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  • 1.
    Pethes, Robert
    et al.
    Obuda Univ, Hungary.
    Bodor-Eranus, Eliza
    Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ, Hungary.
    Kovacs, Levente
    Obuda Univ, Hungary; Obuda Univ, Hungary.
    The Core Might Change Anyhow We Define It: The Instability of Key Actors in Longitudinal Social Network Data2024Ingår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, Vol. 2024, artikel-id 3956877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Central actors or opinion leaders are in the right structural position to spread relevant information or convince others about adopting an innovation or behaviour change. Who is a central actor or opinion leader might be conceptualised in various ways. Widely accepted centrality measures do not take into account that those in central positions in the social network may change over time. A longitudinal comparison of the set and importance of opinion leaders is problematic with these measures and therefore needs a novel approach. In this study, we investigate ways to compare the stability of the set of central actors over time. Using longitudinal survey data from primary schools (where the members of the social networks do not change much over time) on advice-seeking and friendship networks, we find a relatively poor stability of who is in the central positions anyhow we define centrality. We propose the application of combined indices in order to achieve more efficient targeting results. Our results suggest that because opinion leaders may change over time, researchers should be careful about relying on simple centrality indices from cross-sectional data to gain and interpret information (for example, in the design of prevention programs, network-based interventions or infection control) and must rely on more diverse structural information instead.

  • 2.
    Rado, Marta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Kisfalusi, Dorottya
    Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ & Network Stud CS, Hungary.
    Laverty, Anthony A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    van Lenthe, Frank J.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Netherlands; Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Been, Jasper V.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Netherlands; Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ & Network Stud CS, Hungary.
    Socio-economic inequalities in smoking and drinking in adolescence: Assessment of social network dynamics2023Ingår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: We investigated whether (1) adolescents selected friends with a similar socio-economic status (SES), (2) smoking and alcohol consumption spread in networks and (3) the exclusion of non-smokers or non-drinkers differed between SES groups. Design: This was a longitudinal study using stochastic actor-oriented models to analyze complete social network data over three waves. Setting: Eight Hungarian secondary schools with socio-economically diverse classes took part. Participants: This study comprised 232 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 years in the first wave. Measurements: Self-reported smoking behavior, alcohol consumption behavior and friendship ties were measured. SES was measured based upon entitlement to an income-tested regular child protection benefit. Findings: Non-low-SES adolescents were most likely to form friendships with peers from their own SES group [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.11]. Adolescents adjusted their smoking behavior (OR = 24.05, 95% CI = 1.27-454.86) but not their alcohol consumption (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 0.62-4.39) to follow the behavior of their friends. Smokers did not differ from non-smokers in the likelihood of receiving a friendship nomination (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.87-1.10), regardless of their SES. Alcohol consumers received significantly more friendship nominations than non-consumers (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.01-1.33), but this association was not significantly different according to SES. Conclusions: Hungarian adolescents appear to prefer friendships within their own socio-economic status group, and smoking and alcohol consumption spread within those friendship networks. Socio-economic groups do not differ in the extent to which they encourage smoking or alcohol consumption.

  • 3.
    Pancotto, Francesca
    et al.
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Righi, Simone
    Ca Foscari Univ Venice, Italy.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Ctr Social Sci, Hungary.
    Voluntary play increases cooperation in the presence of punishment: a lab in the field experiment2023Ingår i: Theory and Decision, ISSN 0040-5833, E-ISSN 1573-7187, Vol. 95, s. 405-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems of cooperation have often been simplified as the choice between defection and cooperation, although in many empirical situations it is also possible to walk away from the interaction. We present the results of two lab-in-the-field experiments with a diverse pool of subjects who play optional and compulsory public goods games both with and without punishment. We find that the most important institution to foster cooperation is punishment, which is more effective in a compulsory game. In contrast to Rand and Nowak (Nat Commun 2(1):1-7, 2011), we find that loners are not responsible for anti-social punishment, which is mostly imputable to low-contributors (free-riders). Loners neither totally free-ride nor they significantly punish cooperators (or other types of players): they simply avoid all forms of participation whenever possible.

