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  • 1.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för molekylär medicin och virologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Govender, Melissa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för molekylär medicin och virologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Martinsson, Klara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Potempa, Lawrence A.
    Roosevelt Univ, IL USA.
    Rajab, Ibraheem M.
    Roosevelt Univ, IL USA.
    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael
    Univ Louisville, KY USA.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för molekylär medicin och virologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Conformational state of C-reactive protein is critical for reducing immune complex-triggered type I interferon response: Implications for pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmune diseases imprinted by type I interferon gene dysregulation2023Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 135, artikel-id 102998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of autoantibodies targeting nuclear constituents, i.e., double-stranded DNA and small nuclear ribonu-cleoproteins (snRNPs), remain a cornerstone in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fc gamma receptor IIa (Fc gamma RIIa) dependent uptake of nucleic acid containing immune complexes (ICs) by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) can activate toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as TLR7 and TLR9 resulting in type I interferon (IFN) production. Pre-viously, the classical liver-derived acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) has been suggested to reduce IC -induced type I IFN production, whereas monomeric (mCRP) vs. pentameric (pCRP) mediated effects have not yet been unraveled. Herein, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or enriched blood DCs from healthy vol-unteers were stimulated with SLE sera, snRNP-IgG (ICs), or TLR ligands with or without pCRP, mCRP, or anti- Fc gamma RIIa antibody. Type I IFNs and cytokine responses were investigated using quantitative PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. pCRP inhibited IFN gene expression in PBMCs and enriched DCs after incubation with ICs, compared to ICs alone, whereas mCRP had significantly less inhibitory effect. The effect was independent on the order in which IC or CRP was added to the cells. In addition, pCRP inhibited IFN induced by other TLR stimulators, implicating broader inhibitory effects induced by pCRP. We demonstrate pronounced immunoregulatory functions of CRP whereas the inhibitory properties were evidently dependent on CRPs intact conformational state. The inhibition of type I IFNs was not due to competition of Fc gamma Rs, or binding of CRP to the ICs. Our findings have implications for autoimmune IC-mediated conditions imprinted by type I IFN gene dysregulation.

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  • 2.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Potempa, Lawrence A.
    Roosevelt Univ, IL USA.
    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael
    Univ Louisville, KY USA.
    ONeill, Yasmine
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Mobarrez, Fariborz
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Extracellular vesicles opsonized by monomeric C-reactive protein (CRP) are accessible as autoantigens in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and associate with autoantibodies against CRP2023Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 139, artikel-id 103073Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein now known to be able to undergo dissociation into a monomeric, modified isoform, referred to as mCRP. In carefully assessing the bioactivities of each isoform, mCRP has strong pro-inflammatory activities while pCRP has mild anti-inflammatory activities. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease characterized by a vast number of autoantibodies, including anti-CRP autoan-tibodies which have been associated with SLE disease activity and lupus nephritis. The origin of these autoan-tibodies is currently unknown. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in SLE pathogenesis as they can expose nuclear antigens on their outside surface, thereby being a potential adjuvant for the generation of au-toantibodies. Herein, we studied exposure of both pCRP and mCRP on EVs in SLE plasma and the implications of each in disease activity, organ damage and clinical manifestations. We used flow cytometry to detect CRP iso-forms on EV surfaces in 67 well-characterized SLE patients and 60 sex-and age-matched healthy controls. Au-toantibodies against mCRP were measured using ELISA. We found an abundance of both pCRP and mCRP on SLE EVs compared to controls. Furthermore, mCRP+ but not pCRP+ EVs were elevated in patients with active disease and in anti-CRP positive patients. The proportions of mCRP+ EVs were lower in patients with acquired organ damage, especially in patients with lupus nephritis (LN), and displayed an inverse relationship with disease duration in LN and patients with active disease. Speculatively, these data suggest EV-bound mCRP as a relevant factor in SLE pathogenesis, which could contribute to development of anti-CRP autoantibodies by stimulating an immune response.

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  • 3.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jönsson, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Weiner, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Zachrisson, Helene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Limited Association between Antibodies to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Vascular Affection in Patients with Established Systemic Lupus Erythematosus2023Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 24, nr 10, artikel-id 8987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate whether antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-oxLDL) were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with different SLE phenotypes (lupus nephritis, antiphospholipid syndrome, and skin and joint involvement). Anti-oxLDL was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 60 patients with SLE, 60 healthy controls (HCs) and 30 subjects with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Intima-media thickness (IMT) assessment of vessel walls and plaque occurrence were recorded using high-frequency ultrasound. In the SLE cohort, anti-oxLDL was again assessed in 57 of the 60 individuals approximately 3 years later. The levels of anti-oxLDL in the SLE group (median 5829 U/mL) were not significantly different from those in the HCs group (median 4568 U/mL), while patients with AAV showed significantly higher levels (median 7817 U/mL). The levels did not differ between the SLE subgroups. A significant correlation was found with IMT in the common femoral artery in the SLE cohort, but no association with plaque occurrence was observed. The levels of anti-oxLDL antibodies in the SLE group were significantly higher at inclusion compared to 3 years later (median 5707 versus 1503 U/mL, p < 0.0001). Overall, we found no convincing support for strong associations between vascular affection and anti-oxLDL antibodies in SLE.

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  • 4.
    Lewander, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Norrköping. Vrinnevi Hosp, Sweden.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a single-center Swedish case-control study2023Ingår i: Pediatric Rheumatology, E-ISSN 1546-0096, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikel-id 49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesReliable biomarkers in the early stages of idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are scarce and the disease heterogeneity makes it clinically challenging to predict the risk of joint damage. Biomarkers with prognostic potential are warranted in order to individualize treatment and follow-up in JIA. The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been reported as an easily measurable biomarker for prognosis and severity in several rheumatic diseases but it has never been studied in JIA.MethodsSera from 51 well-characterized patients with JIA and 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects were collected and stored for later analysis of suPAR. Patients were carefully followed clinically over 3 years and analysis of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) were analyzed as part of clinical routine. Signs of joint erosions were evaluated by radiography.ResultsOverall, the levels of suPAR did not differ significantly between JIA patients and controls but those with polyarticular involvement showed higher suPAR (p = 0.013). In addition, elevated suPAR were associated with joint erosions (p = 0.026). Two RF/anti-CCP negative individuals with erosions showed high levels of suPAR.ConclusionsWe present new data on the biomarker suPAR in JIA. Our results indicate that, apart from RF and anti-CCP, analysis of suPAR could be of additional value in assessing the risk of erosions. Analysis of suPAR early could potentially guide treatment decision-making in JIA, but our observations should be confirmed in prospective studies.

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  • 5.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Weiner, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael
    Univ Louisville, KY 40292 USA.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Associations of C-reactive protein isoforms with systemic lupus erythematosus phenotypes and disease activity2022Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 24, nr 1, artikel-id 139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a large production of autoantibodies and deficient clearance of cellular waste. The disease typically oscillates between episodes of elevated disease activity and quiescent disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric acute-phase protein usually reflecting inflammation and tissue damage. However, despite increased inflammation and elevated interleukin-6, the levels of CRP typically remain low or only slightly raised in SLE. Under certain conditions, pentameric CRP (pCRP) can dissociate into its monomeric isoform (mCRP), which mainly has been ascribed pro-inflammatory properties. The present study aims to investigate the potential relationship between pCRP and mCRP, respectively, with disease activity and clinical features of SLE. Methods The levels of pCRP and mCRP were measured, by turbidimetry (high-sensitive) and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively, in serum samples from 160 patients with SLE and 30 patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Twenty-two of the SLE cases were selected for analysis at two time-points; quiescent disease and active disease. The two CRP isoforms were evaluated in relation to disease activity and clinical features in the two diseases. Results Levels of pCRP and mCRP were significantly lower in SLE than AAV (p < 0.001) and the ratio of mCRP/pCRP was higher in SLE compared to AAV. The mCRP/pCRP ratio was higher for patients in remission and able to significantly separate between active/quiescent disease in paired, but not in non-paired, samples from patients with SLE. Significant correlations were observed with SLICC/ACR damage index for pCRP levels as well as inversely with the mCRP/pCRP ratio. Lower mCRP levels associated with malar rash. Conclusion As the interrelationship between the two isoforms appear to (a) discriminate between quiescent and active SLE and (b) differ between SLE and AAV, our data indicates that the two CRP isoforms could exert contrasting immunological effects and/or reflect different milieus. Given the biological effects of mCRP, it is possible that altered levels may indicate increased opsonization of immune complexes and apoptotic debris, and thereby prevent their deposition outside the reticuloendothelial system and manifestations such as lupus nephritis and lupus-related skin disease.

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  • 6.
    Martinsson, Klara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lyttbacka Kling, Lovisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Roos-Ljungberg, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Griazeva, Irina
    Russian Res Ctr Radiol & Surg Technol, Russia.
    Samoylovich, Marina
    Russian Res Ctr Radiol & Surg Technol, Russia.
    Paul, Stephane
    Univ Lyon, France.
    Ronnelid, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Weitoft, Tomas
    Uppsala Univ Reg Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Extramucosal Formation and Prognostic Value of Secretory Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis2022Ingår i: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 74, nr 5, s. 801-809Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate levels and possible extramucosal formation of secretory Ig, including anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    Methods Three patient groups were studied: 1) ACPA-positive patients with musculoskeletal pain without clinical arthritis, 2) patients with recent-onset RA, and 3) patients with established RA. In baseline serum samples (groups 1 and 2) and paired synovial fluid samples (group 3), we analyzed total secretory IgA, total secretory IgM, free secretory component (SC), and SC-containing ACPA. Extramucosal formation of SC-containing ACPA was investigated by preincubating RA sera and affinity-purified ACPA with recombinant free SC.

