To find relevant factors thatinfluence future use of such a service, a survey of 28 informants was conducted with the first prototype.The second prototype involved five families who used the service for two weeks.The feedback providedby the families, based on the factors identified in the pre-test, influenced the future direction of theservice development. Feedback from the informants was distributed between the service and the ITsystem, and the most common factors that influence the intention to use the service were time, price,usefulness and availability. Feedback included both positive and negative comments, as well as bugsand suggestions for improvements.We discuss potential improvements and what kind of informationto expect from the different constructs of the TPB.

  • 34.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    One approach to understand design's value under a service logic2014In: Design Management in an Era of Disruption, Boston, MA: Design Management Institute , 2014, p. 2633-2640Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The value of design has been an issue for several decades, where design promotion agencies and national statistics agencies have tried to find ways of measuring and evaluating the contribution of design. Many of these efforts collect their basic model from a traditional view of business value as being created in a value chain. However, when approaching value creation from a service logic perspective, these views are no longer feasible outsets to understand the value of design. In recent developments of business and market logics for service, there is no value before or beyond the value-in-use. In this paper, we develop an understanding of design’s value under a service logic.

    The foundation for this understanding is developed through revisiting the productivity paradox, through the three spheres of value creation, through resource integration and through an individual perspective on value.

    The conclusion is that design’s value is hinged on its contribution to enhancing intended value creation in the joint sphere, and indirect and inferred value created for continued independent value creation.

  • 35.
    Overkamp, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Technology Jams to bring new meaning to Human- Computer Interactions2014In: NORDICHI 2014 Workshop Innovation in HCI: What Can We Learn from Design Thinking / [ed] Alma Leora Culén and Asbjørn Følstad, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo , 2014, p. 31-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce Technology Jams as a platform for exploring how novel technologies, when introduced in a specific context, can open up possibilities for radical innovations that change the relationships between people and products or services.

    The concept of Technology Jams is based on elements from design thinking and so-called Jams. The platform that Technology Jams create, aims to support cooperation as well as exchange of knowledge and ideas between people from different backgrounds. Through rapid prototyping and user involvement in evaluation, these ideas can be tested and explored. This way, Technology Jams provide a more hands-on approach for sparking radical innovation of products and/or services within the field of Human-Computer Interaction.

    We provide a detailed description of the setup of Technology Jams and present the content and outcomes of a pilot Technology Jam. Based on these results, complemented with other questions and challenges, we sketch possible ways for further development of the concept of Technology Jams.

  • 36.
    Malmberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Embedding Design Capacity in Research Driven Innovation Teams2013In: Design Driven Business Innovation: 2013 IEEE- Tsinghua International Design Management Symposiym Proceedings (English Volume) 1-2 Dec. 2013, Shenzhen, China / [ed] Cai Jun, Lockwood Thomas, Wang Chensheng, Tong Gabriel Y.L., Liu Jikun, IEEE Press, 2013, p. 236-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design has in recent years increasingly been seen as an important support for innovation, or as a mean to drive innovation. Verganti [1] argues for design as such a driver by contributing to a shift of meaning, while Kumar [3] see design as a tool to identify and cultivate value. In contemporary innovation policy, innovation is regarded to be done in innovation clusters, innovation systems, or innovation networks. This stands in contrast to the industrial perspective where its often a single innovation actor. Given that innovation is a shared and distributed practice across several different actors, more knowledge needs to be created on the role of design in innovation in these innovation systems. Over the past two years we have followed a group within a Swedish research institute, working with high technology development. During these two years the organizations has been complemented with design competence that has been embedded within a development team giving us a unique opportunity to create an understanding for how design can contribute in such settings. During this period we have seen that different mindsets e.g. in regards to what different competences focus on in the development or see as audience in projects may cause frictions in the development work. In conclusion, it becomes important to notice and handle the issues of friction and gaps that may occur between different mindsets when embedding design capacity in order for design to be able to contribute in its full capacity.

  • 37.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pezone, Giovanni
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Service Walkthrough in Astrid Lindgren's Footsteps2012In: Proceedings from ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services, The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, 8-10 February, Espoo, Finland, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 21-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can service prototypes be created and evaluated? This paper describes how methods like bodystorming and experience prototyping can be used in combination with pluralistic walkthrough in an evaluation method we call ‘service walkthrough’. We put the method to test in the development of augmented tourism services at the author Astrid Lindgren's childhood home. After initial design work, a mock-up and roleplay of a treasure hunt in the garden of the childhood home was made. It was evaluated using the service walkthrough method. The most important lesson learned was that a service walkthrough can be used to evaluate service prototypes and that it reveals information about practical as well as experiential issues for users.

