liu.seSök publikationer i DiVA
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 25 av 25
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nordlöf, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Product or Process Criteria?: What Teachers Value When Assessing Programming2023Ingår i: Programming and Computational Thinking in Technology Education: Swedish and International Perspectives / [ed] Jonas Hallström and Marc J. de Vries, Brill Academic Publishers, 2023, s. 325-341Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming is increasingly being taught in schools in Sweden and around the world. Programming has been taught and assessed for a long time both in upper secondary schools and in universities, but in the lower grades, programming as part of technology education is still rather new. Therefore, there is a need for assessment criteria for programming in compulsory school. The aim of this chapter is to examine the criteria that individual teachers use when they grade and assess students in tasks related to programming. This study uses Q methodology. The informants, 28 programming teachers, were asked to sort and rank criteria regarding the assessment of programming according to their own subjective beliefs. The results were analysed using factor analysis to find groups of similar informants. The results reveal two teacher groups, where one puts greater emphasis on process criteria while the other primarily emphasises product criteria. Moreover, both groups place high value on students’ ability to explain the program, which can be interpreted as a combination of product and process where the student uses the knowledge they have acquired and turns it into their own knowledge. At the end of the chapter, formative assessment is discussed, based on the results relating to process criteria, and how teachers can use these criteria to help students progress

