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  • 1.
    Wang, Jianqiu
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China; Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Jianqiu
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Nannan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Dongyang
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Zhong
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Shenkun
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China; Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xuning
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhou, Huiqiong
    Natl Ctr Nanosci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Chunfeng
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yuan
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    A Comparative Study on Hole Transfer Inversely Correlated with Driving Force in Two Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells2019Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 10, nr 14, s. 4110-4116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a faster rate of hole transfer under a smaller AHomo in a comparative study of two group organic solar cells (OSCs) consisting of IT-4F as an acceptor and PBDBT and PBDBT-SF as donors. In the OSCs based on PBDBT. SF:IT-4F, a higher short-circuit current (J(SC)) was observed with a Delta(Homo) of 0.31 eV compared to a lower Jsc in PBDBT:IT-4F OSCs with a larger Delta(Homo) (0.45 eV). Intensive investigation indicates that the rate of transfer of a hole from IT-4F to PBDBT-SF or PBDBT is inversely proportional to the Delta(Homo) between IT-4F and donors. The larger Jsc in the PBDBT-SF:IT-4F device is attributed to a synergy of faster hole transfer, slower recombination, and rapid charge extraction enabled by desired morphology and balanced charge carrier mobilities with PBDBT-SF, suggesting that under a sufficiently high Delta(Homo), comprehensive considerations of the transport, film morphology, and energy levels are needed when designing new materials for high-performance OSCs.

  • 2.
    Li, Cheng
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Chao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Hebei Univ, Peoples R China.
    Guo, Yiting
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yao, Nannan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wu, Yonggang
    Hebei Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based macrocyclic conjugated molecule for organic electronics2019Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, nr 13, s. 3802-3810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the first diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based donor-acceptor macrocyclic conjugated molecule was developed and its application in organic electronics was systematically studied. Macrocyclic molecules, as a fragment of armchair carbon nanotubes, have emerged as functional materials in materials chemistry, but the materials are always limited to cycloparaphenylenes. Using the donor-acceptor design strategy that has been widely used in high performance conjugated polymers for macrocyclic molecules, it will significantly broaden their species with tunable optical and electrical properties. Herein, we synthesize a well-defined macrocyclic molecule containing four electron-deficient DPP units alternating with electron-rich thiophenes. The new molecule was found to show high solubility, near-infrared absorption spectra and 3D charge transport properties. The new macrocyclic molecule as an electron acceptor was applied to non-fullerene organic solar cells, exhibiting an initial efficiency of 0.49%, while the linear molecule with a similar backbone only showed a very low efficiency of 0.03%. Our results demonstrate that donor-acceptor macrocyclic conjugated materials have great potential application in organic electronics.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-02-27 11:26
  • 3.
    Bi, Zhaozhao
    et al.
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Naveed, Hafiz Bilal
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sui, Xinyu
    CAS Ctr Excellence Nanosci, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Qinglian
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Xianbin
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gou, Lu
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhou, Ke
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Lei
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xinfeng
    CAS Ctr Excellence Nanosci, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Individual nanostructure optimization in donor and acceptor phases to achieve efficient quaternary organic solar cells2019Ingår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 66, artikel-id 104176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fullerene derivative (PC71BM) and high crystallinity molecule (DR3TBDTT) are employed into PTB7-Th:FOIC based organic solar cells (OSCs) to cooperate an individual nanostructure optimized quaternary blend. PC71BM functions as molecular adjuster and phase modifier promoting FOIC forming "head-to-head" molecular packing and neutralizing the excessive FOIC crystallites. A multi-scale modified morphology is present thanks to the mixture of FOIC and PC71BM while DR3TBDTT disperses into PTB7-Th matrix to reinforce donors crystal-linity and enhance domain purity. Morphology characterization highlights the importance of individually optimizated nanostructures for donor and acceptor, which contributes to efficient hole and electron transport toward improved carrier mobilities and suppressed non-geminated recombination. Therefore, a power conversion efficiency of 13.51% is realized for a quaternary device which is 16% higher than the binary device (PTB7-Th:FOIC). This work demonstrates that utilizing quaternary strategy for simultaneous optimization of donor and acceptor phases is a feasible way to realize high efficient OSCs.

  • 4.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Yanxin
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Xue, Jie
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Beijing Univ Chem Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qiao, Juan
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Limitations and Perspectives on Triplet-Material-Based Organic Photovoltaic Devices2019Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, nr 22, artikel-id 1900690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) have attracted broad attention and become a very energetic field after the emergence of nonfullerene acceptors. Long-lifetime triplet excitons are expected to be good candidates for efficiently harvesting a photocurrent. Parallel with the development of OPVs based on singlet materials (S-OPVs), the potential of triplet materials as photoactive layers has been explored. However, so far, OPVs employing triplet materials in a bulk heterojunction have not exhibited better performance than S-OPVs. Here, the recent progress of representative OPVs based on triplet materials (T-OPVs) is briefly summarized. Based on that, the performance limitations of T-OPVs are analyzed. The shortage of desired triplet materials with favorable optoelectronic properties for OPVs, the tradeoff between long lifetime and high binding energy of triplet excitons, as well as the low charge mobility in most triplet materials are crucial issues restraining the efficiencies of T-OPVs. To overcome these limitations, first, novel materials with desired optoelectronic properties are urgently demanded; second, systematic investigation on the contribution and dynamics of triplet excitons in T-OPVs is necessary; third, close multidisciplinary collaboration is required, as proved by the development of S-OPVs.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-04-08 14:03
  • 5.
    Liu, Alei
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Wenhao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Xiaolong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Junyu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Yuanbao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xiaomin
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Quanbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    He, Zhicai
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Hongbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yang
    Wuyi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Manipulate Micrometer Surface and Nanometer Bulk Phase Separation Structures in the Active Layer of Organic Solar Cells via Synergy of Ultrasonic and High-Pressure Gas Spraying2019Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, nr 11, s. 10777-10784Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For organic solar cells, the vertical and lateral micro-/nanometer-scale structure in the active layer largely determines the device performance. In this work, the surface and bulk domain size of the photoactive layer are successfully manipulated with a facile two-step spraying method, that is, an ultrathin active layer by high-pressure spraying is deliberately stacked on top of the thick active layer by ultrasonic spraying. Thus, the morphology is effectively optimized with the comprehensive study of optical and electrical characteristics, such as photon absorption, exciton dissociation efficiency, and bimolecular recombination. Moreover, the novel method can be used not only in the fullerene system but also in the nonfullerene system, demonstrating the remarkable universality through this synergy method. This work provides an easy and reliable strategy to improve photovoltaic device performance in the industrial large-area spray-coating process.

  • 6.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pei, Qibing
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Organic Polymer Electronics - A Special Issue in Honor of Prof. Olle Inganas2019Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, nr 22, artikel-id 1901940Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Qin, Leiqian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Polymer-MXene composite films formed by MXene-facilitated electrochemical polymerization for flexible solid-state microsupercapacitors2019Ingår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 60, s. 734-742Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials with tailored properties are crucial for high performance electronics applications. Hybrid materials composed of inorganic and organic components can possess unique merits for broad application by synergy between the advantages the respective material type offers. Here we demonstrate a novel electrochemical polymerization (EP) enabled by a 2D transition metal carbide MXene for obtaining conjugated polymer-MXene composite films deposited on conducting substrates without using traditional electrolytes, indispensable compounds for commonly electrochemical polymerization. The universality of the process provides a novel approach for EP allowing fast facile process for obtaining different new polymer/MXene composites with controlled thickness and micro-pattern. Furthermore, high performance microsupercapacitors and asymmetric microsupercapacitors are realized based on the excellent composites benefiting from higher areal capacitance, better rate capabilities and lower contact resistance than conventional electropolymerized polymers. The AMSCs exhibit a maximum areal capacitance of 69.5 mF cm(-2), an ultrahigh volumetric energy density (250.1 mWh cm(-3)) at 1.6 V, and excellent cycling stability up to 10000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical properties of the composite polymerized with MXene suggest a great potential of the method for various energy storage applications.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-04-05 08:38
  • 8.
    Li, Zaifang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yao, Yulong
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Xiao, Yiqun
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cruce, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jiang, Youyu
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Meng, Wei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Fei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Xinhui
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Free-Standing High-Output Power Density Thermoelectric Device Based on Structure-Ordered PEDOT:PSS2018Ingår i: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 4, nr 2, artikel-id 1700496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A free-standing high-output power density polymeric thermoelectric (TE) device is realized based on a highly conductive (approximate to 2500 S cm(-1)) structure-ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate film (denoted as FS-PEDOT:PSS) with a Seebeck coefficient of 20.6 mu V K-1, an in-plane thermal conductivity of 0.64 W m(-1) K-1, and a peak power factor of 107 mu W K-2 m(-1) at room temperature. Under a small temperature gradient of 29 K, the TE device demonstrates a maximum output power density of 99 +/- 18.7 mu W cm(-2), which is the highest value achieved in pristine PEDOT:PSS based TE devices. In addition, a fivefold output power is demonstrated by series connecting five devices into a flexible thermoelectric module. The simplicity of assembling the films into flexible thermoelectric modules, the low out-of-plane thermal conductivity of 0.27 W m(-1) K-1, and free-standing feature indicates the potential to integrate the FS-PEDOT:PSS TE modules with textiles to power wearable electronics by harvesting human bodys heat. In addition to the high power factor, the high thermal stability of the FS-PEDOT:PSS films up to 250 degrees C is confirmed by in situ temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering, which makes the FS-PEDOT:PSS films promising candidates for thermoelectric applications.

  • 9.
    Qian, Deping
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zheng, Zilong
    Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Yao, Huifeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hopper, Thomas R.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Chen, Shula
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Sunsun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Jing
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Shangshang
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jiangbin
    Imperial Coll London, England; Univ Cambridge, England.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gao, Bowei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Coropceanu, Veaceslav
    Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Bredas, Jean-Luc
    Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Yan, He
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bakulin, Artem A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design rules for minimizing voltage losses in high-efficiency organic solar cells2018Ingår i: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 703-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells is usually lower than the values achieved in inorganic or perovskite photovoltaic devices with comparable bandgaps. Energy losses during charge separation at the donor-acceptor interface and non-radiative recombination are among the main causes of such voltage losses. Here we combine spectroscopic and quantum-chemistry approaches to identify key rules for minimizing voltage losses: (1) a low energy offset between donor and acceptor molecular states and (2) high photoluminescence yield of the low-gap material in the blend. Following these rules, we present a range of existing and new donor-acceptor systems that combine efficient photocurrent generation with electroluminescence yield up to 0.03%, leading to non-radiative voltage losses as small as 0.21 V. This study provides a rationale to explain and further improve the performance of recently demonstrated high-open-circuit-voltage organic solar cells.

  • 10.
    Guo, Yiting
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhu, Qinglian
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Cheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Feng
    Hebei Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Effect of Side Groups on the Photovoltaic Performance Based on Porphyrin-Perylene Bisimide Electron Acceptors2018Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 38, s. 32454-32461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we developed four porphyrin-based small molecular electron acceptors for non-fullerene organic solar cells, in which different side groups attached to the porphyrin core were selected in order to achieve optimized performance. The molecules contain porphyrin as the core, perylene bisimides as end groups, and the ethynyl unit as the linker. Four side groups, from 2,6-di(dodecyloxy)phenyl to (2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl, pentadecan-7-yl, and 3,5-di(dodecyloxy)phenyl unit, were applied into the electron acceptors. The new molecules exhibit broad absorption spectra from 300 to 900 nm and high molar extinction coefficients. The molecules as electron acceptors were applied into organic solar cells, showing increased power conversion efficiencies from 1.84 to 5.34%. We employed several techniques, including photoluminescence spectra, electroluminescence spectra, atomic force microscopy, and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray to probe the blends to find the effects of the side groups on the photovoltaic properties. We found that the electron acceptors with 2,6-di(dodecyloxy)phenyl units show high-lying frontier energy levels, good crystalline properties, and low nonradiative recombination loss, resulting in possible large phase separation and low energy loss, which is responsible for the low performance. Our results provide a detailed study about the side groups of non-fullerene materials, demonstrating that porphyrin can be used to design electron acceptors toward near-infrared absorption.

  • 11.
    Wang, Yaling
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Shaowei
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Qi
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Rui
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Wenjing
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Huanqi
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Liying
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Li, Lan
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Shougen
    Tianjin Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Tianjin Key Lab Photoelect Mat and Devices, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enhanced performance and stability of inverted planar perovskite solar cells by incorporating 1,6-diaminohexane dihydrochloride additive2018Ingår i: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 188, s. 140-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, 1,6-Diaminohexane Dihydrochloride (1,6-DD) is introduced into perovskite precursors to fabricate the inverted planar perovskite solar cells. By regulating the concentration of 1,6-DD additive, the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells is enhanced by 20%. The champion device achieves a relatively high PCE of 17% and an excellent fill factor of 80.1%. The PCE of the large-area (1 cm(2)) device also reaches to 13.68%. After exposure to the air for 16 days, the device with 1,6-DD additive still retains above 90% of the initial efficiency, exhibiting good stability. We demonstrate that a small amount of 1,6-DD affects the crystallization dynamic, yielding ideal perovskite film with enhanced crystallinity and enlarged grain size. The two terminal -NH3+ groups passivates the vacancy defects at the perovskite crystal surface, suppressing charge recombination and facilitating charge transportation effectively. Meanwhile, adjacent crystal surfaces are linked through the hexane alkyl chain of 1,6-DD molecule, which enhances the interaction between perovskite grains and anchors the microstructure of perovskite to some degree. Hydrophobic hexane alkyl chains also increase the moisture resistance of perovskite film. Thus, an easy and effective way is provided for fabricating efficient and stable perovskite solar cells.

  • 12.
    Xing, Xing
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zeng, Qi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fast switching polymeric electrochromics with facile processed water dispersed nanoparticles2018Ingår i: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 47, s. 123-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, water dispersed electrochromic polymer nanoparticles (WDENs) prepared with miniemulsion process are introduced into electrochromic polymer (ECP) electrode for the first time. The poly [2, 3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl) quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl]) nanoparticle (NP) electrode shows much faster switching speed than the compacted electrode (e.g. 2.10 s vs. 24.15 s for coloring, 8.65 s vs. 25.95 s for bleaching @ 0.4 V; 1.30 s vs. 9.20 s coloring and 1.7 s vs. 2.90 s for bleaching @ 1.0 V). Moreover, the potentiality of WDENs for universal ECPs is demonstrated. The microelectrochemical measurement indicates much more efficient counter-ion diffusion between the electrolyte and the NP films than the compacted films, which results in much faster electrochromic switching. Besides the facile and eco-friendly processing of the WDENs, all solution and low cost fabrication of ECP NP films suggest their broad applications in commercial production of polymer electrochromic display and great potential for other polymer electrochemical electronics.

  • 13.
    Li, Liyuan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Feixue
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Chao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liang, Weihua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Kuga, Shigenori
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Zhichao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Yang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Yong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Min
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Flexible double-cross-linked cellulose-based hydrogel and aerogel membrane for supercapacitor separator2018Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, nr 47, s. 24468-24478Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cellulose-based flexible double-cross-linked hydrogel with hierarchical porosity (max. 80%) was obtained by a facile solution-phase method by using polydopamine (PDA) as a crosslinker between cellulose and polyacrylamide (PAM). The investigation on the ratio of dopamine/acrylamide (DA/AM) reveals that the - stacking of the catechol groups in PDA and the abundant hydrogen bonds distributed in the gel network exert key effects on the hydrogels mechanical properties. At the premium ratio of 0.4 (C-4-DM-40), the mechanical and self-healing properties of the hydrogel are superior to those of other hydrogels. Fe3+-functionalizing endows the hydrogel with enhanced conductivity and sensitivity, as evidenced by the 3-fold increase in resistance variation (R/R-0) in a finger-bending monitoring test. An electric double layer supercapacitor using the KOH-saturated C-4-DM-40 aerogel membrane as a polymer electrolyte presents high capacitance of 172 F g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1) and long cycling life of 10000 cycles with 84.7% capacitance retention due to electrolyte retention of 548.6%. Remarkably, an integrated micro-supercapacitor is fabricated by directly depositing activated carbon materials onto the C-4-DM-40 hydrogel membrane. The device shows areal capacitance of 275.8 mF cm(-2) and volumetric capacitance of 394.1 F cm(-3) at 10 mV s(-1). These findings suggest that the multi-functional cellulose-based hydrogels reported in this study display various potentials for practical applications not only in human health monitoring but also in portable and energy-storage devices.

  • 14.
    Zhou, Zichun
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Shengjie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Song, Jingnan
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yue, Qihui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Yuhao
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Feng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhu, Xiaozhang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    High-efficiency small-molecule ternary solar cells with a hierarchical morphology enabled by synergizing fullerene and non-fullerene acceptors2018Ingår i: NATURE ENERGY, ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 3, nr 11, s. 952-959Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using combinatory photoactive blends is a promising approach to achieve high power conversion efficiency in ternary organic photovoltaics. However, the fundamental challenge of how to manipulate the morphology of multiple components and correlate structure details via device performance has not been well addressed. Achieving an ideal morphology that simultaneously enhances charge generation and transport and reduces voltage loss is an imperative avenue to improve device efficiency. Here, we achieve a high power conversion efficiency of 13.20 +/- 0.25% for ternary solar cells by using a combination of small molecules with both fullerene and non-fullerene acceptors, which form a hierarchical morphology consisting of a PCBM transporting highway and an intricate non-fullerene phase-separated pathway network. Carrier generation and transport find an optimized balance, and voltage loss is simultaneously reduced. Such a morphology fully utilizes the individual advantages of both fullerene and non-fullerene acceptors, demonstrating their indispensability in organic photovoltaics.

  • 15.
    Leiqiang, Qin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    El Ghazaly, Ahmed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    High-Performance Ultrathin Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on Solution Processable Mo1.33C MXene and PEDOT:PSS2018Ingår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, nr 2, artikel-id 1703808Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    MXenes, a young family of 2D transition metal carbides/nitrides, show great potential in electrochemical energy storage applications. Herein, a high performance ultrathin flexible solid-state supercapacitor is demonstrated based on a Mo1.33C MXene with vacancy ordering in an aligned layer structure MXene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) composite film posttreated with concentrated H2SO4. The flexible solid-state supercapacitor delivers a maximum capacitance of 568 F cm-3, an ultrahigh energy density of 33.2 mWh cm-3 and a power density of 19 470 mW cm-3. The Mo1.33C MXene/PEDOT:PSS composite film shows a reduction in resistance upon H2SO4 treatment, a higher capacitance (1310 F cm-3) and improved rate capabilities than both pristine Mo1.33C MXene and the nontreated Mo1.33C/PEDOT:PSS composite films. The enhanced capacitance and stability are attributed to the synergistic effect of increased interlayer spacing between Mo1.33C MXene layers due to insertion of conductive PEDOT, and surface redox processes of the PEDOT and the MXene.

  • 16.
    Wang, Yuming
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Nana
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Deping
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Light-induced degradation of fullerenes in organic solar cells: a case study on TQ1:PC71BM2018Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, nr 25, s. 11884-11889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of organic solar cells (OSCs) is critical for practical applications of this emerging technology. Unfortunately, in spite of intensive investigations, the degradation mechanisms in OSCs have not been clearly understood yet. In this report, we employ a range of spectroscopic and transport measurements, coupled with drift-diffusion modelling, to investigate the light-induced degradation mechanisms of fullerene-based OSCs. We find that trap states formed in the fullerene phase under illumination play a critical role in the degradation of the open-circuit voltage (V-OC) in OSCs. Our results indicate that the degradation is intrinsic to the fullerenes in OSCs and that alternative acceptor materials are desired for the development of stable OSCs.

  • 17.
    Lin, Yuanbao
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dong, Sheng
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Wenhao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Junyu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Alei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Feng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Yufeng
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Russell, Thomas P.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Fei
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Printed Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells with the Highest Efficiency of 9.5%2018Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 8, nr 13, artikel-id 1701942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work reports a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.54% achieved with nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) based on PTB7-Th donor and 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2,3-d]-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b]dithiophene) (ITIC) acceptor fabricated by doctor-blade printing, which has the highest efficiency ever reported in printed nonfullerene OSCs. Furthermore, a high PCE of 7.6% is realized in flexible large-area (2.03 cm(2)) indium tin oxide (ITO)-free doctor-bladed nonfullerene OSCs, which is higher than that (5.86%) of the spin-coated counterpart. To understand the mechanism of the performance enhancement with doctor-blade printing, the morphology, crystallinity, charge recombination, and transport of the active layers are investigated. These results suggest that the good performance of the doctor-blade OSCs is attributed to a favorable nanoscale phase separation by incorporating 0.6 vol% of 1,8-diiodooctane that prolongs the dynamic drying time of the doctor-bladed active layer and contributes to the migration of ITIC molecules in the drying process. High PCE obtained in the flexible large-area ITO-free doctor-bladed nonfullerene OSCs indicates the feasibility of doctor-blade printing in large-scale fullerene-free OSC manufacturing. For the first time, the open-circuit voltage is increased by 0.1 V when 1 vol% solvent additive is added, due to the vertical segregation of ITIC molecules during solvent evaporation.

  • 18.
    Yang, Junyu
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Yuanbao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Wenhao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Alei
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xiaomin
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Quanbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Hongbin
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Donghuan
    South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Roll-to-Roll Slot-Die-Printed Polymer Solar Cells by Self-Assembly2018Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 26, s. 22485-22494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely simplified one-step roll-to-roll slot-die-printed flexible indium tin oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) are demonstrated based on the ternary blends of electron-donor polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene, electron-acceptor fullerene [6,6]-phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester, and electron-extracting polymer poly[(9,9-bis(3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) at room temperature (RT) in ambient air. The flexible ITO-free PSC exhibits a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the device employing complicated two-step slot-die printing (5.29% vs 5.41%), which indicates that PFN molecules can migrate from the ternary nanocomposite toward the Ag cathode via vertical self-assembly during the one-step slot-die printing process in air. To confirm the migration of PFN, the morphology and elemental analysis as well as charge transport of different active layers are investigated by the in situ transient film drying process, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle and surface energy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, transient photovoltage and transient photocurrent, and laser-beam-induced current. Moreover, the good air and mechanical stability of the flexible device with a decent PCE achieved in 1 cm(2) PSCs at RT in air suggests the feasibility of energy-saving and time-saving one-step slot-die printing to large-scale roll-to-roll manufacture in the future.

  • 19.
    Feng, Guitao
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Junyu
    DSM DMSC RandD Solut, Netherlands.
    Colberts, Fallon J. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Li, Mengmeng
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Jianqi
    National Centre Nanosci and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Fan
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Li, Cheng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    “Double-Cable” Conjugated Polymers with Linear Backbone toward High Quantum Efficiencies in Single-Component Polymer Solar Cells2017Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, nr 51, s. 18647-18656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of "double-cable" conjugated polymers were developed for application in efficient single-component polymer solar cells, in which high quantum efficiencies could be achieved due to the optimized nanophase separation between donor and acceptor parts. The new double-cable polymers contain electron-donating poly(benzodithiophene) (BDT) as linear conjugated backbone for hole transport and pendant electron-deficient perylene bisimide (PBI) units for electron transport, connected via a dodecyl linker. Sulfur and fluorine substituents were introduced to tune the energy levels and crystallinity of the conjugated polymers. The double-cable polymers adopt a "face-on" orientation in which the conjugated BDT backbone and the pendant PBI units have a preferential pi-pi stacking direction perpendicular to the substrate, favorable for interchain charge transport normal to the plane. The linear conjugated backbone acts as a scaffold for the crystallization of the PBI groups, to provide a double-cable nanophase separation of donor and acceptor phases. The optimized nanophase separation enables efficient exciton dissociation as well as charge transport as evidenced from the high-up to 80%-internal quantum efficiency for photon-to-electron conversion. In single-component organic solar cells, the double-cable polymers provide power conversion efficiency up to 4.18%. This is one of the highest performances in single-component organic solar cells. The nanophase-separated design can likely be used to achieve high-performance single-component organic solar cells.

  • 20.
    Zheng, Wenhao
    et al.
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Yuanbao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yangdong
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Junyu
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Peng, Zuosheng
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Alei
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Dual Function of UV/Ozone Plasma-Treated Polymer in Polymer/Metal Hybrid Electrodes and Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells2017Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, nr 51, s. 44656-44666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance inverted indium tin oxide (ITO)-free semitransparent polymer solar cells are comprehensively investigated using a novel polymer/metal hybrid transparent electrode. The electrical and optical characteristics of hybrid electrodes are significantly enhanced by introducing UV/ozone plasma treatment on the polymer poly[(9,9-bis(3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN), which is functioned as both a seed layer for ultrathin Ag metal electrode and an optical spacer for transparent devices. The optimized sheet resistance of PFN/Ag (12 nm) hybrid electrode is only half of the commercial ITO (9.4 vs 20.0 Omega sq(-1)) and the high wavelength-dependent reflectance of hybrid electrode helps to increase the ITO-free device short-circuit current density. Furthermore, the interface property between PFN and ultrathin Ag is analyzed in detail and the optical field distribution is calculated for comparison. A high power conversion efficiency of 5.02%, which is increased by 35% compared to that of the ITO-based device, is achieved in the ITO-free semitransparent device in conjunction with an excellent average visible transmittance above 28% that is higher than the benchmark of 25% for power-generating window, indicating its great potential in building integrated photovoltaic systems in the future. Furthermore, the strategy is successfully developed for other polymer systems, suggesting the universal applicability for plastic electronics.

  • 21.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Zaifang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Leiqiang, Qin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mao, Lin
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yazhong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Qin, Fei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yanfeng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laminated Free Standing PEDOT:PSS Electrode for Solution Processed Integrated Photocapacitors via Hydrogen-Bond Interaction2017Ingår i: ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 4, nr 23, artikel-id 1700704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a novel lamination method employing hydrogen-bond interaction to assemble a highly conductive free standing poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film as a common electrode is demonstrated in a solution processed metal-free foldable integrated photocapacitor (IPC) composed of a monolithic organic solar cell (OSC) and a capacitor. The highlights of the work are:(1) micrometer free standing PEDOT:PSS electrode is successfully laminated onto a relatively large area (1 cm(2)) OSCs; (2) a free standing capacitor based on the PEDOT:PSS electrode is achieved; (3) the IPC demonstrates an overall efficiency of 2% and an energy storage efficiency of 58%, which is comparable with those of IPCs based on metallic common electrodes; (4) the novel lamination method for PEDOT:PSS electrode enables free standing PEDOT:PSS broad applications in solution processed flexible organic electronics, especially tandem or/and integrated organic electronic devices. Furthermore, the IPC is foldable with excellent cycling stability (no decay after 100 recycles at 1 mA cm(-2)). These results indicate that free standing PEDOT:PSS film is a promising candidate as common electrodes for IPCs to break the restrictions of metal electrodes. The demonstrated lamination method will greatly extend the applications of PEDOT:PSS electrodes to large area flexible organic electronic devices.

  • 22.
    Yang, Fan
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Deping
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hesham Balawi, Ahmed
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Wu, Yang
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Laquai, Frederic
    KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Tang, Zheng
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Performance limitations in thieno[3,4-c] pyrrole4,6-dione-based polymer: ITIC solar cells2017Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, nr 35, s. 23990-23998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a systematic study of the efficiency limitations of non-fullerene organic solar cells that exhibit a small energy loss (E-loss) between the polymer donor and the non-fullerene acceptor. To clarify the impact of Eloss on the performance of the solar cells, three thieno[3,4-c] pyrrole-4,6-dione-based conjugated polymers (PTPD3T, PTPD2T, and PTPDBDT) are employed as the electron donor, which all have complementary absorption spectra compared with the ITIC acceptor. The corresponding photovoltaic devices show that low Eloss (0.54 eV) in PTPDBDT: ITIC leads to a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.05 V, but also to a small quantum efficiency, and in turn photocurrent. The high Voc or small energy loss in the PTPDBDT-based solar cells is a consequence of less non-radiative recombination, whereas the low quantum efficiency is attributed to the unfavorable micro-phase separation, as confirmed by the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence experiments, grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) measurements. We conclude that to achieve high performance non-fullerene solar cells, it is essential to realize a large Voc with small Eloss while simultaneously maintaining a high quantum efficiency by manipulating the molecular interaction in the bulk-heterojunction.

  • 23.
    Xing, Xing
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Leiqiang, Qin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The trade-off between electrochromic stability and contrast of a thiophene-Quinoxaline copolymer2017Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 253, s. 530-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of organic electrochromic devices is a crucial issue for their applications. However, until now the degradation mechanism of electrochromic materials are still not fully understood especially for electrochromic conjugated polymers (ECPs). To improve device stability, intensive investigation on the degradation mechanism of ECPs is urgently needed. Here we report our study on the electrochromic degradation in a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer: poly [2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl) quinoxaline-5,8diyl- alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) and UV-vis transmission spectra reveal that there are three main factors during the electrochromic degradation of TQ1. The first one is anion (ClO4-) irreversibly deep trapped, while the second is peroxidation of the thiophene group in TQ1. Both factors reduce the conductivity and electrochromism of TQ1. The third is structural relaxation resulting lager conjugated system of TQ1 molecules in film, which is gradually developed during 400 cycling of CV at a narrow potential range (01 V). When a potential range 0-0.7 V is applied, all three factors are prohibited, no electrochromism degradation is observed anymore, although the contrast becomes smaller. Our investigation systematically discloses the degradation mechanism during the electrochemistry processing of a ECP (TQ1), demonstrating the significance of trade-off between the electrochromic stability and contrast of the ECP. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Li, Yongxi
    et al.
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Deping
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhong, Lian
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Jiu-Dong
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Zuo-Quan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhi-Guo
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhanjun
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yongfang
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Liao, Liang-Sheng
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A fused-ring based electron acceptor for efficient non-fullerene polymer solar cells with small HOMO offset2016Ingår i: NANO ENERGY, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 27, s. 430-438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-fullerene electron acceptor bearing a novel backbone with fused 10-heterocyclic ring (in-dacenodithiopheno-indacenodiselenophene), denoted by IDTIDSe-IC is developed for fullerene free polymer solar cells. IDTIDSe-IC exhibits a low band gap (E-g=1.52 eV) and strong absorption in the 600850 nm region. Combining with a large band gap polymer J51 (E-g=1.91 eV) as donor, broad absorption coverage from 300 nm to 800 nm is obtained due to complementary absorption of J51 and IDTIDSe-IC, which enables a high PCE of 8.02% with a V-oc of 0.91 V, a J(SC) of 15.16 mA/cm(2) and a FF of 58.0% in the corresponding PSCs. Moreover, the EQE of 50-65% is achieved in the absorption range of IDTIDSe-IC with only about 0.1 eV HOMO difference between J51 and IDTIDSe-IC. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Gedefaw, Desta
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden; University of S Australia, Australia.
    Zaifei, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mulugeta, Endale
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Zhao, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden; University of S Australia, Australia.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    An alternating copolymer of fluorene donor and quinoxaline acceptor versus a terpolymer consisting of fluorene, quinoxaline and benzothiadiazole building units: synthesis and characterization2016Ingår i: Polymer Bulletin, ISSN 0170-0839, E-ISSN 1436-2449, Vol. 73, nr 4, s. 1167-1183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternating polyfluorene copolymer based on fluorene donor and quinoxaline acceptor (P1) and an alternating terpolymer (P2) with fluorene (50 %) donor and quinoxaline (25 %) and benzothiadiazole (25 %) acceptor units were designed and synthesized for use as photoactive materials in solar cells. The presence of benzothiadiazole unit in P2 increased the optical absorption coverage in the range of 350-600 nm, which is an interesting property and a big potential for achieving improved photovoltaic performances with judicious optimization of the devices. Solar cells were fabricated from 1:4 blends of polymers-PCBM[70] using o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) as processing solvent, and P1 showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.18 %, with a short-circuit current density (J (SC)) of 7.78 mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage (V (OC)) of 0.82 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 50 % while P2 showed an overall PCE of 2.14 % with corresponding J (SC) of 5.97 mA/cm(2), V (OC) of 0.84 V and FF of 42 %. In general, P2 gave lower J (SC) and FF presumably due to the fine domain sizes of the polymer-PCBM[70] blend as seen from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image which might have affected the charge carrier transport. Alternating (P1) and ternary (P2) conjugated polymers were designed, synthesized and used for fabrication of photovoltaic devices. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 26.
    Zhang, Fengling
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Development of polymer-fullerene solar cells2016Ingår i: NATIONAL SCIENCE REVIEW, ISSN 2095-5138, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 222-239Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global efforts and synergetic interdisciplinary collaborations on solution-processed bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs or OPVs) made power conversion efficiencies over 10% possible. The rapid progress of the field is credited to the synthesis of a large number of novel polymers with specially tunable optoelectronic properties, a better control over the nano-morphology of photoactive blend layers, the introduction of various effective interfacial layers, new device architectures and a deeper understanding of device physics. We will review the pioneering materials for polymer-fullerene solar cells and trace the progress of concepts driving their development. We discuss the evolution of morphology control, interfacial layers and device structures fully exploring the potential of photoactive materials. In order to guide a further increase in power conversion efficiency of OPV, the current understanding of the process of free charge carrier generation and the origin of the photovoltage is summarized followed by a perspective on how to overcome the limitations for industrializing PSCs.

  • 27.
    Liu, Jing
    et al.
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Shangshang
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Deping
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gautam, Bhoj
    North Carolina State University, NC 27695 USA.
    Yang, Guofang
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Jingbo
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Ade, Harald
    North Carolina State University, NC 27695 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gundogdu, Kenan
    North Carolina State University, NC 27695 USA.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yan, He
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Fast charge separation in a non-fullerene organic solar cell with a small driving force2016Ingår i: NATURE ENERGY, ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 1, artikel-id 16089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast and efficient charge separation is essential to achieve high power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells (OSCs). In state-of-the-art OSCs, this is usually achieved by a significant driving force, defined as the offset between the bandgap (E-gap) of the donor/acceptor materials and the energy of the charge transfer (CT) state (E-CT), which is typically greater than 0.3 eV. The large driving force causes a relatively large voltage loss that hinders performance. Here, we report non-fullerene OSCs that exhibit ultrafast and efficient charge separation despite a negligible driving force, as E-CT is nearly identical to E-gap. Moreover, the small driving force is found to have minimal detrimental effects on charge transfer dynamics of the OSCs. We demonstrate a non-fullerene OSC with 9.5% efficiency and nearly 90% internal quantum efficiency despite a low voltage loss of 0.61V. This creates a path towards highly efficient OSCs with a low voltage loss.

  • 28.
    Chen, Youchun
    et al.
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Shan
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Xue, Lingwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhiguo
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Haolong
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Lixin
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yue
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Li, Fenghong
    Jilin University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Yongfang
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Insights into the working mechanism of cathode interlayers in polymer solar cells via [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40]2016Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, nr 48, s. 19189-19196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost (amp;lt;$1 per g), high-yield (amp;gt;90%), alcohol soluble surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalate complex [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] has been synthesized and utilized as a cathode interlayer (CIL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 10.1% can be obtained for PSCs based on PTB7-Th (poly[[2,6-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl) benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b]-dithiophene][3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl] thieno [3,4-b]-thiophenediyl]]):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acidmethyl ester) due to the incorporation of [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40]. Combined measurements of current density-voltage characteristics, transient photocurrent, charge carrier mobility and capacitance-voltage characteristics demonstrate that [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] can effectively increase the built-in potential, charge carrier density and mobility and accelerate the charge carrier extraction in PSCs. Most importantly, the mechanism of using [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] as the CIL is further brought to light by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) of the metal/ [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] interface. The findings suggest that [(C8H17)(4)N](4)[SiW12O40] not only decreased the work function of the metal cathodes but also was n-doped upon contact with the metals, which provide insights into the working mechanism of the CILs simultaneously improving the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor in the PSCs.

  • 29.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Ecole Polytech Federal Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Qian, Deping
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A New Fullerene-Free Bulk-Heterojunction System for Efficient High-Voltage and High-Fill Factor Solution-Processed Organic Photovoltaics2015Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 1900-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small molecule donor/polymer acceptor bulk-heterojunction films with both compounds strongly absorbing have great potential for further enhancement of the performance of organic solar cells. By employing a newly synthesized small molecule donor with a commercially available polymer acceptor in a solution-processed fullerene-free system, a high power conversion efficiency of close to 4% is reported.

  • 30.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    He, Shasha
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Zhongwei
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Zhouhui
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Xin
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Ye, Zhizhen
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shao, Shuyan
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Electrophoretic deposited oxide thin films as charge transporting interlayers for solution-processed optoelectronic devices: the case of ZnO nanocrystals2015Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 11, s. 8216-8222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A promising fabrication method of electron transporting interlayers for solution-processed optoelectronic devices by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals was demonstrated. A low voltage of 3-5 V and a short deposition time of 40 s at room temperature were found to be sufficient to generate dense and uniform ZnO thin films. The EPD ZnO nanocrystal films were applied as ETLs for inverted organic solar cell and polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs). By optimizing the EPD processing of ZnO nanocrystal electron transporting layers (ETLs), inverted organic solar cells based on [3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7): [6-6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6-6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) with an average PCE of 8.4% and 4.0% were fabricated. In combination with the PLEDs and flexible devices results, we conclude that the EPD processed ZnOnanocrystal thin films can serve as high quality ETLs for solution-processed optoelectronic devices.

  • 31.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China; Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China; Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Xiaoyong
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China; Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Ye, Zhizhen
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China; Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Zhongwei
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Technical University, Peoples R China.
    Wuerfel, Uli
    Fraunhofer Institute Solar Energy Syst ISE, Germany; University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ethanedithiol Treatment of Solution-Processed ZnO Thin Films: Controlling the Intragap States of Electron Transporting Interlayers for Efficient and Stable Inverted Organic Photovoltaics2015Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 1401606-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface defects of solution-processed ZnO films lead to various intragap states. When the solution-processed ZnO films are used as electron transport interlayers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells, the intragap states act as interfacial recombination centers for photogenerated charges and thereby degrade the device performance. Here, a simple passivation method based on ethanedithiol (EDT) treatment is demonstrated, which effectively removes the surface defects of the ZnO nanocrystal films by forming zinc ethanedithiolates. The passivation by EDT treatment modulates the intragap states of the ZnO films and introduces a new intragap band. When the EDT-treated ZnO nanocrystal films are used as ETLs in inverted organic solar cells, both the power conversion efficiency and stability of the devices are improved. The control studies show that the solar cells with EDT-treated ZnO films exhibit reduced charge recombination rates and enhanced charge extraction properties. These features are consistent with the fact that the modulation of the intragap states results in reduction of interfacial recombination as well as the improved charge selectivity and electron transport properties of the ETLs. It is further demonstrated that the EDT treatment-based passivation method can be extended to ZnO films deposited from sol-gel precursors.

  • 32.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Tian, Haining
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lin, Lili
    Shandong Normal University, Peoples R China; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Qian, Deping
    Chen, Hong
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Luo, Yi
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Dalian University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Integrated Design of Organic Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2015Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikel-id 1401185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of triphenylamine-based small molecule organic hole transport materials (HTMs) with low crystallinity and high hole mobility are systematically investigated in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). By using the organic dye LEG4 as a photosensitizer, devices with X3 and X35 as the HTMs exhibit desirable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.8% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are slightly higher than the PCE of 5.4% obtained by using the state-of-the-art HTM Spiro-OMeTAD. Meanwhile, transient photovoltage decay measurement is used to gain insight into the complex influences of the HTMs on the performance of devices. The results demonstrate that smaller HTMs induce faster electron recombination in the devices and suggest that the size of a HTM plays a crucial role in device performance, which is reported for the first time.

  • 33.
    Qian, Deping
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik.
    Liu, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Zaifei, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zou, Yingping
    Central S University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Modulating molecular aggregation by facile heteroatom substitution of diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules for efficient organic solar cells2015Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, nr 48, s. 24349-24357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjugated polymers and small molecules of organic solar cells, aggregation induced by intermolecular interactions governs the performance of photovoltaics. However, little attention has been paid to the connection between molecular structure and aggregation within solar cells based on soluble small molecules. Here we demonstrate modulation of intermolecular aggregation of two synthesized molecules through heteroatom substitution to develop an understanding of the role of aggregation in conjugated molecules. Molecule 1 (M1) based on 2-ethylhexyloxy-benzene substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene (BDTP) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) displays strong aggregation in commonly used organic solvents, which is reduced in molecule 2 (M2) by facile oxygen atom substitution on the BDTP unit confirmed by absorption spectroscopy and optical microscopy, while it successfully maintains molecular planarity and favorable charge transport characteristics. Solar cells based on M2 exhibit more than double the photocurrent of devices based on M1 and yield a power conversion efficiency of 5.5%. A systematic investigation of molecular conformation, optoelectronic properties, molecular packing and crystallinity as well as film morphology reveals structure dependent aggregation responsible for the performance difference between the two conjugated molecules.

  • 34.
    Ma, Zaifei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dang, Dongfeng
    Chalmers, Sweden Xiangtan University, Peoples R China .
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gedefaw, Desta
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhu, Weiguo
    Xiangtan University, Peoples R China .
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia .
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    A Facile Method to Enhance Photovoltaic Performance of Benzodithiophene-Isoindigo Polymers by Inserting Bithiophene Spacer2014Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 4, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of conjugated polymers containing benzodithiophene as donor and isoindigo as acceptor with no, one, two and three thiophene spacer groups is synthesized and characterized. The polymer with bithiophene as a spacer has a superior efficiency of 7.31% in solar cells. This demonstrates an important design strategy to produce polymers for high-performance solar cells by inserting thiophene spacer groups.

  • 35.
    Dyer, Aubrey L.
    et al.
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Bulloch, Rayford H.
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China .
    Kippelen, Bernard
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Reynolds, John R.
    Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA Georgia Institute Technology, GA 30332 USA .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Vertically Integrated Solar-Powered Electrochromic Window for Energy Efficient Buildings2014Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, nr 28, s. 4895-4900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A solution-processed self-powered polymer electrochromic/photovoltaic (EC/PV) device is realized by vertically integrating two transparent PV cells with an ECD. The EC/PV cell is a net energy positive dual functional device, which can be reversibly switched between transparent and colored states by PV cells for regulating incoming sunlight through windows. The two PV cells can individually, or in pairs, generate electricity.

  • 36.
    Gedefaw, Desta A
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhou, Yi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Genene, Zewdneh
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia .
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Conjugated polymers with polar side chains in bulk heterojunction solar cell devices2014Ingår i: Polymer international, ISSN 0959-8103, E-ISSN 1097-0126, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 22-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two polymers with polar side chains, namely poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(5,8-di-2-thienyl-(2,3-bis(3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phenyl)quinoxaline))] (P1) and poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)fluorene)-alt-5,5-(5,8-di-2-thienyl-(2,3-bis(3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-ethoxy)phenyl)quinoxaline))] (P2), were synthesized for solar cell application. A series of bulk heterojunction solar cells were systematically fabricated and characterized by varying the electron-acceptor materials, processing solvents and thickness of the active layer. The results show that P1, with a higher molecular weight and good film-forming properties, performed better. The best device showed an open circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a short circuit current of 6.81 mA cm(-2) and a power conversion efficiency of 2.74% with 1:4 polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) mixture using o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) as processing solvent. P2 on the other hand showed a poorer performance with chlorobenzene as processing solvent, but a much improved performance was obtained using o-DCB instead. Thus, an open circuit voltage of 0.80 V, short circuit current of 6.21 mA cm(-2) and an overall power conversion efficiency of 2.22% were recorded for a polymer:PCBM[70] mixing ratio of 1:4. This is presumably due to the improvement of the morphology of the active layer using o-DCB as processing solvent.

  • 37.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Cao, Motao
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China Zhejiang University, Peoples R China Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Dai, Xinliang
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Liang, Xiaoyong
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Ye, Zhizhen
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Li, Min
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Cheng, Jipeng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Xiao, Xuezhang
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Wu, Zhongwei
    Soochow University, Peoples R China .
    Xia, Zhouhui
    Soochow University, Peoples R China .
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China .
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Mo, Yueqi
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Low-Temperature Combustion-Synthesized Nickel Oxide Thin Films as Hole-Transport Interlayers for SolutionProcessed Optoelectronic Devices2014Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 4, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to deposit NiOx thin films by employing combustion reactions is reported and a low processing temperature of 175 °C is demonstrated. The resulting NiOx films exhibit high work functions, excellent optical transparency, and flat surface features. The NiOx thin films are employed as hole-transport interlayers in organic solar cells and polymer light-emitting diodes, exhibiting superior electrical properties

  • 38.
    Liu, Jian
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Wu, Jiang
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Shao, Shuyan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Deng, Yunfeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Beijing, China.
    Meng, Bin
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Beijing, China.
    Xie, Zhiyuan
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Geng, Yanhou
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Wang, Lixiang
    Chinese Academic Science, Changchun, China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Printable highly conductive conjugated polymer sensitized ZnO NCs as cathode interfacial layer for efficient polymer solar cells2014Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 8237-8245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a facile way to produce printable highly conductive cathode interfacial layer (CIL) for efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) by sensitizing ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) with a blue fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly(9, 9-bis-(6-diethoxylphosphorylhexyl) fluorene) (PFEP). Herein, PFEP plays dual distinctive roles in the composite. Firstly, PFEP chains can effectively block the aggregation of ZnO NCs, leading to uniform and smooth film during solution processing via assembly on ZnO NC surfaces through their pending phosphonate groups. Secondly, PFEP can greatly improve the conductivity of ZnO NCs by charge transfer doping, that is the charge transfer from the sensitizer driven by electron-chemical potential equilibrium, which could be even more pronounced under light illumination because of light excitation of PFEP sensitizer. The increased conductivity in ZnO-PFEP layer renders more efficient electron transport and extraction compared to pristine ZnO layer. This ZnO-PFEP CIL was successfully applied to PSCs based on three polymer donor systems with different band-gaps, and efficiency enhancements from 44 to 70% were observed compared to those PSCs with pristine ZnO CIL. The highest efficiency of 7.56% was achieved in P(IID-DTC):PC70BM-based PSCs by using ZnO-PFEP film as CIL. Moreover, the enhanced conductivity due to the charge-transfer doping effect allows thick ZnO-PFEP film to be used as CIL in high-performance PSCs. Both the high conductivity and good film-forming properties of ZnO-PFEP CIL are favorable for large-scale printable PSCs, which is also verified by high-efficiency PSCs with ZnO-PFEP CIL fabricated using doctor-blading, a large-scale processing technique. The work provides an efficient printable cathode interfacial material for efficient PSCs.

  • 39.
    Gedefaw, Desta A.
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Mammo, Wendimagegn
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    RANDOM POLYFLUORENE CO-POLYMERS DESIGNED FOR A BETTER OPTICAL ABSORPTION COVERAGE OF THE VISIBLE REGION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM2014Ingår i: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, ISSN 1011-3924, E-ISSN 1726-801X, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 121-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two alternating polyfluorenes (APFO15-F8BT and APFO3-F8BT) with full absorption of the visible region of the electromagnetic radiation were designed and synthesized for bulk-heterojunction solar cell devices. The optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers were studied. The two polymers exhibited strong absorption in the visible region with no significant valley over the visible region extending up to 650 nm. Deep HOMO and ideally situated LUMO energy levels were the characteristics of the two polymers as revealed from the square wave voltammogram study: desired properties for extracting high open circuit voltage and for a facile charge transfer to the acceptor component in devices to take place, respectively. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated by blending the two polymers with PCBM[70] and up to similar to 2% power conversion efficiency were obtained.

  • 40.
    Zhen, Hongyu
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
    Hou, Qiong
    S China Normal University, Peoples R China S China University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Li, Kan
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells employing Ir complexes as electron donors2014Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, nr 31, s. 12390-12396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore enhancing photocurrent in organic solar cells (OSCs) via harvesting triplet excitons, two novel bicycloiridium complexes (R-1 and R-2) are designed and synthesized. Conventional bulk-heterojunction triplet OSCs are solution processed using R-1 or R-2 as sole electron donors and phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the electron acceptor. A decent short circuit current (J(sc)) of 6.5 mA cm(-2) is achieved though the overlap between the absorption spectrum (with similar to 550 nm absorption onset) of R-2 and the solar flux is relatively small. With an open circuit voltage of 0.74 V and a fill factor of 0.42, an encouraging power conversion efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in the OSCs based on R-2 and PC71BM without any processing additives and post-treatments. Our preliminary result demonstrates the possibility of utilizing Ir complexes as sole electron donors in OSCs, which extends available soluble small molecules for OSCs.

  • 41.
    Ma, Zaifei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sun, Wenjun
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, USA.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Salleo, Alberto
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, USA.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Imaging and Structural Analysis Programme, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Müller, Christian
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Structure-Property Relationships of Oligothiophene-Isoindigo Polymers for Efficient Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells2014Ingår i: energy and environmental science, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 361-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of alternating oligothiophene (nT)-isoindigo (I) copolymers (PnTI) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the oligothiophene block length on the photovoltaic (PV) properties of PnTI:PCBM bulk-heterojunction blends. Our study indicates that the number of thiophene rings (n) in the repeating unit alters both, polymer crystallinity and polymer-fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of favorable morphology and optimal interface energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure-property relationship demonstrated in this work is a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc.

  • 42.
    Liang, Xiaoyong
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Yi, Qing
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Bai, Sai
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Dai, Xingliang
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Wang, Xin
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Ye, Zhizhen
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China .
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China Zhejiang University, Peoples R China .
    Synthesis of Unstable Colloidal Inorganic Nanocrystals through the Introduction of a Protecting Ligand2014Ingår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 3117-3123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a facile and general strategy based on ligand protection for the synthesis of unstable colloidal nanocrystals by using the synthesis of pure p-type NiO nanocrystals as an example. We find that the introduction of lithium stearate, which is stable in the reaction system and capable of binding to the surface of NiO oxide nanocrystals, can effectively suppress the reactivity of NiO nanocrystals and thus prevent their in situ reduction into Ni. The resulting p-type NiO nanocrystals, a highly demanded hole-transporting and electron-blocking material, are applied to the fabrication of organic solar cells and polymer light-emitting diodes, demonstrating their great potential as an interfacial layer for low-cost and large-area, solution-processed optoelectronic devices.

  • 43.
    Hou, Qiong
    et al.
    S China Normal University, Peoples R China .
    Chen, Yiquan
    S China Normal University, Peoples R China .
    Zhen, Hongyu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem and Biol IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hong, Wenbiao
    S China Normal University, Peoples R China .
    Shi, Guang
    S China Normal University, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A triphenylamine-based four-armed molecule for solution-processed organic solar cells with high photo-voltage2013Ingår i: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, nr 16, s. 4937-4940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new four-armed molecule Th-4(DTPAB) with a triphenylamine-benzothiadiazole-triphenylamine unit as the core and 4-hexylthiophene as arms was synthesized. Solution-processed organic solar cells based on blends of Th-4(DTPAB) and PC71BM demonstrate a power conversion efficiency of 3.18% with a high open circuit voltage of 0.96 V.

  • 44.
    Sun, Wenjun
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dang, Dongfeng
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhu, Weiguo
    Xiangtan University, Peoples R China .
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    An alternating D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties for efficient polymer solar cells2013Ingår i: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, nr 37, s. 11141-11144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike normal donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers containing only one electron-deficient segment in their repeating unit, the incorporation of two electron-deficient moieties with different absorption behaviors, forming a D-A(1)-D-A(2) internal structure in the alternating copolymer, showed a broader absorption spectrum than its constituent parts and enhanced photovoltaic performance. This work is anticipated to open the door to the design of new low bandgap polymers with a broader absorption range for efficient polymer solar cells.

  • 45.
    ZHAO, Yang
    et al.
    Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.
    ZHANG, Feng-ling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    ZHANG, Ming
    Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.
    MA, Yu-guang
    Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.
    Characterization and properties of a new amorphous small-molecule material containing both donor and acceptor moieties for photovoltaic application2013Ingår i: Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, ISSN 1005-9040, E-ISSN 2210-3171, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1193-1198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new amorphous small-molecule material, in which the electron-donating carbazole units are connected to the backbone by flexible side chains, has been synthesized and utilised in the photovoltaic(PV) field. This material exhibits the amorphous feature, higher thermal stability and good film forming ability. The influence of the heat-treatment on the morphology and the performance of PV devices were studied. Eventually, a relatively high photovoltaic conversion efficiency was achieved. At the same time, the PV device displayed an ideal open-circuit voltage(over 1 V) which is very close to the upper limit of its theoretical value.

  • 46.
    Wang, Ergang
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hou, Lintao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundin, Angelica
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Himmelberger, Scott
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Salleo, Alberto
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Conformational Disorder Enhances Solubility and Photovoltaic Performance of a Thiophene-Quinoxaline Copolymer2013Ingår i: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 806-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The side-chain architecture of alternating copolymers based on thiophene and quinoxaline (TQ) is found to strongly influence the solubility and photovoltaic performance. In particular, TQ polymers with different linear or branched alkyloxy-phenyl side chains on the quinoxaline unit are compared. Attaching the linear alkyloxy side-chain segment at the meta- instead of the para-position of the phenyl ring reduces the planarity of the backbone as well as the ability to order. However, the delocalisation across the backbone is not affected, which permits the design of high-performance TQ polymers that do not aggregate in solution. The use of branched meta-(2-ethylhexyl)oxy-phenyl side-chains results in a TQ polymer with an intermediate degree of order. The reduced tendency for aggregation of TQ polymers with linear meta-alkyloxy-phenyl persists in the solid state. As a result, it is possible to avoid the decrease in charge-transfer state energy that is observed for bulk-heterojunction blends of more ordered TQ polymers and fullerenes. The associated gain in open-circuit voltage of disordered TQ:fullerene solar cells, accompanied by a higher short-circuit current density, leads to a higher power conversion efficiency overall. Thus, in contrast to other donor polymers, for TQ polymers there is no need to compromise between solubility and photovoltaic performance.

  • 47.
    Yan-Fang, Li
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Technology, China .
    Yang, Li-Ying
    Tianjin University of Technology, .
    Qin, Wen-Jing
    Tianjin University of Technology, .
    Yin, Shou-Gen
    Tianjin University of Technology, .
    Zhang, Feng-Ling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Efficiency Enhancement of MEH-PPV: PCBM Solar Cells by Addition of Ditertutyl Peroxide as an Additive2013Ingår i: Chinese Physics Letters, ISSN 0256-307X, E-ISSN 1741-3540, Vol. 30, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends are obtained by using ditert butyl peroxide (DTBP) as an additive. The effect of the DTBP contents on the performance of photovoltaic cells is investigated. The results reveal that efficiency enhancement of MEH-PPV: PCBM solar cells can be realized by carefully tuning the contents of DTBP. Compared to the control device, the optimized device with 0.5wt% DTBP additive exhibits enhanced performance with J(sc) of (3.51 +/- 0.21) mA/cm(2), FF of (44.45 +/- 0.71)%, and PCE of (1.31 +/- 0.08)%, increased by 9.3%, 8.0% and 22.4%, respectively. The stability of the device is found to be improved by adding 0.5wt% of DTBP.

  • 48.
    Jia, Yuehua
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Yang, Liying
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Qin, Wenjing
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Yin, Shougen
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik.
    Wei, Jun
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Efficient polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with cesium acetate as the cathode interfacial layer2013Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 50, s. 565-569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The enhanced performance of polymer solar cells based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend was achieved by using cesium acetate (CH3COOCs) as cathode buffer layer. Under 100 mW/cm(2) white light illumination, the device with 0.8 nm thick CH3COOCs as cathode buffer layer exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as (4.16 +/- 0.02) %. Compared to the control devices without cathode buffer layer and with LiF as cathode buffer layer, the PCE is enhanced similar to 100% and similar to 31%, respectively. The introduction of the CH3COOCs buffer layer effectively improves the photo-generated charge collection. The Kelvin Probe measurement shows that the work function of the CH3COOCs is estimated to be -4.0 eV, which has an ideal energy band match with PCBM and a good property for electron collection. The static contact angle results indicated that the CH3COOCs with the hydrophobic CH3COO- group has an improved wettability between the buffer layer and the hydrophobic organic active layer surface, resulting in better interfacial contact and reduced contact resistance. The improved performance may be attributed to the dissociation of semi-conducting CH3COOCs upon deposition to liberate Cs with a low work function, which reduces the interface resistance of the active layer and the cathode and enhances the interior electric field that may result in efficient charge transportation. Therefore, the CH3COOCs interlayer could be a promising alternative to LiF to improve the efficiency of the electron collection of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  • 49.
    Xue-Jian, Xu
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Yang, Li-Ying
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Tian, Hui
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Qin, Wen-Jing
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Yin, Shou-Gen
    Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Tianjin University of Technology, Peoples R China .
    Enhanced Performance and Stability in Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Ultraviolet-Treated PEDOT:PSS2013Ingår i: Chinese Physics Letters, ISSN 0256-307X, E-ISSN 1741-3540, Vol. 30, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation treatment with varying irradiation intensities for different treatment times of poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on the performance and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. Ultraviolet-visible transmission spectra, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy and the Kelvin probe method are conducted to characterize the UV-treated PEDOT:PSS film. The results demonstrate that UV treatment can improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of PSCs effectively. The best performance is achieved under 1200 mu W/cm(2) UV treatment for 50 min. Compared to the control device, the optimized device exhibits enhanced performance with a V-OC of 0.59 V, J(SC) of 12.3 mA/cm(2), fill factor of 51%, and PCE of 3.64%, increased by 3.5%, 33%, 8.7% and 50%, respectively. The stability of the PSCs is enhanced by 2.5 times simply through the UV treatment on the PEDOT:PSS buffer layer. The improvement in the device performance and stability is attributed to the improvement in the wettability property and the increase in the work function of the PEDOT:PSS film by UV treatment, while the impact of UV treatment on the transparency of the PEDOT:PSS film is negligible. The strategy of using UV treatment to improve device performance and stability is attractive due to its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and because it is suitable for large-scale commercial production.

  • 50.
    Shao, Shuyan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zheng, Kaibo
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Pullerits, Tonu
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Using Poly(ethylene oxide)-Modified ZnO as an Electron Transport Layer2013Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 380-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report enhanced performance of inverted polymer solar cells composed of poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (TQ1):[6,6]-phenyl-C-71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blends by using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-modified ZnO as an electron transport layer. It is found that PEO modification to the ZnO nanoparticle surface can effectively passivate the surface traps of ZnO, suppress the recombination loss of carriers, reduce the series resistance, and improve the electrical coupling of ZnO/active layer. Consequently, both the short-circuit current (J(SC)) and the fill factor (FF) of the inverted solar cells are considerably improved. The resulting power conversion efficiency (PCE) is improved to 5.64% as compared to 4.5% of the reference device using a ZnO electron transport layer. Moreover, this approach can also successfully improve the J(SC) and FF of anther inverted solar cell composed of poly[N-9 -hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-dithienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT):PC71BM blends. The PCE of the device based on the PEO-modified ZnO layer is increased to 6.59% from 5.39% of the reference device based on the ZnO layer.

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