    Results Compared to healthy controls, serum levels of total secretory IgA and total secretory IgM were increased both in patients with early RA and at-risk patients (P < 0.05). Patients with early RA with elevated total secretory Ig had significantly higher disease activity during the 3-year follow-up period compared to those without increased levels. At-risk patients who developed arthritis during follow-up (39 of 82) had higher baseline total secretory IgA levels compared to those who did not (P = 0.041). In established RA, total secretory IgA and total secretory IgM levels were higher in serum than in synovial fluid (P < 0.0001), but SC-containing ACPAs adjusted for total secretory Ig concentration were higher in synovial fluid (P < 0.0001). Preincubation with recombinant free SC yielded increased SC-containing ACPA reactivity in sera as well as in affinity-purified IgA and IgM ACPA preparations.

    Conclusion Circulating secretory Ig are elevated before and at RA onset. In the presence of free SC, secretory Ig may form outside the mucosa, and SC-containing ACPAs are enriched in RA joints. These findings shed important new light on the mucosal connection in RA development.

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  • 7.
    Saleh, Muna Atallah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Compagno, Michele
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Pihl, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken US.
    Strevens, Helena
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Barbro
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Variation of Complement Protein Levels in Maternal Plasma and Umbilical Cord Blood during Normal Pregnancy: An Observational Study2022Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 11, nr 13, artikel-id 3611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complement system constitutes a crucial part of the innate immunity, mediating opsonization, lysis, inflammation, and elimination of potential pathogens. In general, there is an increased activity of the complement system during pregnancy, which is essential for maintaining the hosts defense and fetal survival. Unbalanced or excessive activation of the complement system in the placenta is associated with pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and premature birth. Nonetheless, the actual clinical value of monitoring the activation of the complement system during pregnancy remains to be investigated. Unfortunately, normal reference values specifically for pregnant women are missing, and for umbilical cord blood (UCB), data on complement protein levels are scarce. Herein, complement protein analyses (C1q, C3, C4, C3d levels, and C3d/C3 ratio) were performed in plasma samples from 100 healthy, non-medicated and non-smoking pregnant women, collected during different trimesters and at the time of delivery. In addition, UCB was collected at all deliveries. Maternal plasma C1q and C3d/C3 ratio showed the highest mean values during the first trimester, whereas C3, C4, and C3d had rising values until delivery. We observed low levels of C1q and C4 as well as increased C3d and C3d/C3 ratio, particularly during the first trimester, as a sign of complement activation in some women. However, the reference limits of complement analyses applied for the general population appeared appropriate for the majority of the samples. As expected, the mean complement concentrations in UCB were much lower than in maternal plasma, due to the immature complement system in neonates.

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  • 8.
    Roos, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Klara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Svärd, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Circulating anti-citrullinated protein antibodies containing secretory component are prognostic for arthritis onset in at-risk patients2021Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 204, nr 3, s. 344-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoantibodies related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), such as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), are often detectable in the preclinical period years before arthritis onset. However, events triggering arthritis development remain incompletely known. We aimed to determine whether ACPA isotype levels are prognostic for arthritis development in patients presenting with immunoglobulin (Ig)G ACPA and musculoskeletal pain. Study participants (n = 82) had musculoskeletal pain of any sort and duration and a positive IgG ACPA test. None of the patients had arthritis upon clinical examination at baseline, but during follow-up (mean = 6 years), 48% developed at least one arthritic joint. IgG, IgA, IgM and secretory component (SC)-containing ACPA was measured in longitudinally collected serum samples. Cox regression analysis was performed to test the prognostic value of baseline antibody levels and changes over time. All analysed ACPA isotype levels were associated with arthritis development in univariable Cox regression analysis. In multivariable analysis, baseline SC ACPA levels were independently prognostic for arthritis development in multivariable analysis [hazard ratio (HR) = 1 center dot 006, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1 center dot 001-1 center dot 010, P = 0 center dot 012]. There were no significant changes in ACPA isotype levels over time, and no significant association between changes over time and arthritis development. In this prospective longitudinal study, baseline serum SC ACPA levels, but neither IgG, IgA nor IgM ACPA are prognostic for future arthritis development. Repeated measurement of ACPA isotypes do not bring additional prognostic value. The results reinforce a mucosal connection in RA development and encourage further exploration of the mechanisms underlying secretory ACPA formation as a trigger for arthritis development.

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  • 9.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Gullstrand, Birgitta
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för molekylär medicin och virologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för molekylär medicin och virologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Comparison of Surrogate Markers of the Type I Interferon Response and Their Ability to Mirror Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 12, artikel-id 688753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Type I interferons (IFNs) are central and reflective of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, IFN-alpha levels are notoriously difficult to measure and the type I IFN gene signature (IGS) is not yet available in clinical routine. This study evaluates galectin-9 and an array of chemokines/cytokines in their potential as surrogate markers of type I IFN and/or SLE disease activity. Methods Healthy controls and well-characterized Swedish SLE patients from two cross-sectional cohorts (n=181; n=59) were included, and a subgroup (n=21) was longitudinally followed. Chemokine/cytokine responses in immune complex triggered IFN-alpha activity was studied in healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Levels of chemokines/cytokines and galectin-9 were measured by immunoassays. Gene expression was quantified by qPCR. Results The IGS was significantly (p<0.01) correlated with galectin-9 (rho=0.54) and CXCL10 (rho=0.37) levels whereas serum IFN-alpha correlated with galectin-9 (rho=0.36), CXCL10 (rho=0.39), CCL19 (rho=0.26) and CCL2 (rho=0.19). The strongest correlation was observed between galectin-9 and TNF (rho=0.56). IFN-alpha and disease activity (SLEDAI-2K) were correlated (rho=0.20) at cross-sectional analysis, but no significant associations were found between SLEDAI-2K and galectin-9 or chemokines. Several inflammatory mediators increased at disease exacerbation although CCL19, CXCL11, CXCL10, IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist were most pronounced. Immune complex-stimulation of PBMC increased the production of CCL2, CXCL8 and TNF. Conclusion Galectin-9 and CXCL10 were associated with type I IFN in SLE but correlated stronger with TNF. None of the investigated biomarkers showed a convincing association with disease activity, although CXCL10 and CCL19 performed best in this regard.

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  • 10.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gullstrand, Birgitta
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    C-Reactive Protein Levels in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Are Modulated by the Interferon Gene Signature and CRP Gene Polymorphism rs12052021Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 11, artikel-id 622326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often display modest elevations of C-reactive protein (CRP) despite raised disease activity and increased interleukin (IL-) 6. We asked to what extent IL-6 levels, the CRP polymorphism rs1205, and the type I interferon (IFN) gene signature affects the basal CRP levels in patients with SLE during a quiescent phase of the disease. Methods CRP and IL-6 were analyzed in plasma from 57 patients meeting established classification criteria for SLE. The CRP polymorphism rs1205 was assessed and gene expression analyzed including four type I IFN-regulated genes (IGS). Results CRP was increased in patients with detectable IL-6 levels (p=0.001) and decreased among IGS-positive subjects (p=0.033). A multiple linear regression model revealed IL-6 to have a positive association with CRP levels, whereas both IGS-positivity and CRP genotype (rs1205) AA/GA were negatively associated with CRP-levels. Conclusion Our data offer an explanation to the modest CRP levels seen in viral infections and IFN-alpha driven autoimmunity and corroborate prior observations showing an IFN-alpha dependent downregulation of CRP. The latter observation, together with the fact that the CRP-lowering polymorphism rs1205 is overrepresented in human SLE, could explain low basal CRP and inadequate CRP-responses among patients with active SLE.

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  • 11.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    von Lohneysen, Sarah
    Univ Leipzig, Germany.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Garvin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Forskningsstrategiska enheten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Pentraxin-3 detected in human saliva shows limited correlation with biomarkers associated with systemic inflammation2021Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 129, nr 6, s. 304-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a conserved protein of the innate immune system which has been less studied than the pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP), but it is of relevance in, for example, vascular pathology and pregnancy morbidities. Since the interest in salivary biomarkers in general is increasing, we asked whether PTX3 could be detected in saliva and if any substantial diurnal variation occurs. In addition, we evaluated association with biomarkers of systemic inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8 and CRP), body mass index (BMI), smoking, and age. PTX3 in morning and evening saliva from 106 middle-aged participants of the general population was investigated by ELISA and total protein levels by spectrophotometry. PTX3 was detectable in saliva, and concentrations varied over the day with higher morning concentrations, but the PTX3 relative protein levels (percentage of total protein) were significantly higher in the evening. Sex and age did not impact salivary PTX3, but smoking was associated with lower PTX3 levels. BMI correlated positively with PTX3 in evening saliva. There was no general association with biomarkers of systemic inflammation, except for IL-6. Salivary PTX3 likely reflects the local inflammatory milieu, and adjustments for sampling time, smoking habits, and BMI are needed to adequately interpret PTX3 in saliva.

