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  • 1.
    Albahari, Alberto
    et al.
    Universidad de Malaga.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos
    Universidad de Malaga.
    Science and Technology Parks: A study of value creation for park tenants2018Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on Science and Technology Parks (STPs) is growing rapidly and, despite the positive impact of STPs on firms found by many studies, it remains unclear how STPs create value for tenants. In this paper, we study the STP supply side through a case study in a Swedish region. We identify two components of the business support provided by parks: a configuration-oriented component, and a process-oriented component. The former refers to the static design of the business support, and the latter to the active, hands-on support provided by parks’ management. Both components must be planned carefully in order to deliver value to tenants. We also discuss some implications for policy and managers.

  • 2.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Albahari, Alberto
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Science Parks and the attraction of talents: Activities and challenges2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores activities that Science Parks undertake in order to attract entrepreneurial talent for their tenants. Despite the importance of accessing talent, there are very few studies focusing this research area. The data comes from seven cases studies on talent attraction activities run by three Swedish Science Parks. We show that the parks conduct many different activities in order to attract entrepreneurial talent, which includes headhunting of key personnel for start-ups; organising establishment platforms for foreign companies, as well as facilitating exchanges of knowledge and talent with Higher Education Institutions. Science Parks host firms with different sizes, ages, and business orientation and therefore, park managers should be sensible to respond to real needs of tenant firms when performing talent attraction activities.

  • 3.
    Lamine, Wadid
    et al.
    Toulouse Business School, Toulouse University, Toulouse, France.
    Mian, Sarfraz
    School of Business, State University of New York, New York, USA.
    Fayolle, Alain
    EM Lyon Business School, Lyon, France.
    Wright, Mike
    Imperial College London, London, UK; University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    International Triple Helix Institute and CIMR, University of London, Birkbeck, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Technology business incubation mechanisms and sustainable regional development2018Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 1121--1141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces various aspects of technology business incubators (TBIs), emphasizing their increasing role in the spatial context where they are used as platforms and drivers of regional entrepreneurial ecosystems. It outlines the key themes of the emerging role of TBIs in sustainable regional development: TBI biodiversity of ecosystems; accelerating startups in the entrepreneurial university; TBI mechanisms challenged by green technology to sustain regional development; and TBIs’ connecting role between entrepreneurship education, experiential knowledge, and regional development. It proposes an agenda for future research on the role of TBIs as bridging mechanisms and drivers of entrepreneurship and regional development.

  • 4.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Entrepreneurship support and sustainable business models – a European study of business incubators2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of business incubators in providing support for sustainable entrepreneurship and in promoting sustainable business models among entrepreneurs and their ventures. Through a survey of 96 European incubators we have focused on the present situation concerning incubators’ profiling and accommodation of firms with sustainable orientation, how incubators apply sustainability aspects when recruiting tenants as well as how this could benefit development of sustainable business models. It is shown that many incubators perceive themselves to be profiled as environmental or sustainable, but there are notable differences between countries. Regional development is the most important target for incubators. Traditional selection criteria such as entrepreneur’s capabilities and business idea’s commercial potential is seen as most important while incubators do generally not prioritise criteria relating to sustainability. It is suggested that incubators should strive to adapt their recruitment strategies to the local and regional conditions, that a structured and time-limited pre-incubation program could be offered to potential tenants, and that incubators integrate competence on sustainable business development into their daily operations.

  • 5.
    Bager-Sjögren, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krakowski, Sebastian
    University of Geneva, Geneva School of Economics and Management (GSEM), Switzerland.
    Firm growth and survival from a 14-year perspective: A cohort analysis2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether early growth is important for the short- and long-term survival and development of new firms. The study exploits registry data for a specific cohort of Swedish firms that tracks their development until their exit, or up to 14 years, at which point only 8% of the firms remain. We find growth to be associated with increased survival of the firms, that the number of employees (in the previous year) is positively correlated with survival in following years and somewhat surprisingly, we found subsidiaries to face a significantly larger hazard of closure than independent firms.

  • 6.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Future developments for Science Parks: Attracting and developing talent2017Ingår i: Industry and Higher Education, ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 156-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, science parks have developed and improved their processes to offer better support to their tenants and promote the growth of the region in which they are located. Since regional growth is closely associated with groups of talented people, science parks carry out various activities at the company or individual level to attract and recruit talent. In order to understand how such activities have been and are being performed at Mja¨rdevi Science Park in Sweden, the authors highlight and analyse four talent-related cases. Their aim is to identify how talent can be attracted or recruited and to consider the stakeholders, their relationships and their motivations. The results confirm the importance to a science park of being close to a student community and of being connected to an international network with a well-recognized brand.

  • 7.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Germain-Alamartine, Eloïse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Science Parks - University interaction: A literature2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of Science Parks, many studies have shown that Science Parks have ceased to be mere facilitators of physical spaces, to become important providers of services and resources to their tenants. Considering that skilled professionals are one of the most sought after resources by technology and knowledge intensive firms, Science Parks have dedicated numerous activities and means in order to become even more attractive to talents. In this context, universities situated in or next to Science Parks play a key role in developing and attracting talents to Science Parks and to its firms as well as to the region, functioning as a regional node of a large national and international network of universities. Science Parks and universities are vital parts of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of a region and have many complementarities. In this study, we review the literature regarding the relationship existing between Science Parks and universities and the ways in which they can collaborate. Talent, recruitment, and entrepreneurship issues are addressed as the building blocks of these interactions. Other stakeholders, inside and outside a Science Park, are also analysed in order to widen the perspective to the ecosystem of actors involved, allowing a better understanding of the role, the interests, the means and the implications of each one. The purpose of this study is to understand and qualify the university's role in attracting and developing talent that firms in Science Parks can recruit later on. We identify the types of interactions occurring between Science Parks and their nearby universities. We strive to find what kinds of skills are considered relevant by employers, and to describe the initiatives developed by universities and Science Parks – separately and together – aiming at drawing, developing and retaining talents. We also seek to identify who are the actors involved; private or public organisations, or people embodying specific functions in these organisations. In the end, we recognize and point out policy implications, concerning both universities and Science Parks.

  • 8.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klaus, Fichter
    Borderstep Institute/Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators and securing the inflow of tenants – the case of Green Garage Berlin2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 157, s. 76-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an attention in research and practise on entrepreneurial ecosystems, and how these, often using incubators, could support sustainable development through new firm start-ups. Despite the popularity of incubators in the literature and practise, few studies have focused on sustainable incubators in general or, more specifically, on processes that ensure a steady flow of tenants. Thus, this paper investigates how sustainable incubators ensures their inflow of tenants, how they organize their activities and whether the incubator environment affect tenant recruitment. A case study approach analysing the sustainability oriented incubator Green Garage Berlin have been used to generate an understanding of selection and recruitment processes as well the influence of external environments. The results show that regional and inter-regional co-operation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Incubator reputation and sufficient long term funding is also a key to success. A good practice case as Green Garage cannot simply be replicated, but require openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions.

