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  • 1.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Blair, Kristen
    Stanford University, USA.
    Cutumisu, Maria
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden.
    Assessment of students’ feedback behavior in agame-based automated feedback system: A cross-cultural replication study2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Computers in Education / [ed] Sridhar Iyer, Ju-Ling Shih, Weiqin Chen, Mas Nida MD Khambari, Mouna Denden, Rwitajit Majumbar, Liliana Cuesta Medina, Shitanshu Mishra, Sahana Murthy, Patcharin Panjaburee, Daner Sun, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2022, s. 292-301Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue for the importance of conducting replication studies over various schools and countries when addressing topics about learning and instruction and propose educational technology to be a tool for this endeavor. We present an example of a cross-cultural replication study that makes use of educational technology in the form of a digital game-based automated feedback system. The study addresses feedback related behavior in 11-15-year-old students in US and Swedish classrooms, investigating students' choices to seek confirmatory (i.e., positive) or critical (i.e., negative) feedback, as well as their subsequent choices to revise their work based on this feedback. Comparisons of the data collected at several schools in the US and Sweden showed similar patterns of relationships among students' feedback-seeking behavior, their tendency to revise their work, and their learning outcomes in and outside the assessment environment. Overall, the findings revealed that this assessment approach seems to be generalizable from a North American to a European population. However, the findings showed both a significant difference between Sweden and the US regarding the preference for critical feedback and between different schools within each country. Thus, it is possible that the difference between countries reflects school differences rather than cultural differences.

  • 2.
    Tarning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Ternblad, Eva-Maria
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Nirme, Jens
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Lessons Learned from a Study on Distractions in Virtual Learning Environments: Reliability, Ecological Validity, and an Elusive Social Component2022Ingår i: Presence - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, ISSN 1054-7460, E-ISSN 1531-3263, Vol. 28, s. 65-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality has long been proposed to combine the reliability of controlled laboratory settings with the ecological validity of real life. While the technological development steadily pushes towards even more realistic renderings of the real world-the elusiveness of social and emotional elements gradually becomes more evident. This is not the least true for behavioral studies in rich sociocultural contexts. This article examines the outcomes of a study on distractions, taking place in a socially rich context-the classroom. The study made use of a Virtual Reality environment simulating a junior high school lesson, where the Distraction condition consisted of peers watching nonrelevant content on their laptops. In the control condition these laptops were closed. No significant distraction effects were found, neither on learning nor behavior. Given the strong support in the literature for such effects, the study design, including technical aspects, is scrutinized and discussed. We specifically highlight the difficulty of simulating a social relationship between the participant and agents in VR, which in this case makes the distraction stimulus significantly weaker. It is argued that the distraction effect of nearby peers laptop use relies (partly) on shared attention with social agents with an established social relation and common interests.

  • 3.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lunds universitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Betydelsen av kritiskkonstruktiv återkoppling för elevers lärande: ett learning science-perspektiv2021Ingår i: Vetenskapsteori och forskningsmetoder i utbildningsvetenskap / [ed] Thomas Nygren, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2021, Vol. Sidorna 266-295, s. 266-295Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta kapitel är att belysa det mångvetenskapliga forskningsfältet learning science. Utifrån en konkret studie försöker vi illustrera den centrala roll som forskningsfrågorna har samt hur fältet förhåller sig till metoder, teorier och kunskapsanspråk.

  • 4.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wolf, Rachel
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Blair, Kristen Pilner
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    How teachable agents influence students responses to critical constructive feedback2021Ingår i: Journal of Research on Technology in Education, ISSN 1539-1523, E-ISSN 1945-0818, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 67-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Does a teachable agent influence the uptake or neglect of critical constructive feedback and learning within a digital environment? 285 middle-school students engaged with a history learning game in a 2x2 study design. One dimension was inclusion of a teachable agent. Orthogonal was whether critical constructive feedback was presented automatically or only when students chose. Analyses showed that a teachable agent positively affected students responses to feedback and mitigated feedback neglect; the results were especially strong for lower-achieving students. Additionally, presence of a teachable agent improved post-test performance for students overall, and this effect was mediated by lower feedback neglect.

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  • 5.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frankenberg, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Early Math in a Preschool Context: Spontaneous Extension of the Digital into the Physical2020Ingår i: IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 1826-9745, E-ISSN 2283-2998, IxD&A – Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal, nr 44, s. 129-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a systematic examination of data from two early math interventions, involving 188 children aged 3,5-6,5 and their teachers. The aim is to cast light on how a digital early math game can be spontaneously extended into the physical environment by children and by teachers. Questions were: i) how the math content was extended to the physical room, ii) which elements of the game and the interventions inspired and provided affordances for the extensions iii) implications for children’s learning of early math. The analyses revealed a great variety of ways in which children and teachers – acting on their own or together – brought the game out to the physical room. Among the underlying factors for this were everyone’s experiences with the game, familiar narratives, and simple game design in terms of rules and visual features. Finally, positive influences on early math learning from the extensions were identified.

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  • 6.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lee, Yeon
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristian
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Entering the black box of feedback neglect in a digital educational game for elementary school students2020Ingår i: The Journal of the learning sciences, ISSN 1050-8406, E-ISSN 1532-7809, Vol. 29, nr 4-5, s. 511-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous research shows that critical constructive feedback, that scaffolds students to improve on tasks, often remains untapped. The paper’s aim is to illuminate at what stages students provided with such feedback drop out of feedback processing.

    Methods

    In our model, students can drop out at any of five stages of feedback processing: (1) noticing, (2) decoding, (3) making sense, (4) acting upon, and (5) using feedback to make progress. Eye-tracking was used to measure noticing and decoding of feedback. Behavioral data-logging tracked students’ use of feedback and potential progress. Three feedback signaling conditions were experimentally compared: a pedagogical agent, an animated arrow, and no signaling (control condition).

    Findings

    Students dropped out at each stage and few made it past the final stage. The agent condition led to significantly less feedback neglect at the two first stages, suggesting that students who are not initially inclined to notice and read feedback text can be influenced into doing so.

    Contribution

    The study provides a model and method to build more fine-grained knowledge of students’ (non)processing of feedback. More knowledge on at what stages students drop out and why can inform methods to counteract drop out and scaffold more productive and fruitful responses.

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  • 7.
    Nirme, Jens
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University , Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University , Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Motion capture-based animated characters for the study of speech–gesture integration2020Ingår i: Behavior Research Methods, ISSN 1554-3528, Vol. 52, s. 1339-1354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitally animated characters are promising tools in research studying how we integrate information from speech and visual sources such as gestures because they allow specific gesture features to be manipulated in isolation. We present an approach combining motion capture and 3D-animated characters that allows us to manipulate natural individual gesture strokes for experimental purposes, for example to temporally shift and present gestures in ecologically valid sequences. We exemplify how such stimuli can be used in an experiment investigating implicit detection of speech–gesture (a) synchrony, and discuss the general applicability of the workflow for research in this domain.

