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  • 1.
    Dorri, Samira
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stendahl, Sjoerd
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Material Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Devishvili, Anton
    Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Vorobiev, Alexei
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Material Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enhanced quality of single crystal CrBx/TiBy diboride superlattices by controlling boron stoichiometry during sputter deposition2024Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, artikel-id 159606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal CrB2/TiB2 diboride superlattices with well-defined layers are promising candidates for neutron optics. However, excess B in sputter-deposited TiBy using a single TiB2 target deteriorates the structural quality of CrBx/TiBy (0001) superlattices. We study the influence of co-sputtering of TiB2 + Ti on the stoichiometry and crystalline quality of 300-nm-thick TiBy single layers and CrBx/TiBy (0001) superlattices on Al2O3(0001) substrates grown by DC magnetron sputter epitaxy at growth-temperatures TS ranging from 600 to 900 °C. By controlling the relative applied powers to the TiB2 and Ti magnetrons, y could be reduced from 3.3 to 0.9. TiB2.3 grown at 750 °C exhibited epitaxial domains about 10x larger than non-co-sputtered films. Close-to-stoichiometry CrB1.7/TiB2.3 superlattices with modulation periods Λ = 6 nm grown at 750 °C showed the highest single crystal quality and best layer definition. TiB2.3 layers display rough top interfaces indicating kinetically limited growth while CrB1.7 forms flat and abrupt top interfaces indicating epitaxial growth with high adatom mobility.

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  • 2.
    Zubayer, Anton
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thorarinsdottir, Kristbjoerg Anna
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Stendahl, Sjoerd
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Glavic, Artur
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Switzerland.
    Stahn, Jochen
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Switzerland.
    Nagy, Gyula
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schwartzkopf, Matthias
    DESY, Germany.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnus, Fridrik
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reflective, polarizing, and magnetically soft amorphous neutron optics with 11B-enriched B4C2024Ingår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikel-id eadl0402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of polarized neutrons is of great importance in scientific disciplines spanning materials science, physics, biology, and chemistry. However, state-of-the-art multilayer polarizing neutron optics have limitations, particularly low specular reflectivity and polarization at higher scattering vectors/angles, and the requirement of high external magnetic fields to saturate the polarizer magnetization. Here, we show that, by incorporating (B4C)-B-11 into Fe/Si multilayers, amorphization and smooth interfaces can be achieved, yielding higher neutron reflectivity, less diffuse scattering, and higher polarization. Magnetic coercivity is eliminated, and magnetic saturation can be reached at low external fields (>2 militesla). This approach offers prospects for substantial improvement in polarizing neutron optics with nonintrusive positioning of the polarizer, enhanced flux, increased data accuracy, and further polarizing/analyzing methods at neutron scattering facilities.

  • 3.
    Dorri, Samira
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bakhit, Babak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of stoichiometry and individual layer thickness ratio on the quality of epitaxial CrBx/TiBy superlattice thin films2023Ingår i: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 228, artikel-id 111842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of single crystal artificial superlattices (SLs) of transition-metal (TM) diborides, which is instru- mental to understand hardening mechanisms at nanoscale, is lacking. Here, CrBx/TiBy (0001) diboride SLs [x,y E 1.7-3.3] are grown epitaxially on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy. Growth conditions for obtaining well-defined SLs with good interface quality are found at 4 mTorr Ar pressure and 600 degrees C. 1 -mu m-thick SL films deposited with modulation periods A between 1 and 10 nm, and A=6 nm SLs with TiBy-to-A layer thickness ratios F ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 are studied. SLs with A=6 nm and F in the range of 0.2-0.4, with a near stoichiometric B/TM ratio, exhibit the high- est structural quality. The effects of F and stoichiometries (B/TM ratio) on the distribution of B in the SL structures are discussed. By increasing the relative thickness of TiBy, the crystalline quality of SLs starts to deteriorate due to B segregation in over-stoichiometric TiBy, resulting in narrow epitaxial SL columnar growth with structurally-distorted B-rich boundaries. Moreover, increasing the relative thickness of under-stoichiometric CrBx enhances the SL quality and hinders formation of B-rich boundaries. The SLs are found to exhibit hardness values in the range of 29-34 GPa.(c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 4.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broekhuijsen, Sjoerd
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schell, Norbert
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Morphology control in Ni/Ti multilayer neutron mirrors by ion-assisted interface engineering and B4C incorporation2023Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 1424-1439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical contrast and minimum layer thickness of Ni/Ti broadband neutron multilayer supermirrors is usually hampered by an interface width, typically 0.7 nm, caused by nanocrystallites, interdiffusion, and/or intermixing. We explore the elimination of nanocrystallites in combination with interface smoothening by modulation of ion assistance during magnetron sputter deposition of 0.8 to 6.4 nm thick Ni and Ti layers. The amorphization is achieved through incorporation of natural B4C where B and C preferably bond to Ti. A two-stage substrate bias was applied to each layer; -30 V for the initial 1 nm followed by -100 V for the remaining part, generating multilayer mirrors with interface widths of 0.40-0.45 nm. The results predict that high performance supermirrors with m-values as high as 10 are feasible by using 11B isotope-enriched B4C combined with temporal control of the ion assistance.

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  • 5.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dorri, Samira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bakhit, Babak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phase separation paths in metastable Zr1-xAlxN monolithic layers compared to multilayers with TiN: Growth versus annealing temperatures2023Ingår i: Materialia, E-ISSN 2589-1529, Vol. 28, artikel-id 101758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metastable super-saturated Zr1_xAlxN alloys tend to phase separate into the equilibrium cubic (c) ZrN and wurtzite (w) AlN due to a deep miscibility gap. Transformation is shown here to follow distinctly different paths depending on if Zr1_xAlxN (x = 0.3 and 0.6) is sputter deposited as a single layer or multi-layered with TiN, and further varied by post-deposition annealing. Using in situ high-energy synchrotron wide-angle X-ray scattering and analytical transmission electron microscopy, surface segregation effects are compared to secondary phase transformations occurring in as-deposited layers during thermal annealing up to 1000 degrees C. For the primary phase transformation from the vapor phase, w-AlN nucleates and an AlN-ZrN labyrinthine structure evolves at elevated deposition temperature with semi-coherent interfaces over several nanometers, where the higher Al content narrows the structure in both single and multilayers. Transformation in thinner alloy layers is governed by epitaxial forces which stabilize single-phase c-Zr0.4Al0.6N, which enables c-Zr0.4Al0.6N/TiN superlattice growth at temperatures as low as 350 degrees C. Regardless of the decomposition route, the formation of c-AlN is impeded and w-AlN instantaneously forms during transformation. In contrast, isostructural decomposition into w-AlN and w-Zr (Al)N occurs in w-Zr0.4Al0.6N alloys during annealing.

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  • 6.
    Broekhuijsen, Sjoerd
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vorobiev, Alexei
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Material Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Institut Max von Laue—Paul Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Synthesis and characterization of 11B4C containing Ni/Ti multilayers using combined neutron and X-ray reflectometry2023Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 1140-1149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of multilayers in optical components, such as those used in neutron scattering instruments, is crucially dependent on the achievable interface width. We have shown how the interface width of Ni/Ti multilayers can be improved using the incorporation of B4C to inhibit the formation of nanocrystals and limit interdiffusion and intermetallic reactions at the interfaces. A modulated ion-assistance scheme was used to prevent intermixing and roughness accumulation throughout the layer stack. In this work we investigate the incorporation of low-neutron-absorbing 11B4C for Ni/Ti neutron multilayers. Combined fitting of neutron reflectivity and X-ray reflectivity measurements shows an elimination of accumulated roughness for the 11B4C containing multilayers with a mean interface width of 4.5 Å, resulting in an increase in reflectivity at the first Bragg peak by a factor of 2.3 and 1.5 for neutron and X-ray measurements, respectively.