  • 9.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sten Gunnar, Johansson
    The development of a modern Science Park: A Swedish good practise2017Ingår i: Revista Militar de Ciência E Tecnologia, ISSN 2316-4522, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 55-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to get a deeper understanding of the reasons and activities related to the development of Science Parks of today, identifying actors involved and their relationships. To achieve the goal, we analysed the story of Mjärdevi Science Park (MSP), located in Linköping, Sweden, from its inception to the present. In our study, we could identify the several interactions car-ried out by the MSP with regional, national and even international actors, thus building an extensive network of relationships. Having built a solid foundation, working very close to its tenants, it was pos-sible to maintain a continuous development over the years, even in times of crises and difficulties. In the middle of the 90s, Mjärdevi Science Park was considered the 9th park fastest growing in the world [1] and today is undoubtedly a success story. It has become a ‘good practise’ in the European context regarding the innovative approach of being a park integrated in a regional framework.

  • 10.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Malmström, Lars
    Ekonomijournalist.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, UK.
    Att träna företagare som står inför en tillväxtfas eller viktig förändring: ett svenskt praktikfall2016Ingår i: Sveriges entreprenöriella ekosystem: företag, akademi, politik / [ed] Maureen McKelvey, Olof Zaring, Stockholm: Esbri , 2016, s. 215-233Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel presenteras ett praktikfall – Utvecklingsprogrammet – som visar hur det är möjligt att, på ett relativt enkelt och kostnadseffektivt sätt, stimulera företag som står inför (eller befinner sig i) en utvecklingsfas som präglas av tillväxt och/eller förändring. Vi beskriver hur och varför Utvecklingsprogrammet kom till, och vilka specifika faktorer som ligger bakom dess stora framgångar.

    I mitten av 1980-talet startade ett träningsprogram för entreprenörer i företag med rötter i Linköpings universitet. Detta program kallades helt enkelt ”Utvecklingsprogrammet” och kom att bli en formidabel succé. Sedan starten 1986 har drygt 500 personer från 200 företag deltagit i de 25 program som har genomförts hittills. Många av de företag som deltagit har vuxit kraftigt, skapat tusentals nya arbetstillfällen och är i dag etablerade på världsmarknaden. Tankarna bakom programmet har hela tiden varit att ledningen i företa-gen behöver kvalificerad sparring för att effektivare kunna handskas med knäckfrågor relaterade till tillväxt och utveckling. Men även – särskilt sett från politikerhåll – att det ur ekonomisk synvinkel kan vara mycket effektivt att stimulera växande företag även senare i deras utveckling.

  • 11.
    Guerrero, Maribel
    et al.
    Univ Deusto, Donostia San Sebastian, Spain.
    Urbano, David
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Alain, Fayolle
    EM Lyon Business School, Ecully, France.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mian, Sarfraz
    School of Business, State University of New York, Oswego, NY, USA.
    Entrepreneurial Universities: Emerging Models in the New Social and Economic Landscape2016Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 551-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper and the special issue is to improve our understanding of the theoretical, empirical, managerial and political implications of emerging models of entrepreneurial universities in the new social and economic landscape. We accomplish this objective by examining the role of entrepreneurial universities as drivers of innovation and entrepreneurship activities. Our analysis starts with an overview by outlining an overarching framework. This allows us to highlight the contributions made in this special issue within the framework. We conclude by outlining an agenda for future research and discuss implications for university managers, policy makers and other academic agents involved in the development of entrepreneurial/innovation ecosystems.

  • 12.
    de Almeida Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sten Gunnar, Johansson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Future Challenges for Science Parks: Attractiveness and Recruitment of Talents2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Science parks have from the very beginning been important and valuable tools for the development of knowledge intensive economies. Most science parks have also strongly attracted talents, ideas, capital, R&D and firms. During the past decades we have witnessed a number of other structures and organizations being established, i.e. innovation hubs, clusters and so forth. We have also seen a very clear trend that the science parks abandon the idea of being strict geographical locations and become more of a function in the city. One issue that quite recently has been recognized, connected to science park development, is the potential they have as attracters of talented individuals. The starting point is, which goes in line with Richard Florida and his thoughts about the “Creative class”, that regions´ ability to attract firms and human capital is a key in their economic development. Talent individuals will undertake entrepreneurial activities and building values for the environment in which they are operating.

  • 13.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rasmussen, Einar
    Nord University Business School,Bodø, Norway.
    PhD Students in the Entrepreneurial University - Perceived Support for Academic Entrepreneurship2016Ingår i: European Journal of Education, ISSN 0141-8211, E-ISSN 1465-3435, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 56-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities are currently in the process of change and adaptation to shifting expectations that for example include closer engagement with businesses and increased facilitation of entrepreneurship among faculty and graduates. By supporting academic entrepreneurship, universities can address these expectations whilst also becoming more entrepreneurial institutions. However, more knowledge is needed on how this support provided by different levels in the university organisation is perceived by academics. This is particularly relevant in the case of PhD students because many of them will go on to become the next generation of senior faculty and because PhD education constitutes a considerable part of most universities’ activities with PhD students performing a large share of university research. Our study is based on survey responses of 464 PhD students from all faculties at one of the biggest universities in Sweden. The results show that the perceived support of commercialisation of research results varies at different hierarchical levels within the university. The score for perceived support from the highest level (central administration) did not differ much between the faculties, while significant differences were found at lower levels. We argue that variations between faculties and departments with regard to norms and cultures should be considered when stimulating entrepreneurial engagement, for example by using multiple channels of communication, as well as tailor-made strategies and activities.

  • 14.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Sten Gunnar
    Science parks - recruitment and development of talents2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Science parks have from the very beginning been important and valuable tools for the development of knowledge intensive economies. Most science parks have also strongly attracted talents, ideas, capital, R&D and firms. During the past decades we have witnessed a number of other structures and organisations being established, i.e. innovation hubs, clusters and so forth. We have also seen a very clear trend that the science parks abandon the idea of being strict geographical locations and become more of a function in the city. One issue that quite recently has been recognised, connected to science park development, is the potential they have as attracters of talented individuals. The starting point is, which goes in line with Richard Florida and his thoughts about the “Creative class”, that regions´ ability to attract firms and human capital is a key in their economical development. Talent individuals will undertake entrepreneurial activities and building values for the environment in which they are operating. This paper will describe and analyse the role that science parks could have when it comes to recruiting and developing talents within the region they are operating. More precisely we are interested in the following research questions: 1) What strategies are science parks using to stimulate the attraction of talents in order to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship for their stakeholders? 2) How are these strategies implemented? 3) Why (if so) and in what way have the strategies been successful?