  • 4.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CSS RECENS, Hungary.
    A Reputation-Centered Theory of Human Cooperation and Social Organization2022Ingår i: Sociologica: International Journal for Sociological Debate, E-ISSN 1971-8853, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 11-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While all species are unique, only humans have been able to develop complex tools and technology, and to place energy and their environment under control. Social learning and extrasomatic storage of information enabled rapid development in recent evolutionary times. Our argument is that human uniqueness lies in human sociality. Namely, large-scale and widespread cooperation, the establishment and maintenance of social order, the use of language as a communication tool, advanced social cognition, and large social complexity built on social norms are characteristics of unique human sociality. Here we claim that reputation is a human invention that could have largely contributed to the development of these characteristics. Reputation-based mechanisms are fundamental to the emergence and maintenance of large-scale cooperation between non-closely related individuals by informing partner selection and conditional actions towards others. Reputation is the basis of informal social hierarchies that provide a guideline to maintain social order. Reputation concerns and gossip about absent others constitute a large part of human communication. This way, and with increased abilities of social cognition, we keep account of a larger set of individuals, and can be directed by norms that guide proper behavior and regulate interactions towards norm violators and their punishers. To provide a nuanced view on how reputation became key to all social features of human uniqueness, we consider its roles and dimensions starting from individual life and going towards interdependencies in dyads, small groups, intergroup relations, and large-scale societies. Throughout this journey from individual to societal life, we speculate that reputation has reached its central importance in small group life and not at a lower or higher level of complexity.

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  • 5.
    Estévez Navarro, José Luis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ & Network Stud CS, Hungary.
    Brokering or Sitting Between Two Chairs?: A Group Perspective on Workplace Gossip2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, artikel-id 815383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brokerage is a central concept in the organization literature. It has been argued that individuals in broker positions-i.e., connecting otherwise disconnected parts within a firms social network-can control the flow of information. It would imply their increased relevance in workplace gossip. This allegation, however, has not been addressed empirically yet. To fill this gap, we apply social network analysis techniques to relational data from six organizations in Hungary. First, we identify informal groups and individuals in broker positions. Then, we use this information to predict the likelihood with which positive or negative gossip is reported. We find more gossip when the sender and receiver are part of the same group and more positive gossip about in-group rather than out-group targets. Individuals in broker positions are more likely the senders and targets of negative gossip. Finally, even if both the brokers and the boss(es) are the targets of their colleagues negative gossip, the combination of the two categories (bosses in broker positions) does not predict more negative gossip anymore. Results are discussed in relation to the theoretical accounts on brokerage that emphasize its power for information control but fail to recognize the pitfalls of being in such positions.

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  • 6.
    Számadó, Szabolcs
    et al.
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Hungary; CSS RECENS, Hungary.
    Samu, Flóra
    CSS RECENS, Hungary; Corvinus Univ Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CSS RECENS, Hungary.
    Condition-dependent trade-offs maintain honest signalling2022Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikel-id 220335Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How and why animals and humans signal reliably is a key issue in biology and social sciences that needs to be understood to explain the evolution of communication. In situations in which the receiver needs to differentiate between low- and high-quality signallers, once a ruling paradigm, the Handicap Principle has claimed that honest signals have to be costly to produce. Subsequent game theoretical models, however, highlighted that honest signals are not necessarily costly. Honesty is maintained by the potential cost of cheating: by the difference in the marginal benefit to marginal cost for low versus high-quality signallers; i.e. by differential trade-offs. Owing to the difficulties of manipulating signal costs and benefits, there is lack of empirical tests of these predictions. We present the results of a laboratory decision-making experiment with human participants to test the role of equilibrium signal cost and signalling trade-offs for the development of honest communication. We found that the trade-off manipulation had a much higher influence on the reliability of communication than the manipulation of the equilibrium cost of signal. Contrary to the predictions of the Handicap Principle, negative production cost promoted honesty at a very high level in the differential trade-off condition.

