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  • 1.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Södergren, Karolina
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Palm, Jenny
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Exploring total economic values in an emerging urban circular wastewater system2023Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 233, artikel-id 119806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular water management has the potential to close resource and material loops within and across value chains. In the water industry, circular municipal wastewater management through industrial urban symbiosis (IUS) is recognized as a solution to overcome water scarcity in urban environments. IUS involves collaboration between actors with different organizational backgrounds, which can lead to inherent risks of conflicting goals. This study explores how different values drive various organizations to participate in an emerging circular wastewater collaboration. The study comprises a literature review of 34 scientific articles and a case study of a potential circular wastewater system through IUS in Simrishamn, Sweden. It presents an interdisciplinary framework based on the total economic value concept and organizational archetypes for examining actor values in circular wastewater management. This framework provides a novel approach for assessing different values and how they may compete or align. It can also identify the absence of certain values, enabling the achievement of a minimum level of value coherence amongst different actors, and thereby increasing the sustainability and effectiveness of circular wastewater collaborations. Therefore, careful planning and stakeholder interaction, in accordance with economic value perspectives, can enhance the legitimacy and policy development of circular solutions.

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  • 2. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Wadström, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Navigating interconnected and electrified industries in the landscape of uncertainty: Exploring outcomes and values within circular solutions, and Swedish electricity supply and utilisation dynamics2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global community faces unprecedented climate change challenges, the transition towards a sustainable society has become an urgent priority. The complexity of this transition is characterised by the interplay of developing and implementing green manufacturing processes, integrated energy systems, and circular resource flows, and the inherent dynamics associated with geopolitical uncertainties, energy price fluctuations, and global instability. Although new technological advancements and more sustainable models are on the rise, a significant knowledge gap remains in comprehending the intricate dependencies and impacts of various uncertainties on complex industrial and energy systems. Dependency means that one component, sub-system, or variable relies on another for its operation or effectiveness. A change in one element will directly affect the other, causing changes in its status or actions. Because the components are interconnected in this way, they are not independent of each other. This knowledge gap is particularly noticeable in the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the energy system and uncertainties. This became significantly more apparent during events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the sub-sequent Russian invasion of Ukraine.  

    The aim of this thesis is threefold: 1) to explore identified outcomes and values in industrial symbiosis collaborations within the context of the circular economy; 2) to assess electricity dynamics under the influence of uncertainty, focusing on the Swedish industrial sectors; and 3) to present a frame-work for evaluating integrated and circular systems and the potential influencing uncertainty mechanisms.  

    The motivation for this research comes from the limited understanding of the dynamics in future sustainable industrial systems and how intended out-comes may be affected by various unexpected events or shocks. The increasing complexity and interconnectedness, including global links, call for a broader perspective that encompasses more than just technical aspects, acknowledging a broader set of interconnections between system components. Therefore, it is important to consider not only the interactions be-tween the components of the system but also their connections to the global environment.  

    This thesis aims to fill this gap by exploring the aspects of outcomes and values in circular solutions and uncertainty’s influence on the electricity system. 

    The results reveal that circular solutions in industry aim for resource efficiency, focusing mainly on short-term economic values through optimising material use, energy utilisation, water use, and waste exchanges. The results also reveal that research in circular approaches emphasises energy and environmental aspects, particularly CO2 reduction, where values are derived through market-based valuation. The shorter time horizons in the research literature signal a focus on immediate gains, with values based on non-market valuation underrepresented. In this context, non-market valuation refers to the assignment of monetary values to goods and services that are not usually traded in conventional markets. Examples include environmental as-sets such as clean air and water, as well as social and cultural assets.  The results also underscore that uncertainty significantly influences electricity utilisation across various Swedish industrial sectors and power sources. However, depending on the type of uncertainty measure, such as global or domestic uncertainty, the impact of uncertainty affects different industrial sectors in distinct ways, and the results also unveil industry-specific dependency structures.  This analysis shows the importance of understanding how industrial electricity utilisation interacts with various sectors and power sources, as well as the role of uncertainty. This understanding is especially vital considering its potential impact on interconnected resource flows and integrated energy systems. The findings also present a preliminary foundation for developing a framework capable of evaluating integrated and circular systems, encompassing aspects such as institutional units, symbiosis categories, outcome classification, connectivity, and time aspects, all while considering the influence of uncertainty. 