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  • 7.
    Prochazka, Lukas
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Huber, Alexander
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schneider, Michael
    SwissNeutron AG, Switzerland.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pfiffner, Flurin
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Novel Fabrication Technology for Clamped Micron-Thick Titanium Diaphragms Used for the Packaging of an Implantable MEMS Acoustic Transducer2022Ingår i: Micromachines, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) acoustic transducers are highly sophisticated devices with high sensing performance, small size, and low power consumption. To be applied in an implantable medical device, they require a customized packaging solution with a protecting shell, usually made from titanium (Ti), to fulfill biocompatibility and hermeticity requirements. To allow acoustic sound to be transferred between the surroundings and the hermetically sealed MEMS transducer, a compliant diaphragm element needs to be integrated into the protecting enclosure. In this paper, we present a novel fabrication technology for clamped micron-thick Ti diaphragms that can be applied on arbitrary 3D substrate geometry and hence directly integrated into the packaging structure. Stiffness measurements on various diaphragm samples illustrate that the technology enables a significant reduction of residual stress in the diaphragm developed during its deposition on a polymer sacrificial material.

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  • 8.
    Souqui, Laurent
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rhombohedral boron nitride epitaxy on ZrB22021Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 39, nr 1, artikel-id 013405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) films were deposited on ZrB2(0001)/4H-SiC(0001) by chemical vapor deposition at 1485 degrees C from the reaction of triethylboron and ammonia and with a minute amount of silane (SiH4). X-ray diffraction (XRD) w-scans yield the epitaxial relationships of r-BN(0001) k ZrB2(0001) out-of-plane and r-BN[11-20] k ZrB2[11-20] in-plane. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs showed that epitaxial growth of r-BN films prevails to similar to 10 nm. Both XRD and TEM demonstrate the formation of carbon- and nitrogen-containing cubic inclusions at the ZrB2 surface. Quantitative analysis from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the r-BN films shows B/N ratios between 1.30 and 1.20 and an O content of 3-4 at. %. Plan-view scanning electron microscopy images reveal a surface morphology where an amorphous material comprising B, C, and N is surrounding the epitaxial twinned r-BN crystals.

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  • 9.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olovsson, Weine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Interface bonding of Zr1−xAlxN nanocomposites investigated by x-ray spectroscopies and first principles calculations2020Ingår i: Physical Review Research, E-ISSN 2643-1564, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure, chemical bonding, and interface component in ZrN-AlN nanocomposites formed byphase separation during thin film deposition of metastable Zr1−xAlxN (x = 0.0, 0.12, 0.26, 0.40) are investigatedby resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, x-ray emission, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy and compared to firstprinciples calculations including transitions between orbital angular momentum final states. The experimentalspectra are compared with different interface-slab model systems using first principles all-electron full-potentialcalculations where the core states are treated fully relativistically. As shown in this work, the bulk sensitivity andelement selectivity of x-ray spectroscopy enables one to probe the symmetry and orbital directions at interfacesbetween cubic and hexagonal crystals. We show how the electronic structure develops from local octahedralbond symmetry of cubic ZrN that distorts for increasing Al content into more complex bonding. This results inthree different kinds of bonding originating from semicoherent interfaces with segregated ZrN and lamellar AlNnanocrystalline precipitates. An increasing chemical shift and charge transfer between the elements takes placewith increasing Al content and affects the bond strength and increases resistivity.

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  • 10.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    Department of Computing, Mathematics, and Physics, Messiah University, Mechanicsburg, PA, USA.
    Klimashin, Fedor F.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Azina, Clio
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Battaglia, Jean-Luc
    CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Kusiak, Andrzej
    CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Sortica, Maurico A.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Material Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA; Materials Science and Engineering Department, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Material Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA; Materials Science and Engineering Department, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Microstructure and materials properties of understoichiometric TiBx thin films grown by HiPIMS2020Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 404, artikel-id 126537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    TiBx thin films with a B content of 1.43 ≤ x ≤ 2.70 were synthesized using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). HiPIMS allows compositions ranging from understoichiometric to overstoichiometric dense TiBx thin films with a B/Ti ratio between 1.43 and 2.06, while DCMS yields overstoichiometric TiBx films with a B/Ti ratio ranging from 2.20 to 2.70. Excess B in overstoichiometric TiBx thin films from DCMS results in a hardness up to 37.7 ± 0.8 GPa, attributed to the formation of an amorphous B-rich tissue phase interlacing stoichiometric TiB2 columnar structures. We furthermore show that understoichiometric TiB1.43 thin films synthesized by HiPIMS, where the deficiency of B is found to be accommodated by Ti-rich planar defects, exhibit a superior hardness of 43.9 ± 0.9 GPa. The apparent fracture toughness and thermal conductivity of understoichiometric TiB1.43 HiPIMS films are 4.2 ± 0.1 MPa√m and 2.46 ± 0.22 W/(m·K), respectively, as compared to corresponding values for overstoichiometric TiB2.70 DCMS film samples of 3.1 ± 0.1 MPa√m and 4.52 ± 0.45 W/(m·K). This work increases the fundamental understanding of understoichiometric TiBx thin films and their materials properties, and shows that understoichiometric films have properties matching or going beyond those with excess B.

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  • 11.
    Dalibon, Eugenia. L.
    et al.
    UTN, Argentina.
    Czerwiec, Thierry
    Univ Lorraine, France.
    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.
    INPE, Brazil.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bruhl, Sonia P.
    UTN, Argentina.
    Characterization of DLC coatings over nitrided stainless steel with and without nitriding pre-treatment using annealing cycles2019Ingår i: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY-JMRandT, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1653-1662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited using plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) on precipitation hardening (PH) stainless steel.Plasma nitriding has been used as pre-treatment to enhance adhesion and mechanical properties. Chemical and mechanical properties of DLC coatings are dependent on the hydrogen content and so on the relation between sp(3)/sp(2) bondings. The bondings and the structure of the DLC film change with temperature. In this work, a study of the thermal degradation and the evolution of the mechanical properties of DLC coatings over PH stainless steel have been carried out, including the effect of an additional nitrided layer. Nitrided and non-nitrided steel samples were subjected to the same coated in the same conditions, and they were submitted to the same thermal cycles, heating from room temperature to 600 degrees C in several steps. After each cycle, Raman spectra and surface topography measurements were performed and analyzed. Nanohardness measurements and tribological tests, using a pin-on-disc machine, were carried out to analyze variations in the friction coefficient and the wear resistance. The duplex sample, with nitriding as pre-treatment showed a better thermal stability. For duplex sample, the coating properties, such as adhesion, and friction coefficient were sustained after annealing at higher temperatures; whereas it was not the case for only coated sample. (C) 2018 Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