  • 15.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundmark, Erik
    Macquarie University, Sydney.
    Supporting new spin-off ventures: experiences from a university start-up program2016Ingår i: Academic spin-offs and technology transfer in Europe: best practices and breakthrough models / [ed] Sven H. De Cleyn, Gunter Festel, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, s. 93-107Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entrepreneurial society (Audretsch, 2009a, 2009b), universities have two important tasks: first to generate new knowledge and then to facilitate its practical application. To create and disseminate knowledge is by no means a new objective for universities. Two things have changed however – there is higher demand on the practical relevance of university research, and the effective implementation of new knowledge is no longer seen as the sole responsibility of government and large corporations. Rather, it is new, often small, knowledge-intensive companies that are seen as important actors in putting new knowledge into practice (Audretsch, 2009a, 2009b; Lundmark, 2010). Universities are increasingly expected to encourage and facilitate such organizations through spin-offs and incubator activities. Some claim that the universities themselves should be entrepreneurial (Clark, 1998). The entrepreneurial university as a concept is wide and includes many aspects (Gibb and Hannon, 2006; European Commission and OECD, 2013), such as partnerships between universities, businesses and the public sector (Etzkowitz and Klofsten, 2005; Brulin et al., 2012), focus on the application of research (Etzkowitz, 2001) and support for entrepreneurship among employees and students (Etzkowitz, 2004). This chapter deals with the latter, more specifically, how universities can facilitate the creation of new knowledge-intensive firms and new business areas within established organizations through practice-oriented entrepreneurship programs. The chapter describes how the Entrepreneurship and New Business Program (ENP), which started at Linköping University in 1994, has evolved and spread to other parts of Sweden and Europe. The model underlying the program was developed at the Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIE) at Linköping University and the business network, Business Development in Linköping (SMIL).1 Over the years, the ENP has attracted more than 1,500 participants and generated around 500 new businesses. The case illustrates how entrepreneurship training at universities with relatively simple measures can stimulate entrepreneurial action and learning.

  • 16.
    Bank, Natasha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fichter, Klaus
    Oldenburg University, Germany.
    Sustainability-profiled incubators, regional factors and the recruiting of tenants2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses incubators that claim a sustainability approach and pays particular attention to their inflow of firms – tenant recruitment. We also discuss external environment influences on tenant recruitment to the incubator. A case study approach examined one sustainable incubator that was successful in exclusively targeting ideas with a sustainable, climate-oriented mission. The results show that regional and inter-regional cooperation, together with a well-planned, structured pre-incubation process, are requirements for securing an inflow of tenants to sustainable incubators. Success also dictates that sustainable incubators apply a generous, non-sector-specific intake approach so that as many entrepreneurs as possible enter the incubator process. Ventures with the greatest potential can then be sifted out from this pool over time. Another factor affecting whether an incubator reaches a critical mass of sustainable tenants is the external environment. Finally, we make some suggestions for demand-side legislation that would support sustainable business ideas and lead markets for climate-friendly solutions. Such legislation would encourage or discourage sustainable and less sustainable technologies, setting us one step closer to an ideally sustainable world.

  • 17.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design, Luleå University, Sweden.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design, Luleå University, Sweden.
    Cluster Initiatives within the European Context: Intermediary Actors and Development process2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster initiatives can be seen as intermediaries that drive networks among triple helix actors. This paper investigates how cluster initiatives intermediate within a triple helix context in terms of actors’ involvement and dependency patterns between their maturity and member enrolment. A sample of 253 European initiatives was contacted of which 136 (53%) responded. The results show that two factors influence attraction of new target members in cluster initiatives: namely age of the initiative and the presence of key players and support groups. Our findings lead to a number of implications for policymakers, such as the importance of long-term financing of well-functioning cluster initiatives despite their age.

  • 18.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Entrepreneurship2015Ingår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Quality and the Service Economy / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 204-210Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early1800s to over 30 years following World War II, a classical industrial economy dominated Europe and the US. In the 1980s, this classical form began to disintegrate, and new opportunities for the development of novel business forms began to appear. Classical thinking persisted in the aftermath of the Second World War in response to the need to rebuild economies ravaged during the struggle. The focus was on industrial and corporate management theories underlying the central role of large, multinational corporations, and it was some 30 years before the academic community began to show renewed interest in entrepreneurship theory. Numerous textbooks discuss the dominant lines of entrepreneurship theory, and many scholars have remarked on the need for a comprehensive theoretical framework of entrepreneurship that includes theoretical variables and the relationship between those variables. Entrepreneurship research has clearly had entrepreneurial processes, issues related to business opportunity concepts and firm creation as its main focus. Researchers appear to have not yet reached a consensus on a definition of entrepreneurship. Two approaches can be used to explore this issue. The first approach considers the historical progression of entrepreneurship theory while the second attempts to categorize the theories into groups based on specific lines of thinking. This entry shortly reviews these key theories and approaches in entrepreneurship with a main focus on the process approach. It also discusses, in line with the on-going debate, sustainability issues related to entrepreneurship. The chapter winds up with a discussion of the Klofsten’s “Business Platform Model” an example of a practical model for investigating and understanding early entrepreneurial development processes in firms and organizations.

  • 19.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Entrepreneurship support and sustainability focus within business incubators: a European study2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As societies strive to address current environmental challenges new markets and opportunities are opening up for both businesses and entrepreneurs implement sustainability within their operations. In a recent report by OECD (2013) it is noted that green entrepreneurs in general have to overcome higher barriers than other entrepreneurs, e.g. concerning regulations, immature markets and shortages of skills. Thus, one key question is how identification, evaluation and exploitation of business opportunities related to sustainable innovation and green business can be effectively supported by organizations such as business incubators. The aim of this study is to investigate business incubators in three European countries with the highest positions on European Union’s Eco-Innovation Scoreboard from 2014 (Finland, Germany, Sweden) with respect to how they manage sustainability aspects. More specifically, we are studying how sustainability in social and environmental terms is integrated into incubators’ processes for selection and support of their tenants. The data was collected through a survey where we reached the management of 360 business incubators in the three countries and received 96 responses. We show that there is substantial interest among incubators to gain an image of being sustainability-profiled. However, this image does not seem to be supported with practical organizational routines when selecting and supporting tenants. While the majority of incubators in Finland, Germany and Sweden consider sustainability an important issue for incubation, few incubators actually offer sustainability specific services or advice (e.g. related to ecodesign or marketing of green products). This is a clear gap in the existing entrepreneurship support system that should be addressed by policymakers, stakeholders and managers of incubators.

