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  • 1.
    Wu, Zhixing
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ding, Penghui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Glowacki, Eric Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik.
    Conducting Polymer‐Based e‐Refinery for Sustainable Hydrogen Peroxide Production2023Ingår i: ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS, E-ISSN 2575-0356, artikel-id e12551Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrocatalysis enables the industrial transition to sustainable production of chemicals using abundant precursors and electricity from renewable sources. De-centralized production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from water and oxygen of air is highly desirable for daily life and industry. We report an effective electrochemical refinery (e-refinery) for H2O2 by means of electrocatalysis-controlled comproportionation reaction (2(H)O + O -> 2(HO)), feeding pure water and oxygen only. Mesoporous nickel (II) oxide (NiO) was used as electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), producing oxygen at the anode. Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) drove the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), forming H2O2 on the cathode. The reactions were evaluated in both half-cell and device configurations. The performance of the H2O2 e-refinery, assembled on anion-exchange solid electrolyte and fed with pure water, was limited by the unbalanced ionic transport. Optimization of the operation conditions allowed a conversion efficiency of 80%.

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  • 2.
    Dongo, Patrice D.
    et al.
    ATM Univ libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlopolou, Eleni
    Fdn Res & Technol Hellas, Greece.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Farina, Dario
    ATM Univ libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Queeckers, Patrick
    ATM Univ libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iorio, Carlo Saverio
    ATM Univ libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Crispin, Reverant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Detection of Ice Formation With the Polymeric Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductor PEDOT: PSS for Aeronautics2023Ingår i: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice formation detection is important in telecommunications and aeronautics, e.g., ice on the wings of an aircraft affects its aerodynamic performance and leads to fatal accidents. While many types of sensors exist, resistive sensors for ice detection have been poorly explored. They are however attractive because of their simplicity and the possibility to install an array of sensors on large areas to map the ice formation on wings. Hygroscopic ionic conductors have been demonstrated for resistive ice sensing but their high resistance prevents the readout of sensor arrays. In this work, mixed ionic-electronic polymer conductors (MIEC) are considered for the first time for ice detection. The polymer blend poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is solution deposited on a pair of electrodes. The sensor displays an abrupt rise in electrical resistance during the transition phase between water liquid to solid. It is proposed that the morphology and electronic transport in PEDOT are affected by the freezing event because the absorbed water in the PSS-rich phase undergoes dilatation upon forming ice crystals. For the aeronautics application, successful tests of integration of sensing layer in pre-preg layers of aeronautical grade and freezing detection are carried out to validate the ice detection principle.

  • 3.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kumar, Divyaratan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Does Water-in-Salt Electrolyte Subdue Issues of Zn Batteries?2023Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn-metal batteries (ZnBs) are safe and sustainable because of their operability in aqueous electrolytes, abundance of Zn, and recyclability. However, the thermodynamic instability of Zn metal in aqueous electrolytes is a major bottleneck for its commercialization. As such, Zn deposition (Zn2+ & RARR; Zn(s)) is continuously accompanied by the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) (2H(+) & RARR; H-2) and dendritic growth that further accentuate the HER. Consequently, the local pH around the Zn electrode increases and promotes the formation of inactive and/or poorly conductive Zn passivation species (Zn + 2H(2)O & RARR; Zn(OH)(2) + H-2) on the Zn. This aggravates the consumption of Zn and electrolyte and degrades the performance of ZnB. To propel HER beyond its thermodynamic potential (0 V vs standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) at pH 0), the concept of water-in-salt-electrolyte (WISE) has been employed in ZnBs. Since the publication of the first article on WISE for ZnB in 2016, this research area has progressed continuously. Here, an overview and discussion on this promising research direction for accelerating the maturity of ZnBs is provided. The review briefly describes the current issues with conventional aqueous electrolyte in ZnBs, including a historic overview and basic understanding of WISE. Furthermore, the application scenarios of WISE in ZnBs are detailed, with the description of various key mechanisms (e.g., side reactions, Zn electrodeposition, anions or cations intercalation in metal oxide or graphite, and ion transport at low temperature).

  • 4.
    Ghorbani Shiraz, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pere, Daniel
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Coppel, Yannick
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chmielowski, Radoslaw
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Kahn, Myrtil L.
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effect of Oxygen Poisoning on the Bidirectional Hydrogen Electrocatalysis in TaS2 Nanosheets2023Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 127, nr 12, s. 5825-5832Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable production of hydrogen gas, a green energy carrier of high density, is possible only by electrolysis of water based on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, we report the effect of oxygen poisoning on the efficiency of hydrogen production and the consumption by the HER and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), respectively, on the interface of platinum group metal-free electrocatalyst TaS2 in pristine form and intercalated by the organic Lewis base hexylamine. The state of the surface probed by photoelectron spectroscopy was significantly altered by both Lewis base doping and oxygen poisoning. This alteration dramatically affects the hydrogen production efficiency in the HER, while the back process by the HOR was less sensitive to the changes in the surface states of the electrocatalysts. The oxygenated and intercalated electrocatalyst shows more than 2 x 105 times lower exchange current density of the HER compared to pristine oxygenated materials.

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  • 5.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Riera-Galindo, S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strakosas, Xenofon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlopoulou, E.
    Fdn Res & Technol, Greece.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hadziioannou, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Improved Performance of Organic Thermoelectric Generators Through Interfacial Energetics2023Ingår i: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 10, nr 20, artikel-id 2206954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfacial energetics are known to play a crucial role in organic diodes, transistors, and sensors. Designing the metal-organic interface has been a tool to optimize the performance of organic (opto)electronic devices, but this is not reported for organic thermoelectrics. In this work, it is demonstrated that the electrical power of organic thermoelectric generators (OTEGs) is also strongly dependent on the metal-organic interfacial energetics. Without changing the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of polythiophene-based conducting polymers, the generated power of an OTEG can vary by three orders of magnitude simply by tuning the work function of the metal contact to reach above 1000 mu W cm(-2). The effective Seebeck coefficient (S-eff) of a metal/polymer/metal single leg OTEG includes an interfacial contribution (V-inter/Delta T) in addition to the intrinsic bulk Seebeck coefficient of the polythiophenes, such that S-eff = S + V-inter/Delta T varies from 22.7 mu V K-1 [9.4 mu V K-1] with Al to 50.5 mu V K-1 [26.3 mu V K-1] with Pt for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluenesulfonate [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)]. Spectroscopic techniques are used to reveal a redox interfacial reaction affecting locally the doping level of the polymer at the vicinity of the metal-organic interface and conclude that the energetics at the metal-polymer interface provides a new strategy to enhance the performance of OTEGs.

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  • 6.
    Park, Taehyun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Byeonggwan
    Chungnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Yu, Seunggun
    Korea Electrotechnol Res Inst KERI, South Korea.
    Park, Youjin
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Oh, Jin Woo
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Taebin
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kim, Yeonji
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Park, Cheolmin
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Jun, Seong Chan
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Ionoelastomer electrolytes for stretchable ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors2023Ingår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 114, artikel-id 108643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors (ITESCs) produce orders of magnitude higher voltages than those of con-ventional thermoelectrics (TEs) based on the thermo-diffusion of electrons/holes and are therefore attractive for converting low-grade heat into electricity. The stretchability and stability of the whole ITESC are important for wearable heat harvesting applications. Recent studies on ITESC have focused on stretchable ionic TE electrolytes with a giant Seebeck coefficient, but there are no reports of fully stretchable ITESCs for wearable heat harvesting devices due to the lack of stretchable electrodes and stretchable ionic TE electrolytes with stability. Herein, we present a fully stretchable ITESC composed of stable high-performance ionic thermoelectric elastomer (ITE) electrolyte and stretchable gold nanowire (AuNW) electrodes. The ITE shows excellent air stability (> 60 d) in comparison to hydrogel-based electrolytes that are susceptible to dehydration in ambient conditions. Further-more, the ITE exhibits an apparent thermopower up to 38.9 mV K-1 and ionic conductivity of 3.76 x 10-1 mS cm-1, which both are maintained up to a tensile strain of 250%. Finally, a fully stretchable ITESC with AuNW electrodes is developed which can harvest energy from thermal gradients during deformations.

