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  • 1.
    Ramö Isgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Adolescents Compared with Normal Weight Adolescents and Low Risk Adults2019Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, ISSN 1083-3188, E-ISSN 1873-4332, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 139-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objective: To evaluate the association between maternal body mass index and neonatal outcomes in adolescents and to compare neonatal outcomes between overweight and obese adolescents and obstetric low-risk adult women. Design: Retrospective cohort study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Setting: Sweden. Participants: All 31,386 primiparous adolescents younger than 20 years of age and 178,844 "standard" women, defined as normal weight, obstetric low-risk adult women who delivered between 1992 and 2013. The adolescents were categorized according to weight and height in early pregnancy into body mass index groups according to the World Health Organization classification. Logistic regression models were used. Interventions and Main Outcome Measures: Neonatal outcomes in relation to maternal body mass index groups. Results: In the adolescents, 6109/31,386 (19.5%) and 2287/31,386 (7.3%) were overweight and obese, respectively. Compared with normal weight adolescents, overweight adolescents had a lower risk of having small for gestational age neonates, and higher risks for having neonates with macrosomia, and being large for gestational age and with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. The obese adolescents had increased risk for having neonates being large for gestational age (3.8% vs 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.30-3.84]), with macrosomia ( amp;gt;4500 g) (4.6% vs 1.4%; aOR, 2.95 [95% CI, 2.33-3.73]), and with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes (2.2% vs 1.1%; aOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.43-2.76]) than normal weight adolescents. Compared with the standard women, overweight and obese adolescents had overall more adverse neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Overweight and obese adolescents had predominantly increased risks for adverse neonatal outcomes compared with normal weight adolescents and standard women.

  • 2.
    Pihl, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Uustal Fornell, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Anovaginal distance and obstetric anal sphincter injury: a prospective observational study2019Ingår i: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 939-944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Hypothesis

    No measurements are available for diagnosing the extent of obstetric lacerations. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the anovaginal distance (AVD) measured with transperineal ultrasound immediately after delivery and external anal sphincter injury. A secondary aim was to assess whether the palpated perineal thickness was associated with the AVD.

    Methods

    A prospective observational study of 150 primiparous women at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden. After vaginal delivery, initial inspection and palpation of the perineal thickness were performed by the midwife. The women were then divided into subgroups depending on the degree of the suspected perineal laceration. Transperineal ultrasound of the AVD was performed by a physician. Diagnostics of the perineal laceration were done according to standard care.

    Results

    Women with an external sphincter injury had a shorter AVD and shorter palpatory perineal thickness compared with women without anal sphincter injury. No external sphincter injuries were diagnosed when the AVD and/or palpation height was > 20 mm. The mean AVD in the group with probable second-degree laceration (n = 85) was 18.8 mm (95% CI 17.8–19.8), in suspected third-degree laceration (n = 33) 15.7 mm (95% CI 13.7–17.7) and in probable third-degree laceration (n = 32) 11.8 mm (95% CI 9.7–13.9) (p < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    A short AVD could be a warning sign postpartum and should increase the awareness of possible external sphincter injury before suturing. An AVD of 20 mm seems to indicate a cutoff level of the occurrence of external sphincter injury, but this needs further evaluation.

  • 3.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Myrgård, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wallberg, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Pregnant womens intention to breastfeed; their estimated extent and duration of the forthcoming breastfeeding in relation to the actual breastfeeding in the first year postpartum-A Swedish cohort study2019Ingår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 76, s. 102-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the prenatal intention to breastfeed and the estimated extent and duration of the forthcoming breastfeeding among nulliparous and multiparous women in different Body Mass Index (BMI) classes. Furthermore, in a sub-group we study the actual breastfeeding in relation to the prenatal intended extent and duration. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 775 pregnant women answered a questionnaire concerning their intention to breastfeed and how they estimated the extent and duration of the forthcoming breastfeeding. In a sub-group of 174 women, data from the actual breastfeeding were obtained. Findings: There was no difference concerning intention to breastfeed among underweight and normal weight women, overweight or obese nulliparous or multiparous women. Fewer multiparous women with BMI amp;lt;25 judged that the forthcoming breastfeeding would be partial, compared to multiparous women with overweight and obesity (p = 0.003). Furthermore, there was a significant difference within the group of nulliparous women concerning the prenatal intended extent and the actual breastfeeding at two weeks and five months postnatally (p = 0.000 and p = 0.041). There were more underweight and normal weight and overweight women who breastfed exclusively two weeks postnatally, compared with obese women. Additional, at five months postnatally there were more obese women who had ceased to breastfeed, than underweight and normal weight women. Conclusions: Among pregnant multiparous women there were more overweight and obese women who judged that the forthcoming breastfeeding would be partial, than pregnant underweight and normal weight women. The prenatal estimated extent of the forthcoming breastfeeding differed from the actually extent of breastfeeding among nulliparous women. Implications for practice: The antenatal breastfeeding information and education should be tailored to prepare every woman/couple, irrespective of maternal body composition for the forthcoming task and furthermore, the continuum of care, from antenatal care to Child Health Service should offer a supportive atmosphere to protect and promote breastfeeding (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Lundgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Physiology , Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wanby, Anna-Stina
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Kalmar County Hospital , Kalmar , Sweden.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Ante- and intrapartum risk factors for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy2018Ingår i: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1476-7058, E-ISSN 1476-4954, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 1595-1601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify obstetrical risk factors for the diagnosis of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A secondary aim was to determine the incidence of HIE.

  • 5.
    Baldvinsdottir, Tinna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage-An observational study of practical obstetric team training2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikel-id e0203806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the most common obstetric emergency. A well-established postpartum haemorrhage protocol in the labour ward is crucial for effective treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate if practical obstetric team training improves the patient outcome and clinical management of PPH. Setting The practical obstetric team training (PROBE) at Linkoping University Hospital, Sweden, with approximate 3000 deliveries annually, was studied between the years of 2004-2011. Each team consisted of one or two midwives, one obstetrician or one junior doctor and one nurse assistant. Emergency obstetrics cases were trained in a simulation setting. PROBE was scheduled during work hours at an interval of 1.5 years. Population Pre-PROBE women (N = 419 were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2004-2007 with an estimated blood loss of amp;gt;= 1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. Post-PROBE women (N = 483) were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2008-2011 with an estimated blood loss of amp;gt;= 1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. The two groups were compared regarding blood loss parameters and management variables using retrospective data from medical records. Results No difference was observed in estimated blood loss, haemoglobin level, blood transfusions or the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage between the two groups. Post-PROBE women had more often secured venous access (pamp;lt;0.001), monitoring of vital signs (pamp;lt;0.001) and received fluid resuscitation (pamp;lt;0.001) compared to pre-PROBE women. The use of uterine massage was also more common among the post-PROBE women compared with the pre-PROBE women (pamp;lt;0.001). Conclusion PROBE improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage in the labour ward. These new findings may have clinical implications since they confirm that training was effective concerning the management of postpartum haemorrhage. However, there is still no clear evidence that simulation training improve patient outcome in women with PPH.