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  • 8.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Londos, Ludvig
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Preschoolers’ Understanding of a Teachable Agent-Based Game in Early Mathematics as Reflected in their Gaze Behaviors – an Experimental Study2020Ingår i: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, ISSN 1560-4292, E-ISSN 1560-4306, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 38-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how preschool children processed and understood critical information in Magical Garden, a teachable agent-based play-&-learn game targeting early math. We analyzed 36 children’s (ages 4–6 years) real-time behavior during game-use to explore whether children: (i) processed the information meant to support number sense development; (ii) showed an understanding of the teachable agent as an entity with agency. An important methodological goal was to go beyond observable behavior and shed some light on how cognitive processing and understanding in children of such young age can be studied. First, the children played Magical Garden for three weeks to get acquainted with the game. Second, in an experimental part of the study, the children’s gaze behaviors were measured during 5 rounds of interaction with an experimental version of one of the sub-games. The analyses suggest that two of the gaze behaviors were positively correlated with the game performance measure, as hypothesized. Another result was that children looked at the teachable agent significantly more often when the teachable agent had been in charge of gameplay than when it had not. This can be interpreted as an indication that the children had an understanding of their teachable agent as an entity that, like themselves and unlike other dynamic visual elements in the game, made decisions based on own ‘knowledge’. In a broader context, the findings are important in showing the potential gains of combining log data with eye-tracking data for developing and refining AI algorithms for adaptive individual feedback and scaffolding.

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  • 9.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Flycht-Eriksson (Silvervarg), Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Instructing a teachable agent with low or high self-efficacy – does similarity attract?2019Ingår i: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, ISSN 1560-4292, E-ISSN 1560-4306, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 89-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of teachable agents’ expressed self-efficacy on students. A total of 166 students, 10- to 11-years-old, used a teachable agent-based math game focusing on the base-ten number system. By means of data logging and questionnaires, the study compared the effects of high vs. low agent self-efficacy on the students’ in-game performance, their own math self-efficacy, and their attitude towards their agent. The study further explored the effects of matching vs. mismatching between student and agent with respect to self-efficacy. Overall, students who interacted with an agent with low self-efficacy performed better than students interacting with an agent with high self-efficacy. This was especially apparent for students who had reported low self-efficacy themselves, who performed on par with students with high self-efficacy when interacting with a digital tutee with low self-efficacy. Furthermore, students with low self-efficacy significantly increased their self-efficacy in the matched condition, i.e. when instructing a teachable agent with low self-efficacy. They also increased their self-efficacy when instructing a teachable agent with high self-efficacy, but to a smaller extent and not significantly. For students with high self-efficacy, a potential corresponding effect on a self-efficacy change due to matching may be hidden behind a ceiling effect. As a preliminary conclusion, on the basis of the results of this study, we propose that teachable agents should preferably be designed to have low self-efficacy.

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  • 10.
    Ternblad, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Erik
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Do Preschoolers ‘Game the System’? A Case Study of Children’s Intelligent (Mis)Use of a Teachable Agent Based Play-&-Learn Game in Mathematics2018Ingår i: Artificial intelligence in education, 2018 / [ed] Hoppe, U., Rosé, C., & Martinez, R., Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10947, s. 557-569Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For learning to take place in digital learning environments, learners need to use educational software – more or less – as intended. However, previous studies show that some school children, instead of trying to learn and master a skill, choose to systematically exploit or outsmart the system to gain progress. But what about preschoolers? The present study explores the presence of this kind of behavioral patterns among preschoolers who use a teachable agent-based play-&-learn game in early math. We analyzed behavioral data logs together with interviews and observations. We also analyzed action patterns deviating from the pedagogical design intentions in terms of non-harmful gaming, harmful gaming, and wheel-spinning. Our results reveal that even if pedagogically not intended use of the game did occur, harmful gaming was rare. Interestingly, the results also indicate an unexpected awareness in children of what it means to learn and to teach. Finally, we present a series of possible adjustments of the used software in order to decrease gaming-like behavior or strategies that signalize insufficient skills or poor learning.

  • 11.
    Flycht-Eriksson (Silvervarg), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Haake, Magnus
    Division of Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Perseverance is crucial for learning. “OK! But can I take a break?"2018Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education 19th International Conference, AIED 2018, London, UK, June 27–30, 2018, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Carolyn Penstein Rosé, Roberto Martínez-Maldonado, H. Ulrich Hoppe, Rose Luckin, Manolis Mavrikis, Kaska Porayska-Pomsta, Bruce McLaren and Benedict du Boulay, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, Vol. 10947, s. 532-544Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study with 108 10- to 12-year-olds who used a digital educational game targeting history, we addressed the phenomenon of perseverance, that is, the tendency to stick with a task even when it is challenging. The educational game was designed to make all students encounter tasks they did not succeed to solve, at which point they were offered a set of choices corresponding to perseverance and non-perseverance. Methods used were behavioral log data, post-questionnaires, and an in-game questionnaire conducted by a game character, who asked the students about the reason for their choice. Overall, we found no differences between high and low-perseverance students as to their experiences of effort, difficulty, and learning, and neither in their self-reported motives for persevering – when doing so. With respect to performance, however, high-persevering students solved significantly more tasks at higher difficulty levels. Comparing high-perseverance students who tended to take a break directly after a failed test – before they continued with the same task – with those who did not take a break, we found no significant differences, indicating that taking a break is not detrimental to learning and perseverance.

  • 12.
    Ternblad, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Visualizing knowledge in the era of instructional software and gamification: Challenges in design, method and practical use2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2018), 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines behavioral and metacognitive effects of visualizing acquired knowledge in instructional software. This was done by letting 117 Swedish primary school students use two varieties of an educational game – one with and one without a tool where tokens with knowledge related content were received as proofs of achievement. Although no significant positive impact of the tool was found, the study reveals interesting findings regarding the challenges of visualizing knowledge in learning applications.

  • 13.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Young Children’s Experience and Preference of Feedback – Sense and Sensibility2018Ingår i: IxD&A: Interaction Design and Architecture(s), ISSN 1826-9745, E-ISSN 2283-2998, IxD&A – Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal, nr 37, s. 206-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the effects of adding visual continuous feedback in the form of feedback bars to a teachable-agent based learning game in mathematics. Forty-five (45) children, 8- to 12-years-old, from three Swedish school classes used the game during four math lessons. The focus was on how feedback to the students regarding their teachable agents learning progression – and different detailedness of such feedback – affects how the students (in a teacher role) experience the learning game. The results suggest that students were positive towards receiving immediate and continuous feedback, but their preferences with respect to the detailedness of the feedback differed according to their age. We found a divergence as to the preferred number of bars, where the 3rd and 5th graders preferred 1 or 3 bars but where the 2nd graders preferred the more detailed version (6 bars) despite their lack of understanding of what the different bars represented.