  • 7.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Backe, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Kallvindsgatan 5, S-60240 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lignin Functionalized with Catechol for Large-Scale Organic Electrodes in Bio-Based Batteries2023Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH, ISSN 2699-9412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, obtained as a waste product in huge quantities from the large-scale cellulose processing industries, holds a great potential to be used as sustainable electrode material for large-scale electroactive energy storage systems. The fixed number of redox-active phenolic groups present within the lignin structure limits the electrochemical performance and the total energy storage capacity of the lignin-based electrodes. Herein, the way to enhance the charge storage capacity of lignin by incorporating additional small catechol molecules into the lignin structure is demonstrated. The catechol derivatives are covalently attached to the lignin via aromatic electrophilic substitution reaction. The increased phenolic groups in all functionalized lignin derivatives notably increase the values of capacitance compared to pristine lignin. Further, solvent fractionation of lignin followed by functionalization using catechol boosts three times the charge capacity of lignin electrode. Herein, a scalable, cost-effective method to enhance the electrochemical performance of lignin electrodes via incorporation of small redox active moieties into the lignin structure is demonstrated. Solvent fractionation of lignin followed by functionalization using catechol increases the charge storage capacity of the lignin-carbon composite electrode by a factor of 3 reaching record high charge capacity above 100 mAh g-1.

  • 8.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinelli, Anna
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Franco, Leandro R.
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Kumar, Divyaratan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Idstrom, Alexander
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Evenas, Lars
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Araujo, C. Moyses
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mass Transport in "Water-in-Polymer Salt" Electrolytes2023Ingår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 35, nr 16, s. 6382-6395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    “Water-in-polymer salt” electrolytes (WiPSEs) based on potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) belong to a new family of “water-in-salt” electrolytes that is envisioned as a potential solution for large-scale supercapacitors to balance the electric grid at short time scales. The WiPSEs display a broad electrochemical stability window up to 3 V, yet they are nonflammable and provide high ionic conductivity (100 mS/cm) as required in high-power devices. However, the transport of matter in PAAK-based WiPSEs has not been studied. In this work, we have extensively characterized PAAK by spectroscopic methods such as Raman spectroscopy and NMR diffusometry to determine the state of water and elucidate the mechanism of ionic transport as well as its interplay with water and polymer chain dynamics, which reveals that a significant proportion of the transport in WiPSEs is attributed to hydrated cations. The results are further supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Finally, the potential of WiPSEs based on PAAK is demonstrated in an activated carbon-based supercapacitor operating up to 2 V with reasonable self-discharge. This proof of concept shows promise for low-cost and large-scale supercapacitors.

  • 9.
    Molaei, Arman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ahmed, Ahmed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    New low-cost, flow-through carbon electrodes characterized in brackish water2023Ingår i: Chemické zvesti, ISSN 0366-6352, E-ISSN 1336-9075Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a simple and low-cost flow-through electrode for electrochemical cells used for instance in capacitive desalination. We have coated macro-porous carbon fiber papers with various loads of carbon microporous particles to combine both a high surface area and an open structure for good fluid dynamics. In this first study, we restrict our investigation to the charging/discharging behavior, the identification of side reactions, and the effect of geometry on the diffusion of ions. The electrochemical performance was first investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanic charge-discharge techniques. The specific capacitance increases by three orders of magnitude upon adding the carbon particles. Then, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of charge transfer phenomena and modification in the mass transport by the diffusion process for the coated electrode.

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  • 10.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wu, Zhixing
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optimization of Non-Pyrolyzed Lignin Electrodes for Sustainable Batteries2023Ingår i: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, a byproduct from the pulp industry, is one of the redox active biopolymers being investigated as a component in the electrodes for sustainable energy storage applications. Due to its insulating nature, it needs to be combined with a conductor such as carbon or conducting polymer for efficient charge storage. Here, the lignin/carbon composite electrodes manufactured via mechanical milling (ball milling) are reported. The composite formation, correlation between performance and morphology is studied by comparison with manual mixing and jet milling. Superior charge storage capacity with approximate to 70% of the total contribution from the Faradaic process involving the redox functionality of lignin is observed in a mechanically milled composite. In comparison, manual mix shows only approximate to 30% from the lignin storage participation while the rest is due to the electric double layer at the carbon-electrolyte interface. The significant participation of lignin in the ball milled composite is attributed to the homogeneous, intimate mixing of the carbon and the lignin leading the electronic carrier transported in the carbon phase to reach most of the redox group of lignin. A maximum capacity of 49 mAh g(-1) is obtained at charge/discharge rate of 0.25 A g(-1) for the sample milled for 60 min.

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  • 11.
    Vural, Mert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mohammadi, Mohsen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Seufert, Laura
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fridberger, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Soft Electromagnetic Vibrotactile Actuators with Integrated Vibration Amplitude Sensing2023Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft vibrotactile devices have the potential to expandthe functionalityof emerging electronic skin technologies. However, those devices oftenlack the necessary overall performance, sensing-actuation feedbackand control, and mechanical compliance for seamless integration onthe skin. Here, we present soft haptic electromagnetic actuators thatconsist of intrinsically stretchable conductors, pressure-sensitiveconductive foams, and soft magnetic composites. To minimize jouleheating, high-performance stretchable composite conductors are developedbased on in situ-grown silver nanoparticles formed within the silverflake framework. The conductors are laser-patterned to form soft anddensely packed coils to further minimize heating. Soft pressure-sensitiveconducting polymer-cellulose foams are developed and integrated totune the resonance frequency and to provide internal resonator amplitudesensing in the resonators. The above components together with a softmagnet are assembled into soft vibrotactile devices providing high-performanceactuation combined with amplitude sensing. We believe that soft hapticdevices will be an essential component in future developments of multifunctionalelectronic skin for future human-computer and human-roboticinterfaces.

  • 12.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alam, Md Mehebub
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Fdn Res & Technol Hellas, Greece.
    Solano, Eduardo
    ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Spain.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward High-Performance Green Piezoelectric Generators Based on Electrochemically Poled Nanocellulose2023Ingår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 1568-1578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-of-Everything (IoE) is defined as networked connections of things, people, data, and processes. IoE nodes, preferably shaped as printed flexible systems, serve as the frontier outpost of the Internet and comprise devices to record and regulate states and functions. To power distributed IoE nodes in an ecofriendly manner, a technology to scavenge energy from ambience and self-powered devices is developed. For this, piezoelectricity is regarded as a key property; however, the current technology typically based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) copolymers is expensive and produced via toxic protocols. We report piezoelectric characteristics of electrochemically poled cellulose nanofiber (CNF) thin films processed from water dispersions. Poling these films under humid conditions causes breaking and reorientation of CNF segments, which results in enhanced crystal alignment rendering the resulting material piezoelectric. Generators based on poled CNF show similar piezoelectric voltage and coefficient, here measured as d(33) = 46 pm V-1, to devices including PVDF copolymer layers of similar thickness. Our findings promise low-cost and printable ecofriendly piezoelectric-powered IoE nodes.