  • 2.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Lundström, Mats
    Department of Natural Science, Mathematics and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Åström, Maria
    Department of Pedagogical, Curricular and Professional Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Different profiles for the assessment of student theses in teacher education2021Ingår i: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 82, s. 959-976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows a discrepancy between different teachers’ assessment of student theses. This might be an even larger problem in the context of teacher education, since teacher trainers originate from different disciplines. This study aims to investigate how different assessors prioritise between criteria for assessment. Criteria were elucidated using repertory grid interviews with teacher trainers. These criteria formed the basis for a web-based Qsort that was distributed to teacher trainers at three different universities. The 66 teacher trainers in this study represented different disciplines, but were all engaged in the supervision and examination of student theses from teacher education programmes. The analysis revealed three different factors, which have been labelled: logic text structure as product, research process as product and results as product. The differences may not be explained by the background (e.g. discipline, university or gender) of the teacher trainers. Together, these three factors explain why teachers assessing student theses may accentuate different personal criteria. Hence, this might impact on their grading practice and also the interrater reliability.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Stolpe et al. 2021
  • 3.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nordlöf, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Teacher’s Assessment in Programming: Comparing Teachers’ Individual Judgement Criteria in a Programming Course.2021Ingår i: Techne series: Research in sloyd education and crafts science. A, ISSN 1238-9501, E-ISSN 1893-1774, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 188-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In schools around the world the part of technology education related to programming is increasing. There is a lot to learn about teacher’s assessment and grading of students in assignments that are related to technology, particularly in programming. Simon (2012) analyzed introductory programming exams and found that a large percentage of the marks were awarded for the product and the coding skills of the student and less for other skills such as design, debugging, testing, or explaining and documenting.To be able to give formative support teachers should also be able to assess the process in the classroom;students tinkering, creating, debugging, persevering, and collaborating. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine teachers’ individual criteria, explicit, tacit and subjective criteria, when they grade and assess students in technology tasks related to programming. We interviewed 6 teachers in Sweden, representing lower secondary school, upper secondary school and university (teacher and engineering education). A Repertory Grid Technique interview combined with a Comparative Judgement gradingwas used to examine teachers’ individual criteria in assessment. The expected outcomes from themethods are captured criteria that are implicit and based on teachers’ experience, sometimes seen as teachers’ gut feelings. Two types of criteria were found; product criteria assessing the program and process criteria assessing the ongoing process. We compared these criteria with an instrument measuring the development of creativity designed for Art education. We claim that the use of process criteria will help the teacher and the students in developing programming skills.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för lärande, estetik och naturvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Åström, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Konsumtionsuppsatser som ny bedömningspraktik för lärarutbildare [Systematic reviews as new assessment practice for teacher educators]2019Ingår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, ISSN 1401-6788, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 25-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid den senaste lärarutbildningsreformen beslutades att på de flesta lärarutbildningsprogrammen ska lärarstudenter skriva självständiga arbeten omfattande totalt 30 högskolepoäng. Vid många lärosäten har detta lett till en uppdelning i två olika självständiga arbeten: en konsumtions- och en produktionsuppsats. Denna studie undersöker om konsumtionsuppsatser – en typ av kunskapsöversikter – innebär en ny bedömningspraktik för lärarutbildare som examinatorer. Examinatorer vid lärosäten med lärarutbildning har blivit intervjuade och fått besvara en enkät rörande dessa bedömningskriterier. Resultaten indikerar att en majoritet av examinatorerna inte ser stora skillnader mellan att bedöma en konsumtionsuppsats och en mer traditionell produktionsuppsats där egen empiri i form av till exempel intervjuer samlas in och analyseras. Vid intervjuerna framkom dock några skillnader mellan de två uppsatstyperna. Dessa hänger huvudsakligen ihop med antingen hur strukturen byggs upp, vad som är metod eller hur forskningsförankringen är framskriven. Slutsatsen blir att den nya form av uppsatser som konsumtionsuppsatser innebär inte tycks ha renderat i någon stor förändring av bedömningspraktiken hos examinatorerna.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Teacher Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Using the Concept of Disruptive Technologies2018Ingår i: 2018 PATT36 International Conference: Research and Practice in Technology Education: Perspectives on Human Capacity and Development / [ed] Niall Seery, Jeffrey Buckley, Donal Canty and Joseph Phelan, Technology Education Research Group , 2018, s. 239-245Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical thinking is fundamental to 21st century learning and has thus become an important part of the technology curricula in many countries. Critical thinking draws on the ability to examine, analyse, interpret and evaluate, as well as asking questions and participating in discussions about risks and benefits of different technological solutions. An important task for teachers is to support young children in developing these skills. Students on a Swedish primary school teacher education programme were given an assignment inspired by the concept of ‘disruptive technologies’ (Barlex, Givens & Steeg, 2016; Manyika, Chui, Bughin, Dobbs, Bisson & Marrs, 2013), choosing from one of nine disruptive technologies and searching for information. The list was created on the grounds that these are technologies that are likely to have a significant effect on the students’ lives in a not too distant future. Based on the information found, the students were to critically analyse the technology they had chosen. This case study was performed through a thematic analysis of 120 assignment texts. The analysis showed that some of the suggested technologies were chosen more often than others. Autonomous cars came top, although robots in elderly care were the most frequently chosen technology among female students. The students performed well in the searching and collecting process. They found information about pros and cons for their chosen disruptive technology. However, the analysis also showed that the students had difficulty evaluating and problematising the information they had found. In their conclusions they did not change their original point of view. Even though they found more negative aspects of a new technology, they accentuated the positives.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Teacher Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Using the Concept of Disruptive Technologies
  • 6.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Species identification elaborated from a dual memory system approach2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Species identification is part of the biology education and is argued to be important for students to understand biodiversity and evolution. However, there is not enough time for thestudents to develop their ability to identify species within the biology courses. In this paper,we argue for a different model for teaching this topic. The idea comes from the ability to recognize a bird just from its appearance, known among ornithologists as jizz. This conceptcould theoretically being connected to the dual memory system model that implies thathuman beings have two different way of processing information, System 1 and System 2. System 1 operates as a pattern matching process in which already experienced situations arematched against a new situation. Video recordings from an biology field excursion, astimulated recall with the teacher of the excursion and interviews with the students show that the teacher use pattern matching as he recognize species during the excursion. However, healso highlights the important role of the environment to be able to identify plants. In histeaching, he also mentions one typical characteristic for the student as a way to consciously confirm the first, rapid pattern matching. The results indicate that it might be fruitful to teachcarefully selected species to students. Furthermore, even if the students do not remember the exact species name, they recognized the species and they more often remembered the groupor family of the species, even six months after the excursion. This shows the greatimportance of teaching plant identification (or recognition) not only theoretically, but primarily outdoors.