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  • 14.
    Wallin, Johan
    et al.
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Hafsteinsdottir, Elin
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Bergman, Eva
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Helenius, Ola
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, Göteborgs universitet.
    Jahnke, Anette
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Digitala lärresurser I matematikundervisningen, delrapport förskola: Systematisk översikt vid Skolforskningsinstitutet, 2017 (Vol. 2)2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Wallin, Johan
    et al.
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Hafsteinsdottir, Elin
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap, Historia, Karstad University.
    Bergman, Eva
    Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap, Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper, Biologi, Karlstad University.
    Bergman, Maria
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Fundell, Sara
    Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Helenius, Ola
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, Göteborgs universitet.
    Jahnke, Anette
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, Göteborgs universitet.
    Digitala lärresurser I matematikundervisningen, delrapport skola: Systematisk översikt 2017:022017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna systematiska översikt sammanställer forskning om digitala lärresurser för att ut­veckla barns och elevers kunskaper i matematik. Forskningen spänner över förskolan till och med gymnasieskolan och anknyter specifikt till matematikundervisningen. I denna rapport redovisas översiktens resultat för grund-och gymnasieskolan.

    De digitala lärresurser som studeras erbjuder alla en interaktivitet. Det betyder att eleverna är aktiva i relation till lärresursen i själva undervisningssituationen.

    De frågor som besvaras i rapporten är:

    • Vilka effekter har matematikundervisning med digitala lärresurser på elevers kunskaper i matematik?
    • Vad kan förklara om en matematikundervisning med digitala lärre- surser har effekt eller inte på elevers kunskaper i matematik?

    Översikten har sin bakgrund bland annat i lärares frågor om huruvida undervisning med hjälp av digitala lärresurser kan påverka elevers kunskapsutveckling.

    Digitala lärresurser i grund- och gymnasieskolan

    Det vetenskapliga underlaget består av 75 studier. Endast två studier är gjorda i Sverige, men alla studier berör ett matematikinnehåll som är relevant för den svenska skolan. Upp till och med årskurs 6 dominerar digitala lärresurser med fokus på området tal och taluppfattning, men det finns studier som behandlar annat innehåll, till exempel algebra eller geometri. I högre årskurser är det vanligaste innehållet algebra samt samband och förändring.

    När det gäller matematiska förmågor är det många digitala lärresurser som fokuserar på begrepps-och proceduranvändning, men även bland dem kan ofta också aktiviteter som involverar andra förmågor adresseras, såsom problemlösnings-och resonemangsförmåga.

    Vi har kunnat identifiera fem olika huvudkategorier av digitala lärresurser för matematikundervisning i grund-och gymnasieskolan:

    • Uppgifter: lärresurser som levererar matematikuppgifter tillsammans med vägledning eller individanpassning. Uppgifterna och vägledningen regleras i många fall utifrån hur användaren presterar.
    • Objekt: lärresurser med vilka matematik och matematiska objekt, till exempel geometriska former, kan representeras genom att utnyttja det digitala mediet.
    • Spel: lärresurser som utnyttjar spelmekanismer såsom uppdrag, utmaningar, belöningar och tävlingsmoment för att förmedla ett ämnesinnehåll. Spel
    • karaktäriseras ofta av lekfullt utforskande inom ramen för en berättelse.
    • ––Verktyg: lärresurser som har tagits fram i ett annat syfte än för att bedriva undervisning, men som kan användas i matematikundervisningssammanhang, till exempel ett kalkyl-eller grafritande program.
    • ––Kurspaket: lärresurser av ett mer omfattande slag som kan innehålla flera funktioner och beröra många matematikområden. Ofta är kurspaketen tänkta att användas som ett komplement under en längre tid, till exempel under en hel årskurs. I vissa fall handlar det om undervisningspaket som består av olika kombinationer av digitala lärresurser och tryckt material samt lektionsupplägg, lärarhandlingar och kompetensutveckling för lärarna.

    Kategorierna är inte exakta och det finns överlapp mellan dem. Vid kategoriseringen strävade vi efter att hitta en huvudmekanism för lärresursen i fråga.

    Undervisning med digitala lärresurser kan ha positiva effekter

    Genomgången visar tydligt att det går att konstruera digitala lärresurser som kan använ­das för att utveckla många olika matematiska förmågor, i synnerhet om de används i en i övrigt rik undervisningsmiljö. Men det går inte att dra slutsatsen att en lika effektiv undervisning inte skulle kunna utformas på andra sätt, utan digitala lärresurser.

    Gynnsamt med ett tydligt fokus på tröskelbegrepp

    Det är positivt för elevers kunskapsutveckling om undervisning med digitala lärresurser har ett avgränsat matematikinnehåll som eleverna kan arbeta med på ett fokuserat sätt. En stor del av forskningen behandlar sådana arbetssätt och det finns flera tänkba­ra skäl till att de i många fall ger goda resultat. Dels kan det vara lättare att konstruera bra digitala lärresurser om man begränsar sig till ett mindre omfattande matematikin­nehåll, dels kan det vara lättare för både lärare och elever att lära sig att använda den sortens lärresurser. Genomgången tyder vidare på att det av forskningstekniska skäl är lättare att uppnå tydliga effekter vid den här sortens upplägg.

    När ett relativt smalt matematikinnehåll behandlas är det i allmänhet valt på ett genomtänkt sätt, exempelvis kan det handla om steg i matematikutvecklingen som är vedertaget problematiska. Ofta talar man om så kallade tröskelbegrepp – matematiska begrepp som eleverna behöver förstå för att kunna utvecklas vidare inom ett område. Exempel på tröskelbegrepp som berörs i underlaget är bråk och funktioner.

    Varierade sätt att uppleva, erfara och kommunicera matematik

    Det förefaller vara positivt för elevers kunskapsutveckling om de digitala lärresurser­na möjliggör att eleverna kan uppleva och urskilja matematiska begrepp och proces­ser visuellt och dynamiskt. Det kan exempelvis uppnås genom att använda digitala geometriska objekt för att ge elever rika och varierade upplevelser av geometriska egenskaper. Det verkar vidare vara bra om lärresurserna är konstruerade på ett sätt som uppmuntrar till att elever samtalar om matematikupplevelserna med varandra och med lärare. Det kan åstadkommas såväl med digitala lärresurser för samarbetsin­riktade arbetssätt som med digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete.