  • 20.
    de Cleyn, Sven
    et al.
    University of Antwerp, Belgium .
    Braet, Johan
    University of Antwerp, Belgium .
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How human capital interacts with the early development of academic spin-offs2015Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 599-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on venture team characteristics with respect to human capital dimensions in early stage ventures emerging from academic research (institutions). Three major groups have been investigated: founders, top managers and directors. Data was obtained using personal interviews with 185 product-oriented academic spin-offs in nine European countries, including those of 17 failures. The results show a significant positive—but diminishing—impact of team heterogeneity on venture success, as well as a positive impact from legal expertise within the board of directors. At management level, the results further indicate that larger management team are better equipped to face the challenges in academic spin-offs. Furthermore, the added value of serial entrepreneurs is questioned, since they seem to negatively impact a spin-off’s survival chances. Several implications are addressed, dealing with an appropriate team composition (on the levels of both top management and the board of directors) as well as the importance of paying attention to team development

  • 21.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Laur, Inessa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sölvell, Ingela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Success factors in cluster initiative management: Mapping out the ‘big five’2015Ingår i: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 65-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster development is prioritized in policy programmes as a means to facilitate regional growth and job creation. Triple Helix actors are often involved in so-called cluster initiatives – intermediary organizations having the objective of the development of a local or regional cluster. This paper maps out the ‘big five’ qualitative success factors in cluster initiative management: the idea; driving forces and commitment; activities; critical mass; and organization. The proposed framework enables the assessment of performance and sustainability over time, useful for both everyday management operations and policy programmes designed to support cluster initiatives.

  • 22.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Sustainable development in organizations2015Ingår i: Sustainable development in organizations: Studies on Innovative Practices / [ed] Elg, Mattias, Ellström, Per-Erik, Klofsten, Magnus, & Tillmar, Malin, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, s. 1-15Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Stanford University, USA.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    The permeable university: a study of PhD student mobility and academic entrepreneurship intentions2015Ingår i: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Elg, Mattias, Ellström, Per-Erik, Klofsten, Magnus, Tillmar, Malin, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, s. 262-274Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Macquarie University Sydney Australia.
    Lundmark, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Att stimulera entreprenörskap och lärande hos nya entreprenörer: Ett praktikfall2014Ingår i: Lärande i arbetslivet: möjligheter och utmaningar : en vänbok till Per-Erik Ellström / [ed] Henrik Kock, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2014, s. 198-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Entreprenörskap har de senaste tre decennierna fått en allt mer central roll på den politiska dagordningen liksom i samhället i stort (Acs, Audretsch, & Strom, 2009). Förändringen har varit så kraftig att vissa talar om att vi lever i det entreprenöriella samhället (Audretsch, 2009a; b; Lundmark, 2010). Det entreprenöriella samhället präglas av en snabb förändringstakt som drivs av globalisering, förbättrad informationsteknologi och genererandet av ny kunskap. Ny kunskap kommer ofta till genom forskning som bedrivs vid universitet. Kunskapen måste emellertid röra sig ut i samhället och in i organisationer som tillämpar den praktiskt för att göra nytta. Entreprenörskap är, i detta teoretiska ramverk, en viktig process som omsätter ny kunskap i praktisk handling.

    Sett ur detta perspektiv har universiteten viktiga uppgifter; först att generera ny kunskap och därefter omsätta den i praktiken. Att skapa och sprida kunskap är emellertid inte nya uppgifter för universiteten. Två saker har dock förändrats – det ställs större krav på praktisk relevans av forskningen och dess omsättning i praktiken lämnas inte längre till stat och storföretag utan nystartade kunskapsintensiva företag ses som en viktig pusselbit. Det talas om att universiteten ska vara entreprenöriella (Clark, 1998). Det entreprenöriella universitetet som koncept är vitt och innefattar många aspekter (Gibb & Hannon, 2006; European Commission & OECD, 2013) så som partnerskap mellan universitet, företag och offentlig verksamhet (Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005; Brulin, Ellström, & Svensson, 2012), fokus på nyttiggörande av forskning (Etzkowitz, 2001) och stödjande av entreprenörskap bland anställda och studenter (Etzkowitz, 2004). Detta kapitel behandlar det sistnämnda, mer specifikt – hur universitet kan stimulera till nya kunskapsintensiva företag och nya verksamhetsområden inom etablerade organisationer genom ett praktiskt orienterat entreprenörskapsprogram.

    Kapitlet beskriver hur Entreprenörskaps- och nyföretagarprogrammet (ENP), som startade vid Linköpings universitet 1994, har utvecklats och spridit sig till andra delar av Sverige och Europa. Modellen som programmet bygger på utvecklades vid Centrum för innovation och entreprenörskap (CIE) vid Linköpings universitet och företagsnätverket Företagsutveckling i Linköping (SMIL) . ENP har under årens lopp engagerat drygt 1 500 deltagare och genererat cirka 500 nya verksamheter. Praktikfallet illustrerar hur entreprenörskapsträning vid universitet med relativt enkla medel kan stimulera till entreprenöriella handlingar och lärande.

    Kapitlet inleds med en diskussion om vad som utgör entreprenörskap och vilka implikationer detta har för entreprenörskapsträning. Därefter presenterar vi en överblick av programmet, feedback från deltagare och en diskussion om vad som utgör viktiga framgångsfaktorer vid genomförande av entreprenörskapsprogram. Kapitlet avslutas med en summering av de viktigaste implikationerna och lärdomarna från åren med ENP.

  • 25.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cluster initiatives (CIs) within the european context: intermediary activities within triple helix  2014Ingår i: 18th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, 2014, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Lundmark, Erik
    et al.
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Linking individual-level knowledge sourcing to project-level contributions in large R&D-driven product-development projects2014Ingår i: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 73-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the link between individuals’ knowledge sourcing and their creative contributions, such as new ideas and solutions in R&D-driven product-devel- opment projects; creative contributions were both self and peer-assessed. The paper reveals that, for individuals, knowledge sources internal to the organization were generally regarded as more important than external knowledge sources. However, exter- nal parties such as customers, partners, and suppliers constitute the knowledge source that best predicted creative contributions at the project level. Informal external contacts were deemed the least important knowledge source by individuals; however, this was positively related to self-assessed creative contributions.The paper thus finds that there is a discrepancy between the knowledge sources deemed important by individuals and the sources that are associated with cre- ative contributions at the project level.