  • 6.
    Pihl, Sofia
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Uustal, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Hjertberg, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Interobserver agreement in perineal ultrasound measurement of the anovaginal distance: a methodological study2018Ingår i: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 697-701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective outcome measures of the extent of laceration at delivery are needed. In this study we evaluated and describe here a method for learning perineal ultrasound measurement of the anovaginal distance (AVD). The learning period needed for examiners proficient in vaginal ultrasound examination and the interobserver agreement after reaching proficiency in AVD measurement were determined. The hypothesis was that the method is feasible to learn and reproducible for use in further research. The method was taught by an examiner experienced in perineal ultrasonography. The distance between the mucosal margin of the internal anal sphincter was measured with a vaginal probe. The studied examiners measured the AVD until similar results (+/- 5 mm) were achieved. The AVD in 40 women was then measured and documented by two examiners who were blinded to each others results. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the kappa score. Examiners with previous experience in vaginal ultrasonography had learned the method after performing five sets of comeasurements. The AVD measurements after the learning period showed almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.87) between the examiners. The method for perineal ultrasound measurement of AVD was learned quickly with high interobserver agreement. The method is feasible to learn and reproducible for use in further research.

  • 7.
    Hjertberg, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Uustal, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Pihl, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal Body Mass Index and Anovaginal Distance in Active Phase of Term Labor2018Ingår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikel-id 1532949Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. To evaluate if there was a difference in the anovaginal distance (AVD) measured by transperineal ultrasound between obese and normal weight women. Material and Methods. A prospective observational study including 207 primiparous women at term in first stage of labor. Transperineal ultrasound with a vaginal probe was used to measure the AVD. Maternal, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics potentially associated with perineal thickness were extracted from womans medical records. The participants were divided into three BMI groups based on maternal weight in early pregnancy: normal weight (BMI amp;lt; 25), overweight (BMI 25-29.9), and obesity (BMI amp;gt;= 30). Obese and overweight women were compared with normal weight women regarding the AVD. Results. The mean AVD was 24.3, 24.9, and 27.0 mm in the normal weight, overweight, and obesity group, respectively. There were no group differences in background characteristics. The AVD was significantly longer in obese women compared with normal weight women (p = 0.018). Conclusions. The observed longer AVD in obese women might be protective of the anal sphincter complex, explaining lower rates of anal sphincter injuries in this group. Further studies are indicated to evaluate whether the length of the AVD plays a role in the risk assessment of obstetric anal sphincter injury.

  • 8.
    Carlhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Källén, Karin
    Institution of Clinical Sciences Lund, Center for Reproductive Epidemiology, Tornblad Institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal plasma leptin levels in relation to the duration of the active phase of labor2018Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 97, nr 10, s. 1248-1256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction Obese women have increased leptin levels and longer duration of labor compared with normal-weight women. Leptin has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractility in vitro. Our purpose was to examine whether maternal leptin levels in active labor were associated with the duration of the active phase of labor. Material and methods This prospective cohort study included 914 women. Maternal blood samples were collected in active labor. The plasma-leptin concentration was obtained using a direct sandwich-based ELISA. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to study the association between leptin levels and the duration of labor. Results A 1 ng/mL increase in maternal plasma leptin was associated with a 0.015 hour increase in duration of labor (P < .007). This association was not statistically significant in the adjusted analyses nor when analyzing nulliparous and multiparous women separately. In women with spontaneous labor (n = 766) leptin levels were not associated with an increase in duration of labor in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions There was no significant association between leptin levels and duration of the active phase of labor. Leptin in vivo might display a similar dose-response effect on myometrial contractility as demonstrated in in vitro studies. Future studies need to explore the association between leptin levels and time in labor in obese women with high leptin levels to evaluate a possible dose-response effect.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Postpartum infection in relation to maternal characteristics, obstetric interventions and complications2018Ingår i: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 271-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between maternal characteristics, obstetrical interventions/complications and postpartum wound infections (WI), urinary tract infection (UTI) and endometritis. Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the time from delivery to onset of infections after discharge from the hospital. Three large Swedish Medical Health Registers were scrutinized for the period 2005-2012. A total of 582,576 women had 795,072 deliveries. Women with diagnosis codes for WIs, UTIs or endometritis, from delivery to 8 weeks postpartum, were compared to non-infected women. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Increasing age and body mass index (BMI) were both associated with increasing prevalence of postpartum infections. WIs were most strongly associated with cesarean section (CS) (OR 17.2; 95% CI 16.1-18.3), 3rd and 4th degree tears (OR 10.7%; 95% CI 9.80-11.9) and episiotomy (OR 10.2; 95% CI 8.94-11.5). Endometritis was associated with anemia (OR 3.16; 95% CI 3.01-3.31) and manual placental removal (OR 2.72; 95% CI 2.51-2.95). UTI was associated with emergency CS (OR 3.46; 95% CI 3.07-3.89) and instrumental delivery (OR 3.70; 95% CI 3.29-4.16). For women discharged from the delivery hospital the peak occurrence of UTI was 6 days postpartum, while for WIs and endometritis it was 7 days postpartum.

  • 10.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nelson, Marie
    Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Ten years of simulation-based shoulder dystocia training-impact on obstetric outcome, clinical management, staff confidence, and the pedagogical practice - a time series study2018Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, artikel-id 361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To assess the impact of 10 years of simulation-based shoulder dystocia training on clinical outcomes, staff confidence, management, and to scrutinize the characteristics of the pedagogical practice of the simulation training. Methods: In 2008, a simulation-based team-training program (PROBE) was introduced at a medium sized delivery unit in Linkoping, Sweden. Data concerning maternal characteristics, management, and obstetric outcomes was compared between three groups; prePROBE (before PROBE was introduced, 2004-2007), early postPROBE (2008-2011) and late postPROBE (2012-2015). Staff responded to an electronic questionnaire, which included questions about self-confidence and perceived sense of security in acute obstetrical situations. Empirical data from the pedagogical practice was gathered through observational field notes of video-recordings of maternity care teams participating in simulation exercises and was further analyzed using collaborative video analysis. Results: The number of diagnosed shoulder dystocia increased from 0.9/1000 prePROBE to 1.8 and 2.5/1000 postPROBE. There were no differences in maternal characteristics between the groups. The rate of brachial plexus injuries in deliveries complicated with shoulder dystocia was 73% prePROBE compared to 17% in the late postPROBE group (p amp;gt; 0.05). The dominant maneuver to solve the shoulder dystocia changed from posterior arm extraction to internal rotation of the anterior shoulder between the pre and postPROBE groups. The staff questionnaire showed how the majority of the staff (48-62%) felt more confident when handling a shoulder dystocia after PROBE training. A model of facilitating relational reflection adopted seems to provide ways of keeping the collaboration and learning in the interprofessional team clearly focused. Conclusions: To introduce and sustain a shoulder dystocia training program for delivery staff improved clinical outcome. The impaired management and outcome of this rare, emergent and unexpectedly event might be explained by the learning effect in the debriefing model, clearly focused on the team and related to daily clinical practice.

