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  • 1.
    Westerlind, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Geriatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Midlöv, P.
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Diagnostic Failure of Cognitive Impairment in Nursing Home Residents May Lead to Impaired Medical Care2019Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 47, nr 4-6, s. 209-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives: Dementia and cognitive impairment are common in nursing homes. Few studies have studied the impact of unnoted cognitive impairment on medical care. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic failure of cognitive impairment in a sample of Swedish nursing home residents and to analyze whether diagnostic failure was associated with impaired medical care. 

    Method: A total of 428 nursing home residents were investigated during 2008–2011. Subjects without dementia diagnosis were grouped by result of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), where subjects with <24 points formed a possible dementia group and the remaining subjects a control group. A third group consisted of subjects with diagnosed dementia. These three groups were compared according to baseline data, laboratory findings, drug use, and mortality. 

    Results: Dementia was previously diagnosed in 181 subjects (42%). Among subjects without a dementia diagnosis, 72% were cognitively impaired with possible dementia (MMSE <24). These subjects were significantly older, did not get anti-dementia treatment, and had higher levels of brain natriuretic peptide compared to the diagnosed dementia group, but the risks of malnutrition and pressure ulcers were similar to the dementia group. 

    Conclusions: Unnoted cognitive impairment is common in nursing home residents and may conceal other potentially treatable conditions such as heart failure. The results highlight a need to pay increased attention to cognitive impairment among nursing home residents.

  • 2.
    Olofsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Odeshog Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Matussek, A.
    Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Lab, Sweden.
    Ehricht, R.
    Abbott Alere Technol GmbH, Germany; InfectoGnost Res Campus, Germany; Leibniz Inst Photon Technol, Germany.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen. Odeshog Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Differences in molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nursing home residents and people in unassisted living situations2019Ingår i: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 101, nr 1, s. 76-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The usefulness of colonization pressure as a working model and proxy for infection transmission is limited due to the inability to grade or quantify the specific risk within environments that are subject to change. Aim: To elaborate on the colonization pressure model by comparing the molecular epidemiology of two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, among residents in a nursing home and people in unassisted living situations. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 73 elderly residents from a village in south-central Sweden was conducted. Of these, 35 were residents of a nursing home, and 34 lived in an own place of residence in the same geographical area. Samples of two representative bacterial species were collected from multiple body sites and analysed for molecular diversity. Findings: Combining all body sites, 47% of the participants were colonized with S. aureus and 93% with E. coli. The nursing home group, the group in unassisted living situations, and both units combined, held 16, 17, and 29 different S. aureus spa types, respectively. The corresponding numbers of different E. coli serogenotypes were 34, 28, and 48. Diabetes mellitus was associated with more frequent colonization with S. aureus. Conclusion: The molecular diversity of bacteria found within different forms of accommodation was within the same range. Hospital quality hygiene might have contributed to the absence of homogenization of the molecular diversity within the nursing home group. Diabetes mellitus might have played a role in a patient selection characterized by advanced age. (C) 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Walz, Lotta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; MSD, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anna K.
    Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Druid, Henrik
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Med, SE-17177 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Metformin - Postmortem fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations in femoral blood and risk factors associated with fatal intoxications2019Ingår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 303, artikel-id 109935Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background amp; objectives: To improve the interpretation of fatal intoxications by establishing fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations of metformin in postmortem femoral blood and to further evaluate risk factors associated with fatal metformin intoxication. Methods: All forensic autopsies in Sweden where metformin was detected in femoral blood 2011-2016 were identified in the National Board of Forensic Medicine databases (NFMD). The cases were classified as single substance intoxications, A (n = 22), multiple substance intoxications, B (N = 7) and postmortem controls, C (N = 13). The control group consisted of cases where metformin was detected, but the cause of death excluded the incapacitation by metformin or other substances. Strict inclusion criteria were used, and all postmortem cases were assessed by two independent reviewers. All other cases where the inclusion criteria of groups A-C where not met formed group O (N = 78). The forensic findings logged in the NFMD where linked to national registers whereby information on comorbidities, dispensed drugs and clinical data could be obtained. Results: The mean age was 66 +/- 10 years in the total study population and did not differ between the groups. The proportion of men was 64% in group A, 71% in B, 77% in C and 74% in group O. The median values of metformin in group A (48.5 mu g/g; range 13.0-210 mu g/g) and B (21.0 mu g/g; range 4.40-95.0 mu g/g) were significantly (p amp;lt; 0.001 and p = 0.015 respectively) higher than those of the control group C (2.30 mu g/g; range 0.70-21.0 mu g/g). The median concentration of metformin in group A and B was also significantly higher than in group O (4.60 mg/g; range 0.64-54.0 mu g/g) (p amp;lt; 0.001 and p = 0.040 respectively). The results suggest that intoxication with metformin as a cause of death should be considered when the postmortem femoral blood level exceeds about 10 mg/g, although higher levels may be seen in postmortem in cases without incapacitation. The metformin intoxication was confirmed to be intentional in 23% (n = 5) of the single intoxications. Underlying factors identified as important for the remaining fatal metformin intoxications included living alone, any contraindication for the use of metformin, known alcohol abuse and a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The reported post mortem femoral blood concentrations of metformin can hopefully contribute to a better interpretation of results in suspected poisonings and obscure cases. Living in a single household, history of cardiovascular disease and contraindications, predominantly alcohol abuse, were associated with fatal metformin intoxication. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Ekstrom, Magnus Pär
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Bergström, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brandberg, John
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Caidahl, Kenneth
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Gränsbo, Klas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hansen, Tomas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Lungmedicinska kliniken US.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandelin, Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sköld, Magnus
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Sundström, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken US.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Tanash, Hanan A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Torén, Kjell
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    The association of body mass index, weight gain and central obesity with activity-related breathlessness: the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study2019Ingår i: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 74, nr 10, s. 958-964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Breathlessness is common in the population, especially in women and associated with adverse health outcomes. Obesity (body mass index (BMI) amp;gt;30 kg/m(2)) is rapidly increasing globally and its impact on breathlessness is unclear. Methods This population-based study aimed primarily to evaluate the association of current BMI and self-reported change in BMI since age 20 with breathlessness (modified Research Council score amp;gt;= 1) in the middle-aged population. Secondary aims were to evaluate factors that contribute to breathlessness in obesity, including the interaction with spirometric lung volume and sex. Results We included 13 437 individuals; mean age 57.5 years; 52.5% women; mean BMI 26.8 (SD 4.3); mean BMI increase since age 20 was 5.0 kg/m(2); and 1283 (9.6%) reported breathlessness. Obesity was strongly associated with increased breathlessness, OR 3.54 (95% CI, 3.03 to 4.13) independent of age, sex, smoking, airflow obstruction, exercise level and the presence of comorbidities. The association between BMI and breathlessness was modified by lung volume; the increase in breathlessness prevalence with higher BMI was steeper for individuals with lower forced vital capacity (FVC). The higher breathlessness prevalence in obese women than men (27.4% vs 12.5%; pamp;lt;0.001) was related to their lower FVC. Irrespective of current BMI and confounders, individuals who had increased in BMI since age 20 had more breathlessness. Conclusion Breathlessness is independently associated with obesity and with weight gain in adult life, and the association is stronger for individuals with lower lung volumes.

  • 5.
    Westerlind, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Geriatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hägg, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi. Futurum, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics is associated with falls in nursing home residents: a longitudinal cohort study2019Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 1078-1095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Falls and related injuries are common among older people, and several drug classes are considered to increase fall risk.

    Aims

    This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of certain drug classes and falls in older nursing home residents in Sweden, and relate these to different age groups.

    Methods

    Information on falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of possible fall risk drugs including non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (zopiclone and zolpidem) was collected from 331 nursing home residents during 2008–2011. Over the following 6 months, the occurrence of serious falls, requiring a physician visit or hospital care, was registered. Association between serious falls and drug use was compared between an older (≥ 85 years) and a younger group.

    Results

    An increased fall risk (Downton Fall Risk Index ≥ 3) was found in 93% of the study subjects (aged 65–101 years). Baseline data indicated an association between falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (p = 0.005), but not with the other studied drug classes. During the following 6 months, an association between use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics and serious falls in the older group (p = 0.017, odds ratio 4.311) was found. No association was found between the other studied drug classes and serious falls.

    Discussion

    These results indicate an association between falls and the use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, compounds that previously have been considered generally well-tolerated in older people.

    Conclusions

    Caution is advocated when using non-benzodiazepine hypnotics regularly in older people living in nursing homes.