  • 7.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Åström, Maria
    Karlstads universitet.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN).
    Assessing student theses:: Differences and similarities between examiners from different academic disciplines2016Ingår i: Practitioner Research in Higher Education, ISSN 1755-1382, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 217-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The writing of student theses is an important activity at universities and is expected to demonstrate the students’ academic skills. In the teacher-education programme, examiners from different academic disciplines are involved in supervising and examining student theses. Moreover, different subject disciplines have different traditions concerning what is seen as knowledge and the way research is performed, which could result in different assessment practices and judgements. Earlier studies demonstrate a fragmented picture concerning the importance of the examiners’ academic discipline in judging theses. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether examiners from different academic subject disciplines emphasise similar or different criteria when assessing student theses. A total of 66 examiners from six universities with teacher education programmes in Sweden have answered an online Q-survey where they compared different criteria and rank-ordered them. The results demonstrate minor differences between individuals from different academic disciplines: Only two out of the 45 criteria had significant differences between academic discipline groups. Thus, the results indicate that teacher education is a boundary-crossing, multi-disciplinary field which primarily uses generic criteria.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Att medvetandegöra det omedvetna: de fyra f-n och andra kunskapsbegrepp i skola och forskning om lärande2014Ingår i: Dynamiska och komplexa miljöer: reflektioner över pedagogiska praktiker : vänbok till Glenn Hultman / [ed] Ann-Sofi Wedin, Ann-Marie Markström, Kristina Hellberg, Linköping: Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande , 2014, s. 7-19Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Exploratory talk in science education: Inquiry-based learning and communicative approach in primary school2013Ingår i: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 482-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on science education has increasingly focused on the role of exploratory talk for learning science in school. This study was conducted in third grade in the Swedish compulsory school and shows how difficult exploratory talk in science is to achieve. The recordings of each lesson focused mainly on the teacher but included the pupils as the teacher interacted with them. The empirical material was analysed from two different perspectives: ways of communicating the science content and communicative approach. The analysis of the classroom practice showed that scientific descriptions were dominating ways of communication. Only in a few cases explanations of scientific phenomena were in focus. Those situations caused turning points into more interactive/dialogic communications or exploratory talk. One main conclusion is that exploratory talk and scientific explanations are not easily achieved when working in primary school. These skills are not automatically attained by the use of inquiry-based material - it needs to be trained!

  • 10.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 277-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the science content remembered by biology students 6 and 12 months after an ecology excursion. The students' memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview. The authors identified three different types of memories: recall, recognition and narratives. The dual memory system model of learning was used to connect recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The results show that the students' re-told narratives were scrambled and sometimes distorted. The students used small fragments to create their story and the next fragment of the story primarily depended on the antecedent unit. It is therefore suggested that in telling a narrative there is a constant interplay between the explicit (recall) and implicit (recognition) memory systems. The scientific terms (recall) were often replaced by everyday terms, indicating that the underlying meaning is not connected to the specific terms.

  • 11.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The fundamental things apply... as time goes by: Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyse what biology students remembered a long time after being out on an ecology excursion. The students’ memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview and analysed using the dual memory system model of learning.