  • 11.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Dags att implementera nya rön om graviditetsdiabetes2017Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Maternal obesity, obstetric interventions and post-partum anaemia increase the risk of post-partum sepsis: a population-based cohort study based on Swedish medical health registers2017Ingår i: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 49, nr 10, s. 765-771Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to estimate whether maternal obesity and/or obstetric interventions are associated with diagnosed maternal post-partum sepsis. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study including all deliveries in Sweden between 1997 and 2012 (N=1,558,752). Cases of sepsis (n=376) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, (ICD-10) codes A40, A41 and O 85 in the Medical Birth Register and the National Patient Register. The reference population was non-infected, and therefore, women with any other infection diagnosis and/or with dispensed antibiotics within eight weeks post-partum were excluded. Information on dispensed drugs was available in the prescribed drug Register. Women with sepsis were compared with non-infected women concerning maternal characteristics and obstetric interventions. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were determined using the Mantel-Haenszel technique. Adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and smoking. Results: Obese women (body mass index 30) had a doubled risk of sepsis (3.6/10,000) compared with normal weight women (2.0/10,000) (aOR 1.85 (95%CI: 1.37-2.48)). Induction of labour (aOR 1.44 (95%CI: 1.09-1.91)), caesarean section overall (aOR 3.06 (95%CI: 2.49-3.77)) and elective caesarean section (aOR 2.41 (95%CI: 1.68-3.45)) increased the risk of sepsis compared with normal vaginal delivery. Post-partum anaemia due to acute blood loss was associated with maternal sepsis (aOR 3.40 (95%CI: 2.59-4.47)). Conclusions: Maternal obesity, obstetric interventions and post-partum anaemia due to acute blood loss increased the risk of diagnosed post-partum sepsis indicating that interventions in obstetric care should be considered carefully and anaemia should be treated if resources are available.

  • 13.
    Ramö Isgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Obstetric Outcomes in Adolescents Related to Body Mass Index and Compared with Low-Risk Adult Women2017Ingår i: Journal of Women's Health, ISSN 1540-9996, E-ISSN 1931-843X, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 426-434Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate in adolescents the association between body mass index (BMI) and obstetric outcomes and to determine whether the outcomes in the BMI groups of adolescents differ from those of a low-risk population of adult women. Materials and Methods: This is a nationwide population-based register study. Obstetric outcomes of 31,386 singleton primiparous adolescents were evaluated in relation to BMI classes. Furthermore, the outcomes of the adolescents and 178,844 normal weight, nonsmoking, singleton primiparous women, 25-29 years old with no known comorbidity, defined as standard women, were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were used. Results are presented as crude odds ratios (ORs) or adjusted ORs and with a 95% confidence interval. Results: Compared with normal weight adolescents, obese adolescents had a lower chance of a normal vaginal delivery (VD)76% versus 85% [adjusted OR 0.61 (0.55-0.68)], a higher risk for acute cesarean section (CS)8.9% versus 4.5% [adjusted OR 2.45 (2.08-2.88)], and stillbirth0.7% versus 0.2% [adjusted OR 3.17 (1.74-5.77)]. Compared with standard women, overweight adolescents had a higher chance of a normal VD82% versus 75% [crude OR 1.53 (1.44-1.64)] and a lower risk for acute CS6.3% versus 7.1% [crude OR 0.85 (0.76-0.95)]. Obese adolescents had a lower risk for instrumental VD8% versus 13% [crude OR 0.61 (0.53-0.71)] and obstetric anal sphincter injury1% versus 3% [crude OR 0.38 (0.26-0.57)]. Conclusion: Several adverse obstetric outcomes were obesity related among adolescents. Overweight adolescents seemed to have better obstetric outcomes than standard women, something to consider when optimizing resources for women during pregnancy and delivery.

  • 14.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Avoiding the first cesarean section-results of structured organizational and cultural changes2016Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 580-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionIn 2006 the overall rates of instrumental deliveries (10%) and cesarean sections (CS) (20%) were high in our unit. We decided to improve quality of care by offering more women a safe and attractive normal vaginal delivery. The target group was primarily nulliparous women at term with spontaneous onset of labor and cephalic presentation. Material and methodsImplementation of a nine-item list of structured organizational and cultural change in Linkoping 2006-15. The nine items include monitoring of obstetric results, recruitment of a midwife coordinator, risk classification of women, introduction of three different midwife competence levels, improved teamwork, obstetrical morning round, fetal monitoring skills, obstetrical skills training, and public promotion of the strategy. ResultsThe CS rate in nulliparous women at term with spontaneous onset of labor decreased from 10% in 2006 to 3% in 2015. During the same period the overall CS rate dropped from 20% to 11%. The prevalence of children born at the unit with umbilical cord pH &lt;7 and Apgar score &lt;4 at 5 min were the same over the years studied. At present, 95.2% of women delivering at our unit are satisfied with their delivery experience. ConclusionsThe CS rates have declined after implementing the nine items of organizational and cultural changes. It seems that a specific and persistent multidisciplinary activity with a focus on the Robson group 1 can reduce CS rates without increased risk of neonatal complications.

  • 15.
    Carlhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal obesity (Class I-III), gestational weight gain and maternal leptin levels during and after pregnancy: a prospective cohort study2016Ingår i: BMC Obesity, ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 3, nr 28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Maternal obesity is accompanied by maternal and fetal complications during and after pregnancy. The risks seem to increase with degree of obesity. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in the development of obesity related complications. Whether maternal leptin levels differ between obese and morbidly obese women, during and after pregnancy, have to our knowledge not been previously described. Neither has the association between maternal leptin levels and gestational weight gain in obese women. The aim was to evaluate if maternal plasma leptin levels were associated with different degrees of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain.