    Med undantag för kurspaket kan de flesta typer av digitala lärresurser fungera bra

    Digitala kurspaket har i allmänhet studerats i stora elevgrupper under lång tid, till exem­pel en hel årskurs. Man kan säga att dessa studier utgör en slags motpol till studier med ett avgränsat matematikinnehåll. Även resultatmässigt är kontrasten stor; kurspaketen tycks i de allra flesta fall inte innebära några betydelsefulla vinster för kunskapsutveck­lingen. Möjligen är kurspaketens enskilda delar inte lika bra som lärresurser med ett mer avgränsat ämnesinnehåll, eller så innefattar de både gynnsamma och ogynnsamma enskilda delar som medför att effekterna tar ut varandra.

    En nackdel med studierna av digitala kurspaket är att det kan vara svårt att säker­ställa i vilken utsträckning lärresurserna verkligen har använts så som det var tänkt. Samtidigt är det en fördel att studierna avspeglar vad som kan förväntas när omfattande digitala lärresurser används under lång tid i stora grupper. En tänkbar bidragande förklaring till att kurspaketen vanligen innebär små vinster – om några – är att det kan vara en större utmaning att förändra matematikundervisningen så att den generellt tar stöd i digitala lärresurser.

    Med undantag för kurspaketen har vi inte funnit stöd för att någon kategori av digitala lärresurser sticker ut när det gäller effekter på elevers matematikkunskaper. Det går att nå goda resultat med såväl uppgifter och objekt som spel och verktyg. Digitala verktyg har dock undersökts i endast två studier, båda på gymnasienivå. Det är i sig ett viktigt resultat att så få studier behandlar digitala verktyg i matematikunder­visningen.

    Lärarens roll och arbete är centralt

    Lärarens roll och arbete kan skilja sig beroende på utformningen av och syftet med en viss digital lärresurs. Medan vissa lärresurser är tänkta att i huvudsak erbjuda eleverna självständiga matematikaktiviteter, förutsätter andra att läraren själv hanterar den digitala lärresursen. Genomgången visar att det går att nå bra effekter på elevernas matematikkunskaper i båda fallen.

    Digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete kan vara ett kompletterande stöd i un­dervisningen och på så sätt möjliggöra att lärare kan ägna mer tid och kraft åt andra aspekter av undervisningen. Det gör att resultatet blir mer beroende av lärresursen i sig, snarare än på interaktionen med övrig undervisning. Om lärresurserna erbju­der individanpassad vägledning kan det skapa särskilt goda förutsättningar för elevernas kunskapsutveckling. Men även när digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete används verkar det vara särskilt gynnsamt om de används på ett integrerat sätt till­sammans med annan undervisning. Det är helt jämförbart med hur andra resurser för lärande i allmänhet kan användas. Exempelvis kan en digital lärresurs användas för att ge eleverna vissa typer av erfarenheter som sedan också behandlas inom den lärarledda undervisningen. Digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete är vanligare i årskurser till och med mellanstadiet.

    Arbetssätt med digitala lärresurser som innebär en hög grad av aktiv lärarmedver­kan eller som är tekniskt komplexa kräver oftast att lärarna först får möjlighet att utbilda sig i hur lärresurserna fungerar och vad som kan göras med stöd av dem. I dessa fall behöver man beakta länken mellan lärresurserna, undervisningens upplägg i övrigt och innehållet i kompetensutvecklingen. Det är tänkbart att de digitala lärresurser som i sig kräver en högre lärarinvolvering också ger bra förutsättningar för att skapa en sådan länkning. Samtidigt krävs då också mer av läraren. För den här sortens lärresurser blir det avgörande för resultatet vad läraren själv väljer att göra med lärresurserna tillsam­mans med sina elever.

    Urval av forskning

    Av nära 10 000 publikationer som identifierades i litteratursökningen har vi gått igenom drygt 700 studier i fulltext. Av dessa bedömdes totalt 85 studier kunna bidra till att besvara den systematiska översiktens frågor, varav 75 avser grund-och gymnasieskolan och 10 avser förskolan. I denna rapport redovisas resultaten från de 75 studier som avser grund-och gymnasieskolan.

    Alla studierna är kontrollerade experiment, vilket innebär att forskarna har jäm­fört två eller flera undervisningsinsatser med varandra. Alla studier mäter också i vilken grad elevers kunskaper i matematik påverkas av undervisningen. Undervisnin­gen med digitala lärresurser som har undersökts är i alla studier upplagd på ett sätt som syftar till att passa förskole-eller skolmatematiken. Det betyder bland annat att undervisningen behandlar matematikinnehåll som valts på ett medvetet sätt i relation till en viss målgrupp.

    De allra flesta digitala lärresurser som har studerats finns inte på svenska. Flertalet är inte heller öppet tillgängliga. Även om detta medför att lärresurserna oftast inte kan användas direkt i ett svenskt sammanhang ger översikten kunskap om hur digitala lärre­surser kan se ut till innehåll och funktion samt hur de kan användas i undervisningen för att ge effekter på kunskapsutvecklingen i matematik.

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    Digitala lärresurser I matematikundervisningen, delrapport skola: Systematisk översikt 2017:02
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  • 16.
    Lindberg, Markus
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristian
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Birger
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Does a Robot Tutee Increase Children’s Engagement in a Learning-by-Teaching Situation?2017Ingår i: Intelligent Virtual Agents 17th International Conference, IVA 2017, Stockholm, Sweden, August 27-30, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Jonas Beskow, Christopher Peters, Ginevra Castellano, Carol O'Sullivan, Iolanda Leite and Stefan Kopp, Cham: Springer, 2017, Vol. 10498, s. 243-246Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents initial attempts to combine a humanoid robot with the teachable agent approach. Several design choices are discussed, including the decision to use a robot instead of a virtual agent and which behaviours to implement in the robot. A pilot study explored how the interaction with a robot seemed to influence children’s engagement as well as their attribution of mental states to a robot and to a virtual agent. Eight children participated and the interaction was measured via an observational protocol and a conversational interview. A main outcome was large individual differences between the children’s interaction with the robot compared to the virtual agent.

  • 17.
    Balkenius, Christian
    et al.
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Filosofiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Haake, Magnus
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Filosofiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi, Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Intelligent, socially oriented technology III: Projects by teams of master level students in cognitive science and engineering2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Department of philosophy and cognitive science, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Department of philosophy and cognitive science, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Department of philosophy and cognitive science, Lund, Sweden.
    Supporting low-performing students by manipulating self-efficacy in digital tutees2017Ingår i: CogSci2017. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Cogni6ve Science Society, London, UK 26-29 July 2017. Computatonal Foundatons of Cogniton / [ed] Glenn Gunzelmann, Andrew Howes, Thora Tenbrink and Eddy Davelaar, Austin: Cognitive Science Society , 2017, s. 1169-1174Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Educational software based on teachable agents has repeatedly proven to have positive effects on students’ learning outcomes. The strongest effects have been shown for low-performers. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explore this outcome, in particular mechanisms that involve attributions of social agency to teachable agents. Our study examined whether an expression of high versus low self-efficacy in a teachable agent would affect low-performing students with respect to their learning outcomes and with respect to a potential change in their own self-efficacy. The learning domain was mathematics, specifically the base-ten system. Results were that the learning outcomes of low-performers who taught a low self-efficacy agent were significantly better than the learning outcomes of low-performers who taught a high self-efficacy agent. There were no effects from the manipulation of self-efficacy expressed by the teachable agent on changes of the low-performing students’ own self-efficacy.

  • 19.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Physical vs. Virtual Agent Embodiment and Effects on Social Interaction2016Ingår i: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 16th International Conference, IVA 2016, Los Angeles, CA, USA, September 20–23, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] David Traum, William Swartout, Peter Khooshabeh, Stefan Kopp, Stefan Scherer, Anton Leuski, Cham: Springer, 2016, Vol. 10011, s. 412-415Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work indicates that physical robots elicit more favorable social responses than virtual agents. These effects have been attributed to the physical embodiment. However, a recent meta-analysis by Li [1] suggests that the benefits of robots are due to physical presence rather than physical embodiment. To further explore the importance of presence we conducted a pilot study investigating the relationship between physical and social presence. The results suggest that social presence of an artificial agent is important for interaction with people, and that the extent to which it is perceived as socially present might be unaffected by whether it is physically or virtually present.

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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Scaffolding Executive Function Capabilities via Play-&-Learn Software for Preschoolers2016Ingår i: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 108, nr 7, s. 969-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational software in the form of games or so called "computer assisted intervention" for young children has become increasingly common receiving a growing interest and support. Currently there are, for instance, more than 1,000 iPad apps tagged for preschool. Thus, it has become increasingly important to empirically investigate whether these kinds of software actually provide educational benefits for such young children. The study presented in the present article investigated whether preschoolers have the cognitive capabilities necessary to benefit from a teachable-agent-based game of which pedagogical benefits have been shown for older children. The role of executive functions in childrens attention was explored by letting 36 preschoolers (3;9-6;3 years) play a teachable-agent-based educational game and measure their capabilities to maintain focus on pedagogically relevant screen events in the presence of competing visual stimuli. Even though the participants did not succeed very well in an inhibition pretest, results showed that they nonetheless managed to inhibit distractions during game-play. It is suggested that the game context acts as a motivator that scaffolds more mature cognitive capabilities in young children than they exhibit during a noncontextual standardized test. The results further indicate gender differences in the development of these capabilities.

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  • 21.
    Genot, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Philosophy, Lund University–LUX, Lund, Sweden .
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Inquiry Learning2016Ingår i: Perspectives on Interrogative Models of Inquiry: Developments in Inquiry and Questions / [ed] Can Başkent, Springer, 2016, s. 15-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hakkarainen and Sintonen (2002) praise the descriptive adequacy of Hintikka's Interrogative Model of Inquiry (imi) to describe children's practices in an inquiry-based learning context. They further propose to use the imi as a starting point for developing new pedagogical methods and designing new didactic tools. We assess this proposal in the light of the formal results that in the imi characterize interrogative learning strategies. We nd that these results actually reveal a deep methodological issue for inquiry-based learning, namely that educators cannot guarantee that learners will successfully acquire a content, without limiting learner's autonomy, and that a trade-off between success and autonomy is unavoidable. As a by-product of our argument, we obtain a logical characterization of serendipity.

  • 22.
    Sjödén, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden .
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden .
    From Learning Companions to Testing Companions Experience with a Teachable Agent Motivates Students' Performance on Summative Tests2015Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference, AIED 2015, Madrid, Spain, June 22-26, 2015 / [ed] Cristina Conati, Neil Heffernan, Antonija Mitrovic and M. Felisa Verdejo, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9112, s. 459-469Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In three quasi-experimental studies, we investigated the effects of placing a Teachable Agent (TA) from a math game in a digital summative test. We hypothesized that the TA would affect test performance, even without actual "teachability", by social influence on the test situation. In Study 1 (N=47), students did a pretest, played the math game for seven weeks, and did a posttest either with or without the TA. In Study 2 (N=62), students did not play the game but were introduced to a TA directly in the posttest. In Study 3 (N=165), the game included a social chat with the TA, and the posttest offered a choice of more difficult questions. Results showed significant effects of the TA on choice and performance on conceptual math problems, though not on overall test scores. We conclude that experience with a TA can influence performance beyond interaction and informative feedback.

  • 23.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Husain, Layla
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Erik
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    No Child Behind nor Singled Out?: Adaptive Instruction Combined with Inclusive Pedagogy in Early Math Software2015Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 17th International Conference, AIED 2015, Madrid, Spain, June 22-26, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] Cristina Conati, Neil Heffernan, Antonija Mitrovic and M. Felisa Verdejo, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9112, s. 612-615Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a unique play-&-learn game for early math, designed to provide adaptive instruction with respect to support and challenge as well as to cater for an inclusive pedagogy where no child, whether far behind or far ahead, is exposed as being "different".

  • 24.
    Husain, Layla
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Supporting Early Math: Rationales and Requirements for High Quality Software2015Ingår i: The Journal of computers in mathematics and science teaching, ISSN 0731-9258, E-ISSN 1943-5908, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 409-429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial evidence that preschooler' performance in early math is highly correlated to math performance throughout school as well as academic skills in general. One way to help children attain early math skills is by using targeted educational software and the paper discusses potential gains of using such software to support early math development. Furthermore it is argued that the content of early math software should be centered around notions such as number sense and spontaneous focus on numerosity. Beyond that, the paper argues for seven design criteria to consider if the goal is to provide strong support for early math via educational software: (1) use a pedagogical approach clearly based on research on early learning of mathematics, (2) provide a set of relevant representations in an appropriate order, (3) provide informative and meaningful feedback, (4) pay attention to motivational aspects for the age group, (5) provide individually adapted support as well as challenge, (6) include a reporting function for educators, and (7) enable the use of an inclusive pedagogy. These seven design criteria are described and illustrated by concrete examples drawn from a newly developed play-&-learn game in early math: Magical Garden.

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  • 25.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Relationship Between Working Memory Capacity and Students’ Behaviour in a Teachable Agent-Based Software2015Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 17th International Conference, AIED 2015, Madrid, Spain, June 22-26, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] C. Conati, N. Heffernan, A. Mitrovic, and M. F. Verdejo, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9112, s. 670-673Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated if and how students’ behaviour when using a teachable agent-based educational software were related to their working memory capacity. Thirty Swedish students aged 11–12, participated in the study. Results showed that differences in behaviour such as time spent on an off-task activity, time spent on interactive dialogues, and the number of tests that students let their TA take, were associated with differences in working memory capacity. 

  • 26.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lunds univesitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ascribed gender and charactersitics of a visually androgynous Teachable Agent2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2014, Boston, USA, August, 27-29, 2014. / [ed] Bickmore, Timothy, Marsella, Stacy, Sidner, Candace, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 232-235Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how users ascribe gender to a visually androgynous teachable agent, and if and how the ascribed gender can influence the perceived personality characteristics of the agent. Previous studies have shown positive effects of using agents with more neutral or androgynous appearances, for instance, a more gender neutral agent evoked more positive attitudes on females than did a more stereotypical female agent [1] and androgynous agents were less abused than female agents [2]. Another study showed that even though an agent was visually androgynous, the user typically ascribed a gender to it [3].

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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Forskning och utveckling om digitala läromedel för att gynna lärande och lärare2014Ingår i: Vetenskapliga perspektiv på lärande, undervisning och utbildning i olika institutionella sammanhang: utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet / [ed] Anders Persson & Roger Johansson, Helsingborg: Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds universitet , 2014, s. 45-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns två huvudsakliga svar på frågan varför forskning och utveckling, F&U, i området digitala läromedel är viktig. Det första är relativt uppenbart: Det produceras idag allt fler digitala läromedel som används i ökad utsträckning i skolan. För att kunna ta fram digitala läromedel av hög kvalitet krävs forskning och utveckling. Det andra och mindre uppenbara svaret är att digitala läromedel också kan fungera som forskningsinstrument och ge nya kunskaper och insikter om lärande och lärprocesser. I detta kapitel utvecklar vi, med hjälp av konkreta illustrationer från andras och egna F&U-projekt, dessa två svar.

  • 28.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds univeristet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds univeristet.
    Inför digitala nationella prov2014Ingår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, artikel-id 2 januariArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala system för pedagogisk bedömning öppnar nya möjligheter som inte finns med papper och penna. Dessutom frigörs tid för lärarna. Vi ber därför Skolverket att tillsätta en bred arbetsgrupp för att utveckla ett digitalt system för nationella prov.

  • 29.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Introducing a challenging teachable agent2014Ingår i: Learning and Collaboration Technologies: Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences / [ed] Zaphiris, P; Ioannou, A, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 53-62Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potentials of a new type of pedagogical agent – a Challenger Teachable Agent. The aim of such a pedagogical agent is to increase engagement and motivation, and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. It is based on the successful implementation of the Learning by Teaching approach in Teachable Agents, and in addition it draws on previous work that has shown the potential of resistance or challenge as means to improve learning. In this paper we discuss how these two bases can be combined and realized through new types of behaviours in a Teachable Agent

  • 30.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nirme, Jens
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Steps Towards a Challenging Teachable Agent2014Ingår i: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 14th International Conference, IVA 2014, Boston, MA, USA, August 27-29, 2014, Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 410-419Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the first steps towards a new type of pedagogical agent – a Challenger Teachable Agent, CTA. The overall aim of introducing a CTA is to increase engagement and motivation and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. The paper discusses desired design features of such an agent on the basis of related work and results from a study where 11-year old students interacted with a first version of a CTA in the framework of an educational software for history. The focus is on how students respond when the CTA disagrees and questions their suggestions, and how groups of students, differing in response behavior and in self-efficacy, experience the CTA.

  • 31.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Designtänk bakom populära tvärkurser2013Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Närmare sextio studenter från Humanistiska fakulteten ochLTH har jobbat intensivt i blandade grupper under höstterminen. I universitetets äldsta byggnad Kungshuset visade de strax före jul upp sina resultat, samtliga nära kopplade till spjutspetsforskning inom teknik och lärande.

    Studenterna har gjort filmer som t.ex. visar på nya sätt att lära sig matte och historia, eller hur man med hjälp av virtuella 3D-figurer kan utforska kroppsspråkets betydelse för mänskligt tänkande. Kursdeltagarna är i kognitionsvetenskap eller går sista åren på ingenjörsutbildningen. Men det är inte bara det tvärvetenskapliga upplägget som gör kurserna speciella. Det handlar också om att man arbetar med verkliga problem, sådana som forskare själva försöker lösa. Studenterna jobbar i absoluta forskningsfronten – det finns inget facit.

  • 32.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Educational Potentials in Visually Androgynous Pedagogical Agents2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013 / [ed] H.C. Lane, K., J. Yacef, Mostow and P. Pavlik, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 599-602Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a study on student’s attitudes to a visually androgynous in comparison to a male and a female Teachable Agent (TA). Results were that overall the androgynous agent was preferred over the female and male agents. A visually androgynous agent does not embody categorical gender attributes. At the same time it does not have to be genderless but instead represent both maleness and femaleness so that students can chose for themselves. Androgyny, in this sense, is potentially a way to have femaleness and maleness represented, with corresponding educational benefits such as role modelling and identification, without risking negative reinforcement of gender stereotypes

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Educational Potentials in Visually Androgynous Pedagogical Agents
  • 33.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Lärandet i den svarta boxen2013Ingår i: Forum Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan kombinerar idéer om 2000-talets kunskaper med 1900-talets former av tester och utvärderingar. Sammanblandningen är dömd att misslyckas.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Kim, Yanghee
    et al.
    Utah State University, USA.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The effect of the visual gender of an embodied agent: A cross-cultural comparison2013Ingår i: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA 2013), Washington: AERA, American Educational Research Association , 2013, s. 1-9Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored if the visual gender representations (androgynous, male, or female) of an embodied agent would influence students’ perceptions of their agent and their attitudes toward the agent as their conversational partner. The study also explored if students’ gender and cultural background would interact with the agent’s visual gender to influence their perceptions and attitudes. Participants were 208 early-teen students sampled from US and South Korea. The results revealed that student gender was a significant factor for influencing students' perceptions and attitudes and that the students showed positive attitudes toward an androgynous agent more than toward a gendered agent (either male or female).

  • 35.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics & Audiology, Clinical Sciences Lund.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Schötz, Susanne
    Department of Linguistics, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics & Audiology, Clinical Sciences Lund.
    The slower the better: Does the speaker' speech rate influence children' performance on a language comprehension test?2013Ingår i: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 181-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of speech rate on children' performance on a widely used language comprehension test, the Test for Reception of Grammar, version 2 (TROG 2), and to explore how test performance interacts with task difficulty and with the child' working memory capacity. Participants were 102 typically developing Swedish-speaking children randomly assigned to one of the three conditions; the TROG 2 sentences spoken by a speech-language pathologist with slow, normal or fast speech rate. Results showed that the fast speech rate had a negative effect on the TROG 2 scores and that slow rate was more beneficial in general. However, for more difficult tasks the beneficial effect of slow speech was only pronounced for children with better scores on a working memory task. Our interpretation is that slow speech is particularly helpful when children do not yet fully master a task but are just about to grasp it. Our results emphasise the necessity of careful considerations of the role dynamic aspects of examiner' speech might play in test administration and favour digitalised procedures in standardised language comprehension assessment.

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    fulltext
  • 36.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Lindström, Paulina
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    A Teachable Agent Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition  – Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation2012Ingår i: Educational technology research and development, ISSN 1042-1629, E-ISSN 1556-6501, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 723-751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (i) conceptual understanding and (ii) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and motivation. 19 students played the game in pairs once a week during a math lesson for seven weeks (the game-playing group) while another 19 students followed the regular curriculum (the control group). Math comprehension scores increased significantly for the game-playing group but not the control group (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference in attitude change between the two groups.

    Post hoc analyses indicated that game-playing primarily affected students’ confidence in explaining math to a peer, but not their enjoyment of doing so. Collaborative and competitive activities seem to carry a strong motivational influence for students to play the game.

  • 37.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Johansson, Birger
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Samarbete ger lyckat resultat2012Ingår i: Sydsvenska dagbladet, ISSN 1652-814X, artikel-id 18 decemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ta några ingenjörsstudenter, släng in ett par kognitionsvetarstudenter och ge dem ett problem att lösa. Ut kommer interaktiva dataspel för skolan och robotar som kan imitera människors rörelser.

    – Vi kombinerar doing och thinking, säger Agneta Gulz, professor i kognitionsvetenskap.

  • 38.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Raukola, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Effect of Visual Gender on Abuse in Conversation with ECAs2012Ingår i: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 12th International Conference, IVA 2012, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, September, 12-14, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Neff, M., Walker, M., Paiva, A. & Nakano, Y., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 153-160Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that female ECAs are more likely to be abused than male agents, which may cement gender stereotypes. In the study reported in this paper a visually androgynous ECA in the form of a teachable agent in an educational math game was compared with a female and male agent. The results confirm that female agents are more prone to be verbally abused than male agents, but also show that the visually androgynous agent was less abused than the female although more than the male agent. A surprising finding was that very few students asked the visually androgynous agent whether it was a boy or a girl. These results suggest that androgyny may be a way to keep both genders represented, which is especially important in pedagogical settings, simultaneously lowering the abusive behavior and perhaps most important, loosen the connection between gender and abuse.

  • 39.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    Media & Design, University West, Sweden.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Mathematical Statistics, University West, Sweden.
    Dahl, Ylva
    School Development, Uddevalla Schools, Sweden .
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University Design Sciences, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Sweden .
    A Teachable-Agent Arithmetic Game’s Effects on Mathematics Understanding, Attitude and Self-efficacy2011Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 247-255Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A teachable-agent arithmetic game is presented and evaluated in terms of student performance, attitude and self-efficacy. An experimental pre-post study design was used, enrolling 153 3rd and 5th grade students in Sweden. The playing group showed significantly larger gains in math performance and self-efficacy beliefs, but not in general attitude towards math, than the control groups. The contributions in relation to previous work include a new educational game being evaluated, and an emphasis on self-efficacy in the study as a strong predictor of math achievements.

  • 40.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Pareto, Lena
    Institutionen för Media, Högskolan Väst.
    Strandberg, Thomas
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, LU.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    AIED interactive event: ”The Brick Game” demonstration2011Ingår i: Proceedings of The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education.  AIED 2011, LNAI 6738 / [ed] G. Biswas et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Lund University.
    Haake, Magnus
    Designvetenskap, Lund Univeristy.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund Uniiversity.
    Veletsianos, George
    Instructional design, University of Austin, USA.
    Building a Social Conversational Pedagogical Agent: Design Challenges and Methodological approaches2011Ingår i: Conversational Agents and Natural Language Interaction: Techniques and Effective Practices / [ed] Diana Perez-Marin and Ismael Pascual-Nieto, IGI Global, 2011, s. 128-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses design challenges encountered when developing a conversational pedagogical agent. By tracing the historical roots of pedagogical agents in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), we discern central developments in creating an agent that is both knowledgeable and fosters a social relationship with the learner. Main challenges faced when attempting to develop a pedagogical agent of this kind relate to: i) learners’ expectations on the agent’s knowledge and social profile, ii) dealing with learners’ engagement in off-task conversation and iii) managing potential abuse of the agent. We discuss these challenges and possible ways to address them, with reference to an ongoing Research & Development project, and with a focus on the design of a pedagogical agent’s visual embodiment and its conversational capabilities.

  • 42.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Department of Design SciencesLund UniversitySweden.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Extending a Teachable Agent with a Social Conversation Module – Effects on Student Experiences and Learning2011Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic, Springer, 2011, s. 106-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the addition of off-task socially oriented conver-sational abilities to an existing “teachable agent” (TA) in an educational game in mathematics. The purpose of this extension is to affect constructs known to promote learning, such as self-efficacy and engagement as well as enhance students’ experiences of interacting with the game. A comparison of students that played the game with the off-task interaction to those who played without it, shows trends that indicate that students who played the game with off-task interaction had a more positive experience of the game, and that they also learnt more, as reflected in the learning outcomes of their TAs.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Lindström, Paulina
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University.
    Haake, M.
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Matching and mismatching between the pedagogical design principles of a maths game and the actual practices of play2011Ingår i: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, ISSN 0266-4909, E-ISSN 1365-2729, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 90-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reports and discusses a long-term qualitative study of forty 8-10 year old students who regularly played a math game during math lessons for 9 weeks. The goal was to explore the relations between (i) some of the pedagogical principles that underlie the game and (ii) the playing practice in terms of what actually takes place when students play the math game during regular math lessons. The article discusses indications of matches and mismatches between pedagogical principles and playing practice as they appear in analyses of observations and video recordings.

    The result highlights the difficulty of predicting areas in which possible mismatches appear between the intentions of the pedagogues and designers of educational technology, and the actual use of the technology by the students. This also applies to educational materials that have already been pilot tested and used on a smaller scale. We emphasize the need to observe actual use for extensive periods of time, i.e. to go beyond short-time user testing.

