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  • 1.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, 2418 Elverum, Norway; CTF – Service Research Center, Karlstad University, 651 88 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Sklyar, Alexey
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Transformational shifts through digital servitization2020Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers increasingly look to digitalization to drive service growth. However, success is far from guaranteed, and many firms focus too much on technology. Adopting a discovery-oriented, theories-in-use approach, this study examines the strategic organizational shifts that underpin digital servitization. Notwithstanding strong managerial and academic interest, this link between digitalization and servitization is still under-investigated. Depth interviews with senior executives and managers from a global market leader revealed that to achieve digital service-led growth, a firm and its network need to make three interconnected shifts: (1) from planning to discovery, (2) from scarcity to abundance, and (3) from hierarchy to partnership. Organizational identity, dematerialization, and collaboration play a key role in this transformation. For managers, the study identifies a comprehensive set of strategic change initiatives needed to ensure successful digital servitization. Highlights: • Three strategic organizational shifts are needed for digital servitization success. • The key role of organizational identity, dematerialization, and collaboration • Digital servitization requires changes within both the firm and its entire network. • New business models centered around big data are driving competitive advantage. • Agile mindset and ways of working are imperative for digital servitization.

  • 2.
    Sklyar, Alexey
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    nland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; CTF – Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Organizing for digital servitization: A service ecosystem perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, s. 450-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Harnessing digital technology is of increasing concern as product firms organize for service-led growth. Adopting a service ecosystem perspective, we analyze interfirm and intrafirm change processes taking place as firms pursue digital servitization. The study draws on in-depth interviews with 44 managers involved in organizing activities in two multinational industry leaders. Our findings identify major differences between the two focal firms in terms of digital service-led growth and associated ecosystem-related activities. The study disentangles underlying processes of organizational change in the ecosystem and suggests that within-firm centralization and integration play a key role in the capacity to organize for digital servitization. For managers, the findings highlight the need to foster service-centricity in order to take full advantage of digitalization beyond purely technological benefits.

  • 3.
    Sklyar, Alexey
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; CTF – Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden..
    Resource integration through digitalisation: a service ecosystem perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of Marketing Management, ISSN 0267-257X, E-ISSN 1472-1376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As digitalisation increasingly encompasses entire service ecosystems, it modifies resource integration patterns that connect ecosystem actors through strong and weak ties. To clarify how technological development contributes to this change, and how resource integration transforms the service ecosystem, this qualitative case study explores the digitalisation strategy of a market-leading systems integrator in the maritime industry. Based on 40 depth interviews with managers, the findings show how technology increasingly serves as a key operant resource in the transformation of resource integration patterns. The study contributes to ecosystem dynamics research by identifying major differences between the pre-digitalised and digitalised states of a service ecosystem, and demonstrates the dual role of technology in both increasing pattern complexity and facilitating coordination of that complexity.

  • 4.
    Raddats, Chris
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Benedettini, Ornella
    Polytechnic University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Burton, Jamie
    University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Servitization: A contemporary thematic review of four major research streams2019Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 83, s. 207-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Servitization describes the addition of services to manufacturers' core product offerings to create additional customer value. This study aims to identify the key themes and research priorities in this body of literature over thirteen years from 2005 and 2017, based on four major research streams (general management, marketing, operations, and service management). Prior multi-theme literature reviews have focused on operations journals, overlooking important work in other streams, particularly marketing. Informed by a systematic literature review of 219 papers, the study identifies five main themes: service offerings; strategy and structure; motivations and performance; resources and capabilities; service development, sales, and delivery. Within each theme, gaps in the literature are identified and eleven research priorities presented. The review shows that the literature has evolved significantly in recent years, becoming increasingly diverse. A recent noteworthy topic is the use of digital technologies, which indicates the increasing relevance of technological developments to manufacturers' service activities. Our review highlights that there are still some fundamental aspects of servitization that warrant further research, primarily the need to replace the focal-manufacturer perspective with a multi-actor perspective that highlights the important role of relationships with existing and potentially new actors as a result of technological developments.

  • 5.
    Helkkula, Anu
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, CERS—Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Marketing, CERS—Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Department of Marketing, CERS—Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences Elverum, Norway.
    Archetypes of Service Innovation: Implications for Value Cocreation2018Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 284-301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is a key source of competitive differentiation across firms and markets. Despite growing attention from practitioners and academics alike, systematic scholarly inquiry into service innovation’s diverse theoretical foundations has to date been limited. This article explores different approaches to service innovation and proposes a typology of four archetypes, each informed by a distinct theoretical perspective and by different underlying assumptions. Process-based and output-based archetypes focus on value-adding phases and output value, respectively. Experiential and systemic archetypes have attracted less attention but become central for firms seeking to cocreate phenomenologically determined value within the service ecosystem. The article also contributes to service innovation research and practice by bringing together the existing archetypes, which were previously treated separately. Juxtaposing these archetypes and emphasizing value and value cocreation, the article proposes an integrative view of how novel value cocreation can be enhanced in service innovations. Finally, we develop an agenda for future research, encouraging researchers and managers to plan service innovations systematically, deploying each archetype in value cocreation, and combining them within an integrative approach.