    Methods

    Prospective cohort study including women categorized as obesity class I-III (n = 343) and divided into three gestational weight gain groups (n = 304). Maternal plasma leptin was measured at gestational week 15, 29 and 10 weeks postpartum. Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from early pregnancy weight. Gestational weight gain was calculated using maternal weight in delivery week minus early pregnancy weight. The mean value and confidence interval of plasma-leptin were analysed with a two-way ANOVA model. Interaction effect between BMI and gestational weight gain group was tested with a two-way ANOVA model.

    Results

    The mean maternal leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women with obesity class III compared to women in obesity class I, at all times when plasma leptin were measured. The mean leptin concentrations were also significantly higher in women with obesity class II compared to women in obesity class I, except in gestational week 29. There was no difference in mean levels of plasma leptin between the gestational weight gain groups. No significant interaction between BMI and gestational weight gain group was found.

    Conclusions

    Plasma leptin levels during and after pregnancy were associated with obesity class but not with degree of gestational weight gain. These results are in concordance with epidemiological findings where the risk of obstetric complications increases with increased maternal obesity class. The effect on obstetric outcome by degree of gestational weight gain is less pronounced than the adverse effects associated with maternal obesity.

  • 16.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Team-led hospital-based care reduced the number of obstetric interventions in ACTA OBSTETRICIA ET GYNECOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA2016Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 95, nr 11, s. 1320-1320Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 17.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Palmquist, Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Angerbjörn, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Effects of continuous midwifery labour support for women with severe fear of childbirth2015Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 15, nr 115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Continuous support by a midwife during childbirth has shown positive effects on the duration of active labour, use of pain relief and frequency of caesarean section (CS) in women without fear of childbirth (FOC). We have evaluated how continuous support by a specially assigned midwife during childbirth affects birth outcome and the subjective experience of women with severe FOC. Methods: A case-control pilot study with an index group of 14 women with severe FOC and a reference group of 28 women without FOC giving birth. In this study the index group received continuous support during childbirth. Results: The women with severe FOC more often had an induction of labour. The parous women with severe FOC had a shorter duration of active labour compared to the parous reference women (p = 0.047). There was no difference in caesarean section frequency between the two groups. Women with severe FOC experienced a very high anxiety level during childbirth (OR = 20.000, 95 % CI: 3.036-131.731). Conclusion: Women with severe FOC might benefit from continuous support by a midwife during childbirth. Midwives should acknowledge the importance of continuous support in order to enhance the experience of childbirth in women with severe FOC.

  • 18.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Fetma under graviditet ökar risken för både kvinna och barn: Kompetent omhändertagande kan minska riskökningen2015Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, nr 48, s. 2156-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fetma hos en gravid kvinna innebär ökad risk för missbildning hos fostret. Vid screeningultraljud upptäcks färre missbildningar än hos barn till normalviktiga kvinnor, men KUB-metoden för att upptäcka Downs syndrom är lika effektiv i alla BMI-grupper. Fetma hos kvinnan innebär ökad risk för gestationsdiabetes, preeklampsi, prematur förlossning och intrauterin fosterdöd. Öppningsskedet under förlossningen är förlängt hos kvinnor med BMI >30, men krystskedet är snabbt. Det finns ökad risk för atonisk postpartumblödning, vilket kan indicera profylaktisk behandling med uterotonika. Fetma hos kvinnan medför fler allvarliga komplikationer hos barnet under första levnadsveckan oavsett förlossningssätt.

  • 19.
    Lindholm, Elisabeth S
    et al.
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Altman, Daniel
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Norman, Margareta
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Health Care Consumption during Pregnancy in relation to Maternal Body Mass Index: A Swedish Population Based Observational Study2015Ingår i: Journal of Obesity, ISSN 2090-0708, E-ISSN 2090-0716, Vol. 2015, s. 7-, artikel-id 215683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To assess whether antenatal health care consumption is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI). Design. A register based observational study. Methods. The Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Maternal Health Care Register, and the Inpatient Register were used to determine antenatal health care consumption according to BMI categories for primiparous women with singleton pregnancies, from 2006 to 2008, . Pairwise comparisons among BMI groups are obtained post hoc by Tukey HSD test. Result. Obese women were more often admitted for in-patient care (), had longer antenatal hospital stays (), and were more often sick-listed by an obstetrician () during their pregnancy, compared to women with normal weight women. Preeclampsia was more than four times as common, hypertension five times as common, and gestational diabetes 11 times as common when comparing in-patient care, obese to normal weight women ( for all comparisons). Underweight mothers had longer stay in hospitals () and hydronephrosis and hyperemesis gravidarum were more than twice as common (both ). Conclusion. Obese and underweight mothers consumed significantly more health care resources and obese women were significantly more often sick-listed during their pregnancy when compared to pregnant women of normal weight.

  • 20.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hultgren, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lifestyle habits and womens attitudes towards discussing them at a visit for contraceptive advice2015Ingår i: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 114-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study was to use visits for contraceptive counselling as opportunities for examining womens actual life style habits with the main focus being placed on alcohol consumption but also to evaluate the womens opinions about discussing their alcohol and tobacco habits and their weight status. Methods: A total of 535/802 (67%) women completed a study-specific anonymous questionnaire after a contraceptive counselling visit with a midwife. Results: A majority of the women thought that a discussion concerning alcohol habits at a contraceptive counselling session was important (85.5%) and not intrusive (86.4%) neither embarrassing (81.7%). Women with high-risk drinking habits were younger, more often tobacco users and more often planning for childbirth in the future, compared with women who did not display high-risk drinking behaviour. A significantly higher percentage of women who practiced high-risk drinking thought that a discussion of alcohol was intrusive (10.9%) and embarrassing (46.7%), compared with women not practicing highrisk alcohol consumption. Most women (72.9%) stated that no other caregiver during the preceding year except the midwife had discussed drinking habits with them. The weight was a good thing that the midwife brought up for discussion according to 82.5% of the women but the discussions about weight was more often found embarrassing (18.4%) than the discussion about alcohol habits. Conclusion: Women who came for contraceptive counselling found the discussion concerning alcohol habits important, not intrusive or embarrassing and a good thing to be brought up by the midwife. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Svenvik, Maria
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Preterm Birth: A Prominent Risk Factor for Low Apgar Scores2015Ingår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, artikel-id 978079Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To determine predictive risk factors for Apgar scores less than 7 at 5 minutes at two hospitals providing tertiary care and secondary care, respectively. Methods. A retrospective registry cohort study of 21126 births (2006-2010) using data from digital medical records. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analyses. Results. AS(5min) less than 7 was multivariately associated with the following: preterm birth; gestational week 32 + 0-36 + 6, OR = 3.9 (95% CI 2.9-5.3); week 28 + 0-31 + 6, OR = 8 (5-12); week less than 28 + 0, OR = 15 (8-29); postterm birth, OR = 2.0 (1.7-2.3); multiple pregnancy, OR = 3.53 (1.79-6.96); previous cesarean section, OR = 3.67 (2.31-5.81); BMI 25-29, OR = 1.30 (1.09-1.55); BMI greater than= 30 OR = 1.70 (1.20-2.41); nonnormal CTG at admission, OR = 1.98 (1.48-2.66). greater than= 1-para was associated with a decreased risk for AS(5min) less than 7, OR = 0.34 (0.25-0.47). In the univariate logistic regression analysis AS(5min) less than 7 was associated with tertiary level care, OR = 1.48 (1.17-1.87); however, in the multivariate analysis there was no significant difference. Conclusion. A number of partially preventable risk factors were identified, preterm birth being the most evident. Further, no significant difference between the two hospital levels regarding the risk for low Apgar scores was detected.