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  • 13.
    Alvi, Naveed Ul Hassan
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Sepat, Neha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ist Italiano Tecnol IIT, Italy.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward Photoactive Wallpapers Based on ZnO-Cellulose Nanocomposites2023Ingår i: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646, artikel-id 2300034Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quest for eco-friendly materials with anticipated positive impact for sustainability is crucial to achieve the UN sustainable development goals. Classical strategies of composite materials can be applied on novel nanomaterials and green materials. Besides the actual technology and applications also processing and manufacturing methods should be further advanced to make entire technology concepts sustainable. Here, they show an efficient way to combine two low-cost materials, cellulose and zinc oxide (ZnO), to achieve novel functional and "green" materials via paper-making processes. While cellulose is the most abundant and cost-effective organic material extractable from nature. ZnO is cheap and known of its photocatalytic, antibacterial, and UV absorption properties. ZnO nanowires are grown directly onto cellulose fibers in water solutions and then dewatered in a process mimicking existing steps of large-scale papermaking technology. The ZnO NW paper exhibits excellent photo-conducting properties under simulated sunlight with good ON/OFF switching and long-term stability (90 minutes). It also acts as an efficient photocatalyst for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation (5.7 x 10(-9) m s(-1)) with an envision the possibility of using it in buildings to enable large surfaces to spontaneously produce H2O2 at its outer surface. Such technology promise for fast degradation of microorganisms to suppress the spreading of diseases.

  • 14.
    Kumar, Divyaratan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wu, Zhixing
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zinc salt in "Water-in-Polymer Salt Electrolyte" for Zinc-Lignin Batteries: Electroactivity of the Lignin Cathode2023Ingår i: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn-ion batteries are one of the hot candidates for low-cost and sustainable secondary batteries. The hydrogen evolution and dendritic growth upon zinc deposition are todays challenges for that technology. One of the new strategies to cope with these issues is to use "water-in-salt" electrolyte (WISE), that is, super concentrated aqueous electrolytes, to broaden its electrochemical stability window (ESW), suppressing hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and perturbing the dendritic growth. Herein, this work proposes to use "water-in-polymer salt" electrolyte (WIPSE) concept to mitigate the challenges with Zn ion batteries and bring this technology toward one of the cheapest, greenest, and most sustainable electrodes: Lignin-carbon (L-C) electrode. Potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) as WISE bears out as better electrolyte for L-C electrodes in terms of self-discharge, cyclic stability, and specific capacity compared to conventional electrolyte based on chemically cousin molecule potassium acetate. Zinc bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (Zn(TFSI)(2)) added into WIPSE shows deposition and dissolution of Zn in Zn//Zn symmetric cell suggesting that Zn2+ are moving into the polyanionic network. Furthermore, the added bis (trifluor omethanesul fonyl) imide (TFSI-) metal salts trigger a approximate to 40% enhancement of the capacity of L-C electrode. These results show a new promising direction toward the development of cost-effective and sustainable Zn-lignin batteries.

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  • 15.
    Ghorbani Shiraz, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pere, Daniel
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Coppel, Yannick
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chmielowski, Radoslaw
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Kahn, Myrtil L.
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    3R-TaS2 as an Intercalation-Dependent Electrified Interface for Hydrogen Reduction and Oxidation Reactions2022Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 126, nr 40, s. 17056-17065Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen technology, as a future breakthrough for the energy industry, has been defined as an environmentally friendly, renewable, and high-power energy carrier. The green production of hydrogen, which mainly relies on electrocatalysts, is limited by the high cost and/ or the performance of the catalytic system. Recently, studies have been conducted in search of bifunctional electrocatalysts accelerating both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Herein, we report the investigation of the high efficiency bifunctional electrocatalyst TaS2 for both the HER and the HOR along with the asymmetric effect of inhibition by organic intercalation. The linear organic agent, to boost the electron donor property and to ease the process of intercalation, provides a higher interlayer gap in the tandem structure of utilized nanosheets. XRD and XPS data reveal an increase in the interlayer distance of 22%. The HER and the HOR were characterized in a Pt group metal-free electrochemical system. The pristine sample shows a low overpotential of -0.016 Vat the onset. The intercalated sample demonstrates a large shift in its performance for the HER. It is revealed that the intercalation is a potential key strategy for tuning the performance of this family of catalysts. The inhibition of the HER by intercalation is considered as the increase in the operational window of a water-based electrolyte on a negative electrode, which is relevant to technologies of electrochemical energy storage.

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  • 16.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wurger, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, France; CNRS, France.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An ionic thermoelectric ratchet effect in polymeric electrolytes2022Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 10, nr 37, s. 13922-13929Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric materials can generate extraordinarily high thermal voltage under small temperature differences due to their orders of magnitude larger Seebeck coefficient than that of electronic materials. Together with their low-cost, environmentally friendly compositions and solution processability, electrolytes have brought renewed prosperity in thermoelectric fields. Despite the rapid growing number of good-performance materials, yet to be implemented in devices, the main challenge is the understanding of the mechanism of the large Seebeck coefficient in practical electrolytes. Here, we show that the ion/polymer interaction in PEG based electrolytes does not only affect the mobility of the ions, but also has a great impact on the Seebeck coefficient. By delicately varying the types of solvent and the concentration of the solute, we could tune the molar conductivity of the electrolytes and correlate with the Seebeck coefficient. The linear relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the logarithm of the molar conductivity is in agreement with the recently reported thermoelectric ratchet effect in ions with hopping dynamics. This could lead to new design rules for ionic thermoelectrics.

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  • 17.
    Molaei, Arman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Faradic Side Reactions at Novel Carbon Flow-Through Electrodes for Desalination Studied in a Static Supercapacitor Architecture2022Ingår i: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 2200119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technique to combine desalination and energy storage. The efficiency of charge storage process, which is equivalent to the desalination process, depends strongly on the presence of Faradic side reactions on the electrode. Herein, the performance of a new low-cost designed flow-through electrode with porous carbon nanoparticles (CP) coating on carbon-fiber paper (CFP) is evaluated. The CP layer enables high capacitance while the CFP core makes fluid dynamics along and across the electrode. The electrodes are evaluated by studying the effective operational CDI parameters, such as operational voltage, degassing of electrolyte, and salt concentration. The Faradic side reaction and its effect on charge efficiency (CE) are evaluated which are estimated to decrease to 46% by liquid flow bringing dissolved oxygen from the air-electrolyte interface to the electrode. The CE enhances to 59% with a salt concentration of 1 m. By purging N-2 gas, CE is much higher (>85%) with a maximum efficiency of 97% at 0.6 V. Three regimes of the complex kinetic of side reactions are found involving various species such as O-2, H2O2, H-2, and carbon oxidation and the implication of those regimes for real applications are discussed.

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  • 18.
    Mardi, Saeed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reale, Andrea
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Interfacial Effect Boosts the Performance of All-Polymer Ionic Thermoelectric Supercapacitors2022Ingår i: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 9, nr 31, artikel-id 2201058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors (ITESCs) have recently been developed for converting low-grade waste heat into electricity. Until now, most reports of ITESCs have been focused on the development of electrolytes, which then have been combined with a specific electrode material. Here, it is demonstrated that the electrode is not only critical for electrical energy storage but also greatly affects the effective thermopower (S-eff) of an ITESC. It is shown that the same ion gel can generate a positive thermopower in an ITESC when using gold nanowire (AuNW) electrodes, while generating a negative thermopower when using poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. The achieved negative sign of the S-eff could be attributed to the Donnan exclusive effect from the polyanions in the PEDOT:PSS electrodes. After examining the thermovoltage, capacitance and charge retention performance of the two ITESCs, it is concluded that PEDOT:PSS is superior to AuNWs as electrodes. Moreover, a new strategy of constructing an ionic thermopile of multiple p- and n-type legs is achieved by series-connecting these legs with same electrolyte but different electrodes. Using interfacial effect at ionic gels/PEDOT:PSS electrode interface, an enhanced thermoelectric effect in ITESCs is obtained, which constitutes one more step towards efficient, low-cost, flexible, and printable ionic thermoelectric modules for energy harvesting.