     

  • 44.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Haake, Magnus
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Off-task Engagement in a Teachable Agent based Math Game2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education ICCE 2011 / [ed] Tsukasa Hirashima, Gautum Biswas, Thepchai Supnithi and Fu-Yun Yu, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers i n Education , 2011, s. 60-64Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study compared two student groups that played a mathematics game based on a teachable agent. One group played with, and the other without, the inclusion of a social conversation module: a chat between the student and the teachable agent. Results were that students who used the game with the chat included had a more positive experience of the game and learned more in the sense of teaching their agent better. However, patterns dif­fered between sub-groups of students. Low-achievers did not prefer the game with the chat included, whereas high- and mid-achievers did, but simultaneously low-achievers tended to chat more. Low-achievers tended not to use the options of not starting the chat or quitting a chat beforehand as much as high- and mid-achievers did. In this paper we pursue a more de­tailed analysis of the students’ conversational behavior in the chat. The analytic focus is on the notion of engagement. Results point towards differences between the student groups in their engagement in the off-task conversation, that in turn can help explain the previous somewhat paradoxical result.

  • 45.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Sweden.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pedagogical Agents: Pedagogical Interventions via Integration of Task-oriented and Socially Oriented Conversation2011Ingår i: The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association New Orleans,  2011, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the motivation for and outcome of the addition of socially oriented so called “off-task” conversational abilities to an existing “teachable agent” (TA) in an educational mathematics game. The purpose of the extension is to affect constructs known to promote learning, such as self-efficacy and engagement, as well as enhancing students’ experiences of the game. A comparison of students that played the educational game with the off-task interaction included to those who played without it, indicate that the former had a more positive experience of the game, and that they also learnt more in the sense of teaching their TA better. The potential for pedagogical interventions in this and similar systems is discussed as well as differences found between high- and low-achievers.

  • 46.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tärning, Betty
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Teaching Her, Him…or Hir? Challenges for a Cross-Cultural Study2011Ingår i: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 10th International Conference, IVA 2011, Reykjavik, Iceland, September 15-17, 2011. Proceedings / [ed] Stephan Kopp, Stacy Marsella, K Thorisson, Hannes Vilhjalmsson, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 447-448Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses some cultural considerations that we stand before in developing and exploiting an agent based educational software for use by Swedish and American students, age 11-14. The reported cultural challenges arise in software develop­ment, study designs, and decisions on actual pedagogical use in the two cultural settings.

  • 47.
    Sjödén, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Pareto, Lena
    Media Production and Informatics Departments, University West, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Transferring Teaching to Testing – an Unexplored Aspect of Teachable Agents2011Ingår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay and Antonija Mitrovic, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 337-344Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined whether socio-motivational effects from working with a Teachable Agent (TA) might transfer from the formative learning phase to a summative test situation. Forty-nine students (9-10 years old) performed a digital pretest of math skills, then played a TA-based educational math game in school over a period of eight weeks. Thereafter, the students were divided into two groups, matched according to their pretest scores, and randomly assigned one of two posttest conditions: either with the TA present, or without the TA. Results showed that low-performers on the pretest improved significantly more on the posttest than did high-performers, but only when tested with the TA. We reason that low-performers might be more susceptible to a supportive social context – as provided by their TA – for performing well in a test situation.

  • 48.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Challenging Gender Stereotypes using Virtual Pedagogical Characters2010Ingår i: Gender Issues in Learning and Working with Information Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts, / [ed] Sara Goodman, Shirlsy Booth & Gill Kirkup, IGI Global , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores motivational and cognitive effects of more neutral or androgynous-looking versus more feminine-looking and masculine-looking virtual characters. A user study is presented, in which 158 students, aged 17-19, encountered four virtual characters that were visually manipulated to represent gender stereotypicality versus androgyny. On the one hand we explored students’ attitudes towards the different characters as seen in how they ranked them as preferred presenters and articulated their arguments for doing so. On the other hand we looked for patterns as to which character(s) influenced female and male students most positively with respect to their attitude towards a university level computer engineering programme. Results from the study are presented and discussed. We conclude by pointing towards future research and potential within the area.

     

  • 49.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Silvervarg Flycht-Eriksson, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sjödén, Björn
    LUCS, Lunds universitet.
    Design for off-task interaction – rethinking pedagogy in technology enhanced learning2010Ingår i: ICALT 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010, s. 204-206Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue for the design of off-task interaction in technology enchanced learning. This implies a rethinking of pedagogy which can substantially contribute to achieving specific learning goals. We describe a work-in-progress and provide concrete examples of how we deal with relevant issues raised by allowing for off-task interactions in an educational math game as an integrated learning system.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 50.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Avdelningen för logopedi, foniatri och audiologi, Lunds universitet.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Avdelningen för logopedi, foniatri och audiologi, Lunds universitet.
    Willstedt-Svensson, Ursula
    Lunds skolors resurscentrum, Lunds kommun.
    Digitaliserad Trog-2 med manipulerad talhastighet2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en digitaliserad version av TROG-2, som vi kallar LU-Trog, har vi skapat möjlighet att bland annat manipulera talhastigheten med vilken meningarna i testet läses. Utifrån en inspelning av meningarna i ”nor malhastighet” har vi på digital väg skapat ytterligare två uppsättningar av TROG - meningarna, ”förlångsammade” med 160% av originalljudfilernas duration och ”försnabbade” med 60% av originalljudfilernas duration. Under våren 2010 har vi genom fört en första explorativ studie för att pröva om LU-Trog kan använda s som forsknings verktyg och i förlängningen som ett dia gnos stöd. Deltagare var tolv unga vuxna , i åldrarna 17 - 20 med lindrig psykisk funktionsnedsättning. De genom förde LU-Trog på dator med pekskärm vid två olika tillfällen med 6-7 veckor s mellanrum . Vid första tillfället var hälften av meningarna långs amma och hälften snabba , i slum pvi s fördelning . Vid nästa tillfälle fick varje deltagare en inverterad spegelbild av det först a testet, så att de meningar som varit långs amma vid tillfälle ett nu var snabba och vice versa. Variablerna vi mäter och jämför i de båda villkor en är antal korrekta block , totalt antal korrekta svar, antal ångrade val och antal begäran om repetition ( max en gång) . I presentationen vill vi dels diskutera resultaten från dessa jämförelser . De pekar bl.a. på signifikant större tendens att svara fel för snabbt än för långs amt tal, där tendensen är särskilt tydlig för de m so m gör många fel. Dels , och framförallt , vill vi diskutera hur vi kom mer att gå vidare och vilka möjligheter till vidareutveckling och anpassningar till kliniskt behov och bruk som kan finnas.

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