  • 27.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    et al.
    CIIR - Centre for Interorganisational Innovation Research, Luleå University of Technology Luleå, Sweden.
    Tham, Henry
    Ledningskonsult M Tham AB, Djursholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emilia
    Oxford Research AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Measuring impact from policy interventions: A theoretical and practical framework depicting structural change2014Ingår i: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 481-499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop dynamic regions characterized by business and industry generating meaningful jobs, an innovative climate building an attractive region, and infrastructure and a social welfare system enabling inhabitants to live “the good life” is the wet dream for most ambitious regions. Policy interventions generating development programs on local, regional, national and supra-national levels have been a standard prescription to secure the regional impact not always delivered by an unbridled market economy. The EU Structural Funds is one example of these kinds of policy-initiated measures designed to achieve functional structural change.....In order to address these questions, we have developed and tested a framework for measuring structural change initiated by policy interventions such as the EU Structural Funds. The framework builds upon previous research in different fields such as economics, regional science, sociology, economic history, entrepreneurship and innovation system research. The framework highlights six factors depicted as critical for understanding structural change and policy interventions aiming to stimulate such a change: (1) Changing the structure of regional business and industry, (2) Strengthening the regional culture for entrepreneurship and innovation, (3) Developing collaboration for development, (4) Building a more effective support structure, (5) Strengthening a region’s infrastructure, and (6) Developing an attractive and pluralistic region.

  • 28.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An Integrated Approach to Measuring the Development of High Technology Firms2013Ingår i: High Technology Entrepreneurship: A Festschrift for Ray Oakey / [ed] Peter van der Sijde, Gary Cook ,Ingrid Wakkee,Wim During and Aard Groen, Linköping: VU University Press , 2013, s. 53-69Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small high-technology firms are a central element in technological innovation and economic growth; as such, they have attracted the attention of scholars and practitioners. In the last 20 years Ray Oakey has become an undisputed authority in this field. This volume of conceptual and empirical studies provides an overview of Ray Oakey’s exceptional career and work and of the most important topics in the field of high-technology entrepreneurship. It discusses the intricate dynamics between entrepreneurs, venture, and networks, as well as the issue of university-entrepreneurship interactions and other forms of public private partnerships in the field of high technology. The present volume contains diverse contributions in terms of both the methodology applied—from case studies to large scale surveys—as well as the fields and countries investigated and the theoretical frameworks applied, reflecting the broad scope of Ray Oakey’s thinking and writing.

  • 29.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design, Luleå University, Sweden.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design, Luleå University, Sweden.
    European Cluster Initiatives: Intermediary Actors within the Triple Helix2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction 

    Intermediaries are important actors in the regional context, especially regarding linking various actors together in triple helix constellations (Leydesdorff & Etzkowitz 1998; Etzkowitz et al 2000). As organisations become more specialized, there arises a need for intermediaries that fill the gaps between firms, academia and policy actors. Nakwa et al (2012) have for example found that intermediaries have a vital role in promoting triple helix networks. They suggest that intermediaries have three particularly important roles: channeling resources to industry; brokering & linking triple helix actors; and boundary spanning through knowledge circulation facilitation.

    One type of intermediary organization that has grown in importance over the past decade is the so called cluster initiative (Ahedo, 2004). Cluster initiatives are organizations that visualize, explore and frame potential opportunities into useful middle-hands activities which become a formalized part of their portfolio. Through these activities they satisfy own and stakeholders’ needs, initiate joint networks between market actors, as well as promote technological and economic development territory of their location (Lundvall & Borras, 1997; Johannison & Lindholm Dahlstrand, 2009). On this basis they are sometimes characterized as “soft sides” of regional development (Simmie, 2004). One definition of the cluster initiative has recently been formulated by Ketels & Memedovic (2008) which state that it is an entity performing collaborative activities for different market actors to improve competitiveness of their region by creating interactive platforms and dialogues between the involved parties. Through performing such activities they aim to relate and connect actors to each other (Lagendijk & Cornford, 2000). Cluster initiatives are often rather small organizations employing just a few individuals, but are working in large networks and can attract various actors to their activities. This might enable them to be more flexible, fast-moving and efficient in realizing the real needs of stakeholders and members.

    Despite the emergence of a large number of cluster initiatives and their recognized importance in regional development, there are relatively few studies of this phenomenon. This subject also needs to be further explored in the context of the triple helix (Nakwa et al 2012).

    In this paper we will study how cluster initiatives stimulate regional development through their intermediating role within the triple helix. A specific interest is to analyze involvement of actors from different sectors and how it impacts provided resources and activities

    Method

    In this study 253 European cluster initiatives have been contacted during the autumn of 2012. Cluster initiatives from eight European countries (Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and United Kingdom) have been selected. In total 136 cluster initiatives representing all these countries answered our questionnaire (response rate 53%). The answers were collected mainly via structured interviews with leaders or central individuals from the cluster initiatives and in some cases via a web-based form. The interviews were conducted over the telephone and lasted for approximately 60 minutes. The questionnaire included 39 questions and was pilot-tested and modified before the main data collection. The main sections within the questionnaire dealt with general characteristics, types of actors involved, activities, tasks and resources. A number of tentative hypotheses have been formulated and have been tested on the collected data. These deal with following areas:

    1)      Actors’ involvement and roles in tasks such as formulation of strategy, provision of resources (both hard and soft), and organization of day-to-day activities

    2)      Influence of factors such as age, geographical scope and type of provided activities on the number of members participating in the cluster initiatives

    3)      Change and development of activities and composition of actors

    The collected data has been analyzed using SPSS and methods such as factor analysis and multiple regression.

    Findings

    Our preliminary findings suggest that a multitude of actors are involved in the strategic tasks of cluster initiatives, such as formulation of mission, vision and objectives. Meanwhile, the operative tasks are handled by internal staff of the cluster initiatives and to some extent external personnel.

    Although we found several intriguing results in predicting how cluster initiatives are able to attract members, we believe one such finding is that older and more established cluster initiatives tend to be better equipped for attracting more members, while younger cluster initiatives depend on having more committed sponsors/key players in order to be able to attract and maintain members.

    The data reveal significant changes in cluster initiatives over time. Regarding change, we found that many cluster initiatives increase the number of networking and marketing activities with time. We also found that the involvement of key players and support actors vary over time. We provide a tentative explanation for why time is important to consider in understanding the governance of cluster initiatives, and structuring the overall scope and service offering to effectively attract members from target groups.

    Conclusions and implications 

    In this study we have investigated how cluster initiatives stimulate regional development through their intermediating role within the triple helix. We have found that cluster initiatives are organized in a specific way as an intermediating actor. Three groups of actors are connected to a cluster initiative in different ways. There is a target group which most often consists of firms from a selected industry and/or region. Furthermore, there is a support group which can be made up of research as well as public sector organisations. Finally, cluster initiatives have one or several key players which can for example provide different type of resources and guarantee the long-term survival and development of the intermediary. The key player can be for example a university, municipality or another public sector organisation.

    One important conclusion from this paper is that many cluster initiatives have several key players from different sectors that all have influence on the strategy and operative activities of cluster initiatives. There are many advantages as well as disadvantages of being supported and governed by several key players. The advantages could probably be a more steady provision of necessary resources for long-term development and increased legitimacy towards all stakeholders. On the negative side, having several key players can provide complications for management of a cluster initiative, possibly reducing flexibility and degrees of freedom. There is also a risk for prolonged decision-making processes due to the multitude of actors involved. This could raise the question of whether there exist an optimal number of key players. Our data suggest that younger cluster initiatives potentially have a greater need for having several key players in order to establish themselves as a stable and trustworthy partner and overcome the “liability of newness” (Stinchcombe 1965). More mature cluster initiatives may be better off with fewer key players or key players that are aligned and share common visions and ideas on the development of the cluster initiative.

  • 30.
    Adli, Abouzeedan
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Institute of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Internetisation Management as a Facilitator for Managing Innovation in High Technology Smaller Firms2013Ingår i: Global Business Review, ISSN 0972-1509, E-ISSN 0973-0664, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 121-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing innovation in smaller firms imposes challenges of specific nature. Such challenges include: scarcity of resources for R&D and innovation activities, complexity of scientific fields, coordinating innovation activities with the operational functions of the firm and availability of access to up-to-date scientific excellence. A question of importance should be raised as to how one can use the recent development in information and communication technologies (ITCs) to meet these challenges and to facilitate innovation activities in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), specially the high- technology smaller firms (HTSFs), as these use innovation as their major competitive edge. In this conceptual paper we proposed using a newly introduced management paradigm, namely “internetisation management” to achieve the said. In the article we discussed the different challenges of innovation in HTSFs and how these challenges can be meet when adapting the internetisation management paradigm. The work shed the light on the need for a coupling between management and innovation studies in relation to SMEs while taking in consideration the e-globalized nature of the modern economy. It addresses in a more particular way HTSFs need for that coupling.

  • 31.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jones-Evana, Dylan
    University of Wales.
    Open learning within growing businesses2013Ingår i: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, E-ISSN 2046-9020, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 298-312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose—Understanding the factors behind successful enterprise policy interventions are critical in ensuring effective programme development. The aim of this paper is to analyse an academic-industry initiative in Sweden developed to support knowledge-intensive businesses in expanding their operations.

    Approach—This paper describes a case study of a specific policy intervention to facilitate further business growth and development. Since 1986, 490 individuals from 194 companies have attended the Business Development Programme (BDP) organised by Linköping University. Through analysing interviews with participants on the programme, the paper examines the origins and motivations behind its creation, management and development.

    Findings—This study finds that future policy interventions in enterprise development must cultivate an open style of learning, similar to the principles of open innovation, which engages directly with the participants, is based on a process of informality and flexibility, reflects the needs of the business and includes engaged programme leadership based on a successful entrepreneurial track record.

    Practical implications—The programme has succeeded through an informal, flexible and needs-orientated approach that essentially reflects the needs of the participating businesses.

    Value—Interventions that are targeted towards supporting established businesses could help to create wealth and employment. However, understanding the factors behind such interventions is critical in ensuring that policymakers design the most relevant programmes to assist support businesses that have the potential to grow.

  • 32.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rasmussen, Einar
    Bodø Graduate School of Business, University of Nordland, Norway.
    PhD students in the entrepreneurial university - a study of perceived supportiveness from the university context for academic entrepreneurship2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laur, Inessa
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sölvell, Ingela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Success Factors in Cluster Initiative Management2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34. de Cleyn, Sven
    et al.
    Braet, Johan
    Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Enheten för historia. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    What Can We Learn from Academic Spin-Off Failures? Insights from Five Cases2013Ingår i: New technology-based firms in the new millennium. Vol. 9 / [ed] Aard Groen, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, s. 197-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's academic literature on new technology-based firms is rather growth and success-oriented, despite the fact that many valuable lessons can be learned from failures. This study aims at contributing to our understanding of failure processes by documenting five case studies of spin-offs that originated from European universities. Within the framework of the resource-based view of the firm and social capital theory, the venture's resource base is used as a central element in explaining the failures through the presence ...

  • 35.
    Svensson, Peter
    et al.
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Human Sciences and Technologies Advanced Research Institute (H-STAR), Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
    An Entrepreneurial University Strategy for Renewing a Declining Industrial City: The Norrköping Way2012Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 505-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Norrköping, a small urban area formerly dependent upon old labour-intensive industries, has developed a knowledge-based renewal strategy inspired by ideas emanating from its superseded local economy. Using a longitudinal case study, this paper explicates the dynamics of change among a triple helix of university, industry and government actors that involved building consensus within the city and with its neighbouring city of Linko ̈ping. The keys to success have been cross-institutional entrepreneurship, aggregating regional and national resources to realize a unique, locally generated strategy rather than adopting the usual list of hot high-tech topics such as information technology, biotechnology or alternative energy, and striking a balance between intra-regional competition and collaboration in order to achieve common objectives and avoid any stasis arising from hyper-competitiveness. This paper utilizes a triple-helix “spaces” framework and makes comparisons with other relevant cases to develop a theoretical model of regional renewal through the hybridization of old and new industrial and knowledge elements.

  • 36.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Catching regional development dreams: a study of cluster initiatives as intermediaries2012Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 1909-1921Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on actors and activities of cluster initiatives which are intermediaries within clusters of similar and related firms. A case study method is used; the cases show that their success and longevity depend to a large extent on their actors sharing a common vision. It is proposed that actors involved in cluster initiatives can be categorised according to a typology consisting of key players, target and support groups. Managing cluster initiatives requires striking a balance between well-developed and anchored targeted activities and experimental activities exploring future needs. This requires some openness and flexibility within the shared vision. Cluster initiatives can therefore be viewed as dream-catchers that rather than control and govern the clusters perform a more subtle role of gathering and visualizing potential opportunities in regional contexts and articulating and realizing them through an entrepreneurial process.

  • 37.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Öberg, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Coaching versus mentoring: Are there any differences?2012Ingår i: New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium / [ed] Aard Groen, Ray Oakey, Peter Van Der Sijde, Gary Cook, Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, s. 39-47Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the latest edition of an international edited book series based on the formation and growth problems of High Technology Small Firms (HTSFs) begun in 1993. This body of work is unique, and maps the evolution of research in this area through almost two decades of academic research and government policy towards a sector that is the key to future prosperity of developed and developing notational economies throughout the world. In this the latest Volume, there is one major and two subsidiary themes that have emerged from the best papers to be presented at the HTSF Conference held at the University of Twente at Enshede in May 2008. Following a contextual introduction by the editors, seven of the chapter are concerned with the key issue of strategy, which is always a key concern for HTSFs as they seek to find the best way to getting their products to the market. Indeed, a further two papers are concerned with the requirements of international marketing, while a final three papers deal with aspects of education for HTSF founders.

  • 38.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Creating entrepreneurial networks: academic entrepreneurship, mobility and collaboration during PhD education2012Ingår i: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 207-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Network-building activities of PhD students are an important area of study in furthering our understanding of academic entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on PhD students’ participation in network-building activities defined as mobility and collaboration, as well as own interest in and perceived grade of support for commercialisation from various levels of the university hierarchy. The results of a large-scale survey (of 1,126 PhD students at Linköping University, Sweden, 41% response rate) presented here show that the majority of PhD students are engaged in collaborations with external organisations, though quite few (one quarter) have spent a part of their PhD education outside their home university. PhD students from all faculties are on average interested in commercialisation and in favour of it. However, PhD students from the faculty of Health Sciences state that it is difficult for them to combine research and commercialisation. Furthermore, interest in commercialisation of research results is relatively lowest amongst those PhD students who are undertaking mobility placements at other universities, thus pointing to an experienced incompatibility of research and academic entrepreneurship.

  • 39.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hedner, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Implementing the SIV Model on an Intensively Innovation-Oriented Firm: The Case of Autoadapt AB2012Ingår i: World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 2042-5961, Vol. 8, nr 2/3, s. 122-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) evaluation models lack a clear coupling to innovation and its impact on firm performance. A model which can achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate and predict the performance of a company. The firm, Autoadapt AB, is an innovation-oriented enterprise, adapting personal cars to be driven by handicapped people. The authors knew in advance about the good performance of the firm and its high efficiency in conducting its operations and expected the SIV model to reflect correctly on Autoadapt's performance. Because the handicap degree of each of the individuals who benefit from the firm activities differs from one person to another, product solutions have to be individually designed. Therefore the firm has had to pursue a high level of innovativeness and it had to abide with this policy right from the start. The product development processes in the firm needed to adapt to such strategies.

    To be able to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive performance due to the intensive innovation activities of Autoadapt AB, a case study approach was used. Case studies are very suited for in-depth analysis of an object under a longer period of time. It is a widely-used research method in firm performance studies.

    The results of the SIV analysis indicated that the model is able to project correctly the performance of the object firm. At all the four levels of analysis, i.e. SI values, the SPI slope, the survival factors, and the survivability coefficients, the SIV analysis performance indicated a stable positive development of the firm through the life time of the enterprise.

    Measuring performance of SMEs is an important issue. There are couple of models stemming from the traditional accountancy disciplines in use; however these models suffer from clear disadvantages. Recently a new model, the SIV model, was introduced and has shown the ability of being a better candidate for performance analysis. The paper demonstrates the ability of the SIV model to judge correctly the performance of an innovative firm.

  • 40.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Dermafol AB, Sundsvall.
    Edgar, Boo
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet och ­Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Olausson, Michael
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Lind, Lars
    Yield Life Science AB.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stora förändringar i den globala läkemedelsindustrin2012Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 109, nr 7, s. 324-325Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala läkemedelsindustrin är under kraftig för- ändring. Under de senaste tio åren har 300 000 arbets- tillfällen lagts ner i »Big Pharma«. I stället utvecklas mindre, kreativa och »öppna« innovationsnätverk och organisationsstrukturer för att ta fram nya läkemedel, skriver Thomas Hedner och medförfattare.

  • 41.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model2011Ingår i: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, s. 170-179Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

  • 42.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    "Cluster-like organizations as intermediaries"2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Clusters started recently became to be called as the “fuels” for national economic growth (Audretsh, 2000). They are seen as drivers for entrepreneurship and innovation through assisting firms with complementary competencies and creating arenas for collaborations (Oakey, 2007; Porter, 2000). Clusters combine different types of actors by providing linkages between them. Similar approach is raised in the Triple Helix model. These models highlight importance of variety of relations within clusters. The diversity of actors leads to the need for organizations specializing in intermediating between them.  This is what we call a cluster-like organization – an organization that operate within a cluster and intermediate between different actors with a certain aim. They could be very small but in the same time take advantage of the size and resources of a cluster (c.f. Kaiser, 2003; Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff , 1998; Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005). In this paper we approach cluster-like organizations as intermediaries, which “go in between” others to fulfill a certain need for their stakeholders. However, there are very few studies about cluster-like organizations as intermediaries and relatively little knowledge about how they operate in this particular role. This study therefore addresses the issue of the intermediating roles within various types of cluster-like organizations and provides answers on questions in what way clusters intermediate, which actors involved in this process and how such cluster role was developed.

  • 43.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    et al.
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Wolf, Roland
    AMS Advanced Medical Services GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Olausson, Michael
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Decision-making in the pharmaceutical industry: analysis of entrepreneurial risk and attitude using uncertain information2011Ingår i: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 321-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate judgments made by employees from the pharmaceutical industry and allied health-care sectors in a set of four different drug discovery and development cases derived from real scenarios. Each case study related to go/no-go decisions taken from various steps in drug discovery through preclinical and clinical development (investigational new drug) on to market introduction (new drug application) and treatment of the target population. Using a web-based questionnaire, 52 respondents made five sets of judgment within each drug case whether to continue or halt further project development. For each case, additional details of the developmental scenario were disclosed to the respondent after completion of each judgment response. We also assessed to what extent the individual judgments given by the respondents were influenced by work experience and functional role, education, or their perceived entrepreneurial character. Our study demonstrates that health-care employees differ substantially in their individual intuitive judgments of benefit and risk in go/no-go decisions during the drug discovery and development process. This lack of coherence and wide variability with respect to the drug development cases selected may reflect judgment in the real world. Such judgments are usually taken from incomplete information, and individual decision-making rules vary substantially between experts in the field. Further knowledge about this inherent human functional judgment variability may be helpful to form a better understanding of individual decision-making in relation to inherent uncertainties. Additional research may also clarify how personal experience within drug discovery and development influences judgment and help to optimize decision outcomes in the drug development sector. Importantly, a deeper insight of the fundamentals and rules that shape individual and group decision-making of everyday drug discovery and development may help to optimize the decision processes in the pharmaceutical industry.

  • 44.
    Frykfors, Carl-Otto
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Emergence of the Swedish Innovation Systemand the Support for Regional Entrepreneurship: A Socio-Economic Perspective2011Ingår i: Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship: Global Experience in Policy and ProgramDevelopment / [ed] Mian, S.A. Edward Elgar, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and the shift towards knowledge a major source of competitiveness have rendered traditional policy instruments less effective. Traditional economic/industrial policies can no longer guarantee high growth and employment, certainly not for all countries and regions. System failure and a more systemic view on innovation and science and technology development as an integral system is often seen as a more appropriated way. This chapter gives a broad overview of the development of the Swedish innovation system that served Sweden as an industrial advanced country well for more than 100 years and current policy shift in search for a new R&D and innovation model towards a knowledge driven entrepreneurial economy. The thesis brought forward is that a basic understanding of the structure and the development of the Swedish innovation system and the shift require an understanding of the importance of ”la longue durée” and of innovative technology procurement by “development pairs” as a regime for innovation policy and entrepreneurial growth. An interplay between economic, technological and governance drivers has led to radical change of the prevalent model during the last decades. To some extent the established model became a victim of a tandem effect from globalisation and deregulation. The most important consequence was that a new order that is transactional in character replaced the old model that was basically relational.

  • 45.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg Sweden.
    Maack, Karl
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Emerging Open Models and Concepts of Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Sector2011Ingår i: Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2071-1395, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 5-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-tech innovation in a number of emerging and rapidly changing areas such as the pharmaceutical and bio-tech sectors, show signs of a movement from a closed to a more open innovation paradigm. This is primarily due to the possibility of rapid and unlimited communication through the Internet and the www, the increasing global availability of experts, the international reach of the venture capital market, as well as the increasing possibility and interest of external suppliers and interest groups to participate in new product and service development. As a result of this, novel forms of multisource open and user innovation models such as crowd-sourcing and crowd-casting are currently emerging. These new innovation concepts are based on global open innovation and development communities have emerged in several fields of science and business, such as e.g. in the information technologies and bio-medicine. Crowd sourcing and crowd casting are innovation concepts that are based on loosely formed groups of customers, users, scientific communities, or groups of experts who form and collectively shape product or process innovations within a specific innovation field or sector. These open platforms are altering and reforming previously closed innovation concepts to become more open, capable, innovative and cost-effective by using the "wisdom-of-crowds" concept.

    This paper describes different formats and potential ways by which emerging open multisource innovation paradigms may alter the pharmaceutical innovation and value creation process in the future. The paper is focusing on how the involvement of a variety of market actors, such as academics, innovators and entrepreneurs, pharmaceutical industry employees, patient advocacy groups, medical professional organizations, hospitals and insurance companies, will influence the common biomedical innovation process and product - market platform. The paper will also introduce a range of new innovation concepts and paradigms by discussing various emerging models of multi-source and open innovator platforms.

  • 46.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    et al.
    Inno AG, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krüger, Lars
    Engage – Key Technology Ventures AG, Rostock / Germany.
    F2C – An Innovative Approach to Use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) for the Valuation of High-Technology Ventures2011Ingår i: Communications of the IBIMA, ISSN 1943-7765, E-ISSN 1943-7765, Vol. 2011, nr Article ID 483882, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel method - F2C - that can process the only information available in the early stages of a young high-technology venture: linguistic expert knowledge. This knowledge is the basis for the determination of an appropriate discount rate for the valuation of high-technology ventures in early stages of venture capital investments. A specific tool named Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) is used therein to capture and depict the expert knowledge. Consequently, the FCM is transformed into a system of Fuzzy Inference Systems. These systems allow eventually obtaining a crisp value for the crucial parameter, the discount rate r. First practical applications were carried out valuing a biotechnology venture. The obtained results are promising, though the need for further research efforts became obvious.

  • 47.
    De Cleyn, Sven
    et al.
    University of Antwerp.
    Braet, Johan
    University of Antwerp.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How Do Human and Social Capital Contribute to the Early Development of Academic Spin-Off Ventures2011Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Zacharakis, A., et al, Boston: The Arthur Blank Center for Entrepreneurship , 2011, -, s. 567-581Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on venture team characteristics with respect to human and social capital dimensions. Three major groups have been investigated such as founders, top management and board of directors. Data have been obtained using personal interviews with 185 product-oriented academic spin-offs within nine European countries. The results show a significant positive but diminishing impact of team heterogeneity on venture success, as well as a positive impact from legal expertise in the board of directors. Several implications are addressed dealing with an appropriate team composition, on both top management and board of director level as well as the importance to pay attention to the team development process.

  • 48.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    "Intermediary function of cluster-like organizations"2011Ingår i: / [ed] Ray Oakey, Manchester, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Remneland, Björn
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Open Innovation in the Biomedical Sector - An Alternative Approach to Organizational Value Extraction2011Ingår i: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2011 / [ed] A. Ahmed and M. Busler, 2011, s. 31-25Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Open innovation is a phenomenon gaining momentum amung pharmaceutical companies, university research consortia and other for-profit and non-profit organizations in order to address increasingly complex, uncertain and changing R&D projects. In medicine, open innovation projects may provide incentives for creativity, adaptability and easier access to knowledge as well as to generate quicker and cheaper innovation cycles for defined products and services. Also, projects and products may be better adjusted to the markets and provide flexible cost structures in developed as well as developing countries. There are today growing efforts for nonprofit foundations to participate and establish co-operation in complex research and development efforts such as bringing new medical drugs or new technology to public use. Interestingly, such incentives might open up for new and creative open innovation models. In this paper, we discuss how the open innovation model differs from the classical closed innovation model in respect tOj type of project, organizing aspects and value creation and value extraction aspects. We also illustrate 3 different value extraction concepts relating to open innovation in the pharmaceutical sector, representing different strategies and degrees of openness; the Medicine for Malaria Venture (MMV); InnovationXchange; and InnoCentive. Further, we discuss how the term "openness" can be understood in levels; in terms of the extent of control a collective upholds for ownership as well as the access and utilization of platform content that is jointly aggregated, created and developed. Collective innovation can be described as; open for all (openness with little, or no, limitations); open IP groups (openness within R&D groups); open IP projects (openness within R&D collaboration projects); open IP communities (openness within certain communities); and open IP platforms (structural arenas for openness). Our case examples illustrate how open innovation networks may provide new possibilities to generate value from academic - industrial networks. However, the open innovation model builds on involvement from a variety of external sources, such as independent researchers and experts, R&D institutes, universities and contract research organizations, customers, partner companies or even competitors. In the transition from a closed to an open innovation model, the pharmaceutical industry needs to develop flexible boundaries to allow a creative exchange of knowledge and experience from the outside to the inside of their organisation.

  • 50.
    Brulin, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Arbete och arbetsliv. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kloftsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Arbete och arbetsliv. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Policy Programmes to promote Entrepreneurship and Innovation: A study of the art, design and impact issues2011Ingår i: Proceedings of 56:th ISCB world conference, 2011, s. 1-11Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe 2020 strategy EU puts forward three mutually reinforcing priorities smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. A main driving force are innovation programmes. Our understanding of programme-drivingwill always be tentative but can be improved. Analysis of programmedriving provides an alternative way of tackling the problem. It is an approach that enhances the understanding – contextually, practically and theoretically. Rather than heading for final, concrete and onedimensionaloften quantitative knowledge we should get used to the fact that our understanding always will be fragmentary and imperfect though, on a higher level! Knowledge on innovation programme-driving should improve innovation institutions/practices/ethos in different respects.

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