  • 22.
    Hildebrand, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sved, Catarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Janerot Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Impact of a standardized training program on midwive’s ability to assess fetal heart anatomy by ultrasound2014Ingår i: BMC Medical Imaging, ISSN 1471-2342, E-ISSN 1471-2342, Vol. 14, nr 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease (CDH) in the UK, Italy, and Norway indicate that it should be possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of CDH in Sweden. These studies have shown that training programs, visualization of the outflow tracts and color-Doppler all can help to speed up and improve the detection rate and accuracy. We aimed to introduce a more accurate standardized fetal cardiac ultrasound screening protocol in Sweden.

    Methods: A novel pedagogical model for training midwives in standardized cardiac imaging was developed, a model using a think-aloud analysis during a pre- and post-course test and a subsequent group reflection. The self-estimated difficulties and knowledge gaps of four midwives were identified. A two-day course with mixed lectures, demonstrations and handson sessions was followed by a feedback session one month later consisting of an interview and check-up. The long-term effects were tested two years later.

    Results: At the post-course test the self-assessed uncertainty was lower than at the pre-course test. The qualitative evaluation showed that the color Doppler images were difficult to interpret, but the training seems to have enhanced the familiarity with the new technique. The ability to perform the method remained at the new level at follow-up both three months and two years later.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that by implementing new imaging modalities and providing hands-on training, uncertainty can be reduced and time decreased, but they also show that continuous on-site training with clinical and technical back-up is important.

  • 23.
    Blomberg, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: a Swedish Medical Birth Register Study2014Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, nr 11, s. e005840-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design: A population-based cohort study. Setting: The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants: Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798 674) were divided into seven age groups: less than17 years, 17-19 years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25-29 years. Primary outcome: Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results: The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age less than17 years and 1719 years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity less than32 weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (greater than= 30 years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions: For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies.

  • 24.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal Body Mass Index and Risk of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury2014Ingår i: BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, ISSN 2314-6133, Vol. 2014, nr 395803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To estimate the association between maternal obesity and risk of three different degrees of severity of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Methods. The study population consisted of 436,482 primiparous women with singleton term vaginal cephalic births between 1998 and 2011 identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were grouped into six categories of BMI. BMI 18.5-24.9 was set as reference. Primary outcome was third-degree perineal laceration, partial or total, and fourth-degree perineal laceration. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age, fetal head position at delivery, infant birth weight and instrumental delivery. Results. The overall prevalence of third-or four-degree anal sphincter injury was 6.6% (partial anal sphincter injury 4.6%, total anal sphincter injury 1.2%, unclassified as either partial and total 0.2%, or fourth degree lacerations 0.6%). The risk for a partial, total, or a fourth-degree anal sphincter injury decreased with increasing maternal BMI most pronounced for total anal sphincter injury where the risk among morbidly obese women was half that of normal weight women, OR 0.47 95% CI 0.28-0.78. Conclusion. Obese women had a favourable outcome compared to normal weight women concerning serious pelvic floor damages at birth.

  • 25.
    Hildebrand, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Källén, Bengt
    Tornblad Institute, University of Lund, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal obesity and risk of Down syndrome in the offspring2014Ingår i: Prenatal Diagnosis, ISSN 0197-3851, E-ISSN 1097-0223, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 310-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to determine if maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of Down syndrome in the offspring and whether the risk estimates for trisomy 21 based on combined screening is affected by maternal body mass index (BMI).

    METHODS: Study group I consisted of a nationwide cohort of 168 604 women giving birth; outcome was infants born with Down syndrome. Adjustment was made for maternal age. Study group II consisted of 10 224 women undergoing 1st trimester combined screening. Outcome was risk assessment for Down syndrome. All women were divided into six BMI groups, and outcomes were evaluated over the BMI strata with BMI 18.5 to 24.9 as reference and correcting for maternal age.

    RESULTS: Obese women had an increased risk for giving birth to an infant with Down syndrome compared with normal-weight women, BMI 30 to 34.9 odds ratio (OR) 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.55], BMI 35 to 39.9 OR 1.12 (95% CI 0.82-1.53), BMI ≥ 40 OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.00-2.43). The observed and the expected numbers of women with a risk of Down syndrome >1/300 based on 1st trimester combined screen and maternal age were similar in each BMI group.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity seems to increase the risk for Down syndrome births. The risk estimate for Down syndrome with 1st trimester combined screening is unaffected by BMI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Prevalence of postpartum infections: a population-based observational study2014Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 93, nr 10, s. 1065-1068Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the prevalence of postpartum infections among women giving birth during 1year in a population-based observational/questionnaire study at seven hospitals in the southeast region of Sweden. Of the women greater than99% (n=11124) received a questionnaire to inquire if they had endometritis, mastitis, or wound, urinary tract or any other infection within 2months postpartum and whether they received antibiotics for this. Prevalence rates for infections and antibiotic treatment were estimated. The response rate was 60.1%. At least one infectious episode was reported by 10.3% of the women and 7.5% had received antibiotics. The prevalence for infections with and without antibiotics were, respectively, mastitis 4.7% and 2.9%, urinary tract infection 3.0% and 2.4%, endometritis 2.0% and 1.7%, wound infection 1.8% and 1.2%. There was no inter-county difference in infection prevalence. Clinical postpartum infections in a high-resource setting are relatively common.