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  • 7.
    Giardini, Francesca
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Balliet, Daniel
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Power, Eleanor A.
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, England.
    Szamado, Szabolcs
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Hungary; CSS RECENS, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CSS RECENS, Hungary.
    Four Puzzles of Reputation-Based Cooperation Content, Process, Honesty, and Structure2022Ingår i: Human Nature, ISSN 1045-6767, E-ISSN 1936-4776, Vol. 33, s. 43-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in various disciplines has highlighted that humans are uniquely able to solve the problem of cooperation through the informal mechanisms of reputation and gossip. Reputation coordinates the evaluative judgments of individuals about one another. Direct observation of actions and communication are the essential routes that are used to establish and update reputations. In large groups, where opportunities for direct observation are limited, gossip becomes an important channel to share individual perceptions and evaluations of others that can be used to condition cooperative action. Although reputation and gossip might consequently support large-scale human cooperation, four puzzles need to be resolved to understand the operation of reputation-based mechanisms. First, we need empirical evidence of the processes and content that form reputations and how this may vary cross-culturally. Second, we lack an understanding of how reputation is determined from the muddle of imperfect, biased inputs people receive. Third, coordination between individuals is only possible if reputation sharing and signaling is to a large extent reliable and valid. Communication, however, is not necessarily honest and reliable, so theoretical and empirical work is needed to understand how gossip and reputation can effectively promote cooperation despite the circulation of dishonest gossip. Fourth, reputation is not constructed in a social vacuum; hence we need a better understanding of the way in which the structure of interactions affects the efficiency of gossip for establishing reputations and fostering cooperation.

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  • 8.
    Papay, Boroka Timea
    et al.
    Corvinus Univ Budapest, Hungary.
    Kubik, Balint Gyorgy
    Ctr Social Sci, Hungary.
    Galantai, Julia
    Ctr Social Sci, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gossip is distinct from other topics in spontaneous conversation2022Ingår i: INTERSECTIONS-EAST EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY AND POLITICS, ISSN 2416-089X, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 149-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gossip -talking about relevant others in their absence -is believed to constitute a large part of informal communication. The perception of the prevalence of gossip implies that it can be unambiguously identified and distinguished from other topics in spontaneous conversation. Its distinctiveness may be justified by multiple theoretical perspectives, in- cluding one that describes in-group gossip as an informal device for enforcing norms and punishing norm violators, and another that claims that gossip is used to release frustration and communicate envy. If the ultimate reason for gossip is to facilitate social bonding between the sender and the receiver, however, this would not differentiate gos- sip from other conversational topics that provide social enjoyment, such as entertain- ment and food. In a novel contribution, we explore the topics included in a corpus con- taining 550 hours of unfiltered spontaneous conversation and identify using LDA topic modeling whether some topics are unambiguously prominent in in-group gossip. The ex- plorative approach is integrated with the manual annotation of instances of gossip across the entire corpus. We identified coherent topics of in-group gossip that are clearly differ- ent from those of small talk and storytelling. Our analysis finds that feelings, intentions, and opinions are frequently expressed in in-group gossip, more than habits, manners, and behavior. In-group gossip topics are characterized by more words associated with anger, in line with theoretical perspectives that attribute the motives of norm enhance- ment and punishment or frustration and envy to gossip.