    Delarbeten
    1. A framework for studying outcomes in industrial symbiosis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A framework for studying outcomes in industrial symbiosis
    2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 151, artikel-id 111526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is likely that different industrial symbiosis collaborations will have different sets of winners and losers when it comes to benefits or costs. In this study we present an analytical framework intended for evaluating a wide-range of industrial symbiosis outcomes that will aid in research design. The framework provide a base for including a broader, but also, specific set of effects and outcomes (economic, environmental and social), including a diverse set of clearly defined actors. Used consistently, the framework can average out costs and benefits across actors in the whole society, so that each actor is more likely to (over time) realize net positive outcomes from a full set of industrial symbiosis applications. The analytical framework is developed by combining theory and concepts from the system of national accounts, the planetary boundaries, and the social foundation. The analytical framework is then applied in a state of the art review, analysing value and benefits in 56 industrial symbiosis research articles. Besides providing a robust model for analysing industrial symbiosis, the results show that private market-based outcomes are the dominant form of economic value and that nonmarket valuations are completely absent. Environmental outcomes mainly consist of decreased CO2 emissions, chemical pollution and water use. Social outcomes include private income and work and network effects for the companies involved in the industrial symbiosis.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2021
    Nyckelord
    Industrial symbiosis; Circular economy; Energy; Waste; Wastewater; Analytical framework; Economic value; Sustainability; State of the art review
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem Annan naturresursteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178596 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2021.111526 (DOI)000708472700005 ()2-s2.0-85111969897 (Scopus ID)
    Projekt
    Smart Symbios
    Anmärkning

    Funding: Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency

    Tillgänglig från: 2021-08-23 Skapad: 2021-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-01Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Exploring total economic values in an emerging urban circular wastewater system
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exploring total economic values in an emerging urban circular wastewater system
    2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 233, artikel-id 119806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Circular water management has the potential to close resource and material loops within and across value chains. In the water industry, circular municipal wastewater management through industrial urban symbiosis (IUS) is recognized as a solution to overcome water scarcity in urban environments. IUS involves collaboration between actors with different organizational backgrounds, which can lead to inherent risks of conflicting goals. This study explores how different values drive various organizations to participate in an emerging circular wastewater collaboration. The study comprises a literature review of 34 scientific articles and a case study of a potential circular wastewater system through IUS in Simrishamn, Sweden. It presents an interdisciplinary framework based on the total economic value concept and organizational archetypes for examining actor values in circular wastewater management. This framework provides a novel approach for assessing different values and how they may compete or align. It can also identify the absence of certain values, enabling the achievement of a minimum level of value coherence amongst different actors, and thereby increasing the sustainability and effectiveness of circular wastewater collaborations. Therefore, careful planning and stakeholder interaction, in accordance with economic value perspectives, can enhance the legitimacy and policy development of circular solutions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2023
    Nyckelord
    Circular water management; Integrated water resource management; Total economic value; Organizational governance
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Vattenbehandling Annan miljöbioteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-192977 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2023.119806 (DOI)000954854400001 ()36878178 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding: Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency [46016 - 1]

    Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-05 Skapad: 2023-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-01
    3. The influence of global and domestic uncertainty on electricity supply: A study of Swedish power sources
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The influence of global and domestic uncertainty on electricity supply: A study of Swedish power sources
    2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 10, s. 958-972Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable energy systems through system integration and sector coupling may involve permeating previous isolated and idiosyncratic reactions through the whole system. This study examines supply side dynamics of how uncertainty and spot prices influence electric power supply in an internationally connected electricity system. By applying quantile methods, the study reveals highly nonlinear and asymmetric responses in supplied electricity given a change in uncertainty or system spot prices. The findings show that while the total supply of electricity is largely unaffected by uncertainty and spot price, both supply level and changes in power supply for specific dispatchable power sources are influenced differently depending on the type of uncertainty (domestic or global). The findings also show that the response structure induced by uncertainty and spot price seems to be largely uniform and power source specific. This has implications for creating, amongst other things, integrated systems, and sector coupling, where there is a need for inexpensive excess power supply. (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2023
    Nyckelord
    Electric power; Uncertainty; Quantile methods; Sector coupling; System integration
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-197450 (URN)10.1016/j.egyr.2023.07.049 (DOI)001051671200001 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Graduate School in Energy Systems (FoES) - Swedish Energy Agency [46016-1]

    Tillgänglig från: 2023-09-04 Skapad: 2023-09-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-01
    4. Navigating uncertainty: exploring electricity demand dynamics in Swedish industrial sectors amid global shocksand instability
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Navigating uncertainty: exploring electricity demand dynamics in Swedish industrial sectors amid global shocksand instability
    2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, artikel-id 95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide insights into the factors shaping electricity demand in Swedish industrial sectors using the nonlinear version of the autoregressive distributed lag model (NARDL). This approach captures the complex short- and long-run relationships between uncertainty and electric power use in Swedish industrial sectors. The results reveal sector-specific responses to uncertainties and asymmetries in electricity use patterns. By examining the entire industrial sector in Sweden, this approach uncovers underlying issues and hidden patterns, while also providing insights into the functioning and behaviour of industrial systems. The rapid electrification and new green industrialisation initiatives in Sweden, coupled with the integration of a circular economy, underscore the importance of understanding the dynamics of electricity use in the face of uncertain shocks. This knowledge is vital for ensuring, amongst other things, grid stability, mitigating the need for costly peaking capacity, and identifying potential challenges in the interconnection of energy and material circular flows

    Nyckelord
    Electric power use dynamics; Swedish industrial sectors; Uncertainty impacts; Nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199282 (URN)10.1007/s12053-023-10174-w (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2023-11-23 Skapad: 2023-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
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    presentationsbild
  • 3.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Navigating uncertainty: exploring electricity demand dynamics in Swedish industrial sectors amid global shocksand instability2023Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, artikel-id 95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide insights into the factors shaping electricity demand in Swedish industrial sectors using the nonlinear version of the autoregressive distributed lag model (NARDL). This approach captures the complex short- and long-run relationships between uncertainty and electric power use in Swedish industrial sectors. The results reveal sector-specific responses to uncertainties and asymmetries in electricity use patterns. By examining the entire industrial sector in Sweden, this approach uncovers underlying issues and hidden patterns, while also providing insights into the functioning and behaviour of industrial systems. The rapid electrification and new green industrialisation initiatives in Sweden, coupled with the integration of a circular economy, underscore the importance of understanding the dynamics of electricity use in the face of uncertain shocks. This knowledge is vital for ensuring, amongst other things, grid stability, mitigating the need for costly peaking capacity, and identifying potential challenges in the interconnection of energy and material circular flows

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The influence of global and domestic uncertainty on electricity supply: A study of Swedish power sources2023Ingår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 10, s. 958-972Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing sustainable energy systems through system integration and sector coupling may involve permeating previous isolated and idiosyncratic reactions through the whole system. This study examines supply side dynamics of how uncertainty and spot prices influence electric power supply in an internationally connected electricity system. By applying quantile methods, the study reveals highly nonlinear and asymmetric responses in supplied electricity given a change in uncertainty or system spot prices. The findings show that while the total supply of electricity is largely unaffected by uncertainty and spot price, both supply level and changes in power supply for specific dispatchable power sources are influenced differently depending on the type of uncertainty (domestic or global). The findings also show that the response structure induced by uncertainty and spot price seems to be largely uniform and power source specific. This has implications for creating, amongst other things, integrated systems, and sector coupling, where there is a need for inexpensive excess power supply. (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Yahya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Dutta, Anupam
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Bouri, Elie
    Lebanese Amer Univ, Lebanon.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dependence structure between the international crude oil market and the European markets of biodiesel and rapeseed oil2022Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 197, s. 594-605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Being an environmentally friendly fuel obtained from rapeseed oil, biodiesel is used extensively in Europe. However, the dependence structure between global crude oil prices and the European prices of biodiesel and rapeseed oil is understudied and unclear. In this paper, we address this gap by utilizing asymmetric copulas and cross-quantilogram approaches on daily data. The results of the DCC-Student-t copula indicate that during bearish periods the conditional connectedness between crude oil prices and biodiesel (rapeseed oil) prices are stronger than during bullish periods, indicating increased co-movement with a decline in crude oil prices. The application of cross-quantilogram indicates that an increase in crude oil price positively influences biodiesel prices reflecting an asymmetric dependence structure among the assets. There is evidence of shifts in the dynamics of quantile dependency during periods of financial and economic turmoil. Overall, the results show a significant dependence between the global crude oil market and the European markets of biodiesel and rapeseed oil in specific periods and under specific market conditions, which have important implications for policymakers and investors.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Hammoudeh, Shawkat
    et al.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA; Univ Econ Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sousa, Ricardo M.
    Univ Minho, Portugal; Univ Minho, Portugal; London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, England.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sharmi, Rubaiya Zaman
    Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Do pandemic, trade policy and world uncertainties affect oil price returns?2022Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 77, artikel-id 102705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the influence of pandemic and trade policy uncertainty on the dynamics of oil price returns over the two last decades, using a Mixed-Frequency Vector Autoregressive (MF-VAR) model. We find that pandemic uncertainty and, more importantly, trade policy uncertainty significantly explain EU Brent and WTI oil price returns. Additionally, pandemic and trade policy uncertainty shocks are linked with lower (higher) oil price returns in the short-term (medium-term). Finally, while our mixed-frequency approach captures the persistent response of oil price returns to the uncertainty shocks, the single common-frequency (i.e., quarterly) framework only uncovers a muted reaction.

  • 7.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A framework for studying outcomes in industrial symbiosis2021Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 151, artikel-id 111526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is likely that different industrial symbiosis collaborations will have different sets of winners and losers when it comes to benefits or costs. In this study we present an analytical framework intended for evaluating a wide-range of industrial symbiosis outcomes that will aid in research design. The framework provide a base for including a broader, but also, specific set of effects and outcomes (economic, environmental and social), including a diverse set of clearly defined actors. Used consistently, the framework can average out costs and benefits across actors in the whole society, so that each actor is more likely to (over time) realize net positive outcomes from a full set of industrial symbiosis applications. The analytical framework is developed by combining theory and concepts from the system of national accounts, the planetary boundaries, and the social foundation. The analytical framework is then applied in a state of the art review, analysing value and benefits in 56 industrial symbiosis research articles. Besides providing a robust model for analysing industrial symbiosis, the results show that private market-based outcomes are the dominant form of economic value and that nonmarket valuations are completely absent. Environmental outcomes mainly consist of decreased CO2 emissions, chemical pollution and water use. Social outcomes include private income and work and network effects for the companies involved in the industrial symbiosis.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hernandez, Jose Areola
    Independent Researcher.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dutta, Anupam
    School of Accounting & Finance, University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Do uncertainties affect biofuel prices?2021Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 148, nr May, s. 1-11, artikel-id 106006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the impact of geopolitical risk, U.S. economic policy uncertainty, financial stress, and market volatility on prices of U.S. and Brazilian ethanol and Malaysian palm oil. We use quantile autoregressive and quantile causality methods and provide evidence of ethanol and palm oil prices being asymmetrically influenced in the downside and upside by each of the uncertainty measures considered. Malaysian palm oil prices are more attuned to increases in uncertainty measures. Increases rather than decreases in uncertainty more strongly impact ethanol and palm oil prices. Uncertainty causes large negative price fluctuations in the biofuel commodities, while moderate uncertainty changes only moderately influence prices. Large uncertainty increases cause large or extreme positive changes in ethanol and palm oil prices. Implications of the results are discussed.

  • 9.
    Wadström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wittberg, Emanuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jayasekera, Ranadeva
    Trinity Business School, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Role of renewable energy on industrial output in Canada2019Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 81, s. 626-638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several scholars have highlighted the idea that energy consumption in general and consumption of renewable energy (RE) in particular may be a potential driver of economic growth. In this paper, we examine the relationship between RE production and economic activity in Canada between May 1966 and December 2015. By applying quantile causality (Troster, 2018), we adopt a nonlinear approach considering all quantiles of the distribution and analysing monthly data consisting of RE production and the Canadian Industrial Production Index (IPI). We find evidence of a nonlinear relationship in Canada, an important result that widely-used linear models fail to capture. Our main findings imply a unidirectional relationship going from the IPI to RE production, which supports the Conservation hypothesis. The directionality between RE and economic growth is sensitive to the market conditions in Canada.

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