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  • 19.
    Dastidar, Subham
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alam, Md Mehebub
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janus cellulose for self-adaptive solar heating and evaporative drying2022Ingår i: Cell Reports Physical Science, E-ISSN 2666-3864, Vol. 3, nr 12, artikel-id 101196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous cellulose can be tuned dynamically between reflecting and transparent states through reversible wetting with liquids like water while remaining non-absorptive in both states. By combining porous cellulose with an underlying cellulose-carbon nanotube layer, we here report a Janus cellulose that instead switches between reflect-ing and absorptive states. While the material is reflective and low absorbing in its dry state, exposure to water increases the optical transparency of the top layer and enables the bottom layer to absorb solar light and generate heat. In turn, this initiates a self -adaptive process that drives water evaporation and dries the struc-ture, making it reflective again. In situ measurements of scattering intensity, temperature, and water evaporation reveal an intriguing dynamic relationship between the optical and thermal properties of the Janus cellulose. This study highlights the use of cellulose sys-tems for solar and thermal management, demonstrating solar -induced self-adaptive heating, evaporative drying, and thermal regulation.

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  • 20.
    Ahmed, Fareed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ding, Penghui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biofysik och bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    RISE Bioeconomy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Manufacturing Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrocatalytic Sheets for Large-Scale H2O2 Production2022Ingår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, E-ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 2100316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing thick films of conducting polymers by a low-cost manufacturing technique would enable new applications. However, removing huge solvent volume from diluted suspension or dispersion (1-3 wt%) in which conducting polymers are typically obtained is a true manufacturing challenge. In this work, a procedure is proposed to quickly remove water from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) suspension. The PEDOT:PSS suspension is first flocculated with 1 m H2SO4 transforming PEDOT nanoparticles (approximate to 50-500 nm) into soft microparticles. A filtration process inspired by pulp dewatering in a paper machine on a wire mesh with apertures dimension between 60 mu m and 0.5 mm leads to thick free-standing films (approximate to 0.5 mm). Wire mesh clogging that hinders dewatering (known as dead-end filtration) is overcome by adding to the flocculated PEDOT: PSS dispersion carbon fibers that aggregate and form efficient water channels. Moreover, this enables fast formation of thick layers under simple atmospheric pressure filtration, thus making the process truly scalable. Thick freestanding PEDOT films thus obtained are used as electrocatalysts for efficient reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, a promising green chemical and fuel. The inhomogeneity of the films does not affect their electrochemical function.

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  • 21.
    Kumar, Divyaratan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-Discharge in Batteries Based on Lignin and Water-in-Polymer Salt Electrolyte2022Ingår i: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 3, nr 10, artikel-id 2200073Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, has been explored as an electroactive material in battery applications. One essential feature for such lignin-based batteries to reach successful usage and implementation, e.g., large-scale stationary grid applications, is to have slow self-discharge characteristics on top of the essential safety and life-cycle properties. Water-in-polymer salt electrolytes (WIPSEs) have been demonstrated as an attractive route to solve this issue; however, little has been done to understand the fundamentals of actual self-discharge mechanisms. Herein, the impact of some critical chemical and physical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, viscosity, and cutoff potential) on self-discharge of batteries based on WIPSE and lignin has been investigated. The pH range is crucial as there is an interplay between long-term stability and high energy density. Indeed, lignin derivatives typically store relatively more charge in acidic media but later promote corrosion affecting device stability. A robust and high-performing organic battery, incorporating potassium polyacrylate as WIPSE, is demonstrated, which expresses good self-discharge behavior for a broad range of pH and with little impact on the atmosphere used for manufacturing. It is believed that the investigation will provide critical insights to the research community to promote the advancement of printed large-scale energy storage devices.

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  • 22.
    Lander, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. BillerudKorsnas Gruvon, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Boissard, Yselaure
    BillerudKorsnas Frovi, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Leena
    BillerudKorsnas Frovi, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes Improve the Stability of Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries2022Ingår i: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 3, nr 9, artikel-id 2200016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The drawbacks of current state-of-the-art selective membranes, such as poor barrier properties, high cost, and poor recyclability, limit the large-scale deployment of electrochemical energy devices such as redox flow batteries (RFBs) and fuel cells. In recent years, cellulosic nanomaterials have been proposed as a low-cost and green raw material for such membranes, but their performance in RFBs and fuel cells is typically poorer than that of the sulfonated fluoropolymer ionomer membranes such as Nafion. Herein, sulfonated cellulose nanofibrils densely cross-linked to form a compact sulfonated cellulose membrane with limited swelling and good stability in water are used. The membranes possess low porosity and excellent ionic transport properties. A model aqueous organic redox flow battery (AORFB) with alizarin red S as negolyte and tiron as posolyte is assembled with the sulfonated cellulose membrane. The performance of the nanocellulose-based battery is superior in terms of cyclability in comparison to that displayed by the battery assembled with commercially available Nafion 115 due to the mitigation of crossover of the redox-active components. This finding paves the way to new green organic materials for fully sustainable AORFB solutions.

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  • 23.
    Lander, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. BillerudKorsnas Gruvon, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Korhonen, Leena
    BillerudKorsnas Frovi, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes: Physicochemical Properties and Ionic Transport versus Degree of Sulfonation2022Ingår i: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, nr 11, artikel-id 2200275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of green ion selective membranes is foreseen to be based on cellulosic nanomaterials with controllable properties. The introduction of ionic groups into the cellulose structure via chemical modification is one strategy to obtain desired functionalities. In this work, bleached softwood fibers are oxidatively sulfonated and thereafter homogenized to liberate the cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from the fiber walls. The liberated CNFs are subsequently used to prepare and characterize novel cellulose membranes. It is found that the degree of sulfonation collectively affects several important properties of the membranes via the density of fixed charged groups on the surfaces of the CNFs, in particular the membrane morphology, water uptake and swelling, and correspondingly the ionic transport. Both ionic conductivity and cation transport increase with the increased level of sulfonation of the starting material. Thus, it is shown that the chemical modification of the CNFs can be used as a tool for precise and rational design of green ion selective membranes that can replace expensive conventional fluorinated ionomer membranes.

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  • 24.
    Zhao, Dan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, J.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elmahmoudy, Mohammed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of absorbed water in ionic liquid cellulosic electrolytes for ionic thermoelectrics2022Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 2732-2741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of large output thermovoltage and sustainable constituent materials have generated a rapid growth in research about ionic thermoelectrics. Recently, giant values of ionic Seebeck coefficients up to 10-26 mV K-1 have been reported. However, the fundamental understanding of the ionic thermoelectric effect is still rudimentary and there is a lack of a well-established measurement standard. In this work, we systematically studied the ionic thermoelectric properties of gel electrolytes made of hydroxyethyl cellulose and an ionic liquid. We discovered that the absorbed water from the atmosphere into the cellulose/ionic liquid gel dramatically increases the apparent ionic Seebeck coefficient from 3 to 12.5 mV K-1. We identified the contribution of a hydrovoltaic voltage generated from water concentration difference as the main reason for the enhanced apparent ionic Seebeck coefficient, which depends on the kinetics of water absorption and desorption on the cold and hot side of the device. Finally, we demonstrated that it is possible to harvest electricity and charge a supercapacitor with intermittent temperature gradients by using this combination of ionic Seebeck voltage and hydrovoltaic voltage.

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  • 25.
    Ghorbani Shiraz, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karon, Krzysztof
    Silesian Tech Univ, Poland.
    Lapkowski, Mieczyslaw
    Silesian Tech Univ, Poland.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biofysik och bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Towards electrochemical hydrogen storage in liquid organic hydrogen carriers via proton-coupled electron transfers2022Ingår i: Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics, E-ISSN 2056-9386, Vol. 73, s. 292-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Green hydrogen is identified as one of the prime clean energy carriers due to its high energy density and a zero emission of CO2. A possible solution for the transport of H2 in a safe and low-cost way is in the form of liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs). As an alternative to loading LOHC with H2 via a two-step procedure involving preliminary electrolytic production of H2 and subsequent chemical hydrogenation of the LOHC, we explore here the possibility of electrochemical hydrogen storage (EHS) via conversion of proton of a proton donor into a hydrogen atom involved in covalent bonds with the LOHC (R) via a protoncoupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction: . We chose 9-fluorenone/ fluorenol (Fnone/Fnol) conversion as such a model PCET reaction. The electrochemical activation of Fnone via two sequential electron transfers was monitored with in-situ and operando spectroscopies in absence and in presence of different alcohols as proton donors of different reactivity, which enabled us to both quantify and get the mechanistic insight on PCET. The possibility of hydrogen extraction from the loaded carrier molecule was illustrated by chemical activation.

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  • 26.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kumar, Divyaratan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Towards printable water-in-polymer salt electrolytes for high power organic batteries2022Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 524, artikel-id 231103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-of-things which requires electronics, energy convertor and storage must be low-cost, recyclable and environmentally friendly. In the development of printed batteries, ideally all the components (electrode and electrolyte) must be printable to ensure low-cost manufacturing via printing technologies. Most of the printed batteries suffer with low power. One of the reasons is the poor ionic conductivity of the electrolyte due to the high viscosity needed for printing relatively thick layers. In the present work we have demonstrated a new class of electrolyte promising for printed organic batteries following the concept of water-in-polymer salt electrolytes (WIPSEs). These highly concentrated electrolytes of potassium polyacrylate are non-flammable, low cost and environmentally friendly. They possess high ionic conductivities (45-87 mS/cm) independent on the macroscopic viscosities varying from 7 to 33000 cP. The decoupling between ionic transport and macroscopic viscosity enables us to demonstrate organic batteries based on WIPSEs that can deliver a high and constant power (similar to 4.5 kW/kg; 7.1-11 mW/cm(2)) independent on the viscosity of the electrolytes. The tunability of the viscosity presents a prerequisite for printed technology manufacturing and compatibility with printed batteries.

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  • 27.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Water-in-Polymer Salt Electrolyte for Slow Self-Discharge in Organic Batteries2022Ingår i: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikel-id 2100165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In electrochemical energy storage devices (ESDs), organic electrolytes are typically used for wide operational potential window, yet they suffer with cost, environmental, flammability issues, and low ionic conductivity when compared with water-based electrolytes. Hence, for large-scale applications that require high power and safety, presently there is no true solution. Though water-based electrolytes have higher ionic conductivities, and are cost-effective and nonflammable, their high self-discharge rate with organic/carbon-based electrodes impedes their commercialization. It is found out that highly concentrated polymer electrolytes on the concept of "water-in-salt electrolyte" lead to extremely low leakage current within the electrochemical stability window (ESW) of water, thus solving the issue of self-discharge in organic/carbon-based ESDs. Herein, potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) is prepared as "water-in-polymer salt electrolyte" (WIPSE) and tested for one of most abundant wood-based biopolymer lignin and polyimide as positive and negative electrodes, respectively, in both half-cell and full-cell. The device shows an open-circuit voltage drops <0.45V in 100h setting a record for organic batteries using aqueous electrolyte. The high ionic conductivity (40-120mScm(-1)) nonflammability of PAAK with high ESW (3.1V) opens a new direction for truly safe, sustainable, and high power (6.8kWkg(-1)) organic ESD manufactured by printing technologies.

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  • 28.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bliman, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olsson, Roger
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Biomimetic Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor2021Ingår i: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 7, nr 11, artikel-id 2001126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomimicry at the hardware level is expected to overcome at least some of the challenges, including high power consumption, large footprint, two-dimensionality, and limited functionality, which arise as the field of artificial intelligence matures. One of the main attributes that allow biological systems to thrive is the successful interpretation of and response to environmental signals. Taking inspiration from these systems, the first demonstration of using multiple environmental inputs to trigger the formation and control the growth of an evolvable synaptic transistor is reported here. The resulting transistor exhibits long-term changes in the channel conductance at a fixed gate voltage. Biomimetic logic circuits are investigated based on this evolvable transistor that implement temperature and pressure inputs to achieve higher order processes like self-regulation of synaptic strength and coincidence detection.

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  • 29.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alam, Md Mehebub
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enhanced ionic transport in ferroelectric polymer fiber mats2021Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 9, nr 39, s. 22418-22427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The limited ionic conductivity is the main issue for the application of solid-state ionic conductors. In this work, we have shown that increasing the ferroelectric phase content in a polymer matrix could enhance the molar ionic conductivity of the incorporated ionic liquid by two orders of magnitude compared to the original films with the same composition. The ferroelectric polymer fiber mats were prepared through electrospinning to induce the ferroelectric phase that ensure the polarization of the dipoles. After analyzing the ferroelectric phase content and polarization of the fiber mats and films containing different ion concentration with FTIR spectroscopy and piezoelectric characterization, a detailed mechanism explaining the improved conductivity in the ferroelectric fiber mats was proposed. Benefiting from the good flexibility, improved ionic conductivity and high temperature coefficient of the fiber mats, we fabricated an organic ionic thermistor. The temperature tracking and mapping function of the ionic thermistor was demonstrated by using two devices with 4 and 16 pixels.

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  • 30.
    Jacob, Stephane
    et al.
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Delatouche, Bruno
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Pere, Daniel
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    Ledoux, Marc Jacques
    IMRA Europe SAS, France; Univ Strasbourg, France.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chmielowski, Radoslaw
    IMRA Europe SAS, France.
    High-performance flexible thermoelectric modules based on high crystal quality printed TiS2/hexylamine2021Ingår i: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1468-6996, E-ISSN 1878-5514, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 907-916Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics implies the use of low-cost, scalable, printing technologies to fabricate electronic devices and circuits on flexible substrates, such as paper or plastics. The development of this new electronic is currently expanding because of the emergence of the internet-of-everything. Although lot of attention has been paid to functional inks based on organic semiconductors, another class of inks is based on nanoparticles obtained from exfoliated 2D materials, such as graphene and metal sulfides. The ultimate scientific and technological challenge is to find a strategy where the exfoliated nanoparticle flakes in the inks can, after solvent evaporation, form a solid which displays performances equal to the single crystal of the 2D material. In this context, a printed layer, formed from an ink composed of nano-flakes of TiS2 intercalated with hexylamine, which displays thermoelectric properties superior to organic intercalated TiS2 single crystals, is demonstrated for the first time. The choice of the fraction of exfoliated nano-flakes appears to be a key to the forming of a new self-organized layered material by solvent evaporation. The printed layer is an efficient n-type thermoelectric material which complements the p-type printable organic semiconductors The thermoelectric power factor of the printed TiS2/hexylamine thin films reach record values of 1460 mu W m(-1) K-2 at 430 K, this is considerably higher than the high value of 900 mu W m(-1) K-2 at 300 K reported for a single crystal. A printed thermoelectric generator based on eight legs of TiS2 confirms the high-power factor values by generating a power density of 16.0 W m(-2) at Delta T = 40 K.

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  • 31.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roy, Arghyamalya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moro, Nathalie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Empa, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Investigating the role of polymer size on ionic conductivity in free-standing hyperbranched polyelectrolyte membranes2021Ingår i: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 223, artikel-id 123664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-based ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are utilized for many applications such as in water desalination, energy storage, fuel cells and in electrophoretic drug delivery devices, exemplified by the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). The bulk of current research is primarily focused on finding highly conductive and stable IEM materials. Even though great progress has been made, a lack of fundamental understanding of how specific polymer properties affect ionic transport capabilities still remains. This leads to uncertainty in how to proceed with synthetic approaches for designing better IEM materials. In this study, an investigation of the structure-property relationship between polymer size and ionic conductivity was performed by comparing a series of membranes, based on ionically charged hyperbranched polyglycerol of different polymer sizes. Observing an increase in ionic conductivity associated with increasing polymer size and greater electrolyte exclusion, indi-cating an ionic transportation phenomenon not exclusively based on membrane electrolyte uptake. These findings further our understanding of ion transport phenomena in semi-permeable membranes and indicate a strong starting point for future design and synthesis of IEM polymers to achieve broader capabilities for a variety of ion transport-based applications.

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  • 32.
    Zhao, Dan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wurger, Alois
    Univ Bordeaux, France; CNRS, France.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ionic thermoelectric materials and devices2021Ingår i: Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics, E-ISSN 2056-9386, Vol. 61, s. 88-103Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tremendous amount of wasted heat from solar radiation and industry dissipation has motivated the development of thermoelectric concepts that directly convert heat into electricity. The main challenge in practical applications for thermoelectrics is the high cost from both materials and manufacturing. Recently, breakthrough progresses in ionic thermoelectrics open up new possibilities to charge energy storage devices when submitted to a temperature gradient. The charging voltage is internally from the ionic Seebeck effect of the electrolyte between two electrodes. Hence electrolytes with high thermoelectric figure of merit are classified as ionic thermoelectric materials. Most ionic thermoelectric materials are composed of abundant elements, and they can generate hundreds of times larger thermal voltage than that of electronic materials. This emerging thermoelectric category brings new hope to fabricate low cost and large area heat-to-energy conversion devices, and triggers a renewed interest for ionic thermodiffusion. In this review, we summarize the state of the art in the new field of ionic thermoelectrics, from the driving force of the ionic thermodiffusion to material and application developments. We present a general map of ionic thermoelectric materials, discuss the unique characters of each type of the reported electrolytes, and propose potential optimization and future topics of ionic thermoelectrics. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V. and Science Press on behalf of Science Press and Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 33.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Singh, Amritpal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Negatively-Doped Conducting Polymers for Oxygen Reduction Reaction2021Ingår i: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 2002664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) limits the efficiency of oxygen-associated energy conversion in fuel cells and air-metal batteries. Today, expensive noble metal catalysts are often utilized to enhance the ORR and the resulting conversion efficiency in those devices. Hence, there is an intensive research to find efficient electrodes, exhibiting a favorable electronic structure, for ORR based on abundant materials that can be manufactured using low cost processes. In that context, metal-free carbon-based nanostructures and conducting polymers have been actively investigated. The negatively doped poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) as an efficient and stable oxygen cathode material is reported here. Compared to the benchmark p-doped conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the BBL provides electrocatalysis that fully reduces dioxygen into water, via a (2 + 2)-electron transfer pathway with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intermediate; while PEDOT limits the ORR to H2O2. It is demonstrated that n-doped BBL is a promising air electrode material for low-cost and ecofriendly model fuel cells, without the need of any co-catalysts, and its performance is found to be superior to p-doped PEDOT air electrodes.

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  • 34.
    Gamage, Sampath
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Banerjee, Debashree
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alam, Md Mehebub
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hallberg, Tomas
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Electroopt Syst, S-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Electroopt Syst, S-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Electroopt Syst, S-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reflective and transparent cellulose-based passive radiative coolers2021Ingår i: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, s. 9383-9393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative cooling passively removes heat from objects via emission of thermal radiation to cold space. Suitable radiative cooling materials absorb infrared light while they avoid solar heating by either reflecting or transmitting solar radiation, depending on the application. Here, we demonstrate a reflective radiative cooler and a transparent radiative cooler solely based on cellulose derivatives manufactured via electrospinning and casting, respectively. By modifying the microstructure of cellulose materials, we control the solar light interaction from highly reflective (> 90%, porous structure) to highly transparent (approximate to 90%, homogenous structure). Both cellulose materials show high thermal emissivity and minimal solar absorption, making them suitable for daytime radiative cooling. Used as coatings on silicon samples exposed to sun light at daytime, the reflective and transparent cellulose coolers could passively reduce sample temperatures by up to 15 degrees C and 5 degrees C, respectively.

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  • 35.
    Mardi, Saeed
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reale, Andrea
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Interfacial Effect on the Open Circuit Voltage of Ionic Thermoelectric Devices with Conducting Polymer Electrodes2021Ingår i: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 7, nr 12, artikel-id 2100506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic-based energy harvesting devices can contribute to a sustainable solution for the transition to renewable energy sources. The concept of ionic thermoelectrics (iTE) has been recently proposed and motivated by the high values of thermo-voltage in electrolytes. So far, most research has focused on developing new electrolytes with high Seebeck coefficient. Despite the major role of the electrode materials in supercapacitors and batteries, the effect of various electrodes on energy harvesting in iTE devices has not been widely studied. In this work, the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is investigated as the functional electrodes in iTE supercapacitors. Through investigating the thermo-voltage of iTEs of the same electrolyte with varying composition of PEDOT electrodes, it is identified that the different PSS content greatly affects the overall thermo-induced voltage coefficient, S-eff (i.e., effective thermopower). The permselective polyanion in the electrode causes cation concentration differences at the electrode/electrolyte interface and contributes to an interfacial potential drop that is temperature dependent. As a result, the overall thermo-voltage of the device possesses both an interfacial and a bulk contribution. The findings extend the fundamental understanding of iTE effect with functional electrodes, which could lead a new direction to enhance the heat-to-electricity conversion.

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  • 36.
    Ghorbani Shiraz, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Transition metal sulfides for electrochemical hydrogen evolution2021Ingår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 46, nr 47, s. 24060-24077Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen is identified as the most promising zero-carbon fuel of the future. Naturally, in this regard, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), being a first critical step of the hydrogen technology and economy, attracts much attention. Conventionally, noble metals have been used as the electrocatalyst for HER, which in part holds back the hydrogen technology to become a large scale and heavily distributed energy technology. This has encouraged scientists to study cost-effective strategies for HER. Transition metal disulfides, being a low-cost material system with a great degree of engineering versatility, have recently emerged as a potential candidate that can significantly promote hydrogen evolution. Several studies have demonstrated that the control and manipulation of the structure and morphology of these materials can improve their proton reduction performance. This review covers many of the decisive factors and strategies to advance transition metal sulfides for HER applications. (C) 2021 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Massetti, Matteo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jiao, Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China; Collaborat Innovat Ctr Chem Sci & Engn, Peoples R China.
    Ferguson, Andrew J.
    Natl Renewable Energy Lab, CO 80401 USA.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wuerger, Alois
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Blackburn, Jeffrey L.
    Natl Renewable Energy Lab, CO 80401 USA.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Unconventional Thermoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting and Sensing Applications2021Ingår i: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 121, nr 20, s. 12465-12547Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat is an abundant but often wasted source of energy. Thus, harvesting just a portion of this tremendous amount of energy holds significant promise for a more sustainable society. While traditional solid-state inorganic semiconductors have dominated the research stage on thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, carbon-based semiconductors have recently attracted a great deal of attention as potential thermoelectric materials for low-temperature energy harvesting, primarily driven by the high abundance of their atomic elements, ease of processing/manufacturing, and intrinsically low thermal conductivity. This quest for new materials has resulted in the discovery of several new kinds of thermoelectric materials and concepts capable of converting a heat flux into an electrical current by means of various types of particles transporting the electric charge: (i) electrons, (ii) ions, and (iii) redox molecules. This has contributed to expanding the applications envisaged for thermoelectric materials far beyond simple conversion of heat into electricity. This is the motivation behind this review. This work is divided in three sections. In the first section, we present the basic principle of the thermoelectric effects when the particles transporting the electric charge are electrons, ions, and redox molecules and describe the conceptual differences between the three thermodiffusion phenomena. In the second section, we review the efforts made on developing devices exploiting these three effects and give a thorough understanding of what limits their performance. In the third section, we review the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials investigated so far and provide a comprehensive understanding of what limits charge and energy transport in each of these classes of materials.

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  • 38.
    Jia, Yanhua
    et al.
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Qinglin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Hengda
    Donghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Peipei
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Dehua
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Pei, Yanzhong
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Weishu
    Southern Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Yuguang
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yong
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wearable Thermoelectric Materials and Devices for Self-Powered Electronic Systems2021Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, nr 42, artikel-id 2102990Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things has led to a growing demand for wearable and maintenance-free power sources. The continual push toward lower operating voltages and power consumption in modern integrated circuits has made the development of devices powered by body heat finally feasible. In this context, thermoelectric (TE) materials have emerged as promising candidates for the effective conversion of body heat into electricity to power wearable devices without being limited by environmental conditions. Driven by rapid advances in processing technology and the performance of TE materials over the past two decades, wearable thermoelectric generators (WTEGs) have gradually become more flexible and stretchable so that they can be used on complex and dynamic surfaces. In this review, the functional materials, processing techniques, and strategies for the device design of different types of WTEGs are comprehensively covered. Wearable self-powered systems based on WTEGs are summarized, including multi-function TE modules, hybrid energy harvesting, and all-in-one energy devices. Challenges in organic TE materials, interfacial engineering, and assessments of device performance are discussed, and suggestions for future developments in the area are provided. This review will promote the rapid implementation of wearable TE materials and devices in self-powered electronic systems.

  • 39.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Can Hybrid Na-Air Batteries Outperform Nonaqueous Na-O-2 Batteries?2020Ingår i: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikel-id 1902866Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an upsurge in the study of novel and alternative energy storage devices beyond lithium-based systems due to the exponential increase in price of lithium. Sodium (Na) metal-based batteries can be a possible alternative to lithium-based batteries due to the similar electrochemical voltage of Na and Li together with the thousand times higher natural abundance of Na compared to Li. Though two different kinds of Na-O-2 batteries have been studied specifically based on electrolytes until now, very recently, a hybrid Na-air cell has shown distinctive advantage over nonaqueous cell systems. Hybrid Na-air batteries provide a fundamental advantage due to the formation of highly soluble discharge product (sodium hydroxide) which leads to low overpotentials for charge and discharge processes, high electrical energy efficiency, and good cyclic stability. Herein, the current status and challenges associated with hybrid Na-air batteries are reported. Also, a brief description of nonaqueous Na-O-2 batteries and its close competition with hybrid Na-air batteries are provided.

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  • 40.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Wuyi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gladisch, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cellulose-Conducting Polymer Aerogels for Efficient Solar Steam Generation2020Ingår i: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, nr 4, artikel-id 2000004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seawater desalination and wastewater purification technologies are the main strategies against the global fresh water shortage. Among these technologies, solar-driven evaporation is effective in extracting fresh water by efficiently exploiting solar energy. However, building a sustainable and low-cost solar steam generator with high conversion efficiency is still a challenge. Here, pure organic aerogels comprising a cellulose scaffold decorated with an organic conducting polymer absorbing in the infrared are employed to establish a high performance solar steam generator. The low density of the aerogel ensures minimal material requirements, while simultaneously satisfying efficient water transport. To localize the absorbed solar energy and make the system floatable, a porous floating and thermal-insulating foam is placed between the water and the aerogel. Thanks to the high absorbance of the aerogel and the thermal-localization performance of the foam, the system exhibits a high water evaporation rate of 1.61 kg m(-2) h(-1) at 1 kW m(-2) under 1 sun irradiation, which is higher than most reported solar steam generation devices.

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  • 41.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Riera-Galindo, Sergi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Doped Conjugated Polymer Enclosing a Redox Polymer: Wiring Polyquinones with Poly(3,4‐Ethylenedioxythiophene)2020Ingår i: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, E-ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 1, nr 2, artikel-id 2000027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass implementation of renewable energies is limited by the absence of efficient and affordable technology to store electrical energy. Thus, the development of new materials is needed to improve the performance of actual devices such as batteries or supercapacitors. Herein, the facile consecutive chemically oxidative polymerization of poly(1-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone) (PACA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) resulting in a water dispersible material PACA-PEDOT is shown. The water-based slurry made of PACA-PEDOT nanoparticles can be processed as film coated in ambient atmosphere, a critical feature for scaling up the electrode manufacturing. The novel redox polymer electrode is a nanocomposite that withstands rapid charging (16 A g−1) and delivers high power (5000 W kg−1). At lower current density its storage capacity is high (198 mAh g−1) and displays improved cycling stability (60% after 5000 cycles). Its great electrochemical performance results from the combination of the redox reversibility of the quinone groups in PACA that allows a high amount of charge storage via Faradaic reactions and the high electronic conductivity of PEDOT to access to the redox-active sites. These promising results demonstrate the potential of PACA-PEDOT to make easily organic electrodes from a water-coating process, without toxic metals, and operating in non-flammable aqueous electrolyte for large scale pseudocapacitors. 

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  • 42.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effect of Sulfonation Level on Lignin/Carbon Composite Electrodes for Large-Scale Organic Batteries2020Ingår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, nr 49, s. 17933-17944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The key figure-of-merit for materials in stationary energy storage applications, such as large-scale energy storage for buildings and grids, is the cost per kilo per electrochemical cycle, rather than the energy density. In this regard, forest-based biopolymers such as lignin, are attractive, as they are abundant on Earth. Here, we explored lignin as an electroactive battery material, able to store two electrons per hydroquinone aromatic ring, with the targeted operation in aqueous electrolytes. The impact of the sulfonation level of lignin on the performance of its composite electrode with carbon was investigated by considering three lignin derivatives: lignosulfonate (LS), partially desulfonated lignosulfonate (DSLS), and fully desulfonated lignin (KL, lignin produced by the kraft process). Partial desulfonation helped in better stability of the composite in aqueous media, simultaneously favoring its water processability. In this way, a route to promote ionic conductivity within the lignin/carbon composite electrodes was developed, facilitating the access to the entire bulk of the volumetric electrodes. Electrochemical performance of DSLS/C showed highly dominant Faradaic contribution (66%) towards the total capacity, indicating an efficient mixed ionic-electronic transport within the lignin-carbon phase, displaying a capacity of 38 mAh/g at 0.25 A/g and 69% of capacity retention after 2200 cycles at a rate of 1 A/g.

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  • 43.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA.
    Kee, Seyoung
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biofysik och bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Leclere, Philippe
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elastic conducting polymer composites in thermoelectric modules2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of wearables has created a demand for lightweight, elastic and conformal energy harvesting and storage devices. The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has shown great promise for thermoelectric generators, however, the thick layers of pristine poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) required for effective energy harvesting are too hard and brittle for seamless integration into wearables. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-elastomer composites have been developed to improve its mechanical properties, although so far without simultaneously achieving softness, high electrical conductivity, and stretchability. Here we report an aqueously processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polyurethane-ionic liquid composite, which combines high conductivity (>140Scm(-1)) with superior stretchability (>600%), elasticity, and low Youngs modulus (<7MPa). The outstanding performance of this organic nanocomposite is the result of favorable percolation networks on the nano- and micro-scale and the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid. The elastic thermoelectric material is implemented in the first reported intrinsically stretchable organic thermoelectric module. Though deformable thermoelectric materials are desirable for integrating thermoelectric devices into wearable electronics, typical thermoelectric materials are too brittle for practical application. Here, the authors report a high-performance elastic composite for stretchable thermoelectric modules.

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  • 44.
    Jiang, Qinglin
    et al.
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Duokai
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hu, Dehua
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Jiao, Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Qin, Leiqiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Linseis, Vincent
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Yuguang
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yong
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    High Thermoelectric Performance in n-Type Perylene Bisimide Induced by the Soret Effect2020Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 32, nr 45, artikel-id 2002752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost, non-toxic, abundant organic thermoelectric materials are currently under investigation for use as potential alternatives for the production of electricity from waste heat. While organic conductors reach electrical conductivities as high as their inorganic counterparts, they suffer from an overall low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) due to their small Seebeck coefficient. Moreover, the lack of efficient n-type organic materials still represents a major challenge when trying to fabricate efficient organic thermoelectric modules. Here, a novel strategy is proposed both to increase the Seebeck coefficient and achieve the highest thermoelectric efficiency for n-type organic thermoelectrics to date. An organic mixed ion-electron n-type conductor based on highly crystalline and reduced perylene bisimide is developed. Quasi-frozen ionic carriers yield a large ionic Seebeck coefficient of -3021 mu V K-1, while the electronic carriers dominate the electrical conductivity which is as high as 0.18 S cm(-1)at 60% relative humidity. The overall power factor is remarkably high (165 mu W m(-1)K(-2)), with aZT= 0.23 at room temperature. The resulting single leg thermoelectric generators display a high quasi-constant power output. This work paves the way for the design and development of efficient organic thermoelectrics by the rational control of the mobility of the electronic and ionic carriers.

  • 45.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ion-Selective Electrocatalysis on Conducting Polymer Electrodes - Improving the Performance of Redox Flow Batteries2020Ingår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 30, nr 52, artikel-id 2007009Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective ion transport characteristics of a conducting polymer electrode, based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), is evaluated with respect to its electrocatalytic performance, specifically targeting redox switching of quinone couples. Employing model organic redox quinones, here, the novel phenomenon of ion-selective electrocatalysis (ISEC) is conceptualized. The effect of ISEC is studied and evaluated using two forms of PEDOT electrodes, which differ in their ion-exchange characteristics, by comparing the redox transformations of catechol and tiron. It is rationalized that the choice of the specific redox couple and the ion selectivity characteristics of the conducting polymer electrode impacts the activation losses in aqueous organic redox-flow batteries. By carefully selecting and designing the conducting polymer electrodes, high conversion efficiency on acid-resistant electrodes is obtained. As far as it is known, this is the first redox flow battery to include conducting polymer electrodes operating in both the posolyte and negolyte configurations, thus the first "all-organic" RFBs.

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  • 46.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Singh, Amritpal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Molecular Oxygen Activation at a Conducting Polymer: Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Reaction at PEDOT Revisited, a Theoretical Study2020Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 124, nr 24, s. 13263-13272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular oxygen requires activation in order to be reduced, which prompts extensive searching for efficient and sustainable electrode materials to drive electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), of primary importance for energy production and storage. A conjugated polymer PEDOT is a metal-free material for which promising ORR experimental results have been obtained. However, sound theoretical understanding of this reaction at an organic electrode is insufficient, as the concepts inherited from electrocatalysis at transition metals are not necessarily relevant for a molecular organic material. In this work, we critically analyze the basics of electrochemical ORR and build a model for our DFT calculations of the reaction thermodynamics based on this analysis. Altogether, this work leads to a conclusion that outer sphere electron transfer that currently attracts increasing attention in the context of ORR is a viable mechanism at a conducting polymer electrode.

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  • 47.
    Kangkamano, Tawatchai
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Prince Songkla Univ, Thailand; Thaksin Univ, Thailand.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Meng, Lingyin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thavarungkul, Panote
    Prince Songkla Univ, Thailand.
    Kanatharana, Proespichaya
    Prince Songkla Univ, Thailand.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Product-to-intermediate relay achieving complete oxygen reduction reaction (cORR) with Prussian blue integrated nanoporous polymer cathode in fuel cells2020Ingår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 78, artikel-id 105125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an essential process in electrocatalysis limiting the commercialization of sustainable energy conversion technologies, such as fuel cells. The use of conducting polymers as molecular porous and conducting catalysts obtained from the high abundance elements enables the route towards low cost and high-throughput fabrication of disposable plastic electrodes of fuel cells. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a 2-electron ORR electrocatalyst yielding specifically hydrogen peroxide that limits the full utilization of chemical energy of oxygen. Here, we demonstrated an innovative product-to-intermediate relay approach achieving complete oxygen reduction reaction (cORR) with Prussian blue (PB) integrated microporous PEDOT cathode in fuel cells. The microporous structured PEDOT electrode prepared via a simple cryosynthesis allows the bulk integration and stabilization of the poor conducting PB co-catalyst into the PEDOT ion-electron conductor, while the microporous PEDOT allows effective oxygen diffusion into the matrix. We evaluated systematically the effect of sequential PEDOT 2-electron ORR followed by PB co-catalysis launching hydrogen peroxide reduction reaction (HPRR) into H2O. This resulted in the establishment of electronic and ionic transport between PEDOT and PB catalyst enabling the combination of enhanced ORR electrocatalysis by means of the ORR course extension from 2to 4-electron reduction to achieve cORR. The cORR performance delivered by the product-to-intermediate relay between microporous PEDOT and PB co-catalysis led to a four times increase in power density of model proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) assembled from the polymer-based air breathing cathode.

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  • 48.
    Méhes, Gábor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes2020Ingår i: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 1900100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy harvesting from photosynthetic membranes, proteins, or bacteria through bio-photovoltaic or bio-electrochemical approaches has been proposed as a new route to clean energy. A major shortcoming of these and solar cell technologies is the underutilization of solar irradiation wavelengths in the IR region, especially those in the far IR region. Here, a biohybrid energy-harvesting device is demonstrated that exploits IR radiation, via convection and thermoelectric effects, to improve the resulting energy conversion performance. A composite of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the anode in biohybrid cells that includes thylakoid membranes (TMs) and redox mediators (RMs) in solution. By irradiating the conducting polymer electrode by an IR light-emitting diode, a sixfold enhancement in the harvested bio-photovoltaic power is achieved, without compromising stability of operation. Investigation of the output currents reveals that IR irradiation generates convective heat transfer in the electrolyte bulk, which enhances the redox reactions of RMs at the anode by suppressing diffusion limitations. In addition, a fast-transient thermoelectric component, originating from the PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose-electrolyte interphase, further increases the bio-photocurrent. These results pave the way for the development of energy-harvesting biohybrids that make use of heat, via IR absorption, to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  • 49.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ultrasensitive electrolyte-assisted temperature sensor2020Ingår i: NPJ Flexible electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat sensors form an important class of devices that are used across multiple fields and sectors. For applications such as electronic skin and health monitoring, it is particularly advantageous if the output electronic signals are not only high, stable, and reproducible, but also self-generated to minimize power consumption. Here, we present an ultrasensitive heat sensing concept that fulfills these criteria while also being compatible with scalable low-cost manufacturing on flexible substrates. The concept resembles a traditional thermocouple, but with separated electrodes bridged by a gel-like electrolyte and with orders of magnitudes higher signals (around 11mVK(-1)). The sensor pixels provide stable and reproducible signals upon heating, which, for example, could be used for heat mapping. Further modification to plasmonic nanohole metasurface electrodes made the sensors capable of also detecting light-induced heating. Finally, we present devices on flexible substrates and show that they can be used to detect human touch.

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  • 50.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Spampinato, Nicoletta
    Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LCPO, Pessac, France.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bio- and Organic Electronics, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LCPO, Pessac, France.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Unraveling vertical inhomogeneity in vapour phase polymerized PEDOT:Tos films2020Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 8, s. 18726-18734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forms a promising alternative to conventional inorganic conductors, where deposition of thin films via vapour phase polymerization (VPP) has gained particular interest owing to high electrical conductivity within the plane of the film. The conductivity perpendicular to the film is typically much lower, which may be related not only to preferential alignment of PEDOT crystallites but also to vertical stratification across the film. In this study, we reveal non-linear vertical microstructural variations across VPP PEDOT:Tos thin films, as well as significant differences in doping level between the top and bottom surfaces. The results are consistent with a VPP mechanism based on diffusion-limited transport of polymerization precursors. Conducting polymer films with vertical inhomogeneity may find applications in gradient-index optics, functionally graded thermoelectrics, and optoelectronic devices requiring gradient doping.

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