  • 6.
    Breidbach, Christoph
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Choi, Sunmee
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Ellway, Benjamin
    Univ Canberra, Australia.
    Keating, Byron W.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Kormusheva, Katerina
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hanken Sch Econ, Finland.
    Lim, Chiehyeon
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Maglio, Paul
    Univ Calif Merced, CA USA.
    Operating without operations: how is technology changing the role of the firm?2018Ingår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 809-833Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the history and future of service operations, with the goal to identify key theoretical and technological advances, as well as fundamental themes that can help to imagine the future of service operations in 2050. Design/methodology/approach A review of the service operations literature was undertaken to inform a discussion regarding the role that technology will play in the future of service operations. Findings The future of service operations is framed in terms of three key themes - complexity, orchestration, and elasticity. The paper makes three contributions to the service science literature by: reviewing key themes underpinning extant service operations research to frame future trajectories of service operations research; elaborating a vision of service operations in 2050 based on history and technology; and outlining a research agenda for future service operations. Practical implications The case of service automation is used to provide an illustration of how the three themes converge to define future service operations, and in particular, to show how technology is recasting the role of the firm. Originality/value Service operations in the next 30 years will be very different from what it was in the past 30 years. This paper differs from other review papers by identifying three key themes that will characterize and instill new insights into the future of service operations research.

  • 7.
    Perks, Helen
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, England.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Network orchestration for value platform development2017Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 67, s. 106-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional firm and product-centric view of platforms is changing. Platforms are increasingly developed around value that is co-created with a network of actors. In such settings, lead firms shape their environments and develop value platforms through network orchestration. This study examines how lead firms mobilize network relationships to support and build novel value platforms. The research adopts a multiple case study methodology, investigating the development of six value platforms in network settings within Europe. A large-scale interview program over several years was conducted. The findings unravel practices constituting four overarching network orchestration mechanisms in the value platform development context; envisioning, inducing innovativeness, legitimizing, and adjusting. The study explains the relationships and interplay between the orchestration mechanisms and articulates theoretical and managerial contributions.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-08-30 09:58
  • 8.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Vilo, Jyrki
    KINE Robot Solut, Finland.
    PSS business model conceptualization and application2017Ingår i: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, nr 15, s. 1251-1263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE - a robot solutions supplier - shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.

  • 9.
    Gummerus, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    von Koskull, Catharina
    Department of Marketing, University of Vaasa, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Relationship marketing: Past, present, and future2017Ingår i: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a time when relationships have become recognized as an integral part of contemporary marketing theory and practice, what role can the sub-discipline of relationship marketing play? The aim with this special issue is to critically assess the state of relationship marketing and call for new ideas to take the field forward.

    Design/methodology/approach: We had an open call for papers with an original perspective and advanced thinking on relationship marketing, resulting in 50 originally submitted manuscripts that were subjected to double-blind review. Of these, this issue presents five articles. In addition, we invited well-renowned thought leaders who have contributed to theory development within relationship marketing. This issue starts with their four thoughtful, forward-orientated contributions.

    Findings: Several thought-provoking reflections and research findings are presented that urge relationship marketing researchers to explore novel avenues for the future of this area. A prominent way forward may be looking for a common ground in relationship marketing thinking, assessing the extent to which the different literature streams add to marketing research and when they do not, and testing/deploying the learnings in new settings.

    Research limitations/implications: This special issue does not address all areas of relationship marketing research. Potential areas for future relationship marketing research are identified.

    Originality/value: To assess existent knowledge of relationship marketing is needed to take the field forward.

  • 10.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Research), Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Oliva, Rogelio
    Mays Business School, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
    Service growth in product firms: Past, present, and future2017Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 60, s. 82-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service growth in product firms is one of the most active service research domains and is open to a variety of conceptualizations. This article provides a critical inquiry into the past, present, and future of the research domain. The evolution of the research on service growth is discussed in two phases: (1) setting the boundaries of the research domain, and (2) emergence of the conceptual foundation. We find that while research in this area has a well-established tradition in terms of output, theoretically it is still largely in a ‘nascent’ phase. Next, we highlight the contributions of the papers in this special section, emphasizing their challenges to prevailing assumptions in the research domain. We conclude by identifying, from the contributions to this special section, suggested themes for further research on service growth: the assessment of empirical evidence of the impact of service growth on firm performance, the role of merger & acquisitions in the service growth strategy, the exploration of single/multiple positions along the transition line, the process of adding or removing services, and expanding the context of service growth beyond product manufacturing firms.

  • 11.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Eawag Swiss Federal Institute Aquat Research, Switzerland.
    Kamp, Bart
    Orkestra Fdn Deusto, Spain; University of Catholic Louvain La Neuve, Belgium; University of Deusto, Spain.
    Parry, Glenn
    UWE, England.
    Servitization and deservitization: Overview, concepts, and definitions2017Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of servitization has generated a considerable body of research and many conferences, as well as industry engagement. Yet, despite the extensive literature associated with this now-mature discipline, there is no broad-based consensus on the core concepts and definitions deployed by servitization scholars, and both terminology and usage often seem ambiguous. This paper examines challenges related to service growth strategies, as well as strategies involving deservitization or a retreat from service offerings. Showing that these strategies have been pursued for more than fifty years, clarification is sought here by framing the corresponding processes and proposing definitions for four core terms: servitization, service infusion, deservitization and service dilution. It becomes clear that in focusing on the organizational change entailed by these processes, future research must elucidate "softer" issues such as leadership and business logic. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Holmlund, Maria
    et al.
    Hanken, Svenska handelshögskolan, Helsingfors, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki,Helsinki, Finland.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    Marketing Department, School of Business, University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Organizational Behavior in Innovation, Marketing, and Purchasing in Business Service Contexts: An Agenda for Academic Inquiry2016Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, nr 7, s. 2457-2462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many businesses today recognize the increased significance of service and the transition toward service orientation. Nonetheless, organizational practitioners frequently encounter problems managing this shift and seizing service-related business opportunities. This practical relevance, together with many still-unanswered service research questions, has inspired the preparation of this special section that advances the extant literatures on business services. We finish by providing a research agenda. First, more research is needed on the buyer perspective. Second, researchers need to keep in mind financial issues related to business services. Third, more researchers could tap into management, leadership, and decision-making in business service companies. Finally, sustainability, social responsibility, and environmental considerations are important topics for further exploration.

