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  • 1.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Integrated tracking and route classification for travel time estimation based on cellular network signalling data2020Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 1087-1096Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of using detailed cellular network signalling data for travel time estimation and route classification. Here, the authors propose a processing pipeline for estimating travel times and route classification based on Cell ID and received signal strength (RSS) measurements from a cellular network. The pipeline combines cellular fingerprinting, particle filtering, integrity monitoring, and map matching based on a hidden Markov model (HMM). The method is evaluated using a dataset of 11,000 cellular RSS measurements with corresponding GPS locations for the city of Norrkoping, Sweden. The basic fingerprinting method has a CEP-67 location accuracy of 111 m and both particle filtering and integrity monitoring improved the results: 79 and 38 m for particle filtering and particle filtering with integrity monitoring, respectively. The route classification method resulted in a precision of 0.83 and a recall of 0.92, which are clear improvements compared to basic map matching of fingerprinting estimates. This new type of noise-adaptive travel time sampling in combination with an HMM-based route classification shows promising results and can potentially support large-scale estimates of both route choice and travel times using detailed cellular network signalling data in urban areas.

  • 2.
    Fowler, Scott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shahidullah, Ahmed Omar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Osman, Mohammed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analytical evaluation of extended DRX with additional active cycles for light traffic2015Ingår i: The International Journal of Computer Networks (COMNET), Elsevier, ISSN 1389-1286, Vol. 77, s. 90-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract LTE and LTE-Advanced mobile technologies have integrated discontinuous reception (DRX) power saving method to optimize the power consumption at the user equipment (UE). The DRX method was proposed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), and since then, the traffic behavior has been analyzed in several studies with a standard 3-state DRX model to describe the trade-off between power saving and delay. In this paper, we presented a novel 4-state and 5-state 3GPP LTE DRX mechanisms. The proposed mechanisms were developed by augmenting (an) active state(s) to deep and/or light sleep cycle of standard 3-state DRX for handling a small burst of packets, thereby bypassing the process of returning to the timer-dependent active mode. We have generated analytical models using a semi-Markov process for bursty packet data traffic and evaluated these augmented DRX mechanisms against a standard 3-state DRX method. Overall, the analytical results from varying timing parameters showed that our augmented DRX (both 4-state and 5-state) improved power saving factor (ranging between 1% and 8%) and reduced delay (ranging between 20% and 60%) compared to the standard 3-state DRX. Furthermore, the magnitude of improvement for both delay and power-saving was somewhat greater in 5-state than 4-state.

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  • 3.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Smartphone As Enabler for Road Traffic Information Based on Cellular Network Signalling2013Ingår i: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 2106-2112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher penetration rate of GPS-enabled smartphones together with their improved processing power and battery life makes them suitable for a number of participatory sensing applications. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how GPS-enabled smartphones can be used in a participatory sensing context to build a radio map for RSS-based positioning, with a special focus on road traffic information based on cellular network signalling. The CEP-67 location accuracy achieved is 75 meters for both GSM and UMTS using Bayesian classification. For this test site, the accuracy is similar for GSM and UMTS, with slightly better results for UMTS in the CEP-95 error metric. The location accuracy achieved is good enough to avoid large errors in travel time estimation for highway environments, especially considering the possibility to filter out estimates with low accuracy using for example the posterior bin probability in Bayesian classification. For urban environments more research is required to determine how the location accuracy will affect the path inference problem in a dense road network. The location accuracy achieved in this paper is also sufficient for other traffic information types, for example origin-destination estimation based on location area updates.

  • 4.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Smartphone as Enabler for Road Traffic Information Based on Cellular Network Signalling2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher penetration rate of GPS-enabled smartphones together with their improved processing power and battery life makes them suitable for a nu mber of participatory sensing applications. The purpose of this paper is to an alyse how GPS-enabled smartphones can be used in a participatory sensingcontext to build a radio map for RSS-based positioning, with a special focus on road traffic information based on cellular network signalling.

    The CEP-67 location accuracy achieved is 75 meters for both GSM and UMTS using Bayesian classification. For this test site, the accuracy is similar for GSM and UMTS, with slightly better results for UMTS in the CEP-95 error metric.

    The location accuracy achieved is good enough to avoid large errors in travel time estimation for highway environments, especially considering the possibility to filter out estimates with low accuracy using for example the posterior bin probability in Bayesian classification. For urban environments more research is required to determine how the location accuracy will affect the path inference problem in a dense road network. The location accuracy achieved in this paper is also sufficient for other traffic information types, for example origin-destination estimation based on location area updates.

  • 5.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Real-time bandwidth measurements over mobile connections2011Ingår i: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 255-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first study that investigates the characteristics of received probe packets and the reliability of bandwidth estimates when actively measuring the available bandwidth over radio interfaces in mobile communication networks is presented. Knowledge of available bandwidth is very useful in various contexts, e. g. in network management and adaptive streaming applications. Bandwidth measuring tools have so far primarily been designed for and evaluated in wired networks. However, such tools should also be examined in wireless networks since the use of, e. g., mobile broadband is rapidly increasing. The properties of wired and wireless links differ substantially, which affect the performance of the tools. We have made active-probing experiments over a high-speed downlink shared channel, which is used for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in the mobile communication technology UMTS, and over a forward traffic channel in CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. Both experiments were performed over commercial networks. They show that one cannot always expect uniform per-packet processing over the radio channel in mobile networks, which is expected by many probing tools. This reduces the reliability of the available-bandwidth estimates, however we suggest how this can be handled. Finally, the mobile-network measurements are compared to experiments performed in an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN, where the radio channel does not create the same packet-processing behaviour. We also discuss the possibility of using the probe traffic for the purpose of identifying the communication technology at the bottleneck of the network path, assumed this is a wireless broadband link, by mapping specifications of standardised communication technologies to observed probe-traffic characteristics.

  • 6.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Performance Study of Bandwidth Measurement Tools over Mobile Connections2009Ingår i: 2009 IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference Spring: Proceedings, IEEE , 2009, s. 2978-2982Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of the present available bandwidth on a network path is essential in numerous contexts, such as network management and streaming applications. A network path nowadays often contains at least one wireless link. This is obviously true for mobile users having a wireless connection to the Internet through a laptop or mobile terminal. The existing tools for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth are developed and optimized for paths with only guided media links. Since the characteristics for wired links and radio links differ in many aspects, such as fluctuations in capacity and stability, the network tools need to be evaluated also for network paths containing wireless links. In this investigation we have performed experiments over a high-speed downlink UMTS channel. This makes the present paper unique in the sense that it evaluates and analyzes the applicability of available-bandwidth measurement tools over a radio interface in a wide-area mobile communication network. For the experiments, a commercial mobile network has been used. The measurements show that it is feasible to achieve reliable estimates under certain circumstances. However, some cases pose challenges which motivate further studies.

  • 7.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Handover location accuracy for travel time estimation in GSM and UMTS2009Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 87-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Field measurements from the GSM and UMTS networks are analysed in a road traffic information context. The measurements indicate a potentially large improvement using UMTS signalling data compared with GSM regarding handover location accuracy. These improvements can be used to generate real-time traffic information with higher quality and extend the geographic usage area for cellular-based travel time estimation systems. The results con. rm previous reports indicating that the technology has a large potential in GSM and also show that the potential might be even larger and more. exible using UMTS. Assuming that non-vehicle terminals can be. ltered out, that vehicles are tracked to the correct route and that handovers can be predicted correctly, a conclusion from the experiments is that the handover location accuracy in both GSM and UMTS will be sufficient to estimate useful travel times, also in urban environments. In a real system, these tasks are typically very challenging, especially in an urban environment. Further, it is reasonably established that the location error will be minor for the data obtained from UMTS.

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  • 8.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nearest neighbour route classification in travel time estiimation based on cellular network signalling2009Ingår i: 16th ITS world congress, 2009, s. 1-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekelin, S.
    Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Real-time available-bandwidth estimation using filtering and change detection2009Ingår i: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, Vol. 53, nr 15, s. 2617-2645Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a filter-based method BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time) for real-time estimation of end-to-end available bandwidth in packet-switched communication networks. BART relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe-packet pairs. The method is light-weight with respect to computation and memory requirements, and performs well when only a small amount of probe traffic is injected. BART uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation. It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separation in a sequence of probe-packet pairs. It is possible to tune BART according to specific needs. The estimation performance can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique. An implementation of BART has been evaluated in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic. In addition, experiments have been performed over the Internet as well as over a mobile broadband connection. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Road Traffic Estimation using Cellular Network Signaling in Intelligent Transportation Systems2009Ingår i: Wireless technologies in Intelligent Transportation Systems / [ed] Ming-Tuo Zhou, Yan Zhang, Laurence T Yang, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers , 2009, s. 1-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Intelligent Transportation Systems the introduction of wireless communications is reshaping the information distribution concept, and is one of the most important enabling technologies. The distribution of real-time traffic information, scheduling and route-guidance information is helping the transportation management systems in their strive to optimize the system. The communication required to transfer all this information is rather expensive in terms of transmission power, use of the scarce resources of frequencies and also the building of an infrastructure to support the transceivers. By using information that already exists and is exchanged within the infrastructures of the GSM and UMTS networks, a lot of the resource problems are solved. The information that could be extracted from these cellular networks could be used to obtain accurate road traffic information to support real-time traffic information. In this way the cellular networks not only becomes the means to distribute information but also a source of road traffic information.

    From the analysis made it is obvious that the potential of retrieving valuable road traffic information from cellular systems in a cost efficient way, i.e. by using already existing signalling data, is very high. It has however not been clear what to expect from these systems in terms of accuracy, availability and coverage. In this chapter the basics for this is laid out and discussed in detail. A practical trial has also been performed and the results show clearly the potential as well as the differences in using the GSM compared to the UMTS system. The advantages and drawbacks are discussed and backed up by real measurements from an existing road segment environment. The main advantages of using the existing signalling data, i.e., passive monitoring compared to active monitoring where the terminal sends extra data is discussed and could be summarized in three components, no user acceptance is necessary, no extra signalling is necessary and it does not drain the terminal battery.

    In the future it is likely that vehicles need to communicate more frequently with each other and with some kind of traffic control centre. This traffic will also be very useful in order to estimate road traffic information using the signalling information obtained from the cellular system. However, the enhanced communication systems will also change traffic patterns in the cellular networks which will affect the potential of estimating road traffic from cellular systems. The evolvement indicates that the terminals will be in active state almost constantly, and hence the updating information will be more frequent and the information more accurate.

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  • 11.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Route Classification in Travel Time Estimation Based on Cellular Network Signaling2009Ingår i: Proceedings of 12th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSC), October 3-7, St. Louis, USA, 2009, s. 474-479Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel time estimation based on cellular network signaling is a promising technology for delivery of wide area travel times in real-time. The technology has received much attention recently, but few academic research reports has so far been published in the area, which together with uncertain location estimates and environmental dependent performance makes it difficult to assess the potential of the technology. This paper aims to investigate the route classification task in a cellular travel time estimation context in detail. In order to estimate the magnitude of the problem, two classification algorithms are developed, one based on nearest neighbor classification and one based on Bayesian classification. These are then evaluated using field measurements from the GSM network. A conclusion from the results is that the route classification problem is not trivial even in a highway environment, due to effects of multipath propagation and changing radio environment. In a highway environment the classification problem can be solved rather efficiently using e.g., one of the methods described in this paper, keeping the effect on travel time accuracy low. However, in order to solve the route classification task in urban environments more research is required.

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  • 12.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Mileros, Martin D
    FlexToll AB.
    Furdös, Alexander
    FlexToll AB.
    A Novel Approach to Road User Charging based on Cellular Networks and UCPI2008Ingår i: European Congress on ITS,2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Mileros, Martin D
    FlexToll AB.
    Furdös, Alexander
    FlexToll AB.
    Autonomous Cellular Road User Charging Based On Unique Cell Point Identification2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 14.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Bandwidth Estimation over a High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel in UMTS2008Ingår i: Nordic Conference on Radio Science and Communications RVK,2008, Sweden: RVK , 2008, s. 73-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Network Control Lab., Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Network Control Lab., Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Change Detection and Estimation for Network-Measurement Applications2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM workshop on Performance monitoring and measurement of heterogeneous wireless and wired networks, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2007, s. 1-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

       This paper presents a method for improving filter-based network-state estimation by adding detection and estimation of sudden changes in the system state. This can be of benefit in various contexts, e.g. in network management and adaptive streaming applications. In particular, it is shown that the performance of available-bandwidth estimation can be significantly enhanced by employing change detection in conjunction with a filter-based estimator. The use of filtering makes it feasible to track the communication network state and to estimate selected properties in real-time. In addition, filter-based methods may be combined with change detection in order to overcome the trade-off regarding stable estimation versus speed of adaptation to change. We discuss filtering and change detection in general, and present the novel approach of combining the filter-based available-bandwidth estimator BART with the Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) change-detection test, which estimates both the time and magnitude of changes.

  • 16.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Handover Location Accuracy for Travel Time Estimation in GSM and UMTS2007Ingår i: ITS World Congress,2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Generating Road Traffic Information from Cellular Networks - New Possibilities in UMTS2006Ingår i: Proceedings 2006 6th International Conference onITS Telecommunications / [ed] Guangjun Wen, Shozo Komaki, Pingzhi Fan and Grabrielle Landrac, 2006, s. 1128-1133Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes different approaches to collecting road traffic information from second-generation cellular systems (GSM) and point out the possibilities that arise when third generation systems (UMTS) are used. Cell breathing is a potential problem, but smaller cells, soft handover and flexible measurements have the potential to increase the usage area and information quality when road traffic information is extracted from the UMTS network compared to using the GSM network

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  • 18.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Adjustment of the BART Kalman Filter to Improve Real-Time Estimation of End-to-End Available Bandwidth2005Ingår i: Proceedings of SNCNW 2005, Sweden: SNCNW , 2005, s. 56-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns simulation results using the network simulator ns-2 to validate the end-to-end available bandwidth estimation ability of the real-time measurement tool BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time). In addition to an active probing scheme, this method applies Kalman filtering in order to produce available bandwidth estimates. Simulation results show that clever use of an adjustable filter parameter yields great possibilities of achieving highly accurate estimates, even in the presence of harsh circumstances.

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