  • 27.
    Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Deliveries among teenage women - with emphasis on incidence and mode of delivery: a Swedish national survey from 1973 to 20102013Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 13, nr 204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the 1970-ies Sweden has actively developed strategies in social care, education and health care in order to counteract the negative consequences of adolescent parenthood. The aims of this study are to determine the annual incidence of singleton delivery among adolescents 1973-2010 and analyse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study, using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register was conducted. All singleton deliveries in Sweden between 1973 and 2010 were included. Totally 1,941,940 women had 3,761,576 deliveries during the period. Analyses of obstetric and neonatal outcome were restricted to 1992-2010. Adolescents were subdivided into three groups: less than16 years (n = 472), 16-17 years (n = 5376), 18-19 years (n = 23560). The reference group consisted of women age 20-30 years (n = 893505). Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors and presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval. Results: The annual incidence of teenage births decreased significantly from 7.7 to 1.6%. Teenagers were more likely to deliver normally vaginally (aOR 1.70 (95% CI 1.64-1.75), less likely to have Caesarean section (aOR 0.61 (95% CI 0.58-0.64), and had a greater risk of delivering prematurely (less than 28 weeks)(aOR 1.61 (95% CI 1.31-2.00), but did not have more small-for-gestational-age babies (aOR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.14). Risks of placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage greater than 1000 ml and perineal rupture were significantly lower among teenagers. Although the rate with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes was similar the teenagers neonates showed less fetal distress and meconium aspiration. Conclusion: Adolescent births have steadily decreased in Sweden. Adolescents were more likely to be delivered vaginally than the adult women. The risks for obstetric maternal complications for adolescents were lower than for adult women except for the risk of prematurity.

  • 28.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Nyström, Fredrik H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Endokrinmedicinska enheten.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Leptin and adiponectin in cord blood from children of normal weight, overweight and obese mothers2013Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, nr 6, s. 620-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To study cord blood concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in children born by normal weight, overweight and obese mothers and to study these parameters in relation to a weight gain intervention programme for obese mothers. Methods Ten millilitre cord blood was collected and analysed for leptin and adiponectin concentrations in children with gestational age andgt;37weeks born by 60 normal weight, 45 overweight and 145 obese mothers. 82 obese mothers took part in a weight gain intervention programme. Results Concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were higher in cord blood from children of overweight and obese mothers compared with children of normal weight mothers (leptin: Md 13.2, 30, 3 and 90.2ng/mL respectively, pandlt;0.001; adiponectin 35.9, 205.4, 213.8ng/L pandlt;0.001). No differences were found between overweight and obese mothers. The weight gain intervention programme for obese pregnant women had significant effects on the weight gain during pregnancy but had no effects on cord blood serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. Conclusion Cord blood leptin and adiponectin concentrations were higher in children born by overweight or obese women compared with children of normal weight mothers. A weight gain intervention programme for obese pregnant women did not affect these results. Intrauterine exposition to high concentrations of leptin and adiponectin may play a role in weight development later in life.

  • 29.
    Carlhall, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Kallen, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal body mass index and duration of labor2013Ingår i: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, ISSN 0301-2115, E-ISSN 1872-7654, Vol. 171, nr 1, s. 49-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate whether the duration of the active phase of labor is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI), in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy design: Historical prospective cohort study including 63,829 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and a spontaneous onset of labor, who delivered between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009. Data were collected from the Perinatal Revision South registry, a regional perinatal database in Southern Sweden. Women were categorized into six classes of BMI. Overweight and obese women were compared to normal weight women regarding duration of active labor. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age and infant birth weight. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The median duration of labor was significantly longer in obese women (class I obesity (BMI 30-34.9) = 9.1 h, class II obesity (BMI 35-39.9) = 9.2 h and class III obesity (BMI andgt; 40) = 9.8 h) compared to normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9) = 8.8 h (p andlt; 0.001). The risk of labor lasting more than 12 h increased with increasing maternal BMI: OR 1.04(1.01-1.06) (OR per 5-units BMI-increase).The risk of labor lasting more than 12 h or emergency cesarean section within 12 h, compared to vaginal deliveries within 12 h, increased with increasing maternal BMI. Duration of the second stage of labor was significantly shorter in obese women: in class III obesity the median value was 0.45 h compared to normal weight women, 0.55 h (p andlt; 0.001). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: In nulliparous women with a spontaneous onset of labor, duration of the active phase of labor increased significantly with increasing maternal BMI. Once obese women reach the second stage they deliver more quickly than normal weight women, which implies that the risk of prolonged labor is restricted to the first stage of labor. It is clinically important to consider the prolonged first stage of labor in obese women, for example when diagnosing first stage labor arrest, in order to optimize management of this rapidly growing at-risk group of women. Thus, it might be reasonable to adapt the considered upper limit for duration of labor, according to maternal BMI.

  • 30.
    Hildebrand, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal Obesity and Detection Rate of Fetal Structural Anomalies2013Ingår i: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, ISSN 1015-3837, E-ISSN 1421-9964, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 246-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To estimate the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the sensitivity of detecting fetal anomalies by a routine ultrasound performed either in the first or in the second trimester. Methods: Unselected pregnant women (n = 19,140) were divided into four BMI groups: underweight (less than18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9, reference group), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (greater than= 30.0). Fetal anomaly diagnoses were grouped according to their likely clinical consequences as suggested by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Minor anomalies were excluded. The detection rate of fetal anomalies in each BMI group was calculated and compared. Results: The prevalence of infants with structural anomalies in the study population was 4% and the prevalence of material obesity was 10%. The detection rates of fetal structural anomalies were 26% for normal-weight, 29% for overweight (odds ratio (OR) 1.15,95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.68-1.95), and 19% for obese women (OR 0.67, 95% Cl 0.29-1.52). The detection rate of anomalies with long-term handicap was lower in the obese group (27.3%; OR 0.44, 95% Cl 0.11-1.79) compared to normal-weight women (46.3%). Conclusion: The detection rate of fetal anomalies seems to be lower for obese women, but these findings need to be further investigated.