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  • 12.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Mats P.
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Pilemalm, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johnson, L. J. S.
    Sandvik Coromant, Sweden.
    Schell, N.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Decomposition routes and strain evolution in arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings2019Ingår i: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 779, s. 261-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase, microstructure, and strain evolution during annealing of arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings are studied using in situ x-ray scattering and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. We find that the decomposition route changes from nucleation and growth of wurtzite AlN to spinodal decomposition when the Zr-content is decreased and the Al-content increases. Decomposition of Ti0.31Zr0.24Al0.45N results in homogeneously distributed wurtzite AlN grains in a cubic, dislocation-dense matrix of TiZrN consisting of domains of different chemical composition. The combination of high dislocation density, variation of chemical composition within the cubic grains, and evenly distributed wurtzite AlN grains results in high compressive strains, -1.1%, which are retained after 3 h at 1100 degrees C. In coatings with higher Zr-content, the strains relax during annealing above 900 degrees C due to grain growth and defect annihilation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 13.
    Barrirero, Jenifer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Pauly, C.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Engstler, M.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Ghanbaja, J.
    Univ Lorraine, France.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, J.
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Schumacher, P.
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Muecklich, F.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Eutectic modification by ternary compound cluster formation in Al-Si alloys2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 5506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-alloys with Si as the main alloying element constitute the vast majority of Al castings used commercially today. The eutectic Si microstructure in these alloys can be modified from plate-like to coral-like by the addition of a small amount of a third element to improve ductility and toughness. In this investigation the effects of Eu and Yb are studied and their influence on the microstructure is compared to further understand this modification. The two elements impact the alloy differently, where Eu modifies Si into a coral-like structure while Yb does not. Atom probe tomography shows that Eu is present within the Si phase in the form of ternary compound Al2Si2Eu clusters, while Yb is absent in the Si phase. This indicates that the presence of ternary compound clusters within Si is a necessary condition for the formation of a coral-like structure. A crystallographic orientation relationship between Si and the Al2Si2Eu phase was found, where the following plane normals are parallel: 011(Si) //0001(Al2Si2Eu), 111(Si)//6 (7) over bar 10(Al2Si2Eu) and 011(Si)//6 (7) over bar 10(Al2Si2Eu). No crystallographic relationship was found between Si and Al2Si2Yb. The heterogeneous formation of coherent Al2Si2Eu clusters inside the Si-phase is suggested to trigger the modification of the microstructure.

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  • 14.
    Landälv, Ludvig
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ostach, Daniel
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ekström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Leiste, Harald
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Gothelid, Emmanuelle
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stuber, Michael
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany.
    Schell, Norbert
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phase evolution of radio frequency magnetron sputtered Cr-rich (Cr,Zr)(2)O-3 coatings studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during annealing in air or vacuum2019Ingår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 34, nr 22, s. 3735-3746Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase evolution of reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coatings has been studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during annealing under air atmosphere and vacuum. The annealing in vacuum shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at similar to 750-800 degrees C, followed by decomposition of the alpha-Cr2O3 structure in conjunction with bcc-Cr formation, starting at similar to 950 degrees C. The resulting coating after annealing to 1140 degrees C is a mixture of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and bcc-Cr. The air-annealed sample shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at similar to 750 degrees C. The resulting coating after annealing to 975 degrees C is a mixture of t-ZrO2 and alpha-Cr2O3 (with dissolved Zr). The microstructure coarsened slightly during annealing, but the mechanical properties are maintained, with no detectable bcc-Cr formation. A larger t-ZrO2 fraction compared with alpha-Cr2O3 is observed in the vacuum-annealed coating compared with the air-annealed coating at 975 degrees C. The results indicate that the studied pseudo-binary oxide is more stable in air atmosphere than in vacuum.

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  • 15.
    Harsani, M.
    et al.
    Slovak Univ Technol Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Calamba, Katherine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zackova, P.
    Slovak Univ Technol Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Sahul, M.
    Slovak Univ Technol Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Vopat, T.
    Slovak Univ Technol Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Satrapinskyy, L.
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia.
    Caplovicova, M.
    Slovak Univ Technol Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Caplovic, L.
    Slovak Univ Technol Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Adhesive-deformation relationships and mechanical properties of nc-AlCrN/a-SiNx hard coatings deposited at different bias voltages2018Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 650, s. 11-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of Al-Cr-Si-N hard coatings were deposited on WC-Co substrates with a negative substrate bias voltage ranging from -50 to -200 V using cathodic arc evaporation system. A Rockwell-C adhesion test demonstrated that excellent adhesion was observed at lower bias voltages of -50 V and -80 V, while further increases in bias voltage up to -200 V led to severe delamination and worsening of the overall adhesion strength. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a single phase cubic B1-structure identified as an AlCrN solid solution with a nanocomposite microstructure where cubic AlCrN nanocrystals were embedded in a thin continuous amorphous SiNx matrix. Coatings exhibited a 002-texture evolution that was more pronounced at higher bias voltages (amp;gt;=-120 V). Stress-induced cracks were observed inside the coatings at high bias voltages (amp;gt;=-150 V), which resulted in stress relaxation and a decline in the overall residual stresses.

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  • 16.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ostach, Daniel
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Schell, Norbert
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition of B4C doped Ni/Ti multilayer mirrors2018Ingår i: ADVANCES IN X-RAY/EUV OPTICS AND COMPONENTS XIII, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2018, Vol. 10760, artikel-id UNSP 1076006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition have been used to deposit Ni/Ti multilayer neutron mirrors. Improved interface widths were obtained by using B4C doping, to eliminate nanocrystallites by amorphization, and a two-stage modulated ion assistance, to obtain abrupt and smooth interfaces. In situ high-energy wide angle X-ray scattering during multilayer depositions was used to monitor the microstructure evolution and to determine the most favourable growth conditions. Post growth X-ray reflectometry in combination with high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the amorhization and revealed significant improvements in interface widths and reduction of kinetic roughening upon applying B4C doping and modulated ion assistance during growth. Significant improvement of neutron supermirror performance is predicted by employing this technique.

  • 17.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Holec, D.
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-structuring in Zr1-xAlxN films as a function of composition and growth temperature2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 16327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructure formation via surface-diffusion-mediated segregation of ZrN and AIN in Zr1-xAlxN films during high mobility growth conditions is investigated for 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 1. The large immiscibility combined with interfacial surface and strain energy balance resulted in a hard nanolabyrinthine lamellar structure with well-defined (semi) coherent c-ZrN and w-AlN domains of sub-nm to similar to 4 nm in 0.2 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 0.4 films, as controlled by atom mobility. For high AlN contents (x amp;gt; 0.49) Al-rich ZrN domains attain wurtzite structure within fine equiaxed nanocomposite wurtzite lattice. Slow diffusion in wurtzite films points towards crystal structure dependent driving force for decomposition. The findings of unlikelihood of isostructural decomposition in c-Zr1-xAlxN, and stability of w-Zr1-xAlxN (in large x films) is complemented with first principles calculations.