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  • 12.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Pihl, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken US.
    Saleh, Muna Atallah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Pentraxin-3 Reference Intervals During Normal Pregnancy2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 12, artikel-id 722118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several biomarkers are available to monitor the acute phase response, the short pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP) is dominating in clinical practice. The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is structurally and functionally related to CRP, but not liver-derived. In addition, increased levels of PTX3 have been linked to preeclampsia. Reference intervals are usually based on healthy blood donors. Several physiological and immunological alterations occur during normal pregnancy with subsequent potential effects on blood analytes. Hence, this study aims to determine pregnancy-specific reference intervals for CRP and PTX3. Longitudinal clinical data and blood plasma samples from the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester of 100 healthy, non-medicating, females aged 18-40 at the time-point of conception were available to us. High-sensitivity CRP measurements were performed by turbidimetry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify PTX3. CRP and PTX3 levels followed each other during the first two trimesters and both increased during the third trimester. CRP showed a median of 4.12 mg/L in the third trimester, and were significantly higher compared to the first (median 2.39 mg/L, p < 0.0001) and the second (median 2.44 mg/L, p=0.0006) trimesters. In the third trimester PTX3 levels reached a median of 7.70 mu g/L, and were significantly higher compared to the first (median 3.33 mu g/L, p < 0.0001) and the second (median 3.70 mu g/L, p < 0.0001) trimesters. Plasma albumin was inversely correlated with CRP (rho=-0.27, p < 0.0001), but not with PTX3. In conclusion, it is important to consider pregnancy-specific reference values as elevations of CRP and PTX3 during the later phase may occur in absence of infection.

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  • 13.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Saleh, Muna Atallah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Svensson, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Compagno, Michele
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Helene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Plasma osteopontin versus intima media thickness of the common carotid arteries in well-characterised patients with systemic lupus erythematosus2021Ingår i: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 1244-1253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The progress of accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is incompletely understood. Circulating osteopontin (OPN) is increased in autoimmune conditions, e.g. SLE, and its serum concentration was recently reported to associate with subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE, as measured by carotid intima-media thickness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether OPN may be used as a surrogate biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients with different disease phenotypes. Methods We recruited 60 well-characterised SLE cases and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The SLE cases were divided into three different disease phenotypes: SLE with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), lupus nephritis, and isolated skin and joint involvement. Plasma OPN was detected by ELISA (Quantikine (R), R&D Systems). Common carotid arteries intima media thickness was compared between the studied groups in relation to OPN levels and risk factors for vascular changes. Intima media thickness of common carotid arteries was measured by using a sensitive ultrasound technique (LOGIQ (TM) E9 ultrasound, GE Healthcare). Results OPN levels were significantly higher among the entire SLE group (n = 60) compared to the healthy controls (P = 0.03). SLE cases with concomitant APS (n = 20) showed higher OPN levels than the controls (P = 0.004), whereas none of the other two subgroups differed significantly from the healthy controls. OPN and intima media thickness were correlated to several traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis, as well as to SLE-related factors. Yet, no significant correlation was observed between OPN levels and ultrasound findings of the common carotid arteries. Conclusions In line with previous studies, we observed increased OPN levels among SLE patients as compared to matched controls. However, the OPN concentrations did not correlate with intima media thickness of the common carotid arteries. Based on our findings, the use of OPN as a surrogate biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE subjects, regardless of clinical phenotypes, cannot be recommended.

  • 14.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    von Löhneysen, Sarah
    Univ Leipzig, Germany.
    Cobar, Flordelyn
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Garvin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Forskningsstrategiska enheten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Pronounced Diurnal Pattern of Salivary C-Reactive Protein (CRP) With Modest Associations to Circulating CRP Levels2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 11, artikel-id 607166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a humoral component of the innate immune system with important functions in host-defense, is extensively used as a sensitive biomarker of systemic inflammation. During inflammation, hepatocyte-derived CRP rises dramatically in the blood due to increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Reliable detection of CRP in saliva, instead of blood, would offer advantages regarding sampling procedure and availability but using saliva as a diagnostic body fluid comes with challenges. The aims of this study were to evaluate associations between salivary CRP, total protein levels in saliva and serum CRP. Furthermore, we examined associations with plasma IL-6, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking and age. Salivary CRP was investigated by ELISA in 107 middle-aged participants from the general population. We employed spectrophotometric determination of total protein levels. Correlation analyses were used for associations of salivary CRP with serum CRP (turbidimetry), plasma IL-6 (Luminex(R)), BMI and smoking habits. Salivary median CRP was 68% higher (p=0.009), and total protein levels were 167% higher (p<0.0001), in morning compared to evening saliva. The correlation coefficients between serum and salivary CRP were low to moderate, but stronger for evening than morning saliva. Plasma IL-6 correlated significantly with serum CRP (r(s)=0.41, p<0.01), but not with morning or evening salivary CRP. Non-smokers showed 103% higher salivary CRP levels (p=0.015), whereas serum CRP was independent of smoking status. As opposed to CRP in serum, salivary CRP was not associated with BMI. Salivary CRP was 90% higher among the age interval 60-69 years compared to subjects aged 45-59 (p=0.02) while serum CRP levels did not differ between the age groups. In conclusion, CRP in saliva did not straightforwardly reflect serum concentrations. This raises questions regarding adequate reflection of biological events. The pronounced diurnal salivary CRP pattern accentuates the importance of standardizing the time-point of sampling.

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  • 15.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Li, Hai-Yun
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Yi
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China; Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kushner, Irving
    Case Western Reserve Univ, OH 44109 USA.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    The Complex Role of C-Reactive Protein in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus2021Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 10, nr 24, artikel-id 5837Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is well-known as a sensitive albeit unspecific biomarker of inflammation. In most rheumatic conditions, the level of this evolutionarily highly conserved pattern recognition molecule conveys reliable information regarding the degree of ongoing inflammation, driven mainly by interleukin-6. However, the underlying causes of increased CRP levels are numerous, including both infections and malignancies. In addition, low to moderate increases in CRP predict subsequent cardiovascular events, often occurring years later, in patients with angina and in healthy individuals. However, autoimmune diseases characterized by the Type I interferon gene signature (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjogrens syndrome and inflammatory myopathies) represent exceptions to the general rule that the concentrations of CRP correlate with the extent and severity of inflammation. In fact, adequate levels of CRP can be beneficial in autoimmune conditions, in that they contribute to efficient clearance of cell remnants and immune complexes through complement activation/modulation, opsonization and phagocytosis. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that CRP constitutes an autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus. At the same time, the increased risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis are well-established, with significant impacts on quality of life, accrual of organ damage, and premature mortality. This review describes CRP-mediated biological effects and the regulation of CRP release in relation to aspects of cardiovascular disease and mechanisms of autoimmunity, with particular focus on systemic lupus erythematosus.

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  • 16.
    Martinsson, Klara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Roos, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Ziegelasch, Michael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Cedergren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Klimovich, Vladimir
    Russian Res Ctr Radiol and Surg Technol, Russia.
    Reckner Olsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Griazeva, Irina
    Russian Res Ctr Radiol and Surg Technol, Russia.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Samoylovich, Marina
    Russian Res Ctr Radiol and Surg Technol, Russia.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Elevated free secretory component in early rheumatoid arthritis and prior to arthritis development in patients at increased risk2020Ingår i: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 979-987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Considering growing evidence of mucosal involvement in RA induction, this study investigated circulating free secretory component (SC) in patients with either recent-onset RA or with ACPA and musculoskeletal pain. Methods. Two prospective cohorts were studied: TIRA-2 comprising 452 recent-onset RA patients with 3 years of clinical and radiological follow-up, and TIRx patients (n = 104) with ACPA IgG and musculoskeletal pain followed for 290 weeks (median). Blood donors and three different chronic inflammatory diseases served as controls. Free SC was analysed by sandwich ELISA. Results. Serum levels of free SC were significantly higher in TIRA-2 patients compared with TIRx and all control groups (P < 0.01). Among TIRx patients who subsequently developed arthritis, free SC levels were higher compared with all control groups (P < 0.05) except ankylosing spondylitis (P = 0.74). In TIRA-2, patients with ACPA had higher baseline levels of free SC compared with ACPA negative patients (P < 0.001). Free SC status at baseline did not predict radiographic joint damage or disease activity over time. In TIRx, elevated free SC at baseline trendwise associated with arthritis development during follow-up (P = 0.066) but this disappeared when adjusting for confounders (P = 0.72). Cigarette smoking was associated with higher levels of free SC in both cohorts. Conclusion. Serum free SC levels are increased in recent-onset RA compared with other inflammatory diseases, and associate with ACPA and smoking. Free SC is elevated before arthritis development among ACPA positive patients with musculoskeletal pain, but does not predict arthritis development. These findings support mucosal engagement in RA development.