  • 13.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Triadic value propositions: When it takes more than two for tango2016Ingår i: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 282-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Value propositions are reciprocal resource-integration promises and value alignment mechanisms, operating to and from actors seeking an equitable exchange. In a business triad any change between two of the actors will also affect the relationships with the third actor, thus influencing resource integration and value creation on a value constellation level. The objective of this paper is to conceptualize a triadic value proposition and analyze how service innovation changes the structural, economic, and social ties between the actors in the triad. Through a qualitative empirical enquiry, we study a six-year process in which a multinational industry incumbent enters the service business. Data comes primarily from interviews with respondents from the manufacturer, dealers, and users. As the value proposition evolves over time, the network ties and thus the interdependence between manufacturer, dealer, and user are strengthened. The findings provide firms a better understand of how to involve and collaborate with key actors in order to initiate a discontinuous change on a firm and network level. This is particularly timely given the major difficulties product firms face when intermediaries play a decisive role for the success of their service innovation initiatives.

  • 14.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brashear Alejandro, Thomas
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA.
    Adding services to product-based portfolios: Adding services to product-based portfolios: An exploration of the implications for the sales function2015Ingår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 372-393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the implications for the sales function of the infusion of services by formerly product-based firms. In particular, it aims at identifying the changes that need to be made at the sales-function level if the services are to be successfully sold.Design/Methodology: This research is an exploratory qualitative case study. Data were collected by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with relevant managers in three large multinational companies based in Northern Europe, which were pursuing service-led growth. Findings: The effects of service infusion processes on the sales function could be seen with respect to the three parts of the analytical framework: organization, roles, and competences. The results illustrate the need for a changed perspective with respect to all three parts, if a product-based firm is to be successful in the infusing of associated services into its portfolio of offerings. Analysis of the results identifies key operational initiatives that management needs to understand and implement when corporate and marketing strategies increasingly focus on service-led growth.Research limitations:The study was exploratory and vendor centric, which means that it did not quantitatively assess the results or directly involve the customers at whom the services were directed. Also, the choice of business-to-business firms limits the capacity to generalize the findings. Originality/Value:Whereas relationship-based and value-based selling are approaches more geared to the sales-force level, the study reported in this paper set out to understand fundamental differences at the sales-function level when firms pursue service-led growth. The findings suggest that the realignment of corporate strategy towards an increased focus on services may have far-reaching implications for the sales function.

  • 15.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finnland.
    Vilgon, Mats
    Stockholm School of Economics , Stockholm, Sweden.
    CASE: Managing Customer Relationship Gaps at SKF2015Ingår i: Journal of Business Market Management, ISSN 1864-0753, E-ISSN 1864-0761, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 455-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This teaching case study focuses on SKF, a leading supplier of products, services and solutions. It consists of an overview of the company and then a narrative concentrating on the sudden loss of a large customer relationship. Moreover, it explores how central individuals devise various strategies to recover the relationship. The purpose is to stimulate a discussion concerning alternative ways for handling such relationship losses. The case is especially suited as a starting point for discussions of different marketing strategies and customer relationship tactics. Teaching notes are provided with discussion questions and possible answers. 

  • 16.
    Maley, Jane Frances
    et al.
    Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Outsourcing Maintenance in Complex Process Industries: Managing Firm Capabilities in Lock-in Effect2015Ingår i: Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, ISSN 1355-5855, E-ISSN 1758-4248, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 801-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of the article is to analyze the rationale for choice of suppliers and the influence these decisions have on the firm’s capabilities.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We examine the choice of in-house operations versus buying maintenance in the Swedish mining industry through a qualitative case study approach.

    Findings

    The findings reveal a strong tendency to outsource maintenance.

    Research limitations/implications

    This in turn has a strong influence on the firm’s capabilities and long-term competitive advantage and sustainability.

    Practical implications

    Based on the empirical findings, we comment on the strength and weaknesses of the different outsourcing and attempt to find practical solutions that assist the firm in creating competitive advantage.

    Originality/value

    The unique contribution of this study is that it extends prior firm capabilities studies by investigating the impact of capability loss specifically in complex, intricate maintenance processes in a dynamic industry.

  • 17.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    The University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    What service transition?: Rethinking established assumptions about manufacturers’ service-led growth strategies2015Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 45, s. 59-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both academics and practitioners emphasize the importance for product firms of implementing service-led growth strategies. The service transition concept is well established, namely a unidirectional repositioning along a product-service continuum—from basic, product-oriented services towards more customized, process-oriented ones—ultimately leading to the provision of solutions. We challenge this service transition assumption and develop alternative ones regarding how product firms should pursue service-led growth. Using ‘problematization methodology’, and drawing on findings from thirteen system suppliers, we identify three service-led growth trajectories: (1) becoming an availability provider, which is the focus of most transition literature; (2) becoming a performance provider, which resembles project-based sales and implies an even greater differentiation of what customers are offered; and, (3) becoming an ‘industrializer’, which is about standardizing previously customized solutions to promote repeatability and scalability. Based on our critical inquiry, we develop two alternative assumptions: (a) firms need to constantly balance business expansion and standardization activities; and (b) manage the co-existence of different system supplier roles. Finally, we consider the implications for implementing service-led growth strategies of the alternative assumptions.