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  • 18.
    Dalibon, Eugenia L.
    et al.
    University of Tecnol Nacl UTN FRCU, Argentina.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.
    INPE, Brazil.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bruhl, Sonia P.
    University of Tecnol Nacl UTN FRCU, Argentina.
    Carbon Based Coatings Deposited on Nitrided Stainless Steel: Study of Thermal Degradation2017Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD PAN AMERICAN MATERIALS CONGRESS, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, s. 57-66Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (DLC) coatings have a high hardness depending on the relative amount of sp(3)/sp(2) bondings. They also exhibit an extremely low friction coefficient and are chemically inert. However, these coatings have some disadvantages which limit their applications. For instance, adhesion is poor when they are deposited on metallic substrates and they are also unstable at high temperatures, degrading into graphite and loosing hardness. In this work, DLC coatings were deposited on precipitation hardening stainless steel (PH Corrax) which was plasma nitrided before the coating deposition. The samples were submitted to annealing treatments for an hour at different temperatures from 200 to 600 degrees C, together with a control group, which was only coated but not nitrided. After each annealing cycle, Raman Spectroscopy, nanoindentation and microscopy were used to check film properties. It was demonstrated that the nitriding pre treatment improved not only adhesion but also the thermal stability of the DLC, slowing degradation and preventing delamination.

  • 19.
    Chen, Yu-Hsiang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rongström, L.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ostach, D.
    HZG, Germany.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson-Jöesaar, Mats P
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. SECO Tools AB, Sweden.
    Schell, N.
    HZG, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of decomposition route and microstructure on h-AlN formation rate in TiCrAlN alloys2017Ingår i: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 691, s. 1024-1032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase evolution of cubic (c), solid solution TixCr-0.37Al1-0.37-x N alloys with x = 0.03 and 0.16, and the kinetics of the hexagonal (h)-AlN formation are studied via in situ wide angle x-ray scattering experiments during high temperature (1000-1150 degrees C) annealing. Spinodal decomposition was observed in Ti0.16Cr0.36Al0.48N while Ti0.03Cr0.38Al0.59N decomposes through nucleation and growth of h-AlN, c-TiN and c-CrAlN. h-AlN is formed from c-CrAlN domains in both cases and the formation rate of h-AlN depends on the stability of the c-CrAlN domains. In Ti0.16Cr0.36Al0.48N, the c-CrAlN domains are stabilized by crystallographic coherency with the surrounding c-TiCrN in a microstructure originating from spinodal decomposition. This results in lower formation rates of h-AlN for this composition. These differences are reflected in higher activation energy for h-AlN formation in Ti0.16Cr0.36Al0.48N compared to Ti0.03Cr0.38Al0.59N. It also points out different stabilities of the intermediate phase c-CrAlN during phase decomposition of TiCrAlN alloys. Additional contributions to the low activation energy for formation of h-AlN in Ti0.03Cr0.38Al0.59N stems from precipitation at grain boundaries. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 20.
    Yalamanchili, K.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saarland University, Germany.
    Schramm, Isabella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saarland University, Germany.
    Andersson, J. M.
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Johansson Jöesaar, Mats P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Tasnadi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Muecklich, F.
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring the high entropy alloy concept in (AlTiVNbCr)N2017Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 636, s. 346-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have explored the high entropy alloy (HEA) concept in the AlTiVNbCr-nitride material system. (AlTiVNbCr)N coatings synthesized by reactive cathodic arc deposition are close to an ideal cubic solid solution with a positive mean-field enthalpy of mixing of 0.06 eV/atom. First principle calculations showa higher thermodynamic stability for the solid solution relative to their binaries thereby indicating a possible entropy stabilization at a temperature above 727 degrees C. However, the elevated temperature annealing experiments show that the solid solution decomposes to w-AlN and c-(TiVNbCr)N. The limited thermal stability of the solid solution is investigated in relation to several thermodynamic parameters. We suggest that the HEA designed multiprincipal element (AlTiVNbCr) N solid solutions are in a metastable state. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 21.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andrew, Aquila
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California, USA.
    Gullikson, Eric
    Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California, USA.
    Franz, Schäfers
    Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, Berlin, Germany.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Impact of B4C co-sputtering on structure and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors2017Ingår i: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, nr 15, s. 18274-18287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of B4C incorporation during magnetron sputter deposition of Cr/Sc multilayers intended for soft X-ray reflective optics is investigated. Chemical analysis suggests formation of metal: boride and carbide bonds which stabilize an amorphous layer structure, resulting in smoother interfaces and an increased reflectivity. A near-normal incidence reflectivity of 11.7%, corresponding to a 67% increase, is achieved at λ = 3.11 nm upon adding 23 at.% (B + C). The advantage is significant for the multilayer periods larger than 1.8 nm, where amorphization results in smaller interface widths, for example, giving 36% reflectance and 99.89% degree of polarization near Brewster angle for a multilayer polarizer. The modulated ion-energy-assistance during the growth is considered vital to avoid intermixing during the interface formation even when B + C are added.

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  • 22.
    Barrirero, Jenifer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Li, Jiehua
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Engstler, Michael
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schumacher, Peter
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Muecklich, Frank
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Cluster formation at the Si/liquid interface in Sr and Na modified Al-Si alloys2016Ingår i: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 117, s. 16-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atom probe tomography was used to compare Na and Sr modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys. Both Na and Sr promote the formation of nanometre-sized clusters in the Si eutectic phase. Compositional analyses of the clusters show an Al:Sr ratio of 2.92 +/- 0.46 and an Al:Na ratio of 1.07 +/- 0.23. It is proposed that SrAl2Si2 and NaAlSi clusters are formed at the Si/liquid interface and take part in the modification process by altering the eutectic Si growth.

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  • 23.
    Yalamanchili, Phani Kumar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Aboulfadl, Hisham
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Barrirero, Jenifer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jimenez-Pique, Emilio
    University of Politecn Cataluna, Spain; CRnE UPC, Spain.
    Muecklich, Frank
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Tasnadi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Growth and thermal stability of TiN/ZrAlN: Effect of internal interfaces2016Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 121, s. 396-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear resistant hard films comprised of cubic transition metal nitride (c-TMN) and metastable c-AlN with coherent interfaces have a confined operating envelope governed by the limited thermal stability of metastable phases. However, equilibrium phases (c-TMN and wurtzite(w)-AlN) forming semicoherent interfaces during film growth offer higher thermal stability. We demonstrate this concept for a model multilayer system with TiN and ZrAlN layers where the latter is a nanocomposite of ZrN- and AlN-rich domains. The interfaces between the domains are tuned by changing the AlN crystal structure by varying the multilayer architecture and growth temperature. The interface energy minimization at higher growth temperature leads to formation of semicoherent interfaces between w-AlN and c-TMN during growth of 15 nm thin layers. Ab initio calculations predict higher thermodynamic stability of semicoherent interfaces between c-TMN and w-AlN than isostructural coherent interfaces between c-TMN and c-AlN. The combination of a stable interface structure and confinement of w-AlN to nm-sized domains by its low solubility in c-TMN in a multilayer, results in films with a stable hardness of 34 GPa even after annealing at 1150 degrees C. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Yalamanchili, Phani Kumar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Center for Research in Nanoengineering, CRnE-UPC Avda, Barcelona, Spain.
    Jimenez-Pique, E.
    Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Center for Research in Nanoengineering, CRnE-UPC Avda, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pelcastre, L.
    Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roa, J. J.
    Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Center for Research in Nanoengineering, CRnE-UPC Avda, Barcelona, Spain.
    Johansson Joesaar, M. P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Prakash, B.
    Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Influence of microstructure and mechanical properties on the tribological behavior of reactive arc deposited Zr-Si-N coatings at room and high temperature2016Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 304, s. 393-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Varying the Si-content in Zr-Si-N coatings from 0.2 to 6.3 at.% causes microstructural changes from columnar to nanocomposite structure and a hardness drop from 37 to 26 GPa. The softer nanocomposite also displays lower fracture resistance. The tribological response of these coatings is investigated under different contact conditions, both at room and elevated temperatures. At room temperature tribooxidation is found to be the dominant wear mechanism, where the nanocomposite coatings display the lowest wear rate of 0.64 x 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm, by forming an oxide diffusion barrier layer consisting of Zr, W, and Si. A transition in the dominant wear mechanism from tribooxidation to microploughing is observed upon increasing the test temperature and contact stress. Here, all coatings exhibit significantly higher coefficient of friction of 1.4 and the hardest coatings with columnar structure display the lowest wear rate of 10.5 x 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm. In a microscopic wear test under the influence of contact-induced dominant elastic stress field, the coatings display wedge formation and pileup due to accumulation of the dislocation-induced plastic deformation. In these tests, the nanocomposite coatings display the lowest wear rate of 0.56 x 10(-10) mm(3)/Nm, by constraining the dislocation motion. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reseved.