  • 31.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal Obesity, Mode of Delivery, and Neonatal Outcome2013Ingår i: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 122, nr 1, s. 50-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether adverse neonatal outcome, defined as birth injuries or severe illnesses in the newborn, was associated with maternal body mass index (BMI) in singleton pregnancies overall and depending on mode of delivery. METHODS: This was a cohort study including 1,024,471 women. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were categorized into six classes of BMI. Obese women were compared with normal weight women regarding adverse neonatal outcome after suitable adjustments. Four modes of delivery were evaluated: vaginal delivery; instrumental vaginal delivery; elective cesarean delivery; and emergency cesarean delivery. RESULTS: Compared with neonates born to women of normal weight, neonates born to women with BMIs of 40 or more (morbidly obese) were at increased risk of birth injury to the peripheral nervous system (odds ratio [OR] 3.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-5.12; 0.2% compared with 0.6%), birth injury to the skeleton (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.10-3.21; 0.5% compared with 1.1%), respiratory distress syndrome (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.88-2.30; 2.9 compared with 5.8%), bacterial sepsis (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.43-3.46; 0.6% compared with 1.7%), convulsions (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.63-4.47; 0.2% compared with 0.8%), and hypoglycemia (OR 3.48, 95% CI 3.20-3.78; 2.4% compared with 7.9%). For morbidly obese women, elective cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery were associated with twice the increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes when compared with women of normal weight. CONCLUSION: Neonates born to morbidly obese women are at markedly increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome regardless of mode of delivery. Obstetricians should not disregard the neonatal problems associated with elective cesarean delivery for morbidly obese women.

  • 32.
    Mernelius, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Lofgren, Sture
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Gunnervik, Christina
    Varnamo Hospital, Sweden .
    Lenrick, Raymond
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    Tiefenthal Thrane, Malena
    Hoglands Hospital Eksjo, Sweden .
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Matussek, Andreas
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden .
    The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: The Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study2013Ingår i: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 585-590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Methods: Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. Results: The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. Conclusion: It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright (C) 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Utvärdering och hälsoekonomi.
    Skagerström, Janna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rahmqvist, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Utvärdering och hälsoekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultgren, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Alcohol prevention in Swedish antenatal care: effectiveness and perceptions of the Risk Drinking project counseling model2012Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 91, nr 6, s. 736-743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To compare an earlier Swedish antenatal care counseling routine concerning alcohol consumption with an expanded model in terms of effectiveness in achieving abstinence in pregnancy. A further objective was to assess the womens perceptions of the alcohol counseling. Design. Cohort study. Setting. Antenatal care center in a provincial Swedish university town. Population. Women who received alcohol counseling; 1533 in cohort 1 (routine counseling) and 1476 in cohort 2 (expanded model). Approximately 93% of all pregnant women in Linkoping are registered at this center. Methods. Data were collected by means of an anonymous questionnaire. Thirteen questions in the questionnaire were analysed for this study. Main outcome measures. Replies from three questions concerning pre-pregnancy drinking and three questions on drinking during pregnancy. Results. The response rate was 60% for cohort 1 and 64% for cohort 2. Perceptions of the advice from the antenatal care center were generally favorable. Similar proportions of women, approximately 6%, in both cohorts drank at least once during the pregnancy (after pregnancy recognition). There were four predictors for drinking during pregnancy: older age; having previously given birth to a child; frequency of pre-pregnancy drinking; and perceiving the message from antenatal care as small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy dont matter.Conclusions. An expanded counseling model implemented in Swedish antenatal care did not reduce the proportion of women who continued drinking during pregnancy in comparison with a previous counseling model, although the advice provided in the new model was perceived more favorably.

  • 34.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Frederiksen, Sven G
    Lund University Hospital, Lund.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Bariatric surgery in a national cohort of women: sociodemographics and obstetric outcomes2011Ingår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 205, nr 3, s. 25-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: In a large, prospective Swedish national cohort, we investigated individual birth characteristics for women who had undergone bariatric surgery and their obstetric outcome and made comparisons with all other women during the same period. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanSTUDY DESIGN: The cohort consisted of 494,692 women born 19731983 of which 681 women who had undergone bariatric surgery constituted the index group. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: The index women more often have parents with lower sociodemographic status and are more often born large for gestational age. The women surgically treated before their first child had a shorter gestational length, their children had lower birthweight, and were more often born small for gestational age compared with the children born to the reference mothers. Women whose child was born before their bariatric surgery more often had a cesarean section, and their children were more often large for gestational age. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION: Preconception bariatric surgery in obese women may be associated with improved obstetric outcomes.

  • 35.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Among Obese Women With Weight Gain Below the New Institute of Medicine Recommendations2011Ingår i: OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, ISSN 0029-7844, Vol. 117, nr 5, s. 1065-1070Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether weight loss or low gestational weight gain in class I-III obese women is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with gestational weight gain within the new Institute of Medicine recommendations. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study, which included 32,991 obesity class I, 10,068 obesity class II, and 3,536 obesity class III women who were divided into four gestational weight gain categories. Women with low (0-4.9 kg) or no gestational weight gain were compared with women gaining the recommended 5-9 kg concerning obstetric and neonatal outcome after suitable adjustments. RESULTS: Women in obesity class III who lost weight during pregnancy had a decreased risk of cesarean delivery (24.4%; odds ratio [OR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.99), large-for-gestational-age births (11.2%, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90), and no significantly increased risk for pre-eclampsia, excessive bleeding during delivery, instrumental delivery, low Apgar score, or fetal distress compared with obese (class III) women gaining within the Institute of Medicine recommendations. There was an increased risk for small for gestational age, 3.7% (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.76) among women in obesity class III losing weight, but there was no significantly increased risk of small for gestational age in the same group with low weight gain. CONCLUSION: Obese women (class II and III) who lose weight during pregnancy seem to have a decreased or unaffected risk for cesarean delivery, large for gestational age, pre-eclampsia, excessive postpartum bleeding, instrumental delivery, low Apgar score, and fetal distress. The twofold increased risk of small for gestational age in obesity class III and weight loss (3.7%) is slightly above the overall prevalence of small-for-gestational-age births in Sweden (3.6%).

  • 36.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal Obesity and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage2011Ingår i: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 118, nr 3, s. 561-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage more than 1,000 mL and whether there was an association between maternal obesity and causes of postpartum hemorrhage and mode of delivery. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: A population-based cohort study including 1,114,071 women with singleton pregnancies who gave birth in Sweden from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2008, who were divided into six body mass index (BMI) classes. Obese women (class I-III) were compared with normal-weight women concerning the risk for postpartum hemorrhage after suitable adjustments. The use of heparin-like drugs over the BMI strata was analyzed in a subgroup. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: There was an increased prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage over the study period associated primarily with changes in maternal characteristics. The risk of atonic uterine hemorrhage increased rapidly with increasing BMI. There was a twofold increased risk in obesity class III (1.8%). No association was found between postpartum hemorrhage with retained placenta and maternal obesity. There was an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage for women with a BMI of 40 or higher (5.2%) after normal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.45]) compared with normal-weight women (4.4%) and even more pronounced (13.6%) after instrumental delivery (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.34) compared with normal-weight women 8.8%). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for the use of heparin-like drugs (OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.22-3.68). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION: The increased risk for atonic postpartum hemorrhage in the obese group has important clinical implications, such as considering administration of prophylactic postpartum uterotonic drugs to this group.