  • 18.
    Raddats, Chris
    et al.
    Management School, University of Liverpool , Liverpool , UK.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Department of Management, Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management , Hanken School of Economics , Helsinki , Finland.
    A reconceptualization of manufacturers' service strategies2014Ingår i: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 19-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As part of service infusion, manufacturers use services to differentiate their products and provide growth. Although several attempts have been made to classify manufacturers' service strategies and offerings, most have been based on small purposive samples. The purpose of this article is to create a generic typology of manufacturers' service strategies.

    Methodology/approach: The unit of analysis was the manufacturer or strategic business unit. The data collection was based on a survey of 145 B2B manufacturers in the United Kingdom.

    Findings: Three categories of service offerings were identified: product-attached services, operations services on own products, and vendor independent operations services. These categories are used to specify three generic service strategies: Services Doubters, for whom services are not a strong differentiator with no focus on any category of service offerings; Services Pragmatists, for whom product-attached services are a key differentiator; Services Enthusiasts, for whom services are both a product differentiator and an enabler of growth, with all three categories of service offerings important.

    Research implications: Whereas prior studies tend to use the concepts of service strategies and categories of service offerings interchangeably, we find empirical support for the importance of making a clear distinction between the two concepts.

    Practical implications: Manufacturers can be classified according to their services strategies. For Services Doubters service infusion is unlikely to be an appropriate approach to creating differentiation. For Services Pragmatists services play a crucial role in creating product differentiation. Services Enthusiasts use services to both differentiate their own products and also develop services-led growth.

    Originality/value/contribution: The paper exposes an ambiguity in the extant literature, with a manufacturer's categories of service offerings used as proxies for service strategies. A new typology of service strategies is presented based on categories of service offerings, which provides insight into how manufacturers infuse services.

  • 19.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Editorial: Service innovation in business-­‐to-­‐business firms2014Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 93-95Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics.
    Market representations in industrial markerting: Could representations influence strategy?2014Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1026-1034Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question in industrial marketing is whether the form in which the external environment of a firm is represented influences the marketing strategy. This influence has been studied generally through case study research, and quantitative evidence is limited. In response to this limitation, this paper reports on a quasi-experiment investigating whether market representations have a constructive aspect in business. Empirically, this study compares two types of ostensive and performative market representations—service focus and product differentiation—in order to test for influence exacted by industrial marketing on strategies. Results indicate that service focus is selected when market representations rely on agency in firms (i.e., performative), and product strategies are selected when structures are emphasized (i.e., ostensive). This paper contributes to methodology development by expanding the link between a case study approach and quasi-experiments explaining how quasi-experiments can replicate findings in industrial marketing.

  • 21.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strandvik, Tore
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Voima, Päivi
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Negative critical waves in business relationships: an extension of the critical incident perspective2014Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 284-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to extend understanding of business-to-business relationship dynamics by introducing and discussing the phenomenon of a ‘negative critical wave’ (NCW), defined as a disturbance in a relationship that emerges and develops within or beyond individual working relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The dynamics of working relationships in two manufacturing firms in Finland and Sweden were studied by analysing the narratives of unstructured personal interviews with 16 middle managers and 14 operational executives, who recalled experiences of relevant situations over three years, with emphasis on unexpected disturbances, challenges and problems.

    Findings

    Respondents discussed 77 NCWs, the development and effect of which proved to depend upon the original ‘locus’, ‘magnitude’ and ‘amplitude’, and embedded ‘energy’. Waves could be distinguished as: ‘silent compact’, ‘silent extensive’, ‘intense compact’ or ‘intense extensive’.

    Research limitations/implications

    The wave metaphor for relationships dynamics, consistent with but distinct from established notions of ‘critical time’ and ‘critical incidents’ and the associated classification system are a useful starting point for further research into the phenomenon. Though the qualitative methodology achieved richness, the small sample and restricted scope place limits on the objectivity and generalisability of the findings.

    Practical implications

    The NCW framework offers strategists and managers a holistic understanding of the dynamic process of criticality, synthesising the complexities of relationship dynamics and pointing to ways in which to absorb the energy of negative waves.

    Originality/value of the paper

    More is now known about the domino effects of critical incidents in internal and external business-to-business relationships.

  • 22.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Service innovation in product-centric firms: a multidimensional business model perspective2014Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 96-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This article aims to investigate the nature and characteristics of business model elements required for successful service innovation. The authors examine which unique resources and capabilities product-centric firms should develop and deploy to pursue service innovation.

    Design/methodology/approach – Data collected from several research projects support iterations across empirical data and theory, in an abductive process. Empirical data come from product-centric firms; interviews and focus groups were the main data collection methods.

    Findings – Specific resources and capabilities are needed for the proposed business model elements, as defined by the overarching strategy and structure. Firms can approach the process of service innovation from different starting points and sequences, depending on the context.

    Research limitations/implications – Because it takes a synthesizing approach, this research lacks some detail. By taking a business model approach with a holistic perspective, it forgoes detailed descriptions to provide greater breadth.

    Practical implications – Managers can use business models as tools to visualize changes, which should increase internal transparency, understanding, and awareness of service opportunities and necessary changes. Dependencies exist among elements; a change in one element likely affects the others. This study provides insights into which efforts are necessary and offers managers a guiding framework.

    Originality/value – By providing a multidimensional perspective on service innovation, this study merges various previous research into a synthesized discussion. Combining a resources and capabilities perspective with a business model framework also leads to new insights regarding service innovation and associated activities.

  • 23.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    The evolution of service innovation research: A critical review and synthesis2014Ingår i: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 373-398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

  • 24.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics.
    A lean approach to service productivity improvements: Synergy or oxymoron?2013Ingår i: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 291-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service productivity continues to receive ever-greater amounts of attention as service covers a greater portion of the economy. As competition increases, service productivity becomes increasingly important. This study aims to explore the applicability of lean principles in a service context and to conceptualize how these principles impact service productivity.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability to a service context for different types of services. Using this analysis, six propositions are developed to examine the influence of lean on service productivity.

    Findings – This study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the customer's active role in certain services and, simultaneously, high diversity make the application of lean principles increasingly difficult. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications – These findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity. Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction are affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to the research on service productivity and continues the discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

  • 25.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Any way goes: Identifying value constellations for service infusion in SMEs2013Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have always delivered services, by supplying spare parts, installing equipment, training employees, or performing maintenance. In competitive markets though, firms seek new ways to differentiate their business, including an increased focus on service, often referred to as service infusion. Of the studies that seek to understand this phenomenon, most focus on large multinational firms; little is known about service infusion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study adopts an explorative approach to investigate how SMEs construct new value constellations that enable value creation through services. The findings, based on in-depth interviews with key informants from 13 SMEs, suggest that there is no predefined transition process for service infusion in SMEs, which seldom have the resources to build new organizational units or create new specialties. Instead, they differentiate themselves through new value constellations within business networks. The heterogeneity of service offerings and business networks means those value constellations take many forms.

  • 26.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    University of Otago, Department of Marketing, New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics.
    Maley, Jane
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development and implementation of customer solutions: A study of process dynamics and market shaping2013Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 1083-1092Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad, dynamic network perspective on solution processes remains scarce. This article presents the process of developing and implementing customer solutions and its effects on the wider business environment by investigating customers and suppliers in the global mining industry (Australia, Chile, and Sweden), analyzing the deployment of a new customer solution, and assessing the changes to the competitive environment and focal firms' relationships with other customers and suppliers. It shows that the forces that drive customer and supplier interests and motivation to co-develop customer solutions may change over time, thus redefining the aim and scope of solutions and creating failure risks. Customers present problems; suppliers respond, on the basis of not only the feasibility of the customer-specific solution but also of their evaluation of future solutions in a broader market; then suppliers aim to standardize successful solutions across markets. Customers want close supplier relationships and unique solutions but also like standardized and repeatable solutions, so they can share development costs with competitors and expose the supplier to competition to avoid lock-in effects. From a network perspective, a novel solution can have a market-shaping effect and evoke reactions from other actors who want to enhance their market position. However, these changes are not necessarily deliberate, and the dynamics that market introductions of solutions trigger may be difficult to predict.

  • 27.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enabling service innovation: A dynamic capabilities approach2013Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 66, nr 8, s. 1063-1073Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this article is the need for product-centric firms to compete in the market by adding services to their portfolio, which requires a greater focus on service innovation if they are to remain competitive. A major challenge associated with the shift from product-centeredness to a product and-service orientation is the management of the essential dynamic capabilities of sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring needed for service innovation. The research study reported identifies key microfoundations forming the basis of successful realignment of a firm's dynamic capabilities so as to achieve a better fit with service innovation activities. Eight qualitative case studies of product-centric firms form the basis of the study. The findings make three primary contributions to the body of knowledge. First, they extend the existing literature on dynamic capabilities by specifically discussing microfoundations related to service innovation. Second, the study extends existing work on service innovation into the manufacturing industries by identifying the key microfoundations in that context. Third, the research provides empirical evidence of dynamic capabilities in practice, especially in product-centric settings in which the service context is novel.

  • 28.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    ICT as a catalyst for service business orientation2013Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 506-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabler for new product- and process-oriented services. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how ICT can enable service differentiation and, in doing so, act as a catalyst for a service business orientation.Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on a qualitative, multi-case research design with eight multinational goods manufacturers.Findings - The paper identifies two distinct types of service-oriented differentiation: services in support of the product (SSP) and services in support of the client's actions (SSC). The study finds that SSC have the largest positive impact on firms' service business orientation.Research limitations/implications - Western firms in a limited sample of industries are studied. Furthermore, the service business orientation construct does not include any measurements of service profitability or impact on overall competitive advantage.Practical implications - To various extents, successful firms are likely to pursue both SSP and SSC differentiation traits through ICT. The two options are interdependent and the framework presented helps managers to understand both key specificities and their interrelatedness.Originality/value - The study contributes to theory on service strategies by specifically focusing on the enabling role of ICT for new services and its effects on each of the three dimensions of the service business orientation construct.

  • 29.
    Rehme, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sales coordination and structural complexity: A national-international comparison2013Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 514-522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The existing literature on key account management (KAM) has focused more on sales forces and management levels than on their evolution. The purpose of this paper is to explore how sales activities can be coordinated to accommodate national and international KAM programs.Design/methodology/approach - The paper is based on a longitudinal study of the industrial conglomerate ABB, 1996-2008.Findings - The diversity associated with geography and product complexity creates demands for a more flexible organization that can provide a more complete offering portfolio across national boundaries and still handle the demands of local organizations. In addition to internal organizational contingencies, the key factors and driving forces for the development of KAM programs are the marketing and purchasing strategies that buyer and seller firms perceive and encounter.Research limitations/implications - The data are limited to one corporation and some of its key customers in different industries. Although the internal and construct validity of the findings are strong, the external validity cannot be assessed precisely.Originality/value - The 12-year study brings valuable insights to the development of KAM programs in multinational corporations and addresses coordination issues related to geographical and product complexity.

  • 30.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    EAWAG – Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Research, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Customer-focused and service-focused orientation in organizational structures2012Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, nr 7, s. 527-537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to provide a better understanding of the interrelatedness of customer and service orientations in the organizational structures of capital goods manufacturing companies.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, multi-case research design was employed using 36 European capital goods manufacturing companies.

    Findings – This article explored four different patterns of how companies move from being product-focused to service-focused, and from having an organizational structure that is geographically focused to one that is customer-focused. The four patterns are termed as follows: emphasizing service orientation, service-focused organizational structure, emphasizing customer orientation, and customer-focused organizational structure.

    Research limitations/implications – Although the study is based on 36 case studies, the external validity (generalizability) of the findings could not be assessed accurately.

    Practical implications – The description of the four organizational approaches offers guidance for managers to restructure their companies towards service and customer orientations.

    Originality/value – The article links the relatively independent discussions of service and customer orientations in the context of organizational structures. The four patterns provide a better understanding of how capital goods manufacturers integrate increased customer and service focuses in their organizational structures.

  • 31.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alejandro, Thomas Brashear
    University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    University of Otago.
    Service infusion as agile incrementalism in action2012Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 765-772Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As product markets mature, firms are increasingly offering industrial services, in order to differentiate themselves and remain competitive. The general strategic view emerging from the services literature is that service infusion in manufacturing industries takes a somewhat unidirectional path from products to service provision. Based on in-depth case study research in the materials handling industry and drawing on Lindblom's (1979) concept of disjointed incrementalism, this study shows how service infusion often takes place in small steps without clearly directed efforts. The study identifies elements of incrementalism central to service infusion and demonstrates how a successful service strategy involves continuous modifications, adaptability, the seizing of ad hoc innovation, a continuous recalibration of opportunities, and the management of intertwining goals. The study introduces the concept of agile incrementalism; this concept aptly describes this contingency approach. The article contributes to a multifaceted and nuanced picture ofservice strategy and the service-infusion process.

  • 32.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University.
    Visualizing the value of service-based offerings: Empirical findings from the manufacturing industry2012Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 27, nr 7, s. 538-546Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore strategies for visualizing the value of service-based offerings in a B2B context. By taking a process perspective on the offering life cycle, this paper also aims at distinguishing which visualization strategies are most appropriate using at which life-cycle stages.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case study research design involving five manufacturing firms.

    Findings – Primary findings are that firms need to make use of several different visualization strategies depending on, among other things, the key stakeholders and also where the firm's offering is currently positioned in the service-based offering life cycle.

    Research limitations/implications – While the empirical data is from only one sector – i.e. manufacturing – managers from other B2B sectors should have an interest in the results and the key aspects identified. Further research could also establish linkages to performance metrics.

    Originality/value – Visualization strategies have been relatively rarely studied from a B2B perspective, and the process dimension, especially, is novel.

  • 33.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dynamics of value propositions: insights from service-dominant logic2011Ingår i: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 45, nr 1/2, s. 277-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – This article examines the notion of value propositions (promises of reciprocal value between service providers and their customers), value-in-exchange and value-in-use, all within the conceptual context of service-dominant (S-D) logic.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – Responding to calls in the recent literature for an academic critique of S-D logic, its key constructs, and its application in marketing situations of varying complexity, the article presents a conceptual analysis of the determinants of value emphasis in value propositions from the S-D perspective.

    Findings

    – Four guiding principles are derived from a rigorous analysis of the relevant literatures. Ways are discussed in which firms might achieve greater flexibility in designing their market offerings, and thus manage different customer segments using different value propositions. The general conclusion is that the ability to communicate a firm’s value propositions strategically and effectively is a new area for the development of competence at the core of competitive advantage.

    Research implications

    – The findings pave the way for empirical research into the dynamics of value propositions. Since the main focus of the conceptual framework is on the customer-provider dyad, future studies should broaden coverage to multilateral settings and networked environments.

    Practical implications

    – Factors that determine the relative emphasis in value propositions between value-in-exchange and value-in-use are discussed, and the management implications derived from each of the four principles identified.

    Originality/value

    – The article elaborates the application of S-D logic in marketing by investigating the determinants of relative emphasis of value propositions.

  • 34.
    Brashear Alejandro, Thomas
    et al.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ritter, João Gustavo da Silva Freire
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, PUC/PR, Curitiba.
    Marchetti, Renato Zancan
    Programa de Pos-Graduação em Administração – PPAD/PUCPR, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, PUC/PR, Curitiba.
    Prado, Paulo Henrique
    Centro de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Administração, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CEPPAD/UFPR, Curitiba.
    Information search in complex industrial buying: Empirical evidence from Brazil2011Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 17-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study develops and tests a model of information search in complex buying. We incorporate three categories of influences of organizational, personal and situational factors that affect information searching efforts. A sample of 96 of the largest Brazilian firms reported their use of the various influences in the decision to purchase integrated business management systems. Findings show that formalization of the organization is a key driver of information search efforts. Situational characteristics of importance, novelty and bargaining power increased the level of information search. Also, conformity of the purchasing agent and organizational centralization reduce information search efforts among the sampled Brazilian firms.

  • 35.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Internalisation or externalisation?: Examining organisational arrangements for industrial services2011Ingår i: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 373-391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Manufacturing firms primarily organise service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid arrangement. This paper aims to analyse how firm-, offering-, and market-specific factors influence the way in which a firm organise its service provision. In addition, the paper analyses the specific challenges that each organisational arrangement presents for a firm.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The study employed a qualitative, multiple-case research design that involved seven manufacturing firms with different organisational arrangements for service provision.

    Findings – Contrary to certain explicit assumptions, few firms organise for service provision solely through an in-house organisation. Analysis of firms in a wide variety of industries has shown that the organisational arrangements (internal, external or hybrid configuration) are contingent on factors such as market strategy, customer relationships, product-service linkages, internal competences and market channel characteristics.

    Research Limitations/Implications – This article is an initial attempt to understand the strategic choices that firms make in terms of inter-organisational arrangements for service provision. The research should be extended by way of a cross-sectional survey in order to test and further validate the importance of the determinants of the organisational arrangements for service provision.

    Originality/Value – This article contributes to the service marketing and management literature by examining factors that determine whether firms organise for service provision internally, externally or through a hybrid configuration. Prior research has not explicitly addressed this issue.

    Keywords – Industrial services, Organisational arrangement, Internalisation, Externalisation, Hybrid configuration, Service partner

    Paper type – Research paper

  • 36.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Managing industrial service offerings in global business markets2011Ingår i: Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 181-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Despite the increased focus on industrial services in manufacturing companies, little research to date has focused on understanding the roles of local and central organizations in global service management. In order to address this research gap, the paper investigates how industrial service offerings are developed and managed in multinational manufacturing companies.

    Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study with respondents from two internationally leading manufacturers was conducted. Eight industrial service offerings with different characteristics serve as units of analysis.

    Findings – A broad portfolio of industrial service offerings implies having a very wide range of skill sets, including both global efficiency and local responsiveness. With specialized and extensive offerings, it becomes more important to have a high level of central-local and product-service integration and to internalize service provision. Furthermore, with global customers, the central service organization needs to assume a more prominent role, initiating both an organizational exploitation of current service capabilities and the exploration of new ones.

    Research limitations/implications – The main focus was on service offerings performed by high-volume manufacturing companies operating primarily in developed markets.

    Originality/value – Previous studies of industrial service management in manufacturing companies have not explicitly considered the roles of central and local organizations. Thus, the authors were able to complement the existing theory. The paper promotes a deeper understanding of the complexity of managing service offerings on a global basis.

  • 37.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Synliggör värdet av de osynliga tjänsterna2011Ingår i: Process Nordic, ISSN 1652-0114, nr 11, s. 21-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The risks of providing services: Differential risk effects of the service-development strategies of customisation, bundling, and range2011Ingår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 390-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the risks for manufacturing companies of extending their traditional goods offerings by the addition of different kinds of services.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study develops a conceptual framework of nine propositions (and corresponding diagrammatic representations) of the relationships between: three kinds of risk (operational, strategic, and financial); and three strategies for the provision of added service (customisation, bundling, and broadening the range of offerings). This conceptual framework is examined empirically by qualitative analysis of data gathered in a three-year longitudinal study of managerial representatives from nine multinational manufacturing firms engaged in the addition of services to their traditional goods offerings.

    Findings – It was found that eight of the nine propositions are fully supported, and one receives equivocal support. In addition, several contextual factors are identified as moderating influences on the relationships between the three categories of service offering and the three classes of risk.

    Research limitations/implications – The study provides an original conceptual framework and nine research propositions that represent a useful starting point for the development of a formal theory of the risks of providing services.

    Practical implications – The conceptual framework provides guidance for managers' assessments of the risks accompanying the infusion of added services to the traditional goods offerings of manufacturing companies.

    Originality/value – The paper provides a novel conceptualisation of service innovation and attendant risk.

  • 39.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The service function as a holistic management concept2011Ingår i: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 484-492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the paper

    This article introduces the service function concept, as well as why and how it can be a useful concept for addressing service management challenges in industrial firms.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Two in-depth case studies of global industrial firms enabled a thorough understanding of the roles of the service function entities and interdependencies between them.

    Findings

    Although the service organization is most likely the key entity, it is only one part of the service function; other organizational entities are to be seen as part-time service functions.

    Research limitations/implications

    A finer-grained conceptualization would enable a better understanding of the front- and back-office entities involved in the service processes.

    Practical implications

    The concept can be useful when communicating the importance of services and the interrelatedness between the service organization and other parts of the firm, which generates better internal understanding of the service processes. The alignment between service offering and organization can be elaborated by mapping where service development, sales, and production take place, what the ideal configuration would be, and the roles played by different parts of the service function.

    Originality/value of the paper

    The service function is a novel concept and is particularly relevant for industrial firms that offer services. It highlights the fact that it is erroneous to equate services with the activities of the service organization. Instead, a more holistic approach to the management of service offerings is needed.