  • 25.
    Johnson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engberg, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thuvander, Mattias
    Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Stiller, Krystyna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Department of Applied Physics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Self-organized Nanostructuring in Zr0.64Al0.36N Thin Films Studied by Atom Probe Tomography2016Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, s. 233-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have applied atom probe tomography (apt) to analyze the selforganized structure of wear-resistant Zr0.64Al0.36N thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy shows that these films grow as a two-dimensional nanocomposite, consisting of interleaved lamellae in a labyrinthine structure, with a size scale of ∼ 5 nm. The structure was recovered in the Al apt signal, while the Zr and N data lacked structural information due to severe local magnification effects. The onset of the self-organized growth was observed to occur locally by nucleation, at 5-8 nm from the MgO substrate, after increasing Zr-Al compositional fluctuations. Finally, it was observed that the self-organized growth mode could be perturbed by renucleation of ZrN.

  • 26.
    Schroeder, Jeremy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Thomson, W.
    PVD Prod Inc, MA 01887 USA.
    Howard, B.
    PVD Prod Inc, MA 01887 USA.
    Schell, N.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson-Jöesaar, Mats P.
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nothnagel, E.
    PVD Prod Inc, MA 01887 USA.
    Shepard, A.
    PVD Prod Inc, MA 01887 USA.
    Greer, J.
    PVD Prod Inc, MA 01887 USA.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation2015Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 86, nr 9, s. 095113-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (greater than50 keV), high photon flux (greater than10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (less than1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (less than11 degrees), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

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  • 27.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Klenov, Dmitri O.
    FEI Co, Netherlands.
    Freitag, Bert
    FEI Co, Netherlands.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Self-organized anisotropic (Zr1-xSix)N-y nanocomposites grown by reactive sputter deposition2015Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 82, s. 179-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical properties of hard and superhard nanocomposite thin films are strongly dependent on their nanostructure. Here, we present the results of an investigation of nanostructural evolution and the resulting mechanical properties of (Zr1-xSix)N-y films, with 0 less than= x less than= 1 and 1 less than= y less than= 1.27, grown on MgO(0 0 1) and Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrates at temperatures T-s = 500-900 degrees C by reactive magnetron sputter deposition from Zr and Si targets. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that there is a T-s/composition window in which stoichiometric Zr-Si-N and amorphous a-Si3N4 phases mutually segregate and self-organize into encapsulated 3-5 um wide ZrN-rich (Zr1-xSix)N columns which extend along the growth direction with a strong (002) texture. Lattice-resolved scanning TEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal that the (Zr1-xSix)N-y nanocolumns are separated by a bilayer tissue phase consisting of a thin crystalline SiNy-rich (Zr1-xSix)N-y layer with an a-Si3N4 overlayer. Incorporation of metastable SiN into NaCl-structure ZrN leads to an enhanced nanoindentation hardness H which is a function of T-s and film composition. For nanocomposites with composition (Zr(0.8)Sio(0.2))N-1.14 (10 at.% Si) H, increases from 26 GPa at 500 degrees C to 37 GPa at 900 degrees C. For comparison, the hardness of epitaxial ZrN/MgO(0 0 1) layers grown at T-s = 800 degrees C is 24 GPa. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schroeder, Jeremy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schell, N.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ahlgren, M.
    Sandvik Coromant, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thermal stability of wurtzite Zr1-xAlxN coatings studied by in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction during annealing2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, nr 3, artikel-id 035309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the thermal stability of wurtzite (w) structure ZrAlN coatings by a combination of in situ high-energy x-ray scattering techniques during annealing and electron microscopy. Wurtzite structure Zr1-xAlxN coatings with Al-contents from x = 0.46 to x = 0.71 were grown by cathodic arc evaporation. The stability of the w-ZrAlN phase depends on chemical composition where the higher Al-content coatings are more stable. The wurtzite ZrAlN phase was found to phase separate through spinodal decomposition, resulting in nanoscale compositional modulations, i.e., alternating Al-rich ZrAlN layers and Zr-rich ZrAlN layers, forming within the hexagonal lattice. The period of the compositional modulations varies between 1.7 and 2.5 nm and depends on the chemical composition of the coating where smaller periods form in the more unstable, high Zr-content coatings. In addition, Zr leaves the w-ZrAlN lattice to form cubic ZrN precipitates in the column boundaries. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

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  • 29.
    Kumar Yalamanchili, Phani
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schramm, Isabella C.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Jimenez-Pique, E.
    University of Politecn Cataluna, Spain; CRnE UPC, Spain.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Muecklich, F.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tuning hardness and fracture resistance of ZrN/Zr0.63Al0.37N nanoscale multilayers by stress-induced transformation toughening2015Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 89, s. 22-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure and mechanical properties of nanoscale multilayers of ZrN/Zr0.63Al0.37N grown by reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO (0 0 1) substrates at a temperature of 700 degrees C are investigated as a function of the Zr0.63Al0.37N layer thickness. The Zr0.63Al0.37N undergoes in situ chemical segregation into ZrN-rich and AlN-rich domains. The AlN-rich domains undergo transition from cubic to wurtzite crystal structure as a function of Zr0.63Al0.37N layer thickness. Such structural transformation allows systematic variation of hardness as well as fracture resistance of the films. A maximum fracture resistance is achieved for 2 nm thick Zr0.63Al0.37N layers where the AlN-rich domains are epitaxially stabilized in the metastable cubic phase. The metastable cubic-AlN phase undergoes stress-induced transformation to wurtzite-AlN when subjected to indentation, which results in the enhanced fracture resistance. A maximum hardness of 34 GPa is obtained for 10 nm thick Zr0.63Al0.37N layers where the wurtzite-AlN and cubic-ZrN rich domains form semi-coherent interfaces.

  • 30.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Syed, Muhammad Bilal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alloying as a tool for structure and thermal stability engineering of hard coatings2014Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A large range of (ZrxAly Cr(100-x-y))1N1 coatings have been deposited using cathodic arc evaporation and annealed at temperatures up to 1100 ºC. The coatings can be divided into three different characteristic categories based on their structure, thermal stability and hardness.

    The first category of coatings, (Al < ~30 % and ~40 % < Zr), are stable cubic solid solutions up to 1100 ºC. The hardness decreases upon annealing because of defect annihilation.

    In the second category, (40 % < Al < 60 % and Zr < 15 %), the coatings decompose into ZrCr- and Al-rich nanometer-sized domains when annealed, which results in a hardness increase.