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  • 9.
    Righi, Simone
    et al.
    Ca Foscari Univ Venice, Italy.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Ctr Social Sci, Hungary.
    Gossip: Perspective Taking to Establish Cooperation2022Ingår i: Dynamic Games and Applications, ISSN 2153-0785, E-ISSN 2153-0793, Vol. 12, s. 1086-1100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems of cooperation are frequent among living organisms, but they are difficult to solve. Humans have been able to produce large-scale cooperation among unrelated individuals through reputation systems. A challenging puzzle, however, is how reputation can guide behavior if in most cases it is not shared publicly and is assigned to others privately. We confirm that it is difficult to obtain cooperation among agents playing the Prisoners Dilemma when reputations are individually assigned. We propose that third-party communication (gossip) can overcome this difficulty, but only under specific conditions concerning its content, amount and persistence. We show that-in order to sustain cooperation-gossip should not only be about private evaluations of others but should also include perspective taking and exchange of information about tolerance thresholds to support cooperation. This perspective taking reputational strategy can propagate and establish cooperation in the population independent of gossip frequency and population size, under various selection mechanisms of communication partners and targets, and assumptions concerning agents memory.

  • 10.
    Estévez, José Luis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Centre for the Digital Research of Religion, Department for the Study of Religions, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kisfalusi, Dorottya
    Centre for Social Sciences, Computational Social Science – Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS – RECENS), Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Centre for Social Sciences, Computational Social Science – Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS – RECENS), Budapest, Hungary.
    More than one’s negative ties: The role of friends’ antipathies in high school gossip2022Ingår i: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 70, s. 77-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gossip is universal, and multiple studies have demonstrated that it can have beneficial group-level outcomes when negative reports help identify defectors or norm-violators. Gossip, however, seldom happens in a social vacuum. Instead, it is enmeshed in a fabric of positive and negative relationships that creates opportunities, constraints, and also motives to gossip. This article studies the importance of friendships and antipathies among the three concerned parties (sender, receiver, target) for negative gossip among adolescents. We contrast two theoretical accounts. According to the first, gossip brings closer individuals who have “enemies” in common. Based on this, we infer that gossip appears in triads where both the sender and receiver share their antipathy against the target. The second position argues that gossip is used to compromise different opinions of friends towards the target. Thus, what predicts gossip is direct antipathy against the target or being friends with someone who dislikes the target (indirect antipathy) rather than the combination of the two antipathies. We test these two lines of reasoning with sociometric data from 17 classroom observations (13 unique classrooms in different time points) in Hungary. Bayesian Exponential Random Graph Models yield support for direct antipathy in 13 (nine unique) classrooms and indirect antipathy in five. No evidence for shared antipathy is found. Results suggest that, at least among adolescents, negative gossip is not about bonding with potential allies but more about consensus-making between friends. Also, results reveal that negative gossip concentrates on the two ends of the reputational echelon, hinting that, in the classroom, high reputation might be contested instead of rewarded.

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  • 11.
    Keller, Tamás
    et al.
    Computational Social Science - Research Center for Educational and Network Studies, Centre for Social Sciences;Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies;TÁRKI Social Research Institute.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Elwert, Felix
    Department of Sociology & Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Yes, You Can! Effects of Transparent Admission Standards on High School Track Choice: A Randomized Field Experiment2022Ingår i: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 101, nr 1, s. 341-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High school track choice determines college access in many countries. We hypothesize that some qualified students avoid the college-bound track in high school simply because they overestimate admission requirements. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized field experiment that communicated the admission standards of local secondary schools on the academic track to students in Hungary before the application deadline. We targeted the subset of students (“seeds”) who occupied the most central position in the classroom-social networks, aiming to detect both direct effects on the track choice of targeted seeds and spillover effects on their untreated peers. We found neither a direct effect nor a spillover effect on students’ applications or admissions on average. Further analyses, however, revealed theoretically plausible heterogeneity in the direct causal effect of the intervention on the track choice of targeted seeds. Providing information about admission standards increased applications and admissions to secondary schools on the academic track among seeds who had a pre-existing interest in the academic track but were unsure of their chances of admission. This demonstrates that publicizing admissions standards can set students on a more ambitious educational trajectory. We discuss the implications for theory and policy.

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  • 12.
    Samu, Flóra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Doctoral School of Sociology, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary;Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Agglomeration and Social Networks Lendület Research Group, Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Centre for Social Sciences (TK), Computational Social Sciences – Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS-RECENS), Budapest, Hungary.
    Evaluating mechanisms that could support credible reputations and cooperation: cross-checking and social bonding2021Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 376, nr 1838, artikel-id 20200302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gossip is believed to be an informal device that alleviates the problem of cooperation in humans. Communication about previous acts and passing on reputational information could be valuable for conditional action in cooperation problems and pose a punishment threat to defectors. It is an open question, however, what kind of mechanisms can make gossip honest and credible and reputational information reliable, especially if intense competition for reputations does not exclusively dictate passing on honest information. We propose two mechanisms that could support the honesty and credibility of gossip under such a conflict of interest. One is the possibility of voluntary checks of received evaluative information from different sources and the other is social bonding between the sender and the receiver. We tested the efficiency of cross-checking and social bonding in a laboratory experiment where subjects played the Prisoner's Dilemma with gossip interactions. Although individuals had confidence in gossip in both conditions, we found that, overall, neither the opportunities for cross-checking nor bonding were able to maintain cooperation. Meanwhile, strong competition for reputation increased cooperation when individuals' payoffs depended greatly on their position relative to their rivals. Our results suggest that intense competition for reputation facilitates gossip functioning as an informal device promoting cooperation.

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  • 13.
    Kisfalusi, Dorottya
    et al.
    Computational Social Science—Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS—RECENS), Centre for Social Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, Budapest, Hungary.
    Janky, Béla
    Computational Social Science—Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS—RECENS), Centre for Social Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, Budapest, Hungary; Department of Sociology and Communication, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Computational Social Science—Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS—RECENS), Centre for Social Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network, Budapest, Hungary.
    Grading in Hungarian Primary Schools: Mechanisms of Ethnic Discrimination against Roma Students2021Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 899-917Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to shed light on the mechanisms of ethnic discrimination in teacher assessments in Hungarian primary schools. For this purpose, we use data collected among Roma minority and non-Roma majority students. First, we identify a considerable ethnic difference in non-blind school grades, which is beyond the ethnic difference in blind standardized test scores. Then, we derive and empirically test predictions from different theories of discrimination that might explain the ethnic difference in grades. We find that stereotype-based theories of discrimination do not explain why minority students receive lower grades than majority students. We do not exclude the possibility that taste-based discrimination exists among teachers against Roma students. A considerable part of ethnic discrimination, however, is explained by teachers’ indirectly discriminatory grading practices: Roma students’ school behaviour is evaluated more negatively by teachers than that of non-Roma students and school behaviour seems to be taken into account in grading without legitimate justification.This practice does not only disadvantage Roma students, but boys and low status students as well.

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  • 14.
    Podder, Shirsendu
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, UK.
    Righi, Simone
    Department of Economics, Ca’Foscari University of Venice, Venice, Italy.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Local reputation, local selection, and the leading eight norms2021Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 16560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are capable of solving cooperation problems following social norms. Social norms dictate appropriate behaviour and judgement on others in response to their previous actions and reputation. Recently, the so-called leading eight norms have been identified from many potential social norms that can sustain cooperation through a reputation-based indirect reciprocity mechanism. Despite indirect reciprocity being claimed to extend direct reciprocity in larger populations where direct experiences cannot be accumulated, the success of social norms have been analysed in models with global information and evolution. This study is the first to analyse the leading eight norms with local information and evolution. We find that the leading eight are robust against selfish players within most scenarios and can maintain a high level of cooperation also with local information and evolution. In fact, local evolution sustains cooperation under a wider set of conditions than global evolution, while local reputation does not hinder cooperation compared to global reputation. Four of the leading eight norms that do not reward justified defection offer better chances for cooperation with quick evolution, reputation with noise, larger networks, and when unconditional defectors enter the population.

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  • 15.
    Takács, Károly
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Computational Social Science—Research Center for Educational and Network Studies (CSS-RECENS), Centre for Social Sciences, Tóth Kálmán u. 4., 1097 Budapest, Hungary.
    Gross, Jörg
    Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Testori, Martina
    Organization Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Letina, Srebrenka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Institute of Health and Wellbeing, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Berkeley Square, 99 Berkeley Street, Glasgow G3 7HR, UK.
    Kenny, Adam R.
    Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, 64 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PN, UK;Calleva Research Centre for Evolution and Human Sciences, Magdalen College, High Street, Oxford OX1 4AU, UK.
    Power, Eleanor A.
    Department of Methodology, The London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK.
    Wittek, Rafael P. M.
    Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Networks of reliable reputations and cooperation: a review2021Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 376, nr 1838Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reputation has been shown to provide an informal solution to the problem of cooperation in human societies. After reviewing models that connect reputations and cooperation, we address how reputation results from information exchange embedded in a social network that changes endogenously itself. Theoretical studies highlight that network topologies have different effects on the extent of cooperation, since they can foster or hinder the flow of reputational information. Subsequently, we review models and empirical studies that intend to grasp the coevolution of reputations, cooperation and social networks. We identify open questions in the literature concerning how networks affect the accuracy of reputations, the honesty of shared information and the spread of reputational information. Certain network topologies may facilitate biased beliefs and intergroup competition or in-group identity formation that could lead to high cooperation within but conflicts between different subgroups of a network. Our review covers theoretical, experimental and field studies across various disciplines that target these questions and could explain how the dynamics of interactions and reputations help or prevent the establishment and sustainability of cooperation in small- and large-scale societies.

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  • 16.
    Számadó, S.
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Communication, BUTE, Budapest, Hungary;CSS-RECENS, Centre for Social Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Balliet, D.
    Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Giardini, F.
    Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Power, E. A.
    Department of Methodology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CSS-RECENS, Centre for Social Sciences, Budapest, Hungary;Institute for Analytical Sociology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The language of cooperation: reputation and honest signalling2021Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 376, nr 1838Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale non-kin cooperation is a unique ingredient of human success. This type of cooperation is challenging to explain in a world of self-interested individuals. There is overwhelming empirical evidence from different disciplines that reputation and gossip promote cooperation in humans in different contexts. Despite decades of research, important details of reputation systems are still unclear. Our goal with this theme issue is to promote an interdisciplinary approach that allows us to explore and understand the evolution and maintenance of reputation systems with a special emphasis on gossip and honest signalling. The theme issue is organized around four main questions: What are the necessary conditions for reputation-based systems? What is the content and context of reputation systems? How can reputations promote cooperation? And, what is the role of gossip in maintaining reputation systems and thus cooperation?

  • 17.
    Samu, Flora
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Corvinus Univ Budapest, Hungary; Lendulet Res Ctr Educ & Network Studies CSS RECEN, Hungary.
    Szamado, Szabolcs
    Lendulet Res Ctr Educ & Network Studies CSS RECEN, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Hungary; Ctr Ecol Res, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lendulet Res Ctr Educ & Network Studies CSS RECEN, Hungary.
    Scarce and directly beneficial reputations support cooperation2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 11486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A human solution to the problem of cooperation is the maintenance of informal reputation hierarchies. Reputational information contributes to cooperation by providing guidelines about previous group-beneficial or free-rider behaviour in social dilemma interactions. How reputation information could be credible, however, remains a puzzle. We test two potential safeguards to ensure credibility: (i) reputation is a scarce resource and (ii) it is not earned for direct benefits. We test these solutions in a laboratory experiment in which participants played two-person Prisoners Dilemma games without partner selection, could observe some other interactions, and could communicate reputational information about possible opponents to each other. Reputational information clearly influenced cooperation decisions. Although cooperation was not sustained at a high level in any of the conditions, the possibility of exchanging third-party information was able to temporarily increase the level of strategic cooperation when reputation was a scarce resource and reputational scores were directly translated into monetary benefits. We found that competition for monetary rewards or unrestricted non-monetary reputational rewards helped the reputation system to be informative. Finally, we found that high reputational scores are reinforced further as they are rewarded with positive messages, and positive gossip was leading to higher reputations.

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  • 18.
    Stadtfeld, Christoph
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Computat Social Sci Res Ctr Educ and Network Studie, Hungary.
    Voros, Andras
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland; Univ Manchester, England; Univ Manchester, England.
    The Emergence and Stability of Groups in Social Networks2020Ingår i: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 60, s. 129-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An important puzzle in social network research is to explain how macro-level structures emerge from micro-level network processes. Explaining the emergence and stability of structural groups in social networks is particularly difficult for two reasons. First, because groups are characterized both by high connectedness within (group cohesion) and lack of connectedness between them (group boundaries). Second, because a large number of theoretical micro-level network processes contribute to their emergence. We argue that traditional social network theories that are concerned with the evolution of positive relations (forces of attraction) are not sufficient to explain the emergence of groups because they lack mechanisms explaining the emergence of group boundaries. Models that additionally account for the evolution of negative ties (forces of repulsion) may be better suited to explain the emergence and stability of groups. We build a theoretical model and illustrate its usefulness by fitting stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) to empirical data of co-evolving networks of friendship and dislike among 479 secondary-school students. The SAOMs include a number of newly developed effects expressing the co-evolution between positive and negative ties. We then simulate networks from the estimated models to explore the micro-macro link. We find that a model that considers forces of attraction and repulsion simultaneously is better at explaining groups in social networks. In the long run, however, the empirically informed simulations generate networks that are too stylized to be realistic, raising further questions about model degeneracy and time heterogeneity of group processes.

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  • 19.
    Kisfalusi, Dorottya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Neumann, Eszter
    Centre for Social Sciences, Institute for Minority Studies, Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ethnic Integration and Interethnic Relations in Schools2019Ingår i: Intersections. East European Journal for Sociaty and Politics, E-ISSN 2416-089X, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 4-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Keller, Tamás
    et al.
    Computational Social Science - Research Center for Educational and Network Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; TÁRKI Social Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Computational Social Science - Research Center for Educational and Network Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Peers that count: The influence of deskmates on test scores2019Ingår i: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 62, artikel-id 100408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer effects have been shown to be important for educational development during adolescence. Peer effect from classmates and friends, nevertheless, could be the target of interventions only to a limited extent. We hypothesize that deskmates may affect educational achievement. In contrast to friendship, deskmate relations could realistically be a target of policy intervention by teachers, who can decide on the seating arrangements in class. This study examines whether deskmates have a positive impact on individual test scores that goes beyond the general influence of classmates and friends. The deskmate effect is investigated in ethnically mixed classrooms. Information on friendship and deskmates from a social network panel was merged with test score register data from secondary schools in Northern and Eastern Hungary. The study finds that, after controlling for students’ own baseline eighth-grade reading test scores and classroom-fixed effects, deskmates’ eighth-grade reading test score influences positively students’ tenth-grade reading test scores. No similar effect was found for mathematics test scores. We found no evidence that deskmates’ test scores mediate or moderate the ethnic test-score gap between Hungarian and Roma students.

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  • 21.
    Rado, Marta
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands; CSS RECENS Computat Social Sci Lendiilet Res Ctr, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. CSS RECENS Computat Social Sci Lendiilet Res Ctr, Hungary.
    Relational Integration in Schools Through Seating Assignments2019Ingår i: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 22, nr 4, artikel-id 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional desegregation policies have improved but not fully solved the problems associated with the reproduction of inequalities and interracial prejudice in schools. This is partly because social networks are inherently segregated within integrated schools and the benefits of contact have not fully materialized. Therefore, new kinds of policies are needed to further improve the situation. This paper investigates the consequences and efficiency of seating arrangements on academic outcomes and prejudice using an agent-based model that reflects real-life asymmetries. We model interpersonal dynamics and study behavior in the classroom in the hypothetical case of a single teacher who defines students seating arrangements. The model incorporates the mechanisms of peer influence on study behavior, on attitude formation, and homophilous selection in order to depict the interrelated dynamics of networks, behavior, and attitudes. We compare various seating arrangement scenarios and observe how GPA distribution and level of prejudice changes over time. Results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of seating strategies. In general, more heterogeneous deskmate pairs lead to a lower level of inequality and prejudice in the classroom, but this strategy does not favor talent management. Further, we evaluate outcomes compared to the absence of external intervention whereby students choose their own deskmates based on homophilous selection. Our model takes into account the fact that homophilous selection may be distorted due to the Acting White phenomenon and pre-existing prejudice. Accounting for these factors implies slower convergence between advantaged and disadvantaged students.

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  • 22.
    Gastner, Michael T.
    et al.
    Yale NUS Coll, Singapore; Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Gulyas, Mate
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary; Lorand Eotvos Univ ELTE, Hungary.
    Szvetelszky, Zsuzsanna
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Oborny, Beata
    Lorand Eotvos Univ ELTE, Hungary; Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    The impact of hypocrisy on opinion formation: A dynamic model2019Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 6, artikel-id e0218729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have a demonstrated tendency to copy or imitate the behavior and attitude of others and actively influence each others opinions. In plenty of empirical contexts, publicly revealed opinions are not necessarily in line with internal opinions, causing complex social influence dynamics. We study to what extent hypocrisy is sustained during opinion formation and how hidden opinions change the convergence to consensus in a group. We build and analyze a modified version of the voter model with hypocrisy in a complete graph with a neutral competition between two alternatives. We compare the process from various initial conditions, varying the proportions between the two opinions in the external (revealed) and internal (hidden) layer. According to our results, hypocrisy always prolongs the time needed for reaching a consensus. In a complete graph, this time span increases linearly with group size. We find that the group-level opinion emerges in two steps: (1) a fast and directional process, during which the number of the two kinds of hypocrites equalizes; and (2) a slower, random drift of opinions. During stage (2), the ratio of opinions in the external layer is approximately equal to the ratio in the internal layer; that is, the hidden opinions do not differ significantly from the revealed ones at the group level. We furthermore find that the initial abundances of opinions, but not the initial prevalence of hypocrisy, predicts the mean consensus time and determines the opinions probabilities of winning. These insights highlight the unimportance of hypocrisy in consensus formation under neutral conditions. Our results have important societal implications in relation to hidden voter preferences in polls and improve our understanding of opinion formation in a more realistic setting than that of conventional voter models.

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  • 23.
    Righi, Simone
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Takács, Károly
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    The miracle of peer review and development in science: an agent-based model2017Ingår i: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 113, nr 1, s. 587-607Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not easy to rationalize how peer review, as the current grassroots of science, can work based on voluntary contributions of reviewers. There is no rationale to write impartial and thorough evaluations. If reviewers are unmotivated to carefully select high quality contributions, there is no risk in submitting low-quality work by authors. As a result, scientists face a social dilemma: if everyone acts according to his or her own self-interest, the outcome is low scientific quality. We examine how the increased relevance of public good benefits (journal impact factor), the editorial policy of handling incoming reviews, and the acceptance decisions that take into account reputational information, can help the evolution of high-quality contributions from authors. High effort from the side of reviewers is problematic even if authors cooperate: reviewers are still best off by producing low-quality reviews, which does not hinder scientific development, just adds random noise and unnecessary costs to it. We show with agent-based simulations why certain self-emerged current practices, such as the increased reliance on journal metrics and the reputation bias in acceptance, work efficiently for scientific development. Our results find no proper guidelines, however, how the system of voluntary peer review with impartial and thorough evaluations could be sustainable jointly with rapid scientific development.

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