    Type of paper: Conceptual

    Keywords: Service function, service organization, industrial services, manufacturing

  • 40.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solutions offerings: A critical review and reconceptualisation2010Ingår i: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 441-459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical analysis of the literature of solutions offerings; to provide a new conceptual framework, incorporating dimensions that can distinguish between different kinds of solutions and connect their different characteristics.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a critical review of the relevant literature, 28 contributions being identified in a search of three major databases and a range of other published work for the broader perspective, illustrated by real-world examples.

    Findings – There is no unanimous and rigorous definition of solutions, but rather a number of often broad and generic descriptions that could be applied to a wide array of different offerings, if not generically.

    Research limitations/implications – The sample of subject-specific contributions to the literature may not have been sufficient, and a wider selection of keywords to identify them might have captured a richer variety of concepts and opinions.

    Originality/value – This structured and critical review contributes to the literature on services and solutions, by developing a conceptual framework as a basis for future studies and current management strategy.

  • 41.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    What does a service-dominant logic really mean for manufacturing firms?2010Ingår i: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 285-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In parallel with the product-to-service transition in the manufacturing industries, service-dominant logic has emerged as arguably the most challenging recent scholarly marketing debate. The objectives of this work are: (1) to delineate the distinct differences between a product-to-service transition and a transition from a goods-dominant to a service-dominant logic, (2) to discuss what these transitions mean for industry and academia, and (3) to suggest a revised definition of industrial product/service systems (IPS2) more in line with service-dominant logic. A transition to service-dominant logic implies much more than an increased emphasis on services; it implies a reframing of the purpose of the firm and its role in value co-creation.

  • 42.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of industrial service offerings: a process framework2009Ingår i: JOURNAL OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1757-5818, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 156-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a service development process that is adapted to manufacturing companies and to discuss its implications for companies with a traditional focus on product development and product sales. Design/methodology/approach - The paper looks at new service development (NSD) literature and argues for a rationale to study NSD processes in a manufacturing context. Next, a generic NSD framework for manufacturing companies is presented. Examples are given based on an explorative multiple case study (ten companies) with in-depth interviews and focus groups. The analysis reveals organizational requirements and other critical factors related to each stage of the NSD process. Findings - A four-stage service offering development framework is presented. Critical aspects of NSD in a manufacturing context are highlighted. The importance of considering both NSD and new product development (NPD) together is also emphasized. Research limitations/implications - The limitations are based primarily on methodology; the case studies focused only on the service organizations of the manufacturing companies studied. Practical implications - Managers need to be aware of the inter-relationship that exists between NSD and NPD and on the specificities of service development in companies where an industrial logic dominates. A number of managerial implications are proposed and discussed. Originality/value - The paper emphasizes the importance of latter stages in NSD, something that has not previously been extensively studied or addressed. In addition, to explicitly discuss NSD in a manufacturing context is novel.

  • 43.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Managing industrial service offerings: requirements on content and processes2009Ingår i: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, ISSN 1460-6720, E-ISSN 1741-525X, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 42-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a typology for industrial service offerings, inter-relating service scope (degree of bundling), service focus (level of customer integration), and service process interfaces. Different forms of industrial services and the impact of information and communication technology on the three service dimensions are discussed, and requirements are identified related to the expansion of services. It is suggested that bundled and process-orientated services hold a major potential for manufacturing companies and can facilitate the creation of competitive advantage and long-term relationships with customers. Increased knowledge of the customers’ installed base and business processes enables better customisation of the service offerings. Even if more emphasis is put on standardising and formalising central and local processes, companies need to recognise local differences among subsidiaries.

  • 44.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Service Innovation - A Business Model Approach2008Ingår i: Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology, ISSN 1005-9113, Vol. 15, nr Supplement No. 1, s. 51-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers change their traditional business models as they offer more services and integrated solutions. Service innovation is not limited to the service offering and the service production processes as it can likewise modify or change other parts of the business system, creating a new business model. The business model, here with three dimensions called Offering, Market position, and Operative platforms, is a tool to analyze service innovation from a holistic perspective. It is found that service innovation takes place in all three dimensions as Offering innovation, Position innovation and Process innovation respectively. Together, these three innovations form what is called a Paradigm innovation. The interdependencies between the dimensions of the business model are important to understand when managing service innovation. Additionally, firms need to have an understanding of how one type of service innovation affects other parts of the service system and the business model.  

  • 45.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Service productivity gains through information and communication technology applications: A service marketing approach2008Ingår i: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 96-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on examples from Information and Communication Technology- (ICT-) based improvements in service productivity in the service organisations of three manufacturing firms, this paper argues for a service-centred approach towards productivity. When improving the productivity of industrial services, one of the three profitability-generating strategies, cost-efficiency, revenue effectiveness and capacity utilisation – or a combination – can be used. Increased standardisation and automation is a consequence of technological development, making capacity less a constraint in services and even if ICT applications often primarily improve cost efficiency, the elements improved vary depending on the solution implemented. Thus, ICT can enhance existing service processes and enable new service offerings to increase overall profitability. A productivity model for ICT-based services is presented and it is suggested that central coordination is often required in order to develop ICT-based services.

  • 46.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Technology as a driver for changing customer-provider interfaces2008Ingår i: Management research news, ISSN 0140-9174, Vol. 31, nr 10, s. 746-757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how information and communication technology (ICT) is affecting and driving changes in the service processes and customer interfaces of capital goods manufacturers.  

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