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  • 17.
    Frodlund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Ronnelid, J.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Longitudinal anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) seroconversion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of Swedish cases with recent-onset disease2020Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 199, nr 3, s. 245-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy remains a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Whether or not IF-ANA status varies over time is controversial. We therefore designed a prospective study with longitudinal follow-up of patients with recent-onset SLE. The study population consisted of 54 recently diagnosed SLE cases, all meeting the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria. Clinical follow-up data, including disease activity, organ damage and sera, were collected from clinical onset of SLE and onwards, in most cases yearly (0-96 months). IF-ANA was analysed on human epithelial cells-2 (HEp-2) cells and categorized regarding staining patterns. Using an addressable laser bead assay (FIDIS (TM) Connective profile), we measured IgG-ANA fine specificities against Ro52/SSA, Ro60/SSA, Sjogrens syndrome type B antigen (La/SSB), Smith antigen (Sm), Smith antigen/ribonucleoprotein (Sm/RNP), U1 RNP (U1RNP), dsDNA, ribosomal-P protein and histone. At baseline, all patients were judged ANA-positive at an abnormal titre corresponding to the 95th percentile of healthy blood donors, but seven of 54 patients (13%) lost ANA-positivity over time. Homogeneous (AC-1; 46%) and speckled (AC-4 or 5; 31%) were the most frequently observed patterns at inclusion, whereas 7% switched pattern at least once during follow-up. Established associations between ANA fine specificities and clinical data were confirmed. Levels of anti-Sm/RNP, but not of anti-dsDNA, correlated with clinical disease activity [modified SLE disease activity 2000 (mSLEDAI-2K)]. Our data indicate that a considerable proportion of Swedish patients with SLE lose ANA-positivity over time, whereas consistent staining patterns were frequent. The clinical and mechanistic relevance of ANA seroconversion remains uncertain. Further prospective evaluations in larger SLE populations with more diverse ethnicities are warranted.

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  • 18.
    Roos, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Martinsson, Klara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Svärd, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Presence of salivary IgA anti-citrullinated protein antibodies associate with higher disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis2020Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundCirculating IgA anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) associate with more active disease, but a previous study implied that salivary IgA ACPA is related to a less severe disease. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the IgA ACPA response in the saliva and serum in relation to clinical picture and risk factors among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).MethodsRA patients (n=196) and healthy blood donors (n=101), included in the cross-sectional study "Secretory ACPA in Rheumatoid Arthritis" (SARA), were analyzed for ACPA of IgA isotype, and for subclasses IgA1 and IgA2 ACPA in paired saliva and serum samples using modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) targeting reactivity to a cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP). Cutoff levels for positive tests were set at the 99th percentile for blood donors. Antibody levels were related to clinical characteristics, radiographic damage, smoking habits, and carriage of HLA-DRB1/shared epitope (SE).ResultsIgA ACPA in the saliva was found in 12% of RA patients, IgA1 occurred in 10%, and IgA2 in 9%. In serum, IgA ACPA was found in 45% of the patients, IgA1 in 44%, and IgA2 in 39%. Levels of IgA ACPA in the saliva correlated significantly with serum levels of IgA (r=0.455). The presence of salivary IgA ACPA was associated with a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), 28-joint disease activity score, tender joint count, and patient global assessment at the time of sampling. None of the antibodies was associated with smoking, SE, or radiographic damage.ConclusionSalivary IgA ACPAs were detected in a subset of RA patients in association with higher disease activity. This suggests that mucosal ACPA responses in the oral cavity may contribute to disease-promoting processes in RA.

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  • 19.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Urowitz, Murray B.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Gladmane, Dafna D.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Romero-Diaz, Juanita
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med and Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico.
    Bae, Sang-Cheol
    Hanyang Univ, South Korea.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Univ Laval, Canada.
    Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Clarke, Ann E.
    Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Bernatsky, Sasha
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Gordon, Caroline
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Hanly, John G.
    Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Dalhousie Univ, Canada.
    Wallace, Daniel J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Isenberg, David A.
    UCL, England.
    Rahman, Anisur
    UCL, England.
    Merrill, Joan T.
    Oklahoma Med Res Fdn, OK 73104 USA.
    Ginzler, Ellen
    Suny Downstate Med Ctr, NY 11203 USA.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Chatham, W. Winn
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Petri, Michelle
    Johns Hopkins Univ, MD USA.
    Khamashta, Munther
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Aranow, Cynthia
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Mackay, Meggan
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Dooley, Mary Anne
    Univ N Carolina, NC 27515 USA.
    Manzi, Susan
    Allegheny Hlth Network, PA USA.
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60611 USA; Feinberg Sch Med, IL USA.
    Nived, Ola
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Steinsson, Kristjan
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Zoma, Asad A.
    Hairmyres Hosp, Scotland.
    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo
    Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Lim, S. Sam
    Emory Univ, GA USA.
    Kalunian, Kenneth C.
    UCSD Sch Med, CA USA.
    Inanc, Murat
    Istanbul Univ, Turkey.
    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Free Univ VU Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Rheumatol and Immunol Ctr, Netherlands.
    Ramos-Casals, Manuel
    Hosp Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Med Univ South Carolina, SC 29425 USA.
    Jacobsen, Soren
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Peschken, Christine A.
    Univ Manitoba, Canada.
    Askanase, Anca
    Columbia Univ, NY USA.
    Stoll, Thomas
    Kantousspital, Switzerland.
    Bruce, Ian N.
    Univ Manchester, England; Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels predict damage accrual in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus2020Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 106, artikel-id 102340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE.

    Methods

    Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI).

    Results

    The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03–1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007).

    Conclusion

    Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

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  • 20.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Urowitz, Murray B.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Gladman, Dafna D.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Romero-Diaz, Juanita
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med and Ntur, IL USA.
    Bae, Sang-Cheol
    Hanyang Univ Hosp Rheumat Dis, South Korea.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Univ Laval, Canada.
    Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge
    Univ Toronto, Canada; Toronto Western Hosp, Canada.
    Clarke, Ann E.
    Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Bernatsky, Sasha
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Gordon, Caroline
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Hanly, John G.
    Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Dalhousie Univ, Canada.
    Wallace, Daniel
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Isenberg, David A.
    UCL, England.
    Rahman, Anisur
    UCL, England.
    Merrill, Joan
    Oklahoma Med Res Fdn, OK 73104 USA.
    Ginzler, Ellen
    SUNY New York, NY USA.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Chatham, W. Winn
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Petri, Michelle
    Johns Hopkins Univ, MD USA.
    Khamashta, Munther
    St Thomas Hosp, England.
    Aranow, Cynthia
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Mackay, Meggan
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Dooley, Mary Anne
    Univ N Carolina, NC 27515 USA.
    Manzi, Susan
    Autoimmun Inst, PA USA.
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Northwestern Univ, IL USA; Feinberg Sch Med, IL USA.
    Nived, Ola
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Steinsson, Kristjan
    Fossvogur Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Zoma, Asad
    Hairmyres Hosp, Scotland.
    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo
    Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Lim, Sam
    Emory Univ, GA 30322 USA.
    Kalunian, Ken
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Inanc, Murat
    Istanbul Univ, Turkey.
    van Vollenhoven, Ronald
    Karolinska Univ, Sweden.
    Ramos-Casals, Manuel
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Med Univ South Carolina, SC 29425 USA.
    Jacobsen, Soren
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Peschken, Christine
    Univ Manitoba, Canada.
    Askanase, Anca
    Columbia Univ, NY USA.
    Stoll, Thomas
    Kantousspital, Switzerland.
    Bruce, Ian N.
    Univ Manchester, England; Manchester Univ Fdn Trust, England.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Osteopontin and Disease Activity in Patients with Recent-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results from the SLICC Inception Cohort2019Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 492-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. Methods. We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age-and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. Results. Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p amp;lt; 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI amp;gt;= 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p amp;lt; 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K amp;gt;= 5) had raised serum OPN (p amp;lt; 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p amp;lt; 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). Conclusion. The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

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  • 21.
    Frodlund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Reid, S.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Leonard, D.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    The majority of Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus patients are still affected by irreversible organ impairment: factors related to damage accrual in two regional cohorts2019Ingår i: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 1261-1272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has improved, irreversible organ damage remains a critical concern. We aimed to characterize damage accrual and its clinical associations and causes of death in Swedish patients. Methods Accumulation of damage was evaluated in 543 consecutively recruited and well-characterized cases during 1998-2017. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI) was used to estimate damage. Results Organ damage (SDI amp;gt;= 1) was observed in 59%, and extensive damage (SDI amp;gt;= 3) in 25% of cases. SDI amp;gt;= 1 was significantly associated with higher age at onset, SLE duration, the number of fulfilled SLICC criteria, neurologic disorder, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression and secondary Sjogrens syndrome (SS). In addition, SDI amp;gt;= 3 was associated with serositis, renal and haematological disorders and interstitial lung disease. A multiple regression model identified not only well-known risk factors like APS, antihypertensives and corticosteroids, but pericarditis, haemolytic anaemia, lymphopenia and myositis as being linked to SDI. Malignancy, infection and cardiovascular disease were the leading causes of death. Conclusions After a mean SLE duration of 17 years, the majority of todays Swedish SLE patients have accrued damage. We confirm previous observations and report some novel findings regarding disease phenotypes and damage accrual.

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  • 22.
    Appelgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Knopf, Jasmin
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg FAU, Germany.
    Bilyy, Rostyslav
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg FAU, Germany; Danylo Halytsky Lviv Natl Med Univ, Ukraine.
    Vovk, Volodymyr
    Danylo Halytsky Lviv Natl Med Univ, Ukraine.
    Sundgren, Pia C.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Munoz, Luis E.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg FAU, Germany.
    Herrmann, Martin
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg FAU, Germany.
    Höög, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Active NET formation in Libman-Sacks endocarditis without antiphospholipid antibodies: A dramatic onset of systemic lupus erythematosus2018Ingår i: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 310-318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been highlighted in several systemic inflammatory diseases, their clinical correlates and potential pathological role remain obscure. Herein, we describe a dramatic onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with clear-cut pathogenic implications for neutrophils and NET formation in a young woman with cardiac (Libman-Sacks endocarditis) and central nervous system (psychosis and seizures) involvement. Despite extensive search, circulating antiphospholipid autoantibodies, a hallmark of Libman-Sacks endocarditis, could not be detected. Instead, we observed active NET formation in the tissue of the mitral valve, as well as in the circulation. Levels of NET remnants were significantly higher in serially obtained sera from the patient compared with sex-matched blood donors (p=.0011), and showed a non-significant but substantial correlation with blood neutrophil counts (r=0.65, p=.16). The specific neutrophil elastase activity measured in serum seemed to be modulated by the provided immunosuppressive treatment. In addition, we found anti-Ro60/SSA antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of the patient but not NET remnants or increased elastase activity. This case illustrates that different disease mechanisms mediated via autoantibodies can occur simultaneously in SLE. NET formation with release of cytotoxic NET remnants is a candidate player in the pathogenesis of this non-canonical form of Libman-Sacks endocarditis occurring in the absence of traditional antiphospholipid autoantibodies. The case description includes longitudinal results with clinical follow-up data and a discussion of the potential roles of NETs in SLE.