  • 6.
    Jonasson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Fredriksson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Perimed AB, Järfälla, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergstrand, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    In vivo characterization of light scattering properties of human skin in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range in a Swedish cohort2018Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 23, nr 12, artikel-id 121608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined in vivo optical scattering properties of normal human skin in 1734 subjects, mostly with fair skin type, within the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study. The measurements were performed with a noninvasive system, integrating spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Data were analyzed with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, accounting for both scattering, geometrical, and absorbing properties of the tissue. The reduced scattering coefficient was found to decrease from 3.16 ± 0.72 to 1.13 ± 0.27 mm-1 (mean ± SD) in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range. There was a negative correlation between the reduced scattering coefficient and age, and a significant difference between men and women in the reduced scattering coefficient as well as in the fraction of small scattering particles. This large study on tissue scattering with mean values and normal variation can serve as a reference when designing diagnostic techniques or when evaluating the effect of therapeutic optical systems.

  • 7.
    Nowak, Christoph
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Feldreich, Tobias
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Carrero, Juan-Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Par
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Henriksen, Egil
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Cordeiro, Antonio C.
    Dante Pazzanese Inst Cardiol, Brazil.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Multiplex proteomics for prediction of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes2018Ingår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 1748-1757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Multiplex proteomics could improve understanding and risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes. This study assessed 80 cardiovascular and inflammatory proteins for biomarker discovery and prediction of MACE in type 2 diabetes. Methods We combined data from six prospective epidemiological studies of 30-77-year-old individuals with type 2 diabetes in whom 80 circulating proteins were measured by proximity extension assay. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used in a discovery/replication design to identify biomarkers for incident MACE. We used gradient-boosted machine learning and lasso regularised Cox regression in a random 75% training subsample to assess whether adding proteins to risk factors included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register risk model would improve the prediction of MACE in the separate 25% test subsample. Results Of 1211 adults with type 2 diabetes (32% women), 211 experienced a MACE over a mean (+/- SD) of 6.4 +/- 2.3 years. We replicated associations (amp;lt; 5% false discovery rate) between risk of MACE and eight proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, IL-27 subunit alpha (IL-27a), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, protein S100-A12, TNF receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)2. Addition of the 80-protein assay to established risk factors improved discrimination in the separate test sample from 0.686 (95% CI 0.682, 0.689) to 0.748 (95% CI 0.746, 0.751). A sparse model of 20 added proteins achieved a C statistic of 0.747 (95% CI 0.653, 0.842) in the test sample. Conclusions/interpretation We identified eight protein biomarkers, four of which are novel, for risk of MACE in community residents with type 2 diabetes, and found improved risk prediction by combining multiplex proteomics with an established risk model. Multiprotein arrays could be useful in identifying individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at highest risk of a cardiovascular event.

  • 8.
    Alvarsson, Michael
    et al.
    Institutionen för molekylär medicin och kirurgi, Karolinska institutet - PO Endokrinologi och njurmedicin Stockholm, Sweden Institutionen för molekylär medicin och kirurgi, Karolinska institutet - PO Endokrinologi och njurmedicin Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Ny era inom terapin för typ 2-diabetes – men vad är nytt?: Metformin fortfarande förstahandsval, men därefter rekommenderas att behandlingen individualiseras2018Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 9.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    et al.
    Cty Hosp Ryhov, Sweden; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöblom, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Acad Hlth and Care, Sweden.
    Wijkman, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Medicinkliniken ViN.
    Engvall, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain2018Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 17, artikel-id 113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure but it is unclear to which extent it is related to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of overweight and obesity on left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of non-diabetic persons. Methods: We prospectively investigated 384 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 184 controls who participated in the CARDIPP and CAREFUL studies. The participants were grouped according to body mass index (normal weight amp;lt; 25 kg/m(2), overweight 25-29 kg/m(2), and obesity amp;gt;= 30 kg/m(2) ). Echocardiography was performed at the beginning of the study and after 4-years in the patient group. Results: Univariable and multivariable regression analysis revealed that variations in left ventricular ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain, left ventricular mass and diastolic function expressed as E/e (the ratio between early diastolic mitral flow and annular motion velocities) all are related to body mass index. The mean and standard deviation of left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain values were 57% (8%) vs. - 18.6% (2.3%) for normal weight patients, 53% (8%) vs. - 17.5% (2.3%) for overweight, and 49% (9%) vs. - 16.2% (3.0%) for obese (p amp;lt; 0.05 vs. p amp;lt;0.05). Corresponding results in the control group were 58% (6%) vs. -22.3% (3.0%), 55% (7%) vs. - 20.8% (3.1%) and 54% (8%) - 19.6% (4.0%) (p amp;lt;0.05 vs. p amp;lt;0.05). Patients who gained weight from baseline to follow-up changed left ventricular ejection fraction (median and interquartile range) by - 1.0 (9.0) % (n =187) and patients who lost weight changed left ventricular ejection fraction by 1.0 (10.0) % (n =179) (p amp;lt;0.05). Conclusion: Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain in both patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic persons.

  • 10.
    Bell, Katy J. L.
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Azizi, Lamiae
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hayen, Andrew
    UTS, Australia.
    Irwig, Les
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Sundrom, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Prognostic impact of systolic blood pressure variability in people with diabetes2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 4, artikel-id e0194084Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with risk of cardiovascular events in observational studies, independently of mean BP levels. In states with higher autonomic imbalance, such as in diabetes, the importance of BP variability may theoretically be even greater. We aimed to investigate the incremental value of BPV for prediction of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified 9,855 patients without pre-existing cardiovascular disease who did not change BP-lowering treatment during the observation period from a Swedish primary health care cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. BPV was summarized as the standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), or variation independent of mean (VIM). Patients were followed for a median of 4 years and associations with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results BPV was not associated with cardiovascular specific or all-cause mortality in the total sample. In patients who were not on BP-lowering drugs during the observation period (n = 2,949), variability measures were associated with all-cause mortality: hazard ratios were 1.05, 1.04 and 1.05 for 50% increases in SD, CV and VIM, respectively, adjusted for Framingham risk score risk factors, including mean BP. However, the addition of the variability measures in this subgroup only led to very minimal improvement in discrimination, indicating they may have limited clinical usefulness (change in C-statistic ranged from 0.000-0.003 in all models). Conclusions Although BPV was independently associated with all-cause mortality in diabetes patients in primary care who did not have pre-existing cardiovascular disease or BP-lowering drugs, it may be of minimal clinical usefulness above and beyond that of other routinely measured predictors, including mean BP.

  • 11.
    Wuopio, Jonas
    et al.
    Mora Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    The association between circulating endostatin and a disturbed circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes2018Ingår i: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 215-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endostatin, cleaved from collagen XVIII in the extracellular matrix, is a promising circulating biomarker for cardiovascular damage. It possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrotic functions and has even been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation. Less is known if endostatin levels relate to circadian blood pressure patterns. In the present paper we studied the association between circulating levels of endostatin and nocturnal dipping in blood pressure.Methods: We used the CARDIPP-study, a cohort of middle aged, type 2 diabetics (n=593, 32% women), with data on both 24-hour and office blood pressure, serum-endostatin, cardiovascular risk factors, and incident major cardiovascular events. Nocturnal dipping was defined as a amp;gt;10% difference between day- and night-time blood pressures.Results: Two-hundred four participants (34%) were classified as non-dippers. The mean endostatin levels were significantly higher in non-dippers compared to dippers (meanstandard deviation: 62.6 +/- 1.8 mu g/l vs. 58.7 +/- 1.6 mu g/l, respectively, p=.007). Higher serum levels of endostatin were associated with a diminished decline in nocturnal blood pressure adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, mean systolic day blood pressure, hypertension treatment, glomerular filtration rate, and prevalent cardiovascular disease (regression coefficient per SD increase of endostatin -0.01, 95% CI, -0.02-(-0.001), p=.03). Structural equation modelling analyses suggest that endostatin mediates 7% of the association between non-dipping and major cardiovascular events.Conclusion: We found an independent association between higher circulating levels of endostatin and a reduced difference between day- and night-time systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yet endostatin mediated only a small portion of the association between non-dipping and cardiovascular events arguing against a clinical utility of our findings.

  • 12.
    Samefors, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Scragg, R.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Association between serum 25(OH)D-3 and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes: a community-based cohort study2017Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 372-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim We aimed to explore the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes recruited from a community-based study because there is limited and inconsistent research of this group. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study among people aged 55-66 years with Type 2 diabetes as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes -A Prospective Study in Primary Care (CARDIPP). We analysed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [25(OH)D-3] at baseline. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for the first myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality according to 25(OH)D-3. Results We examined 698 people with a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Serum 25(OH)D-3 was inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: HR 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.001]. Compared with the fourth quartile (Q4) [25(OH)D-3 amp;gt; 61.8 nmol/l], HR (with 95% CI) was 3.46 (1.60 to 7.47) in Q1 [25(OH)D-3 amp;lt; 35.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.002); 2.26 (1.01 to 5.06) in Q2 [25(OH)D-3 35.5-47.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.047); and 1.62 (0.70 to 3.76) in Q3 [25(OH)D-3 47.5-61.8 nmol/l] (P = 0.26) when adjusting for age, sex and season. The results remained significant after adjusting also for cardiovascular risk factors, physiological variables including parathyroid hormone and previous cardiovascular disease (P = 0.027). Conclusions Low 25(OH)D-3 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes independent of parathyroid hormone. Vitamin D could be considered as a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to explore whether vitamin D deficiency is a modifiable risk factor in Type 2 diabetes.

  • 13.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Bodegård, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Nilsson Nilsson, Peter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekman, Manias
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Increased healthcare utilization costs following initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes: A long-term follow-up in clinical practice2017Ingår i: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 184-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To compare long-term changes in healthcare utilization and costs for type 2 diabetes patients before and after insulin initiation, as well as healthcare costs after insulin versus non-insulin anti-diabetic (NIAD) initiation. Methods: Patients newly initiated on insulin (n = 2823) were identified in primary health care records from 84 Swedish primary care centers, between 1999 to 2009. First, healthcare costs per patient were evaluated for primary care, hospitalizations and secondary outpatient care, before and up to seven years after insulin initiation. Second, patients prescribed insulin in second line were matched to patients prescribed NIAD in second line, and the healthcare costs of the matched groups were compared. Results: The total mean annual healthcare cost increased from 1656 per patient 2 years before insulin initiation to 3814 seven years after insulin initiation. The total cumulative mean healthcare cost per patient at year 5 after second-line treatment was 13,823 in the insulin group compared to 9989 in the NIAD group. Conclusions: Initiation of insulin in type 2 diabetes patients was followed by increased healthcare costs. The increases in costs were larger than those seen in a matched patient population initiated on NIAD treatment in second-line. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 14.
    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gallagher, Martin
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Chalmers, John
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Midlov, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Risk factors and consequences of decreased kidney function in nursing home residents: A longitudinal study2017Ingår i: Geriatrics & Gerontology International, ISSN 1444-1586, E-ISSN 1447-0594, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 791-797Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the renal function and the relationship of deterioration in renal function with major outcomes in elderly nursing home residents. A second aim was to compare the internationally recommended formulae for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) consisting of both creatinine and cystatin C in a nursing home population. Methods: A total of 429 patients from 11 nursing homes were included during 2008-2011. GFR was estimated, from formulae based on both creatinine and cystatin C, at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. The patients were divided into groups based on chronic kidney disease level, and comparisons were made for mortality, morbidity, the use of medications and between the different formulae for eGFR. Results: Survival was lower in the groups with lower renal function. Over 60% of the residents had impaired renal function. Those with impaired renal function were older, had a higher number of medications and a higher prevalence of heart failure. Higher number of medications was associated with a greater risk of rapid decline in renal function with an odds ratio of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 1.06-1.36, P = 0.003). The compared eGFR formulae based on both cystatin C and creatinine were in excellent concordance with each other. Conclusions: Decreased renal function was associated with increased mortality. A majority of nursing home residents had declining renal function, which should be considered when prescribing medications. The more medications, the higher the risk for rapidly declining renal function.

  • 15.
    Jonasson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergstrand, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Bjarnegård, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Fredriksson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Perimed AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Skin microvascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes independently of microalbuminuria and arterial stiffness2017Ingår i: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research, ISSN 1479-1641, E-ISSN 1752-8984, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 363-371, artikel-id UNSP 1479164117707706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin and kidney microvascular functions may be affected independently in diabetes mellitus. We investigated skin microcirculatory function in 79 subjects with diabetes type 2, where 41 had microalbuminuria and 38 not, and in 41 age-matched controls. The oxygen saturation, fraction of red blood cells and speed-resolved microcirculatory perfusion (% red blood cells x mm/s) divided into three speed regions: 0-1, 1-10 and above 10 mm/s, were assessed during baseline and after local heating of the foot with a new device integrating diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Arterial stiffness was assessed as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Subjects with diabetes and microalbuminuria had significantly higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity compared to subjects without microalbuminuria and to controls. The perfusion for speeds 0-1 mm/s and red blood cell tissue fraction were reduced in subjects with diabetes at baseline and after heating, independent of microalbuminuria. These parameters were correlated to HbA1c. In conclusion, the reduced nutritive perfusion and red blood cell tissue fraction in type 2 diabetes were related to long-term glucose control but independent of microvascular changes in the kidneys and large-vessel stiffness. This may be due to different pathogenic pathways in the development of nephropathy, large-vessel stiffness and cutaneous microvascular impairment.

  • 16.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Tengblad, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Dahlén, Elsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    The impact of using sagittal abdominal diameter to predict major cardiovascular events in European patients with type 2 diabetes2017Ingår i: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 418-422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Obesity is associated with diabetes type 2 and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We explored if sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a better predictor of major cardiovascular events than waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: The CARDIPP study consists of a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we used data from 635 participants with no previous myocardial infarction or stroke, with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 years. SAD, WC and BMI were measured at baseline and the end-point was first cardiovascular event, measured as a composite of ICD-10 codes for acute myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality. SAD was significantly higher in the major cardiovascular event group compared to participants that did not suffer a major cardiovascular event during follow-up (p amp;lt; 0.001). SAD amp;gt; 25 cm was the only anthropometric measurement that remained associated with major cardiovascular events when adjusted for modifiable and non-modifiable factors (hazard ratio 2.81, 95% confidence interval 1.37-5.76, p = 0.005). Conclusion: SAD with the cut off level of amp;gt; 25 cm, if confirmed in larger studies, may be used as a more independent risk-assessment tool compared with WC in clinical practice, to identify persons with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. (C) 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Sabale, Ugne
    et al.
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Bodegard, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Ödeshög.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekman, Mattias
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Weight change patterns and healthcare costs in patients with newly-diagnosed type-2 diabetes in Sweden2017Ingår i: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 217-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe weight-change pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated healthcare costs using repeated BMI measurements and healthcare utilization data. Methods: Patients with newly-diagnosed T2D with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) at diagnosis and subsequent measures at year 1-3 were identified. Based on three-year BMI change, patients were assigned to one of 27 BMI change pathways defined by annual BMI change: BMI NE arrow (amp;gt;= 1 BMI unit increase), BMI -amp;gt; (amp;lt;1 BMI unit change), and BMI SE arrow (amp;gt;= 1 BMI unit decrease). Mean annual and three-year cumulative healthcare costs were estimated for each pathway by combining Swedish unit costs with resource use from primary care and national patient registers. Results: Cohort consisted of 15,819 patients; 44% women, mean age of 61 years, HbA1c of 6.7% (50 mmol/mol), BMI of 30.6 kg/m(2). Most common BMI pathways (mean costs): BMI -amp;gt;-amp;gt;-amp;gt; ((sic)5,311), BMI SE arrow -amp;gt;-amp;gt;((sic)5,461), and BMI -amp;gt;-amp;gt;SE arrow((sic)6,281). General trends: BMI)-amp;gt;-amp;gt;-amp;gt; linked to lowest, BMI NE arrow -amp;gt;NE arrow linked to highest costs. Conclusion: In patients with newly -diagnosed T2D, weight stability was the most common BMI change pattern over 3 years and associated with lowest healthcare costs. Relationship between weight change and healthcare costs appears complex warranting further investigation. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe.

  • 18.
    Wijkman, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Medicinkliniken ViN.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Aortic pulse wave velocity predicts incident cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care2016Ingår i: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 1223-1228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim was to evaluate the predictive value of aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) on incident cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes without previous cardiovascular disease who were treated in primary care, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Methods: We measured aPWV in 627 patients who participated in the epidemiological study CARDIPP (Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes-a Prospective Study in Primary Care; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01049737) and who did not have previously known myocardial infarction or stroke. The outcome variable was a composite endpoint consisting of cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for myocardial infarction and hospitalization for stroke. Results: During a median follow-up time of almost eight years, the unadjusted HR per each increment of aPWV by 1 m/s was 1.239 (95% CI 1.114-1.379, P amp;lt; 0.001) for the primary endpoint. Following adjustments for age, sex, diabetes duration, office systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate and smoking status, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.142 (95% CI 1.003-1.301, P = 0.044). Conclusions: In primary preventive patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care, aPWV predicted a composite outcome of incident cardiovascular events independently of diabetes-specific and traditional risk factors. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Jennersjö, Pär
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Dalarna University,Falun Sweden.
    Association of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 with nephropathy, cardiovascular events, and total mortality in type 2 diabetes2016Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 40-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) contribute to experimental diabetic kidney disease, a condition with substantially increased cardiovascular risk when present in patients. Therefore, we aimed to explore the levels of sTNFRs, and their association with prevalent kidney disease, incident cardiovascular disease, and risk of mortality independently of baseline kidney function and microalbuminuria in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. In pre-defined secondary analyses we also investigated whether the sTNFRs predict adverse outcome in the absence of diabetic kidney disease. Methods: The CARDIPP study, a cohort study of 607 diabetes patients [mean age 61 years, 44 % women, 45 cardiovascular events (fatal/non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke) and 44 deaths during follow-up (mean 7.6 years)] was used. Results: Higher sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 were associated with higher odds of prevalent kidney disease [odd ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) increase 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.32-1.93, p &lt; 0.001 and OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.21-1.97, p = 0.001, respectively]. In Cox regression models adjusting for age, sex, glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, higher sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 predicted incident cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase, 1.66, 95 % CI 1.29-2.174, p &lt; 0.001 and HR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.13-1.91, p = 0.004, respectively]. Results were similar in separate models with adjustments for inflammatory markers, HbA1c, or established cardiovascular risk factors, or when participants with diabetic kidney disease at baseline were excluded (p &lt; 0.01 for all). Both sTNFRs were associated with mortality. Conclusions/Interpretations: Higher circulating sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 are associated with diabetic kidney disease, and predicts incident cardiovascular disease and mortality independently of microalbuminuria and kidney function, even in those without kidney disease. Our findings support the clinical utility of sTNFRs as prognostic markers in type 2 diabetes.

  • 20.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Festin, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Blood pressure and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of nursing home residents2016Ingår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 826-832Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore the natural course of blood pressure development and its relation to mortality in a nursing home cohort.

    Methods: A cohort of 406 nursing home residents in south east Sweden was followed prospectively for 30 months. Participants were divided into four groups based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) at baseline. Data were analysed using a Cox regression model with all-cause mortality as the outcome measurement; paired Student t-tests were used to evaluate blood pressure development over time.

    Results: During follow-up, 174 (43%) people died. Participants with SBP <120 mmHg had a hazard ratio for mortality of 1.56 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–2.27) compared with those with SBP 120–139 mmHg, adjusted for age and sex. Risk of malnutrition or present malnutrition was most common in participants with SBP <120 mmHg; risk of malnutrition or present malnutrition estimated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment was found in 78 (71%). The levels of SBP decreased over time independent of changes in anti-hypertensive medication.

    Conclusions: In this cohort of nursing home residents, low SBP was associated with increased all-cause mortality. SBP decreased over time; this was not associated with altered anti-hypertensive treatment. The clinical implication from this study is that there is a need for systematic drug reviews in elderly persons in nursing homes, paying special attention to those with low SBP.

  • 21.
    Wijkman, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Medicinkliniken ViN.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Diastolic orthostatic hypertension and cardiovascular prognosis in type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study2016Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 15, nr 83, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prognostic impact of an orthostatic rise in blood pressure is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prognostic implications of the diastolic orthostatic blood pressure response in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. We also evaluated associations between different orthostatic blood pressure responses and markers of subclinical cardiovascular organ damage.

    METHODS: Office blood pressures were measured in the sitting and in the standing position in 749 patients with type 2 diabetes who participated in the CARDIPP study (Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes-a Prospective study in Primary care). Diastolic orthostatic hypertension was defined as a rise of diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mmHg and diastolic orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mmHg. Recruitment took place between the years 2005-2008, and patients were followed until any of the primary outcome events (cardiovascular death or hospitalization for either myocardial infarction or stroke) occurred or until December 31st, 2014. Measurements of aortic pulse wave velocity and of carotid intima-media thickness were performed at base-line.

    RESULTS: Diastolic orthostatic hypertension was found in 140 patients (18.7 %) and was associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events (crude hazard ratio compared with patients with normal systolic and diastolic orthostatic blood pressure response: 0.450, 95 % C.I. 0.206-0.987, P = 0.046). Diastolic orthostatic hypotension was found in 31 patients (4.1 %) and was associated with higher values for aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness, compared with patients with normal systolic and diastolic orthostatic blood pressure response.

    CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic orthostatic hypertension is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, and may be a novel marker for decreased cardiovascular risk in these patients.

  • 22.
    Lannering, Christina
    et al.
    Futurum, Sweden.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Midlov, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Factors related to falls, weight-loss and pressure ulcers - more insight in risk assessment among nursing home residents2016Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, nr 7-8, s. 940-950Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectivesTo describe how the included items in three different scales, Downton Fall Risk Index, the short form of Mini Nutritional Assessment and the Modified Norton Scale are associated to severe outcomes as falls, weight loss and pressure ulcers. BackgroundFalls, malnutrition and pressure ulcers are common adverse events among nursing home residents and risk scoring are common preventive activities, mainly focusing on single risks. In Sweden the three scales are routinely used together with the purpose to improve the quality of prevention. DesignLongitudinal quantitative study. MethodsDescriptive analyses and Cox regression analyses. ResultsOnly 4% scored no risk for any of these serious events. Longitudinal risk scoring showed significant impaired mean scores indicating increased risks. This confirms the complexity of this populations status of general condition. There were no statistical significant differences between residents categorised at risk or not regarding events. Physical activity increased falls, but decreased pressure ulcers. For weight loss, cognitive decline and the status of general health were most important. ConclusionsRisk tendencies for falls, malnutrition and pressure ulcers are high in nursing homes, and when measure them at the same time the majority will have several of these risks. Items assessing mobility or items affecting mobility were of most importance. Care processes can always be improved and this study can add to the topic. Relevance to clinical practiceA more comprehensive view is needed and prevention can not only be based on total scores. Mobility is an important factor for falls and pressure ulcers, both as a risk factor and a protective factor. This involves a challenge for care - to keep the inmates physical active and at the same time prevent falls.

  • 23.
    Jansson, S. P. O.
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Fall, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Brus, O.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, A.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Wandell, P.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Rolandsson, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Letter: Response to Carlsson et al.: Prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based pharmaco-epidemiological study in Sweden in DIABETIC MEDICINE, vol 33, issue 8, pp 1150-11522016Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 1150-1152Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 24.
    Jennersjö, Pär
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Nyström, Fredrik H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Pedometer-determined physical activity level and change in arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetes over 4 years2016Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, nr 7, s. 992-997Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To explore prospectively the correlation between the level of pedometer-determined physical activity at the start of the study and the change in pulse wave velocity from baseline to 4 years later in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Methods We analysed data from 135 men and 53 women with Type 2 diabetes, aged 54–66 years. Physical activity was measured with waist-mounted pedometers on 3 consecutive days and the numbers of steps/day at baseline were classified into four groups: <5000 steps/day, 5000–7499 steps/day, 7500–9999 steps/day and ≥10 000 steps/day. Pulse wave velocity was measured using applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and after 4 years.

    Results The mean (±sd; range) number of steps/day was 8022 (±3765; 956–20 921). The participants with the lowest level of physical activity had a more pronounced increase in the change in pulse wave velocity compared with the participants with the highest. When change in pulse wave velocity was analysed as a continuous variable and adjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity at baseline, β-blocker use, statin use, unemployment, smoking and diabetes medication, the number of steps/day at baseline was significantly associated with a less steep increase in change in pulse wave velocity (P=0.005). Every 1000 extra steps at baseline corresponded to a lower increase in change in pulse wave velocity of 0.103 m/s.

    Conclusions We found that a high level of pedometer-determined physical activity was associated with a slower progression of arterial stiffness over 4 years in middle-aged people with Type 2 diabetes.

  • 25.
    Westerlind, Björn
    et al.
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Prevalence and predictive importance of anemia in Swedish nursing home residents - a longitudinal study2016Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 16, artikel-id 206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anemia is common in elderly people and especially in nursing home residents. Few studies have been performed on the consequences of anemia in a nursing home population. This study explored the prevalence of anemia in nursing homes in Sweden, including risk factors and mortality associated with anemia or hemoglobin (Hb) decline. Methods: Three hundred ninety patients from 12 nursing homes were included during 2008-2011. Information about medication, blood samples, questionnaire responses and information about physical and social activities was recorded. The baseline characteristics of the patients were compared for subjects with and without anemia. Vital status was ascertained during the following 7 years from baseline to compare the survival. Hb levels amp;lt;120 g/L in women and amp;lt;130 g/L in men were used to define anemia. For 220 of the subjects Hb change during one year was registered and the quartiles in Hb change were compared in terms of baseline characteristics and mortality. Results: The prevalence of anemia at baseline was 52% among men and 32% among women. The men with anemia had a two-year mortality significantly higher (61%) than the men without anemia (29%, p = 0.001) but there was no statistical difference in two- year survival in women. In anemic men there was a higher mortality (Hazard Ratio = 1.58) during a total follow-up period of up to 7 years after adjustment for age, increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and decreased estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR). Among men, but not women, we found baseline correlations between anemia and elevated BNP (amp;gt;100 ng/L) and severely reduced eGFR (amp;lt;30 ml/min). When the lowest quartile of Hb change (decline amp;gt;9 g/L) was compared with the highest (improvement amp;gt;6 g/L) the mortality was higher in the lowest quartile (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Anemia is common in nursing home residents in Sweden, especially among men for whom it is related to higher mortality. A rapid Hb drop is associated with higher mortality. Regardless of earlier Hb values, monitoring Hb regularly in a nursing home population seems important for catching rapid Hb decline correlated with higher mortality.

  • 26.
    Walz, Lotta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; MSD AB, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anna K.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zilg, Brita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; National Board Forens Med, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Druid, Henrik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. e0164950-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD. +/- 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95% CI, 1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95% CI, 1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95% CI, 1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95% CI, 2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/ Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Axel Carl
    et al.
    Division of Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    The association between endostatin and kidney disease and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes2016Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolism, ISSN 1262-3636, E-ISSN 1878-1780, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 351-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Circulating endostatin, a biologically active derivate of collagen XVIII, is considered to be a marker of kidney disease and a risk factor for its related mortality. However, less is known of the role of endostatin in diabetes and the development of diabetic nephropathy. For this reason, our study investigated the associations between circulating endostatin and the prevalence and progression of kidney disease, and its mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

    METHODS: This was a cohort study of 607 patients with T2D (mean age: 61 years, 44% women). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation, was used to assess the patients' kidney function decline and mortality.

    RESULTS: Of the total study cohort, 20 patients declined by ≥20% in eGFR over 4 years, and 44 died during the follow-up (mean duration: 6.7 years). At baseline, participants with diabetic nephropathy (defined as eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m(2)) and/or microalbuminuria [defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)>3g/mol] had higher median levels of endostatin than those without nephropathy (62.7μg/L vs 57.4μg/L, respectively; P=0.031). In longitudinal analyses adjusted for age, gender, baseline eGFR and ACR, higher endostatin levels were associated with a higher risk of decline (≥20% in eGFR, OR per 1 SD increase: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.13-2.65) and a higher risk of mortality (HR per 1 SD increase: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19-2.07).

    CONCLUSION: In patients with T2D, circulating endostatin levels can predict the progression of kidney disease and mortality independently of established kidney disease markers. The clinical usefulness of endostatin as a risk marker in such patients merits further studies.

  • 28.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys.
    Chalmers, J.
    The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Use of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction: a nationwide register study2016Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 218-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To explore the gender- and age-specific risk of developing a first myocardial infarction in people treated with antidiabetic and/or antidepressant drugs compared with people with no pharmaceutical treatment for diabetes or depression.

    Methods

    A cohort of all Swedish residents aged 45–84 years (n = 4 083 719) was followed for a period of 3 years. Data were derived from three nationwide registers. The prescription and dispensing of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs were used as markers of disease. All study subjects were reallocated according to treatment and the treatment categories were updated every year. Data were analysed using a Cox regression model with a time-dependent variable. The outcome of interest was first fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction.

    Results

    During follow-up, 42 840 people had a first myocardial infarction, 3511 of which were fatal. Women aged 45–64 years, receiving both antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs had a hazard ratio for myocardial infarction of 7.4 (95% CI 6.3–8.6) compared with women receiving neither. The corresponding hazard ratio for men was 3.1 (95% CI 2.8–3.6).

    Conclusions

    The combined use of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction compared with use of either group of drugs alone. The increase in relative risk was greater in middle-aged women than in middle-aged men.

  • 29.
    Jennersjö, Pär
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Guldbrand, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Björne, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Wijkman, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i östra Östergötland, Medicinkliniken ViN.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    A prospective observational study of all-cause mortality in relation to serum 25-OH vitamin D-3 and parathyroid hormone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes2015Ingår i: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, ISSN 1758-5996, E-ISSN 1758-5996, Vol. 7, nr 53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low levels of vitamin D have been related to increased mortality and morbidity in several non-diabetic studies. We aimed to prospectively study relationships between serum 25-OH vitamin D-3 (vitamin D) and of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) to total mortality in type 2 diabetes. We also aimed to compare the levels of these potential risk-factors in patients with and without diabetes. Methods: The main study design was prospective and observational. We used baseline data from 472 men and 245 women who participated in the "Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes-a Prospective study in Primary care" study. Patients were 55-66 years old at recruitment, and an age-matched non-diabetic sample of 129 individuals constituted controls for the baseline data. Carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation-tonometry and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) with ultrasound. Patients with diabetes were followed for all-cause mortality using the national Swedish Cause of Death Registry. Results: Levels of vitamin D were lower in patients with diabetes than in controls, also after correction for age and obesity, while PTH levels did not differ. Nine women and 24 men died during 6 years of median follow up of the final cohort (n = 698). Vitamin D levels were negatively related to all-cause mortality in men independently of age, PTH, HbA1c, waist circumference, 24-h systolic ambulatory-blood pressure (ABP) and serum-apoB (p = 0.049). This finding was also statistically significant when PWV and IMT were added to the analyses (p = 0.028) and was not affected statistically when medications were also included in the regression-analysis (p = 0.01). In the women with type 2 diabetes, levels of PTH were positively related with all-cause mortality in the corresponding calculations (p = 0.016 without PWV and IMT, p = 0.006 with PWV and IMT, p = 0.045 when also adding medications to the analysis), while levels of vitamin D was without statistical significance (p greater than 0.9). Conclusions: Serum vitamin D in men and serum PTH in women give prognostic information in terms of total-mortality that are independent of regular risk factors in addition to levels of ABP, IMT and PWV.

  • 30.
    Grundvold, Irene
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Bodegard, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nord, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Body weight and risk of atrial fibrillation in 7,169 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; an observational study2015Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 14, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF) are closely associated, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI) or weight change with risk of AF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 7,169 participations with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were stratified according to baseline BMI, and after a second BMI measurement within 18 months, further grouped according to relative weight change as "weight gain" (greater than 1 BMI unit), " stable weight" (+/- 1 BMI unit) and " weight loss" (less than 1 BMI unit). The mean follow-up period was 4.6 years, and the risk of AF was estimated using adjusted Cox regression models. Results: Average age at diabetes diagnosis was 60 years and the patients were slightly obese (mean BMI 30.2 kg/m(2)). During follow-up, 287 patients developed incident AF, and those with overweight or obesity at baseline had 1.9 fold and 2.9-fold higher risk of AF, respectively, than those with normal BMI. The 14% of the patients with subsequent weight gain had 1.5-fold risk of AF compared with those with stable weight or weight loss. Conclusions: In patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, baseline overweight and obesity, as well as modest weight increase during the first 18 months after diagnosis, were associated with a substantially increased risk of incident AF. Patients with type 2 diabetes may benefit from efforts to prevent weight gain in order to reduce the risk of incident AF.

  • 31.
    Schernthaner, G.
    et al.
    Rudolfstiftung Hospital Vienna, Austria.
    Duran-Garcia, S.
    Hospital University of Valme, Spain.
    Hanefeld, M.
    GWT TUD GmbH, Germany.
    Langslet, G.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Niskanen, L.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Malvolti, E.
    AstraZeneca, Turkey.
    Hardy, E.
    AstraZeneca LP, DE USA.
    Efficacy and tolerability of saxagliptin compared with glimepiride in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled study (GENERATION)2015Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 17, nr 7, s. 630-638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of adjunctive saxagliptin vs glimepiride in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and inadequate glycaemic control. Methods: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, phase IIIb/IV study (GENERATION; NCT01006603), patients aged greater than= 65 years were randomized (1:1) to receive saxagliptin 5 mg/day or glimepiride less than= 6 mg/day, added to metformin, during a 52-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was achievement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) less than7.0% at week 52 without confirmed/severe hypoglycaemia. The key secondary endpoint was incidence of confirmed/severe hypoglycaemia. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: Of 720 patients randomized (360 in each treatment group; mean age 72.6 years; mean T2D duration 7.6 years), 574 (79.8%) completed the study (saxagliptin 80.3%; glimepiride 79.2%). Similar proportions of patients achieved the primary endpoint with saxagliptin and glimepiride (37.9 vs 38.2%; odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.73, 1.34; p=0.9415); however, a significant treatment-by-age interaction effect was detected (p=0.0389): saxagliptin was numerically (but not significantly) superior to glimepiride for patients aged less than75 years (39.2 vs 33.3%) and numerically inferior for patients aged greater than= 75 years (35.9 vs 45.5%). The incidence of confirmed/severe hypoglycaemia was lower with saxagliptin vs glimepiride (1.1 vs 15.3%; nominal pless than0.0001). Saxagliptin was generally well tolerated, with similar incidences of adverse events compared with glimepiride. Conclusion: As avoiding hypoglycaemia is a key clinical objective in elderly patients, saxagliptin is a suitable alternative to glimepiride in patients with T2D aged greater than= 65 years.

  • 32.
    Sabale, Ugne
    et al.
    AstraZeneca Nordic-Baltic, Södertälje, Sweden..
    Bodegard, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic-Baltic, Södertälje, Sweden..
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Östgren, Carl johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden..
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Henriksson, Martin
    AstraZeneca Nordic-Baltic, Södertälje, Sweden..
    Healthcare utilization and costs following newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes in Sweden: A follow-up of 38,956 patients in a clinical practice setting2015Ingår i: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 330-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe healthcare resource use patterns and estimate healthcare costs of newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Sweden. Methods: Patients with a newly diagnosed T2DM between 1999 and 2009 were identified from 84 Swedish primary care centres. Healthcare resource use data, excluding pharmaceuticals, were extracted from electronic patient records and a national patient register, and reported as per patient mean number of primary care contacts, laboratory tests and hospitalizations. Per patient mean healthcare costs are reported as annual and cumulative costs. Results: During a median (maximum) of 4.6 (9.0) years follow-up; 38,956 patients (183,513 patient years) on average made 81 primary care contacts, was hospitalized 2.14 times, and took 31 laboratory tests. Mean per patient annual healthcare costs were (sic)4128 (95% CI, 4054-4199) the first year after diagnosis, (sic)2708 (95% CI, 2641-2776) the second year, and (sic)3030 (95% CI, 2854-3204) in year 9 (2012 values). Mean per patient cumulative healthcare costs were (sic)26,503 (95% CI, 26,025-26,970) at 9 years of follow-up. Hospitalizations accounted for the majority of healthcare costs. Conclusions: Although newly diagnosed T2DM patients require a substantial amount of healthcare services in primary care, hospitalizations account for the majority of healthcare costs. (C) 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    et al.
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Festin, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Maret-Ouda, John
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Left ventricular diastolic function, assessed by echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, superior to global left ventricular longitudinal strain, in patients with type 2 diabetes.2015Ingår i: European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 2047-2412, Vol. 16, nr 9, s. 1000-1007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine whether left ventricular systolic function, in terms of global left ventricular longitudinal strain (GLS), and diastolic function, expressed as the ratio between early diastolic transmitral flow and mitral annular motion velocities (E/e'), can predict cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively investigated 406 consecutive patients, aged 55-65 years, with diabetes mellitus, who participated in the CARDIPP study. Echocardiography, pulse pressure (pp), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were analysed. Twelve cases of myocardial infarction and seven cases of stroke were identified during the follow-up period of 67 ± 17 months. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that E/e' was a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazards ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.18, P < 0.001). E/e' was prospectively associated with cardiovascular events independent of age, sex, GLS, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pp, and HbA1c in multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that E/e' and HbA1c were the strongest predictors for cardiovascular events, both having an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 followed by LVEF with an AUC of 0.65 and GLS of 0.61. In a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, the cumulative probability of an event during the follow-up period was 8.6% for patients with an E/e' ratio >15 compared with 2.6% for patients with E/e' ≤15, P = 0.011.

    CONCLUSION: In middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes, E/e' is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke, comparable with HbA1c and superior to GLS and LVEF.

  • 34.
    Jansson, S. P. O.
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Fall, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden; University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Brus, O.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, A.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Wandell, P.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Rolandsson, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based pharmaco-epidemiological study in Sweden2015Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 1319-1328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To investigate the changes in prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated diabetes in Sweden during 2005 to 2013. Methods We obtained data on gender, date of birth and pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated diabetes from national registers for all Swedish residents. Results During the study period a total of 240 871 new cases of pharmacologically treated diabetes was found. The age-standardized incidence during the follow-up was 4.34 and 3.16 per 1000 individuals in men and women, respectively. A decreasing time trend in incidence for men of 0.6% per year (0.994, 95% CI 0.989-0.999) and for women of 0.7% per year (0.993, 95% CI 0.986-0.999) was observed. The age-standardized prevalence increased from 41.9 and 29.9 per 1000 in 2005/2006 to 50.8 and 34.6 in 2012/2013 in men and women, respectively. This corresponds to an annually increasing time trend for both men (1.024, 95% CI 1.022-1.027) and women (1.019, 95% CI 1.016-1.021). The total age-standardized prevalence of pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated diabetes (2012) was 46.9 per 1000 (55.6 for men and 38.8 for women). This corresponds to an annually increasing time trend (2010-2012) for both men (1.017, 95% CI 1.013-1.021) and women (1.012, 95% CI 1.008-1.016). Conclusions The prevalence of pharmacologically treated diabetes increased moderately during 8 years of follow-up, while the incidence decreased modestly. This is in contrast to the results reported by most other studies. The total prevalence of diabetes (both pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically treated) in Sweden is relatively low, from a global viewpoint.

  • 35.
    Vavruch, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Serum leptin levels are independently related to the incidence of ischemic heart disease in a prospective study of patients with type 2 diabetes2015Ingår i: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 14, nr 62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: New and clinically useful markers of cardiovascular risk are of essence in type 2 diabetes since ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death in these patients. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 476 men and 244 women who participated in "Cardiovascular Risk factors in Patients with Diabetes -a Prospective study in Primary care" study. All participants had type 2 diabetes and were 55-66 years old at recruitment during year 2005 to 2008. Except for established traditional risk markers for vascular disease, we also estimated vascular complications non-invasively by performance of carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV, with applanation-tonometry) and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries (IMT, with B-mode ultrasound). Patients were followed for incidence of ischemic heart disease mortality and morbidity until end of the year 2012, using the national Swedish Cause of Death and Hospitalization Registries. Results: During the follow-up period of a median of 6 years 47 men and 10 women died or were hospitalized for ischemic heart disease including myocardial infarction. Leptin levels were positively related to the hazard ratio (HR) in men (HR for each log 10 unit 4.9, CI 1.99 to 11.8) and women (HR 11.5, CI 1.47 to 89.7). Leptin predicted ischemic heart disease independently of age, HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (men: HR 12.9 CI 3.2-53, women: HR 19.9, CI 1.2-327) This finding of increased risk related to high leptin levels was also statistically significant when carotid-femoral PWV and IMT were both added to the equations in men (hazard ratio 9.2 CI 2.1-41). Conclusions: Our data support the use of serum leptin in type 2 diabetes to add independent prognostic information in terms of ischemic heart disease when compared with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In the men of the cohort this prognostic information was in addition also to data on IMT and PWV, two non-invasive measurements of the extent of vascular disease. The power to detect a similar relationship in women was less strong due to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials. gov:

  • 36.
    Borgstrom Bolmsjo, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Midlov, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - A longitudinal study2015Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 128-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  • 37.
    Bergström, G
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg / Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Berglund, G
    Lund University.
    Blomberg, A
    Umeå University.
    Brandberg, J
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital / University of Gothenburg.
    Engström, G
    Lund University.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning.
    Eriksson, M
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    de Faire, U
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm / Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Flinck, A
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Stockholm / University of Gothenburg.
    Hansson, M G
    Uppsala University.
    Hedblad, B
    Lund University.
    Hjelmgren, O
    University of Gothenburg / Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Janson, C
    Uppsala University.
    Jernberg, T
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Johnsson, Å
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg / University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, L
    Unit of Radiology.
    Lind, L
    Uppsala University.
    Löfdahl, C-G
    Lund University / Lund University Hospital.
    Melander, O
    Lund University / Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Röntgenkliniken i Linköping.
    Persson, M
    Lund University / Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Sandström, A
    Umeå University.
    Schmidt, C
    University of Gothenburg.
    Söderberg, S
    Umeå University.
    Sundström, J
    Uppsala University / Uppsala Clinical Resarch Centre.
    Toren, K
    University of Gothenburg.
    Waldenström, A
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Wedel, H
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg.
    Vikgren, J
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg / University of Gothenburg.
    Fagerberg, B
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rosengren, A
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design2015Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 278, nr 6, s. 645-659Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.

  • 38.
    Dahlén, Elsa M
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Clinchy, Birgitta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Abdominal Obesity and low grade Systemic Inflammation as Markers for Subclinical Organ Damage in type 2 diabetes2014Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolism, ISSN 1262-3636, E-ISSN 1878-1780, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 76-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore associations between abdominal obesity, inflammatory markers, and subclinical organ damage in 740 patients with type 2 diabetes. Waist circumference (WC) and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) was measured. Blood samples were analyzed for; C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) -1β and IL-6. Carotid intimamedia thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry.

    Abdominal obesity were significantly correlated with; IL-6, CRP (both p= <0.001, WC and SAD, respectively), IMT (WC p=0.012, SAD p=0.003) and PWV (p<0.001, for WC and SAD, respectively). In multiple linear regressions with IMT as dependent variable and age, sex, statins, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Body Mass Index (BMI), CRP and HbA1c, as independent variables, SAD (p=0.047) but not WC, remained associated with IMT. In stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV.

    We conclude that SAD and WC are feasible measures of obesity that provides information on inflammation, atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes. However, SAD was slightly more robustly associated to subclinical organ damage, compared with WC.

  • 39.
    Ljungberg, Liza
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Johan Östgren, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska enheten.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Associations of genetic polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system with central aortic and ambulatory blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients2014Ingår i: jraas. Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ISSN 1470-3203, E-ISSN 1752-8976, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 61-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at high risk of developing hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a central role in regulation of blood pressure (BP). Accordingly, each component of this system represents a potential candidate in the etiology of hypertension. This study investigated the impact of polymorphisms within the RAS on ambulatory and central BP in T2D subjects. A cohort of 761 subjects (55-65 years) with T2D was studied. Ambulatory and central BP were measured, and ACE I/D genotype, angiotensinogen M235T, renin rs6693954 and ATR1-A1166C polymorphisms were analyzed. Women carrying the AA-genotype had lower 24-hour and day-time systolic and diastolic BP (pless than0.05), and lower night-time and central diastolic BP (pless than0.05), compared to T allele carriers. In men, the AA-genotype was instead associated with higher central diastolic BP (p=0.018) and higher augmentation index (p=0.016). Further, the associations between the renin rs6693954 SNP and diastolic BP were strongly gender dependent (p less than= 0.001). In T2D patients, there is a gender-dependent association of the renin rs6693954 SNP with central and ambulatory BP. Women carrying the renin rs6693954 AA-genotype may be protected against the higher BP seen in men with the same genotype.

  • 40.
    Midlov, Patrik
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Andersson, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Depression and use of antidepressants in Swedish nursing homes: a 12-month follow-up study2014Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 669-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The prescription of antidepressants in nursing homes has increased markedly since the introduction of SSRIs, while at the same time depressive symptoms often go unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study was to examine whether depression among residents in nursing homes is treated adequately.

    METHODS:

    A sample of 429 participants from 11 Swedish nursing homes was selected and was assessed with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) and using medical records and drug prescription data. For 256 participants a follow-up assessment was performed after 12 months.

    RESULTS:

    The prevalence of depression, according to medical records, was 9.1%, and the prevalence of CSDD score of ≥8 was 7.5%. Depression persisted in more than 50% of cases at the 12-month follow-up. Antidepressants were prescribed to 33% of the participants without a depression diagnosis or with a CSDD score of <8. 46.2% of all participants were prescribed antidepressants. 14% of the participants without a depression diagnosis or with a CSDD score of <8 had psychotropic polypharmacy. 15.2% of all participants had psychotropic polypharmacy, which persisted at the 12-month follow-up in three-quarters of cases.

    CONCLUSION:

    The prescription of antidepressants in frail elderly individuals is extensive and may be without clear indication. The clinical implication is that there is a need for systematic drug reviews at nursing homes, paying special attention to the subjects which are on antidepressants.

  • 41.
    Sjöblom, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Microalbuminuria, but not reduced eGFR, is associated with cardiovascular subclinical organ damage in type 2 diabetes2014Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolism, ISSN 1262-3636, E-ISSN 1878-1780, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 49-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study explored the association between reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and microalbuminuria vs. subclinical organ damage in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS: Data from middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes (n=706) treated in primary care were analyzed for microalbuminura, defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (uACR)≥3.0mmol/mol, and reduced eGFR, defined as<60mL/min/1.73m(2), in relation to blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and lumen diameter (LD).

    RESULTS: Patients with microalbuminuria had significantly higher 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure (ASBP) compared with subjects with uACR<3mg/mmol: 137 vs. 128mmHg (P<0.001). There were no differences in ASBP in patients with eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m(2). However, patients with vs. without microalbuminuria had increased PWV (11.4 vs. 10.1m/s; P<0.001), LVMI (134.4 vs. 118.6g/m(2); P<0.001), LD (7.01±0.93 vs. 6.46±0.74mm; P<0.001) and IMT (0.78 vs. 0.74mm; P=0.047), respectively. The associations between uACR vs. PWV and LVMI were more robust after adjusting for age, diabetes duration, ASBP, HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, and antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy compared with uACR vs. IMT. There were no statistically significant differences in PWV, LVMI or IMT between patients with reduced (<60mL/min/1.73m(2)) vs. normal eGFR.

    CONCLUSION: Levels of urinary albumin excretion, but not reduced eGFR, were associated with increased arterial stiffness, left ventricular mass and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • 42.
    Guldbrand, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Dizdar, B.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bunjaku, B.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Nyström, Fredrik H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska kliniken.
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet advice improves health related quality of life compared with a low-fat diet at similar weight-loss in Type 2 diabetes mellitus2014Ingår i: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 106, nr 2, s. 221-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To compare the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a 2-year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) based on four group-meetings to achieve compliance. To describe different aspects of taking part in the intervention following the LFD or LCD.

    Methods

    Prospective, randomized trial of 61 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The SF-36 questionnaire was used at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Patients on LFD aimed for 55–60 energy percent (E%) and those on LCD for 20 E% from carbohydrates. The patients were interviewed about their experiences of the intervention.

    Results

    Mean body-mass-index was 32.7 ± 5.4 kg/m2 at baseline. Weight-loss did not differ between groups and was maximal at 6 months, LFD: −3.99 ± 4.1 kg, LCD: −4.31 ± 3.6 kg (p < 0.001 within groups). There was an increase in the physical component score of SF-36 from 44.1 (10.0) to 46.7 (10.5) at 12 months in the LCD group (p < 0.009) while no change occurred in the LFD group (p < 0.03 between groups). At 12 months the physical function, bodily pain and general health scores improved within the LCD group (p values 0.042–0.009) while there was no change within the LFD group.

    Conclusions

    Weight-changes did not differ between the diet groups while improvements in HRQoL only occurred after one year during treatment with LCD. No changes of HRQoL occurred in the LFD group in spite of a similar reduction in body weight.

     

  • 43.
    Samefors, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lannering, Christina
    Futurum, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Tengblad, Anders
    Futurum, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Vitamin D deficiency in elderly people in Swedish nursing homes is associated with increased mortality2014Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 170, nr 5, s. 667-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Institutionalised elderly people at northern latitudes may be at elevated risk for vitamin D deficiency. In addition to osteoporosis-related disorders, vitamin D deficiency may influence several medical conditions conferring an increased mortality risk. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with mortality.

    DESIGN:

    The Study of Health and Drugs in the Elderly (SHADES) is a prospective cohort study among elderly people (>65 years) in 11 nursing homes in Sweden.

    METHODS:

    We analysed the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25(OH)D₃) at baseline. Vital status of the subjects was ascertained and hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality according to 25(OH)D₃ quartiles were calculated.

    RESULTS:

    We examined 333 study participants with a mean follow-up of 3 years. A total of 147 (44%) patients died within this period. Compared with the subjects in Q4 (25(OH)D₃ >48  nmol/l), HR (with 95% CI) for mortality was 2.02 (1.31-3.12) in Q1 (25(OH)D₃ <29  nmol/l) (P<0.05); 2.03 (1.32-3.14) in Q2 (25(OH)D₃ 30-37  nmol/l) (P<0.05) and 1.6 (1.03-2.48) in Q3 (25(OH)D₃ 38-47  nmol/l) (P<0.05). The mean 25(OH)D₃ concentration was 40.2  nmol/l (S.D. 16.0) and 80% had 25(OH)D₃ below 50  nmol/l. The vitamin D levels decreased from baseline to the second and third measurements.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with increased mortality among the elderly in Swedish nursing homes. Strategies are needed to prevent, and maybe treat, vitamin D deficiency in the elderly in nursing homes and the benefit of vitamin D supplementation should be evaluated in randomised clinical trials.

  • 44.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i Finspång, Vårdcentralen.
    Sundstrom, J
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Svennblad, B
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Lohm, L
    AstraZeneca Nord, Sweden .
    Nilsson, P M
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Johansson, G
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Associations of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events in 32871 drug-treated patients with Type2 diabetes: a cohort study in primary care2013Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. E170-E177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To explore the association of HbA1c and educational level with risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with Type2 diabetes. Methods A cohort of 32871 patients with Type2 diabetes aged 35years and older identified by extracting data from electronic patient records for all patients who had a diagnosis of Type2 diabetes and had glucose-lowering agents prescribed between 1999 and 2009 at 84 primary care centres in Sweden. Associations of mean HbA1c levels and educational level with risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality were analysed. Results The associations of HbA1c with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were J-shaped, with the lowest risk observed for cardiovascular mortality at an HbA1c level of 51mmol/mol (6.8%) for subjects on oral agents and 56mmol/mol (7.3%) in insulin-treated patients. The lowest risk observed for all-cause mortality was at an HbA1c level of 51mmol/mol (6.8%) for subjects on oral agents and 56mmol/mol (7.3%) in insulin-treated patients. There was an increased risk for cardiovascular death [hazard ratio1.6 (1.22.1), P=0.0008] at the lowest HbA1c decile for subjects in the low education category. For subjects with higher education there was no evident J curve for cardiovascular death [hazard ratio1.2 (0.81.6), P=0.3873]. Conclusions Our results lend support to the recent American Diabetes Association/ European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement that emphasizes the importance of additional factors, including the propensity for hypoglycaemia, which should influence HbA1c targets and treatment choices for individual patients. (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 01121315)

  • 45.
    Mohamed, A F
    et al.
    RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Zhang, J
    RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Johnson, F R
    RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Lomon, I Duprat
    Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rueil-Malmaison, France.
    Malvolti, E
    Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rueil-Malmaison, France.
    Townsend, R
    AstraZeneca UK Limited, London, United Kingdom.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Parhofer, K G
    Klinikum der Universität München, Germany.
    Avoidance of weight gain is important for oral type 2 diabetes treatments in Sweden and Germany: patient preferences2013Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolism, ISSN 1262-3636, E-ISSN 1878-1780, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 397-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The aim of the study was to quantify patient preferences for outcomes associated with oral antidiabetic medications (OAMs) in Sweden and Germany through a discrete-choice experiment.

    Methods

    Adults taking OAMs who had a self-reported physician's diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) made a series of nine choices between pairs of hypothetical profiles. Each profile had a predefined range of attributes: blood glucose control, frequency of mild-to-moderate hypoglycaemia, annual severe hypoglycaemic events, annual weight gain, pill burden and frequency of administration, and cost. Choice questions were based on an experimental design with known statistical properties. Bivariate probit analysis estimated the probabilities of choice of medication administration from patient characteristics and, conditional on that choice, preferences for treatment outcomes.

    Results

    The final sample consisted of 188 Swedish and 195 German patients. For both countries, weight gain was the most important attribute, followed by blood glucose control. Avoiding a 5-kg weight gain was 1.5 times more important in Sweden and 2.3 times more important in Germany than achieving moderate blood glucose control, thereby, suggesting that blood glucose control is relatively more important to Swedish than to German patients. Least important outcomes were the number of daily pills (Sweden) and frequency of mild-to-moderate hypoglycaemia (Germany).

    Conclusion

    Patients in both Sweden and Germany preferred OAMs not associated with weight gain.

  • 46.
    Sundström, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Sheikhi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Bodegård, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic, Södertälje, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden .
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Blood pressure levels and risk of cardiovascular events andmortality in type-2 diabetes: cohort study of 34 009 primary care patients2013Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 1603-1610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The optimal blood pressure (BP) in persons with type-2 diabetes is debated. We investigated shapes of the associations of SBP and DBP levels with risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in a large primary care-based sample of diabetic patients.

    METHODS:

    We investigated all 34 009 consecutive cardiovascular disease-free type-2 diabetes patients aged 35 years or older (mean age 64 years) at 84 primary care centers in central Sweden between 1999 and 2008. We followed this cohort until the end of 2009 in national registries for the incidence of major cardiovascular events (a composite endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular mortality) or total mortality.

    RESULTS:

    During up to 11 years of follow-up, 6344 patients (18.7%) had a first cardiovascular event, and 6235 died (18.3%). The associations of annually updated SBP and DBP with risk of major cardiovascular events were U-shaped. The lowest risk of cardiovascular events was observed at a SBP of 135-139 mmHg and a DBP of 74-76 mmHg, and the lowest mortality risk at a SBP of 142-150 mmHg and a DBP of 78-79 mmHg, in both antihypertensive drug-untreated and drug-treated persons.

    CONCLUSION:

    In a large primary care-based sample of patients with type-2 diabetes, associations of SBP and DBP with risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality were U-shaped. This may have implications for risk stratification of persons with diabetes.

  • 47.
    Bodegard, J
    et al.
    AstraZeneca AB, Sweden .
    Sundstrom, J
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Svennblad, B
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i Finspång, Primärvården i Finspång.
    Nilsson, P M.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Johansson, G
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Changes in body mass index following newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and risk of cardiovascular mortality: A cohort study of 8486 primary-care patients2013Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolism, ISSN 1262-3636, E-ISSN 1878-1780, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 306-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. - Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study explored the association between BMI changes in the first 18 months of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the risk of long-term CVD mortality. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. - A total of 8486 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and no previous history of CVD or cancer were identified from 84 primary-care centres in Sweden. During the first year after diagnosis, patients were grouped according to BMI change: Increase, or andgt;= +1 BMI unit; unchanged, or between +1 and-1 BMI unit; and decrease, or andlt;=-1 BMI unit. Associations between BMI change and CVD mortality, defined as death from stroke, myocardial infarction or sudden death, were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models (NCT 01121315). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. - Baseline mean age was 60.0 years and mean BMI was 30.2 kg/m(2). Patients were followed for up to 9 years (median: 4.6 years). During the first 18 months, 53.4% had no change in their BMI, while 32.2% decreased and 14.4% increased. Compared with patients with unchanged BMI, those with an increased BMI had higher risks of CVD mortality (hazard ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.11-2.39) and all-cause mortality (1.33, 1.01-1.76). BMI decreases had no association with these risks compared with unchanged BMI: 1.06 (0.76-1.48) and 1.06 (0.85-1.33), respectively. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion. - Increased BMI within the first 18 months of type 2 diabetes diagnosis was associated with an increased long-term risk of CVD mortality. However, BMI decrease did not lower the long-term risk of mortality.

  • 48.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i Finspång, Primärvården i Finspång.
    Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness2013Ingår i: Baillière's Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ISSN 1521-6934, E-ISSN 1532-1932, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 741-752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing.

  • 49.
    Olofsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Vårdcentraler.
    Toepfer, Michael
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Allmänmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Vårdcentraler.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Division of General Practice/Family Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University .
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Division of General Practice/Family Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University.
    Low level of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli among Swedish nursing home residents2013Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 117-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Screening for bacterial colonization and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among a defined population could aid in the identification of at-risk populations and provide targets for antibiotic stewardship and infection control programmes. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-eight participants at 11 Swedish nursing homes underwent serial screening for colonization with Escherichia coli between March 2008 and September 2010. Seventy-two of the 268 participants (27%) were male. The median age was 85 y. Samples were collected from urine, the rectal mucosa, the groin, and active skin lesions. Results: Two hundred and nine of 268 participants (78%) were colonized with E. coli at any body site/fluid. The specific colonization rates were 81% (rectum), 48% (urine), 30% (groin), 59% (unknown), and 13% (skin lesion). An antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolate was identified in 18% of all participants regardless of colonization status; all together, 87 resistant isolates were detected. Only 1 participant carried isolates with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftazidime). Conclusions: The presence of resistance was generally low, and the greater part of the resistant cases was connected with 3 common antibiotics: ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. In spite of generally increasing resistance against third-generation cephalosporins in E. coli in Sweden, this study does not implicate residence at a Swedish nursing home as a risk factor for the acquisition of expressed cephalosporin resistance.

  • 50.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Geriatriska kliniken.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen.
    Myocardial infarction in subjects using anti-diabetic and/or anti-depressant agents compared tonon-users: a nationwide register study in Sweden2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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