    Already after 6 months we found that the students had forgotten a lot of the scientific content. Very often they showed a familiarity (recognition) with the situations and objects showed to them but they were unable to identify (recall) and label them. However they did remember some spectacular moment, the sudden appearance of a fox and a moose. They did also remember things and situations when they were active themselves, digging, smelling, using their hands or their feet’s in the difficult balancing and walking on a pet bog. From literature we identified two different types of memories, depending of the question asked: recall and recognition. We connected memories used in recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and memories used in recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The Explicit memory has a short retention but the implicit system is very stable and this will explain the difference in recall and recognition abilities. Since the implicit memory incorporates emotional, somatic, markers we were able to explain the specific flashbulb memories. The implicit system is active when we are doing things, using our senses and this may explain why those memories still were strong even after a full year. The strong memories of patterns stored in the implicit system seemed to act as indices to the declarable labels and facts in the explicit system. Implications for research, education and type of assessment are discussed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The fundamental things apply... as time goes by: Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze what biology studentsremembered a long time after being out on an ecology excursion. The students’ memorieswere tested during a stimulated recall interview and analyzed using the dual memorysystem model of learning. Already after 6 months we found that the students had forgottena lot of the scientific content. Very often they showed a familiarity (recognition) with thesituations and objects showed to them but they were unable to identify (recall) and labelthem. However they did remember some spectacular moment, the sudden appearance of afox and a moose. They did also remember things and situations when they were activethemselves, digging, smelling, using their hands or their feet’s in the difficult balancingand walking on a pet bog. From literature we identified two different types of memories,depending of the question asked: recall and recognition. We connected memories used inrecall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and memories used inrecognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The Explicit memory has ashort retention but the implicit system is very stable and this will explain the difference inrecall and recognition abilities. Since the implicit memory incorporates emotional, somatic,markers we were able to explain the specific flashbulb memories. The implicit system isactive when we are doing things, using our senses and this may explain why thosememories still were strong even after a full year. The strong memories of patterns stored inthe implicit system seemed to act as indices to the declarable labels and facts in the explicitsystem. Implications for research, education and type of assessment are discussed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    STUDENTS’ LONG-TERM MEMORIES FROM AN ECOLOGY FIELD
  • 13.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Why Do They Not See What I See?: The Difference Between Knowing How and Knowing That2013Ingår i: Transfer, transitions and transformations of learning / [ed] Middleton, Howard & Baartman, L.K.J., Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, 1, s. 149-168Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a cold but sunny September day in a Forest in the south of Sweden. A university teacher, Eric, is taking his biology students out on an excursion. During the morning they have taken samples of soil, identified plants, trees and many other things. At this specific moment the group has arrived at a peat bog. They are going to study the vegetation in this special environment and will soon be drilling deep down into the bog to take samples of partially carbonized mosses. They have been asked to put on their rubber boots and now Eric encourages them to walk out on the quagmire, to make them „feel the grounds tottering beneath their feet‟. He doesn‟t hesitate but walks causally, knowing exactly where to put his feet without getting wet. Hence he is leaving the anxious, struggling, moaning students far behind. Slowly moving themselves out on the peat bog the students very often fail to establish a „safe‟ path and some of them begin to sink, getting their boots full of water. Afterwards, at the debriefing, Eric tries to teach them how to walk on a pet bog “And if you listen, you can feel … hear water oozing between … these floes of moss, or bog, or moss, or peat bog. And one could tell from the vegetation where you could walk or not.” Although Eric provides them with several clues about how to walk on the peat bog keeping their feet‟s dry, it is obvious that those rules are of no direct use for the students. This episode was one of many found in a research study on expertise in teaching (Stolpe & Björklund, 2012a). The authors followed two experienced biology teachers when they took their students out on excursions in the nature. Data was collected using video and audio recordings and by taking field notes during the excursions. Afterwards the teachers were interviewed in a stimulated recall setting and were asked to comment on specific situations during the day. In this episode Eric showed typical expert skills, observing, assessing and acting in a complex environment almost automatically and he was asked: How do you know where you could walk or not? He answered: “The vegetation tells you where to put your feet. Sedges indicate that it‟s dryer. And then one recognizes what kind of moisture there is”. This illustrates an analytical, conscious answer upon which Eric attempted to explain his walking on the bog. However, this type of instruction is more or less useless as guidelines for students, since it would be hard to know what was meant by, for example, „the vegetation tells you where to put your feet‟. Asked to be more specific, Eric then continued: “It is trial and error. You may probe and you will see. From experience you know where you cannot go because you will sink. It‟s obvious”. Eric has walked on peat bogs many times before and when he relived an earlier experienced situation, it may have helped him make the correct decisions. He was not able to transfer his own knowledge to the students, partly because his skills were tacit, hidden from himself, partly because they couldn‟t be expressed verbally. This is a general dilemma facing teachers and supervisors everywhere, to transfer their own skills and knowledge to the student or apprentice. Stolpe and Björklund (2012a) used a new psychological model to analyse and explain the behaviour of the teacher and were able to identify two different types of knowledge. There were implicit and explicit memories that explained the expert skills of the teacher, why the skills were tacit and if they could be transferred to the students. This chapter present the model and discusses its usefulness for analysing not only the knowledge of experts, but also other phenomena in the field of transfer research. The story of Eric was an example of unsuccessful transfer from an expert to his students, illustrating the dilemmas in teaching tacit knowledge or „knowing how‟. It articulates a difference of two different memory systems and two different kind of learning. This first paragraph will describe the Dual system model, the theories behind it, and some illustrative examples on how it could be used to analyse and understand transfer and its merits and drawbacks. It will be followed by an annotated bibliography of transfer research studies of relevance, using the dual system model as an analytical tool. Summing up, conclusions and implications given for training and educational design are then provided.