  • 38.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designing for Resourcefulness in Service: Some Assumptions and Consequences2012In: Service Design with Theory: Discussions on Change, Value and Methods / [ed] Satu Miettinen, Anu Valtonen, Lapland University Press , 2012, p. 151-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on design for service has mainly concerned itself with understanding the design process. In this research paper focus will be shifted towards service performances, based on a suggested model that can work as an aid to distinguish between different stages in the service development life-cycle and in co-creation of value. In a service performance, participants will enter with resources, competence and attitudes.

    What if we view every person in the performance of a service as resourceful? What are the assumptions? How does it fit with figures of thought in service and design research? Which consequences does it bring? The analysis will be based on situated cognition and socio-cultural theories. In contrast to activity theory, theories that highlight emergent activities and participation will be used. It is shown that, design research on service research can find a good foundation in theoretical concepts such as activity theory, zone of proximal development and legitimate peripheral participation, to direct future development of the area.

  • 39.
    Segelström, Fabian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gamla Linköping christmas market in early 19th century environment in Linköping/Sweden2012In: Service Design and Tourism: Case studies of applied research projects on mobile ethnography for tourism destinations / [ed] Marc Stickdorn, Birgit Frischhut, Norderstedt: Books on Demand , 2012, p. 72-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of design has changed completely during the past. Previously, design was seen as a profession that operates in specialist areas such as graphic design, product design, and fashion design; during the last 10 years it changed its scope from ‘Design Centred Design’ to ‘User Centred Design’. As such, and building on the service-dominant logic and services marketing, service design goes beyond designing artefacts and is argued to be no longer limited to the design of tangible products only, but also designs complex and interactive service processes and ecosystems. These developments lead to the emergence of ‘service design’, a multidisciplinary and systematic approach, which can cope with the functionality and complexity of services by visualizing their systems and processes as well as by placing the client at the heart of the process.

  • 40.
    Segelström, Fabian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    One Case, Three Ethnographic Styles: Exploring different ethnographic approaches to the same broad brief2012In: EPIC 2012 Proceedings, American Anthropological Association , 2012, Vol. 2012, no 1, p. 48-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a research project aimed at suggesting improvements at an annual advent fair three different ethnographic research approaches were used; Social Anthropology, Interaction Design and Mobile Ethnography. The paper focuses on how the three different approaches on ethnography affected choices in the research process, the outcomes of the research and how the outcomes were presented. It is found that the different motivations for doing ethnography between the three approaches make their outcomes differ in a clear way. These differences make the three ethnographic approaches suitable for achieving different research outcomes.

  • 41.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Walkthroughs to Support Service Development2012In: ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services; The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, Espoo, Finland, 2012, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service design is said to be a holistic design approach. This is evident in most service design literature and textbooks but still services are prototyped by focusing on separate parts rather than whole service journeys. In this paper we propose a technique called service walkthrough that can be used to represent whole services. We explore what information can be generated using the technique and how useful it is. We found that the technique helped identify the flow of information, problematic areas, and design opportunities. The prototype was generally well received by the participants. In addition to earning about information, the technique also revealed insights about time and interdependencies of the various parts of the service. Some remarks are also made about when the service walkthrough can be used in the service development process and considerations concerning the fidelity of service walkthroughs.

  • 42.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The first case experience of designing for service2012In: ServDes.2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hazel, White
    et al.
    University of Dundee, UK.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetter Edman, Katarina
    Center for Service Research, Karlstad.
    Pacenti, Elena
    Domus Academy, Milano, Itally.
    Mager, Birgit
    Köln International School of Design, Cologne, Germany.
    What Do Tomorrow’s Service Designers Need to Know?: What should a Masters Level Service Design Curriculum look like?2012Other (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Dimanche, Frédéric
    et al.
    SKEMA Business School.
    Keup, Mady
    SKEMA Business School.
    Prayag, Girish
    SKEMA Business School.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What is service design2012In: Service Design and Tourism: Case studies of applied research projects on mobile ethnography for tourism destinations / [ed] Marc Stickdorn, Birgit Frischhut, Norderstedt: Books on Demand , 2012, p. 10-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism becomes more and more transparent through social media and tourism review websites. Nowadays, it’s the individual guest’s experience that makes or breaks the success of a tourism product. Thus, the focus in tourism shifts from mere marketing communications to meaningful experiences. Service design thinking can provide an in-depth and holistic understanding of customers required to co-create meaningful experiences with guests.The book provides an introduction into service design and tourism and presents seven case studies of European tourism destinations, which used the app myServiceFellow as a mobile ethnography research tool to gain genuine customer insights. The book reports lessons learned of these case studies, gives managerial implications and an outlook on future research fields for service design in tourism.

  • 45.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University.
    Westerlund, Bo
    Konstfack.
    Workshop: exploring participatory prototyping of services2012In: PDC '12 Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference: Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases - Volume 2, 2012, p. 151-152Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This full day workshop intends to explore approaches, methods and techniques that can be used in participatory prototyping of services. The participants will contribute with their experiences of different ways of working with participatory prototyping. During the workshop the participants will share, explore and give feedback on the method or case that they present. By engaging in other methods there will also be a learning activity. Another aim of the workshop is to initiate research and development of knowledge within the emerging field of participatory prototyping of services and product service systems. One particular interest regards the relation between details and "the whole". The emphasis of the workshop is to have creative learning experiences.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Warell, Anders
    Division of Industrial Design, Dept of Design Sciences, Lund University,.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Desirability in the development of In-Car Infotainment Systems2011In: Workshop: User Experience in Cars / [ed] David Wilfinger, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a workflow for designing experiences whileinteracting with an advanced driver assistant system. Future driver assistancesystems that utilize sensors and Car2X-communication in order to detect threatsin the car environment can help the driver to avoid collisions. To increase theacceptance of such a system, the interaction between the driver and the systemshould be able to generate positive experiences. To generate those experiences,a story-based design workflow was used. Concepts created with this workflowshould be able to address specific psychological needs of the driver. Theimplementation of this workflow revealed different schemes of positiveexperiences during driver interaction in critical situations.

  • 47.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Existing Prototyping Perspectives: Considerations for Service Design2011In: Proceedings of the Nordes’11: The 4th Nordic Design Research Conference, Making Design Matter, 29-31 May Helsinki, Finland, Helsinki, Finland: School of Art & Design, Aalto University , 2011, p. 31-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With new design disciplines that challenge the borders of design practice and inquiry comes new possibilities for prototyping techniques and approaches. The basis for such an evolution is a firm understanding of the existing knowledge generated in design and the challenges posed by new design disciplines, such as service design. This study identifies a framework of perspectives for prototyping to reveal what the existing toolbox of prototyping contains based on a literature overview. Going through published literature from the early 1980s and onward, the framework is constructed using the following perspectives; purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, and representation. These perspectives make knowledge about prototyping explicit and summarise contemporary approaches. Based on current challenges and characteristic attributes of service design the framework is then reconstructed to better cater to design for services. The conclusions are that validity and author are two perspectives that complement the existing framework, and that prototyping so far does not support a holistic approach to prototyping services.

  • 48.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating Prototyping Practices of Service Designers from a Service Logic Perspective2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of the nature of services has changed with the introduction of the service dominant logic. An important part of the logic is that services create value-in-use for customers. Customer-focused disciplines such as many design disciplines have a history of working with prototyping to understand the value-in-use. The service design discipline has a similar approach to the development of services. Based on previous research a framework of perspectives on service prototyping is presented which can be used to understand the prototyping approach utilised by designers. Then, using four of the suggested foundational premises of the service dominant logic this paper examines some of the ways prototyping can support the understanding and development of value propositions. The analysis shows that prototypes and the development and testing of them with customers and users can be seen as a tool for making sure that the value propositions offered by the companies are right, as well as exploring the customer’s role as a co-creator of value. The prototyping framework can be used to practically manifest the service-dominant logic in the development of service prototypes.

  • 49.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototype Evaluation in Service Design: A Case Study at an Emergency Ward2011In: Proceedings of 20th IASDR 2011, International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototypes based on user research are embodiments of hypotheses about how behaviour and experiences will change. The purpose of prototypes has been discussed in academic literature but in the case of service design, some of that knowledge needs to be re-examined. In Service design, one of the problems is that the impact of prototypes is complex and difficult to predict. A way to counter this dilemma is to put more focus on making the hypotheses explicit and testable. This paper presents a practical process for using designers’ hypotheses to generate survey tools for evaluating the impact of prototypes in service systems. This is also a way for designers to verbalize the purpose of service prototypes in a contextual and situated way. The tool was designed to be quick, easy, and light-weight, to suit the needs of design consultants, and it focused on measuring the experiences of a waiting room from the perspective of the visitors. The process has been applied to a project where the waiting room of an emergency ward was redesigned. The three-step process started with building up the hypothesis structure, where the designers’ assumptions and intentions were used to make a representation of the hypothesis. The next step was formulating questions, where questions that tested the hypothesis were formulated. The last step – making the questionnaire – included the selection of what information to gather and iterative testing of the questions. It was found that the designers did not have a well-defined hypothesis. The suggested process can help designers identify a contextual and situated purpose for prototypes.

  • 50.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping a Service Design Curriculum: Integrating Current Research in Teaching2011In: Touchpoint, ISSN 1868-6052, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 52-55Article, review/survey (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 97
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