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  • 23.
    Kastbom, Alf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Roos Ljungberg, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ziegelasch, Michael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Martinsson, Klara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Changes in anti-citrullinated protein antibody isotype levels in relation to disease activity and response to treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis2018Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 194, nr 3, s. 391-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease where serum analysis of anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA) is an important diagnostic/prognostic tool. Levels and changes of ACPA in RA patients have been studied previously in relation to disease course and therapy response, but less is known regarding ACPA isotype changes in early RA. Hence, recent-onset RA patients (n = 231) were subjected to a 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up. Serum samples were serially collected and ACPA isotypes were analysed using the second-generation cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) as capture antigen. Changes in ACPA isotype levels and status were related to disease course and pharmacotherapy. At inclusion, 74% of the patients tested positive for ACPA IgG; 55% for immunoglobulin (Ig)A, 37% for secretory IgA (SIgA) and 35% for IgM. The proportion of positive patients decreased significantly at follow-up regarding ACPA SIgA, IgM and IgA. During the initial 3 months, reduction of the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) correlated with reduced levels of ACPA IgG (Rho = 0 center dot 242, P = 0 center dot 003), IgA (Rho = 0 center dot 260, P = 0 center dot 008), IgM (Rho = 0 center dot 457, P amp;lt; 0 center dot 001) and SIgA (Rho = 0 center dot 402, P amp;lt; 0 center dot 001). Levels of ACPA SIgA (P = 0 center dot 008) and IgM (P = 0 center dot 021) decreased significantly among patients with good response to treatment, which was not seen regarding ACPA IgA or IgG. Changes in ACPA isotype levels were not associated with radiographic damage. In conclusion, ACPA SIgA and IgM declined rapidly upon anti-rheumatic therapy and correlated with decreased disease activity in recent-onset RA. This may indicate that down-regulation of mucosal immunity to citrullinated proteins/peptides and recruitment of new B cells are key features of therapy responses in early RA.

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  • 24.
    Frodlund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Vikerfors, A.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Swedish Med Prod Agcy, Sweden.
    Grosso, G.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Elvin, K.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, I.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Ronnelid, J.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Svenungsson, E.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Immunoglobulin A anti-phospholipid antibodies in Swedish cases of systemic lupus erythematosus: associations with disease phenotypes, vascular events and damage accrual2018Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 194, nr 1, s. 27-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G- and IgM-class anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and lupus anti-coagulant (LA) are included in the 1997 update of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR-97) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) criteria. Despite limited evidence, IgA-aCL and IgA anti-(2)-glycoprotein-I (anti-(2)GPI) were included in the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria. The present study aimed to evaluate IgG-/IgA-/IgM-aCL and anti-(2)GPI occurrence in relation to disease phenotype, smoking habits, pharmacotherapy, anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and organ damage among 526 Swedish SLE patients meeting ACR-97. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=100), primary Sjogrens syndrome (n=50) and blood donors (n=507) served as controls. Anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) were analysed by fluoroenzyme-immunoassays detecting aCL/anti-(2)GPI. Seventy-six (14%) SLE cases fulfilled the Sydney APS-criteria, and 1 aCL/anti-(2)GPI isotype (IgG/IgA/IgM) occurred in 138 SLE patients (26%). Forty-five (9%) of the SLE cases had IgA-aCL, 20 of whom (4%) lacked IgG-/IgM-aCL. Seventy-four (14%) tested positive for IgA anti-(2)GPI, 34 (6%) being seronegative regarding IgG/IgM anti-(2)GPI. Six (1%) had APS manifestations but were seropositive regarding IgA-aCL and/or IgA anti-(2)GPI in the absence of IgG/IgM-aPL and LA. Positive LA and IgG-aPL tests were associated with most APS-related events and organ damage. Exclusive IgA anti-(2)GPI occurrence associated inversely with Caucasian ethnicity [odds ratio (OR)=021, 95% confidence interval (CI)=006-072) and photosensitivity (OR=019, 95% CI=005-072). Nephritis, smoking, LA-positivity and statin/corticosteroid-medication associated strongly with organ damage, whereas hydroxychloroquine-medication was protective. In conclusion, IgA-aPL is not rare in SLE (16%) and IgA-aPL analysis may have additional value among SLE cases with suspected APS testing negative for other isotypes of aPL and LA.

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  • 25.
    Olsson, Lina M
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Åsa C
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gullstrand, Birgitta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Saevarsdottir, Saedis
    Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Holmdahl, Rikard
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A single nucleotide polymorphism in the NCF1 gene leading to reduced oxidative burst is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus2017Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, nr 9, s. 1607-1613Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Ncf1 polymorphisms leading to low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are strongly associated with autoimmune diseases in animal models. The human NCF1 gene is very complex with both functional and non-functional gene copies and genotyping requires assays specific for functional NCF1 genes. We aimed at investigating association and function of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs201802880 (here denoted NCF1-339) in NCF1 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    METHODS: We genotyped the NCF1-339 SNP in 973 Swedish patients with SLE and 1301 controls, using nested PCR and pyrosequencing. ROS production and gene expression of type 1 interferon-regulated genes were measured in isolated cells from subjects with different NCF1-339 genotypes.

    RESULTS: We found an increased frequency of the NCF1-339 T allele in patients with SLE, 11% compared with 4% in controls, OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4 to 3.9, p=7.0×10(-20). The NCF1-339 T allele reduced extracellular ROS production in neutrophils (p=0.004) and led to an increase expression of type 1 interferon-regulated genes. In addition, the NCF1-339 T allele was associated with a younger age at diagnosis of SLE; mean age 30.3 compared with 35.9, p=2.0×1(-6).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results clearly demonstrate that a genetically controlled reduced production of ROS increases the risk of developing SLE and confirm the hypothesis that ROS regulate chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  • 26.
    Lewander, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Larsson, B.
    Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Circulating cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in juvenile idiopathic arthritis2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 194-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Raised serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) has been reported to predict erosive disease in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), subnormal sCOMP levels have been associated with ongoing inflammation and growth retardation. In this study we aimed to assess sCOMP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in children/adolescents with JIA and in referents.Method: We enrolled 52 JIA patients at planned outpatient visits and 54 inpatients with ongoing infection (infection referents). A total of 120 referents testing negative for immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergy (IgE referents) served as controls. All serum samples were analysed for COMP, IGF-1, and CRP.Results: The average sCOMP level was highest among the IgE referents and lowest among the infection referents. In the JIA patients, the level of sCOMP was not associated with the level of CRP or with clinical signs of disease activity.Conclusions: The results of this study do not support routine clinical analysis of sCOMP levels in patients with JIA.

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  • 27.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Eloranta, M. L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Interferon-α coincides with suppressed levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in systemic lupus erythematosus and regulates leucocyte PTX3 in vitro2017Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 189, nr 1, s. 83-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysfunctional elimination of cell debris, and the role of opsonins such as pentraxins, is of interest regarding systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. Interferon (IFN)- is typically elevated during SLE flares, and inhibits hepatocyte production of the pentraxin C-reactive protein (CRP), partly explaining the poor correlation between CRP levels and SLE disease activity. The extrahepatically produced pentraxin 3 (PTX3) shares waste disposal functions with CRP, but has not been studied extensively in SLE. We analysed serum PTX3 in SLE, and assessed its interference with IFN- in vitro. Serum samples from 243 patients with SLE and 100 blood donors were analysed regarding PTX3. Patient sera were analysed for IFN-, and genotyped for three PTX3 single nucleotide polymorphisms reported previously to associate with PTX3 levels. Stimulated PTX3 release was assessed in the presence or absence of IFN- in blood donor neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Serum PTX3 was 44% lower in patients with SLE compared to blood donors (Pamp;lt;00001) and correlated with leucocyte variables. Patients with undetectable IFN- had 29% higher median PTX3 level than patients with detectable IFN- (P=001). PTX3 production by PBMC was inhibited by IFN-, whereas neutrophil degranulation of PTX3 was increased. No differences in PTX3 levels were observed between the SNPs. In conclusion, median serum PTX3 is lower in SLE (especially when IFN- is detectable) compared to blood donors. In addition to its potential consumption during waste disposal, it is plausible that IFN- also attenuates PTX3 by inhibiting synthesis by PBMC and/or exhausting PTX3 storage in neutrophil granules.

  • 28.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Frodlund, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE2017Ingår i: Lupus Science and Medicine, E-ISSN 2053-8790, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 7artikel-id 000225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The variety of disease phenotypes among patients with SLE challenges the identification of new biomarkers reflecting disease activity and/or organ damage. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein with immunomodulating properties. Although raised levels have been reported, the pathogenic implications and clinical utility of OPN as a biomarker in SLE are far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise OPN in SLE.