  • 14.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers’ observational skills in natural ecological learning environments2012Ingår i: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 101-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate two expert ecology teachers’ ability to attend to essential details in a complex environment during a field excursion, as well as how they teach this ability to their students. In applying a cognitive dual-memory system model for learning, we also suggest a rationale for their behaviour. The model implies two separate memory systems: the implicit, non-conscious, non-declarative system and the explicit, conscious, declarative system. This model provided the starting point for the research design. However, it was revised from the empirical findings supported by new theoretical insights. The teachers were video and audio recorded during their excursion and interviewed in a stimulated recall setting afterwards. The data were qualitatively analysed using the dual-memory system model. The results show that the teachers used holistic pattern recognition in their own identification of natural objects. However, teachers’ main strategy to teach this ability is to give the students explicit rules or specific characteristics. According to the dual-memory system model the holistic pattern recognition is processed in the implicit memory system as a non-conscious match with earlier experienced situations. We suggest that this implicit pattern matching serves as an explanation for teachers’ ecological and teaching observational skills. Another function of the implicit memory system is its ability to control automatic behaviour and non-conscious decision-making. The teachers offer the students firsthand sensory experiences which provide a prerequisite for the formation of implicit memories that provides a foundation for expertise.

  • 15.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Att identifiera eller att känna igen: Långtidseffekter av lärande2011Ingår i: Nordiskt forskarsymposium om undervisning i naturvetenskap: Naturvetenskap som kunskap och kultur, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik och didaktik i utbildning och skola (PeDiUS). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik och didaktik i utbildning och skola (PeDiUS). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kommunicera naturvetenskap i skolan – exempel från årskurs 3.2011Ingår i: Ämnesdidaktik -- dåtid, nutid och framtid.: Bidrag från femte rikskonferensen i ämnesdidaktik vid Linköpings universitet 26-27 maj 2010. / [ed] Martinsson, Bengt-Göran & Parmenius Swärd, Suzanne, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 51-62Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar det om kommunikation och interaktion mellan lärare och elever.Löfgren m.fl. prövar ett analysverktyg för att studera dialog- eller interaktionstyperi klassrummet. Har samtalet om ämnet någon betydelse ochvilka olika typer av elev- lärar-interaktion kan finnas? Samtalet är enligtförfattarna kontextbundet till respektive ämnes diskurs. Inom naturvetenskaputgörs diskursen främst av beskrivningar, generaliseringar och förklaringar,med andra ord hur läraren får eleverna att tillägna sig och användanaturvetenskapliga begrepp. De visar på mönster i interaktionenmellan lärare och elev och genom framför allt sociokulturella teorier omlärande analyserar de vilken typ av interaktion som bäst främjar begreppsutveckling.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Being able to see the wood for the trees: Expert teachers' observational skills in complex environments explained by a neurocognirive model of learning2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Being able to see the wood for the trees: Expert teachers' observational skills in complex environments explained by a neurocognitive model of learning2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The Dual Memory Systems Model and it's implications for Technology Education2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between the explicit and the implicit memory and learning systems in terms of recent findings in neuropsychology and outlines the implications for technology education in terms of student learning.

     

    The psychological Dual Systems Theory situates the processing of perception, assessment, decision-making and action in two parallel but different cognitive systems. The Declarative/Explicit system is conscious, remembering facts and episodes; it is rational and logical but also limited in complexity and speed. Working Memory’s (WM) capacity, an “end station” of this system, is severely limited. Depending on modality between 4 and 9 variables or steps in a sequence may be handled at once. More will lead to cognitive loading and impasse. Since WM probably is our consciousness, we will not be able to analyse what was dropped out or what happened, we will just get confused. The narrow view of conscious vision, the slow speed and the problems with details and complexity in space and time makes this system less suitable for real time, real complexity work.

     

    The non conscious Implicit System on the other hand does not use Working Memory and will not be hampered by cognitive overload; it’s a pattern recognition system with very fast recognition of earlier encountered situations and objects. It has several important functions:

     

    1- To direct conscious attention to what is important and relevant in a situation.

    2- To give a fast assessment, built upon somatic markers incorporated in memory.

    3- To start an automatic reaction to what is perceived,

     

    The lifespan of this memory system is long, and it seems very hard to erase or to change them. Most of what we usually refer to as skill seems to be connected to learning in this system. The Dual Systems model has recently been supported with neurophysiologic results showing, two different anatomical systems. The somatic markers have been identified, the secondary implicit vision system and concepts such as tacit knowing, automaticity, flow and intuition are starting to be understood. This model gives a new way of understanding what we do in technology education, gives clues of how to promote creativity, holistic learning, system thinking, forward reasoning and more.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för didaktik och forskning om pedagogiskt arbete (DIPA). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hultman, Glenn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The content and form in science education2009Ingår i: ESERA, Istanbul, 2009, s. 1-3Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The forming and assessment of creative skills, from a neurocognitive point of view2009Ingår i: Strengthening the Position of Technology Education in the Curriculum / [ed] Marc de Vries, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The Repertory Grid Technique:Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit: Assessing Creative Work and Problem Solving Skillls2008Ingår i: Researching Technology Education: Methods and Techniques / [ed] Howard Middleton, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , 2008, 1, s. 46-69Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This third volume in the International Technology Education Series provides insights into developments in technology education research in terms of methods and techniques. The importance of the book is that it highlights the uniqueness of the area of technology education in terms of content, and learning and teaching processes, and the need to provide methods and techniques to capture this uniqueness when undertaking research. The book comprises research methods and techniques being used by a range of current researchers. Each chapter includes details of the method or technique, but does so in terms of a project where it was used. This provides important contextual material that will help researchers when developing research projects. The book contains research methods and techniques that are new in general as well as ones new to technology education and ones that are variations to existing methods and techniques to make them suitable for use in technology education research. This book should be of interest to research students, teacher educators, researchers and policy-makers who are involved in technology education.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The intuitive practitioner: Cognitive aspects on the development of Expertise2007Ingår i: 13 International Conference on Thinking / [ed] Larts Taxén, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Addressing Modern Technology in Science Education, a Systems approach2006Ingår i: Science and Technology Education for a Diverse World / [ed] Janiuk Ryszard & Elwira Samonek-Miciuk, Lublin: Maria Curie-Skodowska University Press , 2006, s. 123-134Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Lärande, Estetik, Naturvetenskap (LEN). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Adressing modern technology: a Systems Approach2005Ingår i: Technology Education in New Perspectives: research, assessment and curriculum development : festschrift for Witold Rogala / [ed] Lars Lindström och Rogala, Witold, Stockholm: HLS Förlag , 2005, s. 161-178Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment and curriculum development are two major foci in recent research and policy studies in technology education. They were approached, in new perspectives, during two conferences in 2003, one taking place at the Stockholm Institute of Education, the other at the National M. Dragomanov Pedagogical University Kiev, Ukraine. To these conferences some of the major scholars in Europe in the field of design and technology education were invited. The most important papers have been revised for inclusion in this book, which is intended for a larger audience of students, teachers and administrators in technology education. The book includes a chapter by Richard Kimbell on a research project trying to develop a new assessment procedure for secondary schools, which is no longer rewarding the hard-working rule-followers at the expense of the risk-taking design innovators. Gabriele Graube and Walter Theuerkauf examine main traditions in technology education and discuss a model for assessing competence. Jan Åke Granath elaborates a design-theoretical approach to architecture education and presents an exercise, which makes students aware of the dynamics and uncertainty of problems in real life. Jan-Erik Hagberg presents a review of domestic and international research on technology education, initiated by the Swedish Research Council. Participating authors: Lars Björklund, Eva Blomdahl, Jan Åke Granath, Gabriele Graube, Jan-Erik Hagberg, Richard Kimbell, Jevgen Kulyk, Michael Lindgren, Lars Lindström, Wilfried Schlagenhauf, Victor Sidorenko, Walter Theuerkauf and Igor Zhernoklieiev.

1 - 25 av 25
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf