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  • 1.
    Habinek, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Haveman, Heather
    Department of Sociology, 410 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Making a Free Market: Professionals and Populists in the Transformation of US Medicine, 1787-18602019Ingår i: Socio-Economic Review, ISSN 1475-1461, E-ISSN 1475-147XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early decades of the 19th century, physicians in the USA enjoyed unquestioned authority in medicine and increasing state recognition. But by mid-century, their monopoly had given way to a raucous free market for medical care. To explain the causes and consequences of this dismantling of a professional monopoly, we draw on political sociology. We argue that to maintain a monopoly, a dominant profession must defend its cultural authority against rival claims and preserve its institutional support from the state. A dominant profession can lose its monopoly if rival occupations mobilize to challenge its cultural authority and if populist political coalitions mobilize to repeal laws upholding professional monopolies. Our analysis, which covers all states in the Union by 1860, reveals that the dynamics of contention, both within the system of professions and in the wider political arena, can erode the foundations of professional monopolies.

  • 2.
    Fligstein, Neil
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, Department of Sociology.
    Habinek, Jacob
    University of California, Berkeley, Department of Sociology.
    How the American Financial Meltdown of 2008 Caused the Global Financial Crisis2017Ingår i: The Routledge Companion to Banking Regulation and Reform / [ed] Ismail Ertürk and Daniela Gabor, Routledge, 2017, s. 373-397Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide financial crisis that began in 2007 was set off by the collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the US, which caused widespread banking failures in the US and forced the federal government to provide a massive bailout to the financial sector. The crisis simultaneously reverberated to banks around the world, and eventually brought about a worldwide recession. This paper documents why other countries, especially in Western Europe, were so susceptible to the housing price downturn. We explore various mechanisms by which the financial crisis might have spread including the existence of similar regulatory schemes, government deficits and current account imbalances, trade linkages, and the presence of a housing bubble. We present a surprising result: European banks went down because they were pursuing the same strategies to make profit as the American banks in the same markets. They had joined the market in the US for mortgage-backed securities and funded them by borrowing in the asset-backed-commercialpaper market. When the housing market turned down, they suffered the same fate as their US counterparts. Our study makes a broader theoretical point suggesting that subsequent studies of global finance and financial markets need to consider the identities and strategies of the banks that structure the main markets for different products. This insight has implications for the literatures on financialization, globalization, and the sociology of finance.

  • 3.
    Eaton, Charlie
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Habinek, Jacob
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Goldstein, Adam
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Dioun, Cyrus
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Santibáñez Godoy, Daniela García
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Osley-Thomas, Robert
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    The Financialization of US Higher Education2016Ingår i: Socio-Economic Review, ISSN 1475-1461, E-ISSN 1475-147X, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 507-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on financialization has been constrained by limited suitable measures for cases outside of the for-profit sector. Using the case of US higher education, we consider financialization as both increasing reliance on financial investment returns and increasing costs from transactions to acquire capital. We document returns and costs across four types of transactions: (i) revenues from endowment investments, (ii) interest payments on institutional borrowing by colleges, (iii) profits extracted by investors in for-profit colleges and (iv) interest payments on student loan borrowing by households. Estimated annual funding from endowment investments grew from $16 billion in 2003 to $20 billion in 2012. Meanwhile financing costs grew from $21 billion in 2003 to $48 billion in 2012, or from 5 to 9% of the total higher education spending, even as interest rates declined. Increases in financial returns, however, were concentrated at wealthy colleges whereas increases in financing costs tended to outpace returns at poorer institutions. We discuss the implications of the findings for resource allocation, organizational governance and stratification among colleges and households.

  • 4.
    Habinek, Jacob
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, Department of Sociology, United States.
    Martin, John Levi
    University of Chicago, Department of Sociology, United States.
    Zablocki, Benjamin
    Rutgers University, Department of Sociology, United States.
    Double-embeddedness: Spatial and relational contexts of tie persistence and re-formation2015Ingår i: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 42, s. 27-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal relationships are embedded in both spatial and relational contexts. Using data on 60 intentional communities from the Urban Communes Data Set, we examine how such embedding is related to the persistence and re-formation of close personal ties over a thirteen year period, beginning from when most members had been out of their group environments more than a decade. We find that local network structure—the pattern of dyads immediately surrounding any dyad—is extremely weighty in which ties persist, which lapse, and which are re-initiated, but that the precise ways in which local structure affects contact are bound up with the distance between dyad members. We also find asymmetries in these processes that other studies have been unable to uncover—that processes that lead ties to be dropped are not the same as those that lead them to be renewed; that increases in local embeddedness are not opposite of decreases; that change in contact is not the same as change in friendship. Finally, there is evidence of hierarchical effects influencing the retention of friendships more than twenty-five years after most respondents left their groups.

  • 5.
    Fligstein, Neil
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, ,USA.
    Habinek, Jacob
    University of California, Berkeley, Department of Sociology.
    Sucker Punched by the Invisible Hand: The World Financial Markets and the Globalization of the U.S. Mortgage Crisis2014Ingår i: Socio-Economic Review, ISSN 1475-1461, E-ISSN 1475-147X, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 637-665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide financial crisis that began in 2007 was set off by the collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the USA. The crisis simultaneously reverberated to banks around the world, and eventually brought about a worldwide recession. The biggest banks in the developed world got in trouble because they were pursuing the same strategies to make profit as the American banks. They had joined the market in the USA for mortgage-backed securities and funded them by borrowing in the asset-backed commercial paper market. When the housing market turned down, they suffered the same fate as their US counterparts. Financial deregulation played a complex role in this process. Most of the banks that participated in this market came from countries where financial deregulation occurred. But not all banks from countries with financial deregulation entered this market. Countries with high levels of financial deregulation also experienced deeper recessions, suggesting that in the home market, banks had taken on riskier loans as well. Our study makes a broader theoretical point, suggesting that subsequent studies of global finance and financial markets need to consider the identities and strategies of the banks as their tactics explain a lot about how the global markets for different financial products are structured.

  • 6.
    Eaton, Charlie
    et al.
    University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, United States.
    Habinek, Jacob
    University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, United States.
    Kumar, Mukul
    Stover, Tamara Lee
    Roehrkasse, Alex
    Thompson, Jeremy
    Swapping Our Future: How Students and Taxpayers Are Funding Risky UC Borrowing and Wall Street Profits2013Ingår i: Berkeley Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0067-5830, Vol. 57, s. 178-199Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Haveman, Heather
    et al.
    University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, United States.
    Habinek, Jacob
    University of California, Department of Sociology, Berkeley, United States.
    Goodman, Leo
    University of California, Departments of Sociology and Statistics, Berkeley, United States.
    How Entrepreneurship Evolves: The Founders of New Magazines in America, 1741–18602012Ingår i: Administrative Science Quarterly, ISSN 0001-8392, E-ISSN 1930-3815, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 585-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We craft a historically sensitive model of entrepreneurship linking individual actors to the evolving social structures they must navigate to acquire resources and launch new ventures. Theories of entrepreneurship and industry evolution suggest two opposing hypotheses: as an industry develops, launching a new venture may become more difficult for all but industry insiders and the socially prominent because of competition from large incumbents, or it may become easier for all people because the legitimacy accorded to the industry simplifies the entrepreneurial task. To test these two conflicting claims, we study the American magazine industry from 1741 to 1860. We find that magazine publishing was originally restricted to publishing-industry insiders, professionals, and the highly educated, but most later founders came from outside publishing and more were of middling stature. Gains by entrepreneurs from the social periphery, however, were uneven: most were doctors and clergy without college degrees in small urban areas; magazines founded by industry insiders remained predominant in the industry centers. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of grounding studies of entrepreneurship in historical context. It also shows that entrepreneurship scholars must attend to temporal shifts within the focal industry and in society at large.

  • 8.
    Kleinman, Daniel Lee
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology.
    Habinek, Jacob
    University of California, Berkeley, Department of Sociology.
    Vallas, Steven
    Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Codes of Commerce: The Uses of Business Rhetoric in American Academia, 1960-20002011Ingår i: The American Academic Profession: Transformation in Contemporary Higher Education / [ed] Joseph Hermanowicz, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011, s. 274-294Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1 - 8 av 8
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