    Methods Sera from 240 well-characterised adult SLE cases classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, and 240 population-based controls were immunoassayed for OPN. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) was used to evaluate disease activity and the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI) to detect damage accrual.

    Results Serum OPN levels were in average raised fourfold in SLE cases compared with the controls (p<0.0001). OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K, especially in patients with a disease duration of <12 months (r=0.666, p=0.028). OPN was highly associated with SDI (p<0.0001), especially in the renal (p<0.0001), cardiovascular (p<0.0001) and malignancy (p=0.012) domains. Finally, OPN associated with coherent antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; p=0.009), and both clinical and laboratory criteria of APS had significant positive impact on OPN levels.

    Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, circulating OPN correlates with disease activity in recent-onset SLE, reflects global organ damage and associates with APS. Longitudinal studies to dissect whether serum OPN also precedes and predicts future organ damage are most warranted.

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    Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE
  • 29.
    Wirestam, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Schierbeck, Hanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; .
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Lars
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Erlandsson-Harris, Helena
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Antibodies against High Mobility Group Box protein-1 (HMGB1) versus other anti-nuclear antibody fine-specificities and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus2015Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 17, nr 338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The non-histone nuclear protein high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is typically associated with nucleosomes, but may shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and under some conditions also be released extracellularly and participate in systemic inflammation. Monoclonal HMGB1-targeting antibodies can ameliorate murine polyarthritis and lupus-like disease. Interestingly, autoantibodies against HMGB1 have also been described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but their clinical implications remain elusive. The main aims of this study were to detect serum anti-HMGB1 antibodies in patients with SLE and relate them to other types of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and to disease activity. Methods: 188 Swedish SLE patients meeting the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria participated in the study. Anti-HMGB1 antibody levels were analysed in patient and control (n = 112) sera by an in-house ELISA using recombinant histidine-tagged HMGB1. SLE sera were also analysed for ANA by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy (IF-ANA) using fixed HEp-2 cells, and by a line-blot assay for antigen fine-specificities. To quantify antibodies to double-stranded DNA, a fluoroenzyme-immunoassay was employed. Results: At inclusion, 23 % of the SLE patients were anti-HMGB1 antibody positive compared to 5 % of the controls. Anti-HMGB1 antibodies occurred in 49 % of the IF-ANA positive SLE patients, and in 34 % of IF-ANA negative cases (p = 0.004). Levels of anti-HMGB1 antibodies correlated with anti-dsDNA antibody levels (r = 0.49; p less than 0.001). Significant, but less pronounced correlations were found regarding anti-HMGB1 and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2K: r = 0.15; p = 0.04), classical complement function (r = -0.24; p = 0.002) and complement protein C4 (r = -0.23; p = 0.002). Average anti-HMGB1 antibody levels were significantly higher among patients with homogenous +/- other IF-ANA staining patterns (median 180 AU) compared to IF-ANA negative cases (median 83 AU) (p = 0.004). Rabbit anti-HMGB1 antibodies gave rise to cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, staining of HEp-2 cells. Conclusions: We confirm that anti-HMGB1 antibodies are common in SLE and correlate with disease activity variables. Although anti-HMGB1 antibodies measured by ELISA often coincide with nuclear IF-ANA staining, our results indicate that anti-HMGB1 antibodies do not give rise to nuclear staining of the predominantly used commercial HEp-2 cell slides.

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  • 30.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ronnelid, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Four Anti-dsDNA Antibody Assays in Relation to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Specificity and Activity2015Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 817-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Analysis of antibodies against dsDNA is an important diagnostic tool for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and changes in anti-dsDNA antibody levels are also used to assess disease activity. Herein, 4 assays were compared with regard to SLE specificity, sensitivity, and association with disease activity variables. Methods. Cross-sectional sera from 178 patients with SLE, of which 11 were followed consecutively, from a regional Swedish SLE register were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-dsDNA by bead-based multiplex assay (FIDIS; Theradig), fluoroenzyme-immunoassay (EliA; Phadia/Thermo Fisher Scientific), Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT; ImmunoConcepts), and line blot (EUROLINE; Euroimmun). All patients with SLE fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC-12) classification criteria. Healthy individuals (n = 100), patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 95), and patients with primary Sjogren syndrome (n = 54) served as controls. Results. CLIFT had the highest SLE specificity (98%) whereas EliA had the highest sensitivity (35%). When cutoff levels for FIDIS, EliA, and EUROLINE were adjusted according to SLICC-12 (i.e., double the reference limit when using ELISA), the specificity and sensitivity of FIDIS was comparable to CLIFT. FIDIS and CLIFT also showed the highest concordance (84%). FIDIS performed best regarding association with disease activity in cross-sectional and consecutive samples. Fishers exact test revealed striking differences between methods regarding associations with certain disease phenotypes. Conclusion. CLIFT remains a good choice for diagnostic purposes, but FIDIS performs equally well when the cutoff is adjusted according to SLICC-12. Based on results from cross-sectional and consecutive analyses, FIDIS can also be recommended to monitor disease activity.

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  • 31.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Rehabenheten. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Quality of life and acquired organ damage are intimately related to activity limitations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus2015Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 16, nr 188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multi-organ disease, characterized by episodes of disease flares and remissions over time, which may restrain affected patients ability to perform daily activities. The purpose of the present study was to characterize variation in activity limitations among well-defined SLE patients, and to describe disease phenotypes, acquired organ damage and their relations to activity limitation and self-reported health, respectively. Methods: The disease phenotypes were organized into 4 different clinical groups and logistic regression analyses were used to identify how an elevated health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score was related to disease variables such as phenotypes, disease activity and damage accrual. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between each group of variables - background variables, disease variables and self-reported measurements - and the degree of elevated HAQ. Results: We found a higher proportion of activity limitation in patients with skin and joint involvement compared to others. The presence of activity limitation, as detected by the HAQ instrument, was significantly associated with quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and accrual of organ damage using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/ACR damage index. Conclusions: The findings highlight the differing requirements of the multi-professional rehabilitation interventions for the various SLE phenotypes in order to optimize the clinical care of the patients.

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  • 32.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor: A valuable biomarker in systemic lupus erythematosus?2015Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 444, s. 234-241Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially severe autoimmune condition with an unpredictable disease course, often with fluctuations in disease activity over time. Long term inflammation and drug-related side-effects may subsequently lead to permanent organ damage, a consequence which is intimately connected to decreased quality of life and mortality. New lupus biomarkers that convey information regarding inflammation and/or organ damage are thus warranted. Today, there is no clinical biomarker that indicates the risk of damage accrual. Herein we highlight the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and especially its soluble form (suPAR) that besides having biological functions in e.g. proteolysis, cell migration and tissue homeostasis, recently has emerged as a promising biomarker of inflammation and prognosis of several disorders. A strong association between suPAR and organ damage in SLE was recently demonstrated, and preliminary data (presented in this review) suggests the possibility of a predictive value of suPAR blood levels. The involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of SLE remains obscure, but its effects in leukocyte recruitment, phagocytic uptake of dying cells (efferocytosis) and complement regulation suggests that the central parts of the SLE pathogenesis could be regulated by suPAR, and vice versa.

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  • 33.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Association of Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels With Lupus Disease Activity in the Absence of Measurable Interferon-α and a C-Reactive Protein Gene Variant2014Ingår i: Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), ISSN 2326-5191, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 1568-1573Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The type I interferon (IFN) system is important in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously demonstrated an inhibitory effect of IFNα on interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced C-reactive protein (CRP) in vitro, hypothetically explaining the poor correlation between disease activity and CRP levels in SLE. Herein we investigated disease activity, IL-6 and CRP in relation to a CRP gene polymorphism and IFN.

    Methods: Sera from 155 SLE patients and 100 controls were analyzed for CRP. Patients were genotyped for a CRP single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1205) associated with low CRP levels. Serum IFNα and IL-6 was quantified by immunoassays. Clinical disease activity was assessed by SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K).

    Results: CRP levels were increased in SLE patients compared to controls, but were not associated with SLEDAI-2K or IL-6 levels. However, exclusion of patients carrying at least one rs1205 minor allele revealed an association between disease activity and CRP levels (p=0.005). We found a strong association between disease activity and CRP levels (p<0.0005) when patients with measurable IFNα as well as the minor allele of rs1205 where excluded from the analysis. Similarly, when patients with raised IFNα and/or the rs1205 polymorphism were excluded, IL-6 associated with CRP levels.

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that serum IFNα as well as CRP genotype affects the CRP response in SLE patients. Lack of correlation between serum levels of CRP and disease activity could therefore be explained by activation of the type I IFN system and polymorphisms in the CRP gene. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.

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  • 34.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Olin, Anders I.
    Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Mörgelin, Matthias
    Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nived, Ola
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin G and complement co-localize in renal immune deposits of proliferative lupus nephritis2013Ingår i: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 205-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pattern recognition molecules C-reactive protein (CRP) and C1q are of big interest in relation to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Circulating autoantibodies against CRP and C1q are frequently found in SLE patients with active disease, particularly in lupus nephritis (LN), and rising levels reportedly relate to disease activity and outcome. If CRP-, or dsDNA- and/or C1q-containing immune complexes (ICs) are pathogenic in LN, glomerular IgG-deposits would be expected to co-localize with these antigens. In search for proof of this concept, renal biospsies from patients with active LN (n=5) were examined with high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy. Renal biopsies from patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura, pauci-immune nephritis and renal cancer served as controls. IgG antibodies against CRP, C1q and nucleosomes were analyzed in pre–post flare sera. We could demonstrate that CRP, C1q, C3c and dsDNA were co-localized with IgG in electron dense deposits in the glomerular basement membrane/subendothelial space in all of the 5 LN patients. Deposits of IgG, CRP, complement and dsDNA were 10-fold higher in LN compared to controls. All SLE patients had circulating anti-nucleosome antibodies; 4/5 had serum antibodies against CRP, dsDNA, and C1q at biopsy/flare. Despite a limited number of cases, the results support the notion of a pathogenic role not only for anti-dsDNA antibodies, but also for anti-CRP and anti-C1q in LN. The glomerular ICs may have been generated by deposition of circulating ICs or by in situ IC formation.

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  • 35.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus2013Ingår i: Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, ISSN 1931-5244, E-ISSN 1878-1810, Vol. 162, nr 5, s. 287-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors- and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physicians global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P andlt; 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had.a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

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  • 36.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Torbjorn
    University of Örebro.
    C1q regulates collagen-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, aggregation and levels of soluble P-selectin in whole blood2012Ingår i: Immunology Letters, ISSN 0165-2478, E-ISSN 1879-0542, Vol. 142, nr 1-2, s. 28-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood platelets express several receptors involved in immunity (e.g. complement-, toll-like- and Fc gamma-receptors) and release inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates has an important role during inflammatory conditions such as coronary artery disease. Thus, apart from their well-known role in haemostasis, platelets are today also recognized as cells with immunomodulatory properties. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe have previously reported regulatory effects of complement protein 1q (C1q) on platelet activation in experimental setups using isolated cells. In the present study we have proceeded by investigating effects of C1q on collagen-induced aggregation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and levels of soluble P-selectin in whole blood. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanImpedance measurements showed that C1q inhibited collagen-induced aggregation whereas it potentiated the collagen-provoked production of ROS in a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The effects of C1q on aggregation and ROS-production were dependent upon platelets, as they were no longer observed in presence of the platelet (GpIIb/IIIa) inhibitor Reopro. Furthermore, the levels of soluble P-selectin were found to be lowered upon treatment with C1q prior to addition of collagen. There was also a trend towards a decreased formation of large platelet-leukocyte aggregates in collagen-stimulated whole blood following C1q treatment. In conclusion, our data indicate that C1q could have a role in regulating platelet activation and associated leukocyte recruitment during vessel wall injury. This has implications for inflammatory disorders such as coronary artery disease.

  • 37.
    Kanmert, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Almroth, Gunnel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    IgG Rheumatoid Factors Against the Four Human Fc-gamma Subclasses in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (The Swedish TIRA Project)2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 115-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheumatoid factor (RF), i.e. a family of autoantibodies against the Fc part of IgG, is an important seromarker of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Traditional particle agglutination without disclosing the antibody isotype remains the predominating diagnostic method in clinical routine. Although IgG-RF attracts pathogenic interest, its detection remains technically challenging. The present study aimed at developing a set of tests identifying IgG-RFs directed against the four IgG subclasses. IgG-RF against either subclass of human IgG-Fc were analysed with four novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) utilizing four recombinant human Fc-gamma fragments (hIgG14) as sources of antigen. Sera from 40 patients with recent onset RA (20 seropositive and 20 seronegative by IgM-RF and IgA-RF-isotype-specific ELISA) were analysed. Sera from 20 healthy blood donors served as reference. Among the IgM-/IgA-RF-positive RA-sera, IgG-RF was found directed against hIgG1 and hIgG2, but not against hIgG3 or hIgG4. Significant correlations were seen between IgG-RF against hIgG2-Fc and IgM-RF (r = 0.666) levels. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate any correlation to disease course and outcome.

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  • 38.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Almroth, Gunnel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Beware of Antibodies to Dietary Proteins in "Antigen-specific" Immunoassays! Falsely Positive Anticytokine Antibody Tests Due to Reactivity with Bovine Serum Albumin in Rheumatoid Arthritis (The Swedish TIRA Project)2011Ingår i: JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY, ISSN 0315-162X, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 215-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate (1) to what extent sera from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) contain antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA); and (2) if anti-BSA antibodies interfere with results of enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) containing BSA. Methods. The ELISA used was a previously developed in-house assay of autoantibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Anti-TNF and anti-BSA antibodies were analyzed by ELISA in 189 patients with early RA and 186 healthy blood donors. TNF preparations containing either BSA or human serum albumin (HSA) as carrier proteins were used as antigens in the anti-TNF assay. The presence and levels of antibodies were analyzed in relation to disease course and to the presence/absence of rheumatoid factor (RF). Results. In patients with RA, anti-TNF/BSA levels strongly correlated with anti-BSA levels (r = 0.81, p andlt; 0.001), whereas anti-TNF/HSA did not (r = -0.09). Neither the presence nor the levels of anti-BSA in RA patients were associated with disease progression, and antibody levels were not significantly altered compared to controls (p = 0.11). IgG reactivity with TNF/HSA was neglible. In paired sera, preincubation with BSA abolished the anti-TNF/BSA reactivity. There were no indications of RF interference with anti-BSA or anti-TNF reactivity. Conclusion. Antibodies to BSA are common in patients with RA as well as in healthy individuals. Their presence does not seem to be associated with RA disease activity or disease course, but may severely interfere with ELISA containing BSA. The use of BSA as a "blocking agent" or carrier protein in immunoassays should therefore be avoided.

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  • 39.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Hand och plastikkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Hand och plastikkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Cell expansion of human articular chondrocytes on macroporous gelatine scaffolds: — impact of micro carrier selection on cell proliferation2011Ingår i: Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1748-6041, E-ISSN 1748-605X, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 065001-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates human chondrocyte expansion on four macroporous gelatine microcarriers (CultiSpher) differing with respect to two manufacturing processes—the amount of emulsifier used during initial preparation and the gelatine cross-linking medium. Monolayer-expanded articular chondrocytes from three donors were seeded onto the microcarriers and cultured in spinner flask systems for a total of 15 days. Samples were extracted every other day to monitor cell viability and establish cell counts, which were analysed using analysis of variance and piecewise linear regression. Chondrocyte densities increased according to a linear pattern for all microcarriers, indicating an ongoing, though limited, cell proliferation. A strong chondrocyte donor effect was seen during the initial expansion phase. The final cell yield differed significantly between the microcarriers and our results indicate that manufacturing differences affected chondrocyte densities at this point. Remaining cells stained positive for chondrogenic markers SOX-9 and S-100 but extracellular matrix formation was modest to undetectable. In conclusion, the four gelatine microcarriers supported chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation over a two week period. The best yield was observed for microcarriers produced with low emulsifier content and cross-linked in water and acetone. These results add to the identification of optimal biomaterial parameters for specific cellular processes and populations.

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  • 40.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Limited Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor As a Disease Activity Marker in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, vol 63, issue 10, pp S556-S5572011Ingår i: ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, Wiley-Blackwell , 2011, Vol. 63, nr 10, s. S556-S557Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 41.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    C1q induces a rapid up-regulation of P-selectin and modulates collagen- and collagen-related peptide-triggered activation in human platelets2010Ingår i: Immunobiology, ISSN 0171-2985, E-ISSN 1878-3279, Vol. 215, nr 12, s. 987-995Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood platelets are emerging as important immunomodulatory cells, but complement interaction with platelets is not well understood. Several platelet structures have been described as complement protein 1q (C1q) binding receptors, such as C1qRp/CD93 and gC1qR. However, there are conflicting results whether these receptors are C1q binding structures, or even at all expressed on the cell surface. Recently, the collagen-binding integrin alphaIIbetaI was reported to bind C1q on mast cells, and this receptor is also present on platelets. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of C1q on platelets, by quantifying the platelet surface expression of P-selectin (CD62P) and monitoring the formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Using flow cytometry, we found that C1q dose-dependently triggered a rapid but moderate and transient up-regulation of P-selectin already within 5s of C1q exposure. Pre-incubation with an antibody directed against gC1qR significantly inhibited (with 57% compared to control) the up-regulation, whereas an antibody towards the alphaIIbetaI-integrin showed no effect. Stimulation with C1q did not change the cytosolic calcium-levels, as measured with the fluorescent ratiometric probe Fura-2, however, a protein kinase C inhibitor (GF109203x) blocked the C1q-induced P-selectin expression. Furthermore, pre-incubation of platelets with C1q diminished both the collagen as well as the collagen-related peptide-induced up-regulation of P-selectin, most evident after 90s of stimulation. This indicates that C1q may regulate platelet activation via the GPVI receptor, which is a novel finding. Moreover, C1q antagonized the collagen-induced formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates, indicating a reduced interaction between platelet P-selectin and neutrophil P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1(PSGL-1/CD162). In summary, C1q induces a moderate rapid platelet P-selectin expression, modulates subsequent collagen and collagen-related peptide stimulation of platelets, and inhibits the formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates. These immuno-regulatory effects of C1q may have a crucial role in innate immunity and inflammation.

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  • 42.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    C1q regulates collagendependentproduction of reactive oxygen species, formation of plateletleukocyteaggregates and levels of soluble Pselectinin whole blood2010Manuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Blood platelets are nowadays recognized as cells with immuno‐modulatory properties as they express receptors involved in immunity (e.g. complement‐, toll‐like‐ and Fcγ‐receptors) and release inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, formation of plateletleukocyte aggregates has an important role during inflammatory conditions, e.g. coronary artery disease. We have previously reported regulatory effects of complement protein 1q (C1q) on platelet activation in experimental setups using isolated cells. In the present study we have continued by investigating the effect of C1q on collagen‐induced aggregation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), formation of plateletleukocyte aggregates and levels of soluble P‐selectin in whole blood. Impedance measurements showed that C1q, at physiological concentrations, inhibited collageninduced aggregation in whole blood, whereas it potentiated the collagen‐provoked production of ROS in a luminal‐dependent chemiluminescence assay. The potentiation was dependent on platelets, as the effect was not seen when the platelet fibrinogen binding receptor GpIIb/IIIa was blocked by Reopro. Moreover, the formation of large platelet‐leukocyte aggregates in collagen‐stimulated whole blood was inhibited by C1q. This may be explained by the finding that C1q antagonized the collagen‐induced activation, revealed by lowered levels of soluble P‐selectin. In conclusion, C1q may have an important role in regulating platelet activation and associated leukocyte recruitment during vessel wall injury and thus be involved in inflammatory disorders such as coronary artery disease.

  • 43.
    Kanmert, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Designed Surface with Tunable IgG Density as an in Vitro Model for Immune Complex Mediated Stimulation of Leukocytes2010Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 3493-3497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the design of an in vitro for immune-complex-mediated stimulation of leukocytes and its functional characteristics with respect to monocyte adhesion. The model was based on orientation-controlled immobilization of a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) via its interaction with a biotinylated peptide epitope derived from the CD20 marker. The peptide was linked to neutravidin covalently attached to it mixed self-assembled monolayer of carboxyl- and methoxy-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) alkane thiolates on gold. The surface adhesion propensity of human monocytes (cell line U917) was highly dependent on the lateral IgG density and indicated that there exists a distance between IgG-Fc on the surface where interactions with Fc gamma receptors are optimal. This well-defined platform allows for a careful control of the size and orientation of artificial IgG immune complexes, it is easily made compatible with, for example, cellular imaging, and it will become useful for in vitro studies on the importance of Fc gamma receptor interactions in chronic immune-mediated diseases.

  • 44.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Hand och plastikkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Human articular chondrocytes on macroporous gelatin microcarriers form structurally stable constructs with blood-derived biological glues in vitro2009Ingår i: JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, ISSN 1932-6254, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 450-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable macroporous gelatin microcarriers fixed with blood-derived biodegradable glue are proposed as a delivery system for human autologous chondrocytes. Cell-seeded microcarriers were embedded in four biological glues - recalcified citrated whole blood, recalcified citrated plasma with or without platelets, and a commercially available fibrin glue - and cultured in an in vitro model under static conditions for 16 weeks. No differences could be verified between the commercial fibrin glue and the blood-derived alternatives. Five further experiments were conducted with recalcified citrated platelet-rich plasma alone as microcarrier sealant, using two different in vitro culture models and chondrocytes from three additional donors. The microcarriers supported chondrocyte adhesion and expansion as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Matrix formation occurred predominantly at sample surfaces under the static conditions. The presence of microcarriers proved essential for the glues to support the structural takeover of ECM proteins produced by the embedded chondrocytes, as exclusion of the microcarriers resulted in unstable structures that dissolved before matrix formation could occur. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of SOX-9- and S-100-positive chondrocytes as well as the production of aggrecan and collagen type I, but not of the cartilage-specific collagen type II. These results imply that blood-derived glues are indeed potentially applicable for encapsulation of chondrocyte-seeded microcarriers. However, the static in vitro models used in this study proved incapable of supporting cartilage formation throughout the engineered constructs.

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  • 45.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Eloranta, Maija-Leena
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Interferon-alpha Mediates Suppression of C-Reactive Protein Explanation for Muted C-Reactive Protein Response in Lupus Flares?2009Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 60, nr 12, s. 3755-3760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. C-reactive protein (CRP) is synthesized by hepatocytes in response to interleukin-6 (IL-6) during inflammation. Despite raised IL-6 levels and extensive systemic inflammation, serum CRP levels remain low during most viral infections and disease flares of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because both viral infections and SLE are characterized by high levels of interferon-alpha (IFN alpha), the aim of this study was to determine whether this cytokine can inhibit the induction of CRP. Methods. The interference of all 12 IFN alpha subtypes with CRP promoter activity induced by IL-6 and IL-1 beta was studied in a CRP promoter- and luciferase reporter-transfected human hepatoma cell line, Hep-G2. CRIP secretion by primary human hepatocytes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. CRP promoter activity was inhibited by all single IFN alpha subtypes, as well as by 2 different mixtures of biologically relevant IFN alpha subtypes. The most prominent effect was seen using a leukocyte-produced mixture of IFN alpha (56% inhibition at 1,000 IU/ml). The inhibitory effect of IFN alpha was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. CRP promoter inhibition was dose dependent and mediated via the type I IFN receptor. Transferrin production and Hep-G2 proliferation/viability were not affected by IFN alpha. Conclusion. The current study demonstrates that IFN alpha is an inhibitor of CRP promoter activity and CRP secretion. This finding concords with previous observations of up-regulated IFN alpha and a muted CRP response during SLE disease flares. Given the fundamental role of both IFN alpha and CRP in the immune response, our results are of importance for understanding the pathogenesis of SLE and may also contribute to understanding the differences in the CRP response between viral and bacterial infections.

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  • 46.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Kardiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Kardiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Reduced serum levels of autoantibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome2009Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 400, nr 1-2, s. 128-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis. Minor C-reactive protein (CRP) response reflects low-grade vascular inflammation and the high-sensitivity CRP test with levels >= 3.0 mg/l predicts coronary vascular events and survival in angina pectoris as well as in healthy subjects. We and others recently reported autoantibodies against monomeric CRP (anti-CRP) in rheumatic conditions, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and a connection between anti-CRP and cardiovascular disease in SLE has been suggested.

    Patients and methods: Anti-CRP serum levels were determined with ELISA in 140 individuals; 50 healthy controls and 90 patients with angiographically verified coronary artery disease of which 40 presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 50 with stable angina pectoris (SA).

    Results: Significantly lower anti-CRP levels were observed in ACS compared to SA and controls (p=0.019). ACS patients, who had not been prescribed statins before their respective cardiovascular event, had lower anti-CRP (p = 0.049). BMI correlated directly to anti-CRP levels in cross section analysis (p = 0.043), but there was no association between anti-CRP and smoking or cholesterol.

    Discussion: In ACS, it is plausible that ruptured plaques and inflamed tissue may be more prone to opsonization by monomeric CRP leading to consumption of anti-CRP, Hypothetically, surface-bound anti-CRP could thereby enhance the local inflammation in plaques.

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  • 47.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Zickert, Agneta
    Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, IC - I-centrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Serum levels of autoantibodies against C-reactive protein correlate with renal disease activity and response to therapy in lupus nephritis2009Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. R188-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) seldom reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have previously shown that autoantibodies against neo-epitopes of CRP often occur in SLE, but that this does not explain the modest CRP response seen in flares. However, we have repeatedly found that anti-CRP levels parallel lupus disease activity, with highest levels in patients with renal involvement; thus, we aimed to study anti-CRP in a material of well-characterized lupus nephritis patients.

    Methods

    Thirty-eight patients with lupus nephritis were included. Treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil or rituximab was started after baseline kidney biopsy. A second biopsy was taken after ≥ 6 months. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, complement, anti-dsDNA, anti-CRP and urinalysis were done on both occasions. Biopsies were evaluated regarding World Health Organisation (WHO) class and indices of activity and chronicity. Renal disease activity was estimated using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index.

    Results

    At baseline, 34/38 patients had renal BILAG-A; 4/38 had BILAG-B. Baseline biopsies showed WHO class III (n = 8), IV (n = 19), III to IV/V (n = 3) or V (n = 8) nephritis. Seventeen out of 38 patients were anti-CRP-positive at baseline, and six at follow-up. Overall, anti-CRP levels had dropped at follow-up (P < 0.0001) and anti-CRP levels correlated with renal BILAG (r = 0.29, P = 0.012). A positive anti-CRP test at baseline was superior to anti-dsDNA and C1q in predicting poor response to therapy as judged by renal BILAG. Baseline anti-CRP levels correlated with renal biopsy activity (r = 0.33, P = 0.045), but not with chronicity index. Anti-CRP levels were positively correlated with anti-dsDNA (fluorescence-enhanced immunoassay: r = 0.63, P = 0.0003; Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence microscopy test: r = 0.44, P < 0.0001), and inversely with C3 (r = 0.35, P = 0.007) and C4 (r = 0.29, P = 0.02), but not with C1q (r = 0.14, P = 0.24). No associations with urinary components, creatinine, cystatin C or the glomerular filtration rate were found.

    Conclusions

    In the present study, we demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between anti-CRP levels and histopathological activity in lupus nephritis, whereas a baseline positive anti-CRP test predicted poor response to therapy. Our data also confirm previous findings of associations between anti-CRP and disease activity. This indicates that anti-CRP could be helpful to assess disease activity and response to therapy in SLE nephritis, and highlights the hypothesis of a pathogenetic role for anti-CRP antibodies in lupus nephritis.

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  • 48.
    Skoglund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Reumatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Länskliniken för Reumatologi i Östergötland.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet,