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  • 1.
    Wang, Suhao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fazzi, Daniele
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Zhihua
    Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Backbone Regiochemistry on Conductivity, Charge Density, and Polaron Structure of n-Doped Donor-Acceptor Polymers2019In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 3395-3406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the influence of backbone regiochemistry on the conductivity, charge density, and polaron structure in the widely studied n-doped donor-acceptor polymer poly[N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5-(2,2-bithiophene) [P-(NDI2OD-T2)]. In contrast to classic semicrystalline polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the regioirregular (RI) structure of the naphthalenediimide (NDI)-bithiophene (T2) backbone does not alter the intramolecular steric demand of the chain versus the regioregular (RR) polymer, yielding RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) with similar energetics and optical features as its RR counterpart. By combining the electrical, UV-vis/infrared, X-ray diffraction, and electron paramagnetic resonance data and density functional theory calculations, we quantitatively characterized the conductivity, aggregation, crystallinity, and charge density, and simulated the polaron structures, molecular vibrations, and spin density distribution of RR-/RI-P(NDI2OD-T2). Importantly, we observed that RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) can be doped to a greater extent compared to its RR counterpart. This finding is remarkable and contrasts benchmark P3HT, allowing us to uniquely study the role of regiochemistry on the charge-transport properties of n-doped donor-acceptor polymers.

  • 2.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Emerging efficient charge-transport landscape based on short-range order in conjugated polymers2019In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 251, p. 16p. 104-119Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The booming of classic semicrystalline polymers has led to the assumption and thus design guidelines that long-range order is a prerequisite to endow conjugated polymers with high charge carrier mobility. Consequently, tremendous research effort has been devoted to increasing the crystallinity of conjugated polymers, as a principal strategy to improve the solid-state long-range charge-transport properties. Indeed, noticeable progress in the polymer performance has been witnessed. However, only a limited level of crystallinity can be achieved due to the inherently disordered nature of the polymer chains, resulting in the bottlenecks of the charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymers. Encouragingly, the recent reports of substantially disordered, high-performance conjugated polymers have opened a new route for achieving efficient charge transport, and lead to new waves of progress in the field of organic electronics. The universal observation of short-range order (in the form of aggregation) in the emerging class of poorly ordered conjugated polymers seems to suggest that local order is sufficient for efficient charge transport, and that extended long-range crystallinity is not essential. This review discusses the molecular origin of the high mobilities observed in the state-of-the-art low-crystalline conjugated polymers, especially highlighting the crucial role of short-range order.

  • 3.
    Wang, Suhao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erdmann, Tim
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany; Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA; IBM Almaden Res Ctr, CA 95120 USA.
    Wang, Gang
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Fazzi, Daniele
    Max Planck Inst Kohlenforsch, Germany; Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Lappan, Uwe
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Zhihua
    Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kiriy, Anton
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Voit, Brigitte
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Marks, Tobin J.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    A Chemically Doped Naphthalenediimide-Bithiazole Polymer for n-Type Organic Thermoelectrics2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 31, article id 1801898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of a novel naphthalenediimide (NDI)-bithiazole (Tz2)-based polymer [P(NDI2OD-Tz2)] is reported, and structural, thin-film morphological, as well as charge transport and thermoelectric properties are compared to the parent and widely investigated NDI-bithiophene (T2) polymer [P(NDI2OD-T2)]. Since the steric repulsions in Tz2 are far lower than in T2, P(NDI2OD-Tz2) exhibits a more planar and rigid backbone, enhancing p-p chain stacking and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the electron-deficient nature of Tz2 enhances the polymer electron affinity, thus reducing the polymer donor-acceptor character. When n-doped with amines, P(NDI2OD-Tz2) achieves electrical conductivity (approximate to 0.1 S cm(-1)) and a power factor (1.5 mu W m(-1) K-2) far greater than those of P(NDI2OD-T2) (0.003 S cm(-1) and 0.012 mu W m(-1) K-2, respectively). These results demonstrate that planarized NDI-based polymers with reduced donor-acceptor character can achieve substantial electrical conductivity and thermoelectric response.