    In the third category (~67 % < Al), the microstructure contain a mixture of 1-2 nanometer-sized nano-crystalline hexagonal (AlN) and cubic (ZrCrN) phases. These coatings have a significantly lower hardness in the as deposited state but upon annealing the hardness increases significantly.

  • 31.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tasnadi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Anomalous epitaxial stability of (001) interfaces in ZrN/SiNx multilayers2014Ingår i: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 046106-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Isostructural stability of B1-NaCl type SiN on (001) and (111) oriented ZrN surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ZrN/SiNx/ZrN superlattices with modulation wavelength of 3.76 nm (dSiNx similar to 0.4 nm) were grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) and MgO(111). The results indicate that 0.4 nm thin SiNx layers utterly influence the preferred orientation of epitaxial growth: on MgO(001) cube-on-cube epitaxy of ZrN/SiNx superlattices were realized whereas multilayers on MgO(111) surface exhibited an unexpected 002 texture with a complex fourfold 90 degrees-rotated in-plane preferred orientation. Density functional theory calculations confirm stability of a (001) interface with respect to a (111) which explains the anomaly.

  • 32.
    Barrirero, Jenifer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Engstler, Michael
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    de Jonge, Niels
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Muecklich, Frank
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Comparison of segregations formed in unmodified and Sr-modified Al-Si alloys studied by atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy2014Ingår i: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 611, s. 410-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of Al-7 wt.% Si can be enhanced by structural modifications of its eutectic phase. Addition of low concentrations of certain elements, in this case 150 wt-ppm Sr, is enough to cause a transition from a coarse plate-like Si structure to a finer coralline one. To fully understand the operating mechanism of this modification, the composition of the eutectic Si phase in unmodified and Sr-modified alloys was analysed and compared by atom probe tomography and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. The unmodified alloy showed nanometre sized Al-segregations decorating defects, while the Sr-modified sample presented three types of Al-Sr segregations: (1) rod-like segregations that promote smoothening of the Al-Si boundaries in the eutectic phase, (2) particle-like segregations comparable to the ones seen in the unmodified alloy, and (3) planar segregations favouring the formation of twin boundaries. Al and Sr solubilities in Si after solidification were determined to be 430 +/- 160 at-ppm and 40 +/- 10 at-ppm, respectively. Sr predominantly segregates to the Si phase confirming its importance in the modification of the eutectic growth.

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  • 33.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pilemalm, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tasnadi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsén, Rikard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johnson, Lars
    Sandvik Coromant, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jöesaar, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. SECO Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    High temperature phase decomposition in TixZryAlzN2014Ingår i: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 4, nr 12, s. 127147-1-127147-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a combination of theoretical and experimental observations we study the high temperature decomposition behavior of c-(TixZryAlzN) alloys. We show that for most concentrations the high formation energy of (ZrAl)N causes a strong tendency for spinodal decomposition between ZrN and AlN while other decompositions tendencies are suppressed. In addition we observe that entropic  effects due to configurational disorder favor a formation of a stable Zr-rich (TiZr)N phase with increasing temperature. Our calculations also predict that at high temperatures a Zr rich (TiZrAl)N disordered phase should become more resistant against the spinodal decomposition despite its high and positive formation energy due to the specific topology of the free energy surface at the relevant concentrations. Our experimental observations confirm this prediction by showing strong tendency towards decomposition in a Zr-poor sample while a Zr-rich alloy shows a greatly reduced decomposition rate, which is mostly attributable to binodal decomposition processes. This result highlights the importance of considering the second derivative of the free energy, in addition to its absolute value in predicting decomposition trends of thermodynamically unstable alloys.

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  • 34.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik.
    Schramm, I. C.
    Functional Materials, Department Materials Science, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mücklich, F.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nanostructuring and coherency strain in multicomponent hard coatings2014Ingår i: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, nr 11, s. 116104-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lattice resolved and quantitative compositional characterizations of the microstructure in TiCrAlN wear resistant coatings emerging at elevated temperatures are performed to address the spinodal decomposition into nanometer-sized coherent cubic TiCr- and Al-rich domains. The domains coarsen during annealing and at 1100 ºC, the Al-rich domains include a metastable cubic Al(Cr)N phase containing 9 at.% Cr and a stable hexagonal AlN phase containing less than 1 at.% Cr. The cubic and the hexagonal phases form strained semi-coherent interfaces with each other.

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  • 35.
    Yalamanchili, Kumar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsén, Rikard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jiménez-Piqué, Emilio
    Departament de Ciència del Materials i Enginyeria Metal·lúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Johansson Jöesaar, Mats P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Roa, J.J.
    Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structure, deformation and fracture of arc evaporated Zr-Si-N ternary hard films2014Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 258, s. 1100-1107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zr-Si-N films with varying Si contents were grown on WC-Co substrates with an industrial scale reactive cathodic arc deposition technique. The microstructural changes correlate to variation in mechanical properties with different deformation mechanisms dominating for different structures. Si forms a substitutional solid solution in the cubic ZrN lattice up to 1.8 at. % in a fine columnar structure. Further Si additions results in precipitation of an amorphous (a)-SiNX phase and evolution of a nanocomposite structure (nc ZrN-a SiNX) which has completely suppressed the columnar structure at 6.3 at. % Si. The rotation-induced artificial layering during film growth was used as a marker to visualize the deformation of the film. A dislocation-based homogeneous plastic deformation mechanism dominates the columnar structure, while grain boundary sliding is the active mechanism mediating heterogeneous plastic deformation in the nanocomposite structure. Film hardness increases with increasing Si content in the columnar structure due to an effective solid solution strengthening. The deformation mechanism of localized grain boundary sliding in the nanocomposite structure results in lower hardness. When cracking is induced by indentation, the fine columnar structure exhibits pronounced crack deflection that results in higher fracture resistance compared to the nanocomposite films.

  • 36.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Coherency strain engineered decomposition of unstable multilayer alloys for improved thermal stability2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, nr 24, s. 244303-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept to improve hardness and thermal stability of unstable multilayer alloys is presented based on control of the coherency strain such that the driving force for decomposition is favorably altered. Cathodic arc evaporated cubic TiCrAlN/Ti 1−x Cr x N multilayer coatings are used as demonstrators. Upon annealing, the coatings undergo spinodal decomposition into nanometer-sized coherent Ti- and Al-rich cubic domains which is affected by the coherency strain. In addition, the growth of the domains is restricted by the surrounding TiCrN layer compared to a non-layered TiCrAlN coating which together results in an improved thermal stability of the cubic structure. A significant hardness increase is seen during decomposition for the case with high coherency strain while a low coherency strain results in a hardness decrease for high annealing temperatures. The metal diffusion paths during the domain coarsening are affected by strain which in turn is controlled by the Cr-content (x) in the Ti 1−x Cr x N layers. For x = 0 the diffusion occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the growth direction but for x > =0.9 the diffusion occurs predominantly parallel to the growth direction. Altogether this study shows a structural tool to alter and fine-tune high temperature properties of multicomponent materials.