  • 4.
    Sun, Hengda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Complementary Logic Circuits Based on High-Performance n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistors2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 9, article id 1704916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been the subject of intense research in recent years. To date, however, most of the reported OECTs rely entirely on p-type (hole transport) operation, while electron transporting (n-type) OECTs are rare. The combination of efficient and stable p-type and n-type OECTs would allow for the development of complementary circuits, dramatically advancing the sophistication of OECT-based technologies. Poor stability in air and aqueous electrolyte media, low electron mobility, and/or a lack of electrochemical reversibility, of available high-electron affinity conjugated polymers, has made the development of n-type OECTs troublesome. Here, it is shown that ladder-type polymers such as poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) can successfully work as stable and efficient n-channel material for OECTs. These devices can be easily fabricated by means of facile spray-coating techniques. BBL-based OECTs show high transconductance (up to 9.7 mS) and excellent stability in ambient and aqueous media. It is demonstrated that BBL-based n-type OECTs can be successfully integrated with p-type OECTs to form electrochemical complementary inverters. The latter show high gains and large worst-case noise margin at a supply voltage below 0.6 V.

  • 5.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films2017In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 814-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been reported as a successful functional material in a broad variety of applications. One of the most important advantages of PEDOT:PSS is its water-solubility, which enables simple and environmental friendly manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, this also implies that pristine PEDOT:PSS films are unsuitable for applications in aqueous environments. To reach stability in polar solvents, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) is typically used to cross-link PEDOT:PSS. Although this strategy is widely used, its mechanism and effect on PEDOT:PSS performance have not been articulated yet. Here, we present a broad study that provides a better understanding of the effect of GOPS on the electrical and electronic properties of PEDOT:PSS. We show that the GOPS reacts with the sulfonic acid group of the excess PSS, causing a change in the PEDOT:PSS film morphology, while the oxidation level of PEDOT remains unaffected. This is at the origin of the observed conductivity changes. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 6.
    James, David Ian
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Hedstrom, Svante
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Meng, Xiangyi
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Persson, Petter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden; University of S Australia, Australia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    High-Performance Hole Transport and Quasi-Balanced Ambipolar OFETs Based on D-A-A Thieno-benzo-isoindigo Polymers2016In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1500313-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new conjugated polymers are synthesized based on a novel donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) design strategy with the intention of attaining lower lowest unoccupied molecular obital levels compared to the normally used D-A strategy. By coupling two thieno-benzo-isoindigo units together via the phenyl position to give a new symmetric benzene-coupled di-thieno-benzo-isoindigo (BdiTBI) monomer as an A-A acceptor and thiophene (T) or bithiophene (2T) as a donor, two new polymers PT-BdiTBI and P2T-BdiTBI are synthesized via Stille coupling. The two polymers are tested in top gate and top contact field effect transistors, which exhibit balanced ambipolar charge transport properties with poly(methyl methacrylate) as dielectric and a high hole mobility up to 1.1 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) with poly(trifluoroethylene) as dielectric. The polymer films are investigated using atomic force microscopy, which shows fibrous features due to their high crystallinity as indicated by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data on the energy levels. It is demonstrated that the D-A-A strategy is very effective for designing low band gap polymers for organic electronic applications.

  • 7.
    Wang, Suhao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark Department of Energy Conversion and Storage Roskilde Denmark.
    Thiel, Walter
    Max‐Planck‐Institut für Kohlenforschung Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fazzi, Daniele
    Max‐Planck‐Institut für Kohlenforschung Mülheim an der Ruhr Germany.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Solution-Processed n-Doped Ladder-Type Conducting Polymers2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 48, p. 10764-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ladder-type “torsion-free” conducting polymers (e.g., polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL)) can outperform “structurally distorted” donor–acceptor polymers (e.g., P(NDI2OD-T2)), in terms of conductivity and thermoelectric power factor. The polaron delocalization length is larger in BBL than in P(NDI2OD-T2), resulting in a higher measured polaron mobility. Structure–function relationships are drawn, setting material-design guidelines for the next generation of conducting thermoelectric polymers.

  • 8.
    Wang, Suhao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Puzinas, Skomantas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Experimental evidence that short-range intermolecular aggregation is sufficient for efficient charge transport in conjugated polymers2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 34, p. 10599-10604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency, current throughput, and speed of electronic devices are to a great extent dictated by charge carrier mobility. The classic approach to impart high carrier mobility to polymeric semiconductors has often relied on the assumption that extensive order and crystallinity are needed. Recently, however, this assumption has been challenged, because high mobility has been reported for semiconducting polymers that exhibit a surprisingly low degree of order. Here, we show that semiconducting polymers can be confined into weakly ordered fibers within an inert polymer matrix without affecting their charge transport properties. In these conditions, the semiconducting polymer chains are inhibited from attaining long-range order in the p-stacking or alkyl-stacking directions, as demonstrated from the absence of significant X-ray diffraction intensity corresponding to these crystallographic directions, yet still remain extended along the backbone direction and aggregate on a local length scale. As a result, the polymer films maintain high mobility even at very low concentrations. Our findings provide a simple picture that clarifies the role of local order and connectivity of domains.

  • 9.
    Qian, Deping
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Liu, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Zaifei, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zou, Yingping
    Central S University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulating molecular aggregation by facile heteroatom substitution of diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules for efficient organic solar cells2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 48, p. 24349-24357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjugated polymers and small molecules of organic solar cells, aggregation induced by intermolecular interactions governs the performance of photovoltaics. However, little attention has been paid to the connection between molecular structure and aggregation within solar cells based on soluble small molecules. Here we demonstrate modulation of intermolecular aggregation of two synthesized molecules through heteroatom substitution to develop an understanding of the role of aggregation in conjugated molecules. Molecule 1 (M1) based on 2-ethylhexyloxy-benzene substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene (BDTP) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) displays strong aggregation in commonly used organic solvents, which is reduced in molecule 2 (M2) by facile oxygen atom substitution on the BDTP unit confirmed by absorption spectroscopy and optical microscopy, while it successfully maintains molecular planarity and favorable charge transport characteristics. Solar cells based on M2 exhibit more than double the photocurrent of devices based on M1 and yield a power conversion efficiency of 5.5%. A systematic investigation of molecular conformation, optoelectronic properties, molecular packing and crystallinity as well as film morphology reveals structure dependent aggregation responsible for the performance difference between the two conjugated molecules.

  • 10.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden; S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Daojuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Hedstrom, Svante
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ian James, David
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Persson, Petter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Fei
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    One-Step Synthesis of Precursor Oligomers for Organic Photovoltaics: A Comparative Study between Polymers and Small Molecules2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 49, p. 27106-27114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of oligomers TQ and rhodanine end-capped TQ-DR were synthesized using a facile one-step method. Their optical, electrical, and thermal properties and photovoltaic performances were systematically investigated and compared. The TQ series of oligomers were found to be amorphous, whereas the TQ-DR series are semicrystalline. For the TQ oligomers, the results obtained in solar cells show that as the chain length of the oligomers increases, an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) is obtained. However, when introducing 3-ethylrhodanine into the TQ oligomers as end groups, the PCE of the TQ-DR series of oligomers decreases as the chain length increases. Moreover, the TQ-DR series of oligomers give much higher performances compared to the original amorphous TQ series of oligomers owing to the improved extinction coefficient (epsilon) and crystallinity afforded by the rhodanine. In particular, the highly crystalline oligomer TQ5-DR, which has the shortest conjugation length shows a high hole mobility of 0.034 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and a high PCE of 3.14%, which is the highest efficiency out of all of the six oligomers. The structure-property correlations for all of the oligomers and the TQ1 polymer demonstrate that structural control of enhanced intermolecular interactions and crystallinity is a key for small molecules/oligomers to achieve high mobilities, which is an essential requirement for use in OPVs.

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