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  • 37.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, M P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of Ti alloying of AlCrN coatings on thermal stability and oxidation resistance2013Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 534, s. 394-402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary cubic (TixCr1 − xAl~ 0.60)1 N1 coatings with 0 < x < 0.33 have been grown using reactive cathodic arc evaporation. When adding Ti the hardness was retained after annealing up to 1100 °C which is a dramatic improvement compared to CrAlN coatings. The coatings showed an age hardening process caused by spinodal decomposition into coherent TiCr- and Al-rich cubic TiCrAlN domains and the formation of hexagonal AlN precipitates and cubic TiCrN domains in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The improved hardness was attributed to the stabilization of the cubic structure suppressing the formation and growth of hexagonal AlN. Furthermore, the presence of Ti atoms generated incoherent nanometer-sized crystallites within the hexagonal AlN precipitates disrupting the hexagonal lattice during the coarsening process.

    The addition of Ti promoted the formation of a TiO2 layer over Al2O3 resulting in a lower oxidation resistance. However, by tuning the composition it is possible to design coatings to have both good oxidation resistance and good high temperature mechanical stability.

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  • 38.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johnson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klenov, Dmitri
    FEI Company, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Demeulemeester, Jelly
    École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Desjardins, Patrick
    École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nanolabyrinthine ZrAlN thin films by self-organization of interwoven single-crystal cubic and hexagonal phases2013Ingår i: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 022105-1-022105-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-organization on the nanometer scale is a trend in materials research. Thermodynamic driving forces may, for example, yield chessboard patterns in metal alloys[Y. Ni and A. G. Khachaturyan, Nature Mater. 8, 410–414 (2009)] or nitrides [P. H.Mayrhofer, A. Horling, L. Karlsson, J. Sj ¨ ol¨ en, T. Larsson, and C. Mitterer, Appl. ´Phys. Lett. 83, 2049 (2003)] during spinodal decomposition. Here, we explore theZrN-AlN system, which has one of the largest positive enthalpies of mixing amongthe transition metal aluminum nitrides [D. Holec, R. Rachbauer, L. Chen, L. Wang,D. Luefa, and P. H. Mayrhofer, Surf. Coat. Technol. 206, 1698–1704 (2011); B.Alling, A. Karimi, and I. Abrikosov, Surf. Coat. Technol. 203, 883–886 (2008)].Surprisingly, a highly regular superhard (36 GPa) two-dimensional nanolabyrinthinestructure of two intergrown single crystal phases evolves during magnetron sputter thin film synthesis of Zr0.64Al0.36N/MgO(001). The self-organization is surfacedriven and the synergistic result of kinetic limitations, where the enthalpy reductionbalances both investments in interfacial and elastic energies.

  • 39.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fager, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Self-organization during Growth of ZrN/SiNx Multilayers by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, nr 224302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrN/SiNx nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiNx thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiNx is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiNx – known to take place on TiN(001) – on ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiNx deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiNx thicknesses ≤ 6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiNx precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiNx in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiNx layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1-3 nm large SiNx precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN.

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  • 40.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sjölen, J.
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arc deposition of Ti–Si–C–N thin films from binary and ternary cathodes — Comparing sources of C2012Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 213, s. 145-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti–Si–C–N thin films with composition of 1–11 at.% Si and 1–20 at.% C have been deposited onto cemented carbide substrates by arcing Ti–Si cathodes in a CH4 + N2 gas mixture and, alternatively, through arcing Ti–Si–C cathodes in N2. Films of comparable compositions from the two types of cathodes have similar structure and properties. Hence, C can be supplied as either plasma ions generated from the cathode or atoms from the gas phase with small influence on the structural evolution. Over the compositional range obtained, the films were dense and cubic-phase nanocrystalline, as characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion beam analysis, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The films have high hardness (30–40 GPa by nanoindentation) due to hardening from low-angle grain boundaries on the nanometer scale and lattice defects such as growth-induced vacancies and alloying element interstitials.

  • 41.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Tooling AB, 126 80 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Auto-organizing ZrAlN/ZrAlTiN/TiN multilayers2012Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, nr 21, s. 6451-6454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural evolution during annealing of arc evaporated ZrAlN/ZrN andZrAlN/TiN multilayers is studied. On annealing, ZrN- and AlN-rich domains form within the ZrAlN sublayers. In the ZrAlN/TiN film, interdiffusion at the ZrAlN/TiN interfaces cause formation of a new cubic Zr(Al,Ti)N phase when annealed at temperatures above 900 C. The formation of this metastable phase results in a substantial increase in hardness of the film, which is retained to annealing temperatures of 1100 C. In the ZrAlN/ZrN film no secondary phases are formed and for annealing at temperatures above 800 C grain growth of the ZrN grains results in decreased hardness.

  • 42.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Decomposition and phase transformation in TiCrAlN thin coatings2012Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase transformations and mechanisms that yield enhanced high temperature mechanical properties of metastable solid solutions of cubic (c)-(TixCryAlz)N coatings are discussed in this paper. Coatings grown by reactive arc evaporation technique with metal composition range y<17 at. % and 45<z<62 at. % are studied and compared with the parent TiAlN material system. The coatings exhibit age hardening up to 1000 ºC which is higher compared to what is observed for TiAlN. In addition, the coatings show a less pronounced hardness decrease when hexagonal (h)-AlN is formed compared to TiAlN. The improved thermal stability is discussed in terms of a lowered coherency stress and a lowered enthalpy of mixing due to the addition of Cr, which results in improved functionality in the working temperature range of 850-1000 ºC of for example cutting tools. Upon annealing up to 1400 ºC the coatings decompose into c-TiN, bcc-Cr and h-AlN. The decomposition takes place via several intermediate phases, c-CrAlN, c-TiCrN and hexagonal (β)-Cr2N. The microstructure  evolution investigated at different stages of spinodal decomposition and phase transformation is correlated to the thermal response and mechanical hardness of the coatings.

  • 43.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Seco Tools AB, 737 82 Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of chemical composition and deposition conditions on microstructure evolution during annealing of arc evaporated ZrAlN thin films2012Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 031504-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of substrate bias and chemical composition on the microstructure and hardness of arc evaporated Zr1−xAlxN films with 0.12 < x < 0.74 is investigated. A cubic ZrAlN phase is formed at low aluminum contents (x < 0.38) whereas for a high Al-content, above x=0.70, a single-phase hexagonal structure is obtained. For intermediate Al-contents, a two-phase structure is formed. The cubic structured films exhibit higher hardness than the hexagonal structured ones. A low bias results in N-rich films with a partly defect-rich microstructure while a higher substrate bias decreases the grain size and increases the residual stress in the cubic ZrAlN films. Recrystallization and out-diffusion of nitrogen from the lattice in the cubic ZrAlN films takes place during annealing at 800 C, which results in an increased hardness. The cubic ZrAlN phase is stable to annealing temperatures of 1000 C while annealing at higher temperature results in nucleation and growth of hexagonal AlN. In the high Al-content ZrAlN films, formation of ZrN- and AlN-rich domains within the hexagonal lattice during annealing at 1000 C improves the mechanical properties.

  • 44.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsén, Rikard
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tasnadi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, M P
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Improving thermal stability of hard coating films via a concept of multicomponent alloying2011Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 99, nr 9, s. 091903-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a design route for the next generation of nitride alloys via a concept of multicomponent alloying based on self-organization on the nanoscale via a formation of metastable intermediate products during the spinodal decomposition. We predict theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that quasi-ternary (TiCrAl)N alloys decompose spinodally into (TiCr)N and (CrAl)N-rich nanometer sized regions. The spinodal decomposition results in age hardening, while the presence of Cr within the AlN phase delays the formation of a detrimental wurtzite phase leading to a substantial improvement of thermal stability compared to the quasi-binary (TiAl)N or (CrAl)N alloys.

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  • 45.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Sjölen, Jacob
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Layer Formation by Resputtering in Ti-Si-C Hard Coatings during Large Scale Cathodic Arc Deposition2011Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, nr 15, s. 3923-3930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon of self-layering in thin films made by industrial scale cathodic arc deposition systems using compound cathodes and rotating substrate fixture. For Ti-Si-C films, electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry reveals a trapezoid modulation in Si content in the substrate normal direction, with a period of 4 to 23 nm dependent on cathode configuration. This is caused by preferential resputtering of Si by the energetic deposition flux incident at high incidence angles when the substrates are facing away from the cathodes. The Ti-rich sub-layers exhibit TiC grains with size up to 5 nm, while layers with high Si-content are less crystalline. The nanoindentation hardness of the films increases with decreasing layer thickness.

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  • 46.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Anders O.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Microstructure evolution of Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes during reactive cathodic arc evaporation2011Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 031601-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure evolution and compositional variation of Ti3SiC2 cathode surfaces during reactive cathodic arc evaporation are presented for different process conditions. The results show that phase decomposition takes place in the near-surface region, resulting in a 5-50 mu m thick converted layer that is affected by the presence of nitrogen in the deposition chamber. This layer consists of two different sublayers, i.e., 1-20 mu m thick top layer with a melted and resolidified microstructure, followed by a 4-30 mu m thick transition layer with a decomposed microstructure. The converted layer contains a polycrystalline TiCx phase and trace quantities of Si-rich domains with Ti5Si3(C) at their interface. The arc discharge causes Si redistribution in the two regions of the layer, whose Si/(Ti+Si) ratio is higher in the top region and lower in the transition region compared to the virgin material.

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  • 47.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Sjölen, Jacob
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ti-Si-C-N Thin Films Grown by Reactive Arc Evaporation from Ti3SiC2 Cathodes2011Ingår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 26, s. 874-881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-Si-C-N thin films were deposited onto WC-Co substrates by industrial scale arc evaporation from Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes in N2 gas. Microstructure and hardness were found to be highly dependent on the wide range of film compositions attained, comprising up to 12 at.% Si and 16 at.% C. Nonreactive deposition yielded films consisting of understoichiometric TiCx, Ti and silicide phases with high (27 GPa) hardness. At a nitrogen pressure of 0.25-0.5 Pa, below that required for N saturation, superhard, 45-50 GPa, (Ti,Si)(C,N) films with a nanocrystalline feathered structure were formed. Films grown above 2 Pa displayed crystalline phases of more pronounced nitride character, but with C and Si segregated to grain boundaries to form weak grain boundary phases. In abundance of N, the combined presence of Si and C disturb cubic phase growth severely and compromises the mechanical strength of the films.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, M P
    SECO Tools AB.
    Sjolen, J
    SECO Tools AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Characterization of worn Ti-Si cathodes used for reactive cathodic arc evaporation2010Ingår i: JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY A, ISSN 0734-2101, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 347-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructural evolution of Ti1-xSix cathode surfaces (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) used in reactive cathodic arc evaporation has been investigated by analytical electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. The results show that the reactive arc operated in N-2 atmosphere induces a 2-12 mu m thick N-containing converted layer consisting of nanosized grains in the two-phase Ti and Ti5Si3 cathode surface. The formation mechanism of this layer is proposed to be surface nitriding and redeposition of macroparticles formed during the deposition process. The surface roughness of the worn Ti1-xSix cathodes increases with increasing Si content, up to 20 at. %, due to preferential erosion of Ti5Si3.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mikhaylushkin, Arkady
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gullikson, Eric M.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kressing, U.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers2009Ingår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 79-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal multilayers are prime candidates for high reflectivity soft x-ray multilayer mirrors. In particular, Cr/Sc multilayers in the amorphous state have proven to give the highest reflectivity in the water window. We have investigated the influence of impurities N and O as residual gas elements on the growth, structure, and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayers deposited in high vacuum conditions by a dual cathode direct current magnetron sputter deposition. Multilayer structures with the modulation periods in the range of 0.9–4.5 nm and Cr layer to bilayer thickness ratios in the range of 0.17–0.83 were deposited with an intentionally raised base pressure (pB), ranging from 2 × 10-7 to 2 × 10-5 Torr. Compositional depth profiles were obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, while the structural investigations of the multilayers were carried out using hard x-ray reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy. By investigating stacked multilayers, i.e., several multilayers with different designs of the modulation periods, stacked on top of each other in the samples, we have been able to conclude that both N and O are incorporated preferentially in the interior of the Sc layers. At pB = 2 × 10-6 Torr, typically <3 at.% of N and <1.5 at.% of O was found, which did not influence the amorphous nanostructure of the layers. Multilayers deposited with a high pB ~2 × 10-5 Torr, a N content as high as ~37 at.% was measured by elastic recoil detection analysis. These multilayers mainly consist of understoichiometric face-centered cubic CrN x /ScN y nanocrystalline layers, which could be grown as thin at 0.3 nm and is explained by a stabilizing effect on the ScN y layers during growth. It is also shown that by adding a background pressure of as little as 5 × 10-6 Torr of pure N2 the soft x-ray reflectivity (? = 3.11 nm) can be enhanced by more than 100% by N incorporation into the multilayer structures, whereas pure O2 at the same background pressure had no effect.

  • 50.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schäfers, F.
    Gullikson, E. M.
    Aouadi, S.
    Rohde, S.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Atomic scale interface engineering by modulated ion-assisted deposition applied to soft x-ray multilayer optics2008Ingår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 47, nr 23, s. 4196-4204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc and Ni/V multilayers, intended as normal incidence soft x-ray mirrors and Brewster angle polarizers, have been synthesized by employing a novel modulated low-energy and high-flux ion assistance as a means of engineering the interfaces between the subnanometer layers on an atomic scale during magnetron sputter deposition. To reduce both roughness and intermixing, the ion energy was modulated within each layer. The flat and abrupt interfaces yielded soft x-ray mirrors with near-normal incidence reflectances of R = 20.7% at the Sc 2p absorption edge and R = 2.7% at the V 2p absorption edge. Multilayers optimized for the Brewster angle showed a reflectance of R = 26.7% and an extinction ratio of Rs/Rp=5450 for Cr/Sc and R = 10% and Rs/Rp=4190 for Ni/V. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed an amorphous Cr/Sc structure with an accumulating high spatial frequency roughness. For Ni/V the initial growth mode is amorphous and then turns crystalline after ~1/3 of the total thickness, with an accumulating low spatial frequency roughness as a consequence. Elastic recoil detection analyses showed that N was the major impurity in both Cr/Sc and Ni/V with concentrations of 15 at. % and 9 at. %, respectively, but also O (3 at. % and 1.3 at. %) and C (0.5 at. % and 1.9 at. %) were present. Simulations of the possible normal incidence reflective properties in the soft x-ray range of 100-600 eV are given, predicting that reflectivities of more than 31% for Cr/Sc and 5.8% for Ni/V can be achieved if better control of the impurities and the deposition process is employed. The simulations also show that Cr/Sc is a good candidate for mirrors for the photon energies between the absorption edges of B (E = 188 eV) and Sc (E = 398.8 eV).

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