  • 37.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Jeppsson, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Weight after childbirth: A 2-year follow-up of obese women in a weight-gain restriction program2011Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 90, nr 1, s. 103-110Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effects of a weight gain restriction program on weight development or weight maintenance two years after childbirth.

    Methods: The intervention group consisted of 155 obese pregnant women who participated in a weight gain restriction program with weekly support duringpregnancy. The control group consisted of 193 obese pregnant women. Follow-up weight measurements were done at 12 and 24 months postpartum.

    Results: The mean value of weight change in the intervention group was -2.2 kg compared to + 0.4 kg in the control group from early pregnancy to the follow-up 12 months after childbirth (p = .046). A greater percentage of women in the intervention group showed a weight loss 24 months after delivery than did women in the control group at that same time (p = .034). Women in the intervention group who gained less than 7 kg during pregnancy had a significantly lower weight than the controls at the 24 months follow-up (p = .018).

    Conclusion: An intervention program with weekly motivational support visits during pregnancy and every 6 months after childbirth seems to have an impact on weight gain up to 24 months after childbirth for those women in the intervention group who succeeded in restricting their gestational weight gain to less than 7 kg.

  • 38.
    Hildebrand, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Comparison of first and second trimester ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies in the southeast region of Sweden2010Ingår i: ACTA OBSTETRICIA ET GYNECOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0001-6349, Vol. 89, nr 11, s. 1412-1419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To assess and compare the sensitivity for detecting fetal anomalies and chromosomal aberrations by routine ultrasound examination performed in the second trimester with results from an examination performed at 11-14 weeks gestation. Design. Observational study. Setting. Five centers in the southeast region of Sweden. Population. A total of 21,189 unselected pregnant women. Methods. The scan was performed at one center in the first trimester and at the remaining four centers in the second trimester. Outcome measures resulting from first trimester scanning were compared with those from the second trimester scanning. Main outcome measures. Detection rates of fetal structural anomalies and chromosomal aberrations. Results. At the first trimester scan 13% of all anomalies were detected, and at the second trimester scan 29% were detected. Lethal anomalies were detected at a high level at both times: 88% in the first, 92% in the second. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations discovered at the early scan was 71%, in the later 42%. The percentage of heart malformations detected was surprisingly low. Conclusion. The results showed the advantages of the later scan in discovering anomalies of the heart, urinary tract and CNS, and of the early scan in discovering chromosomal aberrations. Lethal malformations were detected at a high level in both groups, but detection of heart malformations needs improvement.

  • 39.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Medicinska specialistkliniken .
    Hultgren, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Is Questionnaire-Based Alcohol Counseling More Effective for Pregnant Women Than Standard Maternity Care?2010Ingår i: JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, ISSN 1540-9996, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 161-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare current standard maternity care in Sweden concerning provision of alcohol advice with a more comprehensive questionnaire-based counseling model. Methods: The study population included pregnant women in Linkoping who were registered at a maternity care center during a 2-year period and whose pregnancies resulted in liveborn infants without birth defects, representing 93% of all pregnant women. Anonymous questionnaires were mailed to the women. The first cohort (registered April 2005 1, to March 31, 2006) received standard care according to a procedure that is common practice in Sweden. The second cohort (April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007) received alcohol advice based on a comprehensive counseling model, incorporating the use of the three-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) questionnaire and tailored counseling based on the AUDIT-C score. Results: The response rate was 61% in the first cohort (standard care) and 70% in the second cohort (questionnaire-based counseling). The cohorts were similar in sociodemographic variables and prepregnancy drinking characteristics. The proportion of women who continued drinking alcohol during the pregnancy was 6.0% in cohort 1 and 5.8% in cohort 2. Women in cohort 2 were more favorable to the advice and, to a larger extent, perceived the main message to be abstinence from drinking during pregnancy. Conclusions: The questionnaire-based counseling model was more favorably perceived than the standard care model, but the new model was not more effective in terms of its impact on the proportion of women who abstained from drinking during pregnancy.

  • 40.
    Cedergren, Marie I
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Non-elective caesarean delivery due to ineffective uterine contractility or due to obstructed labour in relation to maternal body mass index2009Ingår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS and GYNECOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY, ISSN 0301-2115, Vol. 145, nr 2, s. 163-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess whether non-elective caesarean section due to obstructed labour and/or ineffective uterine contractility was associated with maternal body mass index (BMI). Study design: The prospective dataset from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry consisted of 233,887 nulliparous women with a spontaneous onset of labour categorized in six classes of pre-pregnancy BMI, who delivered in Sweden between, January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2005. The mode of delivery was classified as either vaginal or by caesarean section. The caesarean section was classified as either elective or non-elective. Adjusted risks for non-elective caesarean section due to ineffective uterine contractility, or obstructed labour or fetal distress were determined using Mantel-Haenszel technique. Results: The risk of a non-elective caesarean section due to obstructed about was not significantly associated with maternal BMI. However, ineffective uterine contractility was significantly associated with maternal BMI and the risk of non-elective caesarean delivery due to labour arrest disorders increased with increasing BMI, reaching a 4-fold increased risk among the morbidly obese women. The risk of non-elective caesarean section due to fetal distress also increased significantly with increasing maternal BMI. Conclusions: It appears that ineffective labour could be a factor leading to the increased risk of non-elective caesarean section among obese and morbidly obese women. These findings challenge obstetricians to learn more about how to manage oxytocin infusions during labour in relation to maternal BMI.

  • 41.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Jeppsson, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Weight gain restriction during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and neonate.2009Ingår i: Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 88, nr 10, s. 1158-1162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcome among obese pregnant women who took part in an intervention study for weight restriction differed from a group of obese pregnant women attending regular antenatal care. The intervention group consisted of 155 obese pregnant women and 193 obese pregnant women who formed a control group. We found that a weight gain restriction of less than 7 kg during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and the neonate.

  • 42.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hultgren, Eva
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linlöping University.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Socialmedicin och folkhälsovetenskap. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Akutkliniken.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Alcohol use before and during pregnancy and factors influencing change among Swedish women2008Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 768-774Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate alcohol intake during pregnancy among women, to assess health cares providers' advice to the women and the relative importance of different factors on changes in the women's drinking. Design. Questionnaire study. Setting. Linkoping, Sweden. Population. A total number of 1,533 women registered at a maternity health care center in Linkoping during a one-year period, from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2006. Methods. Mailed anonymous questionnaire with a response rate of 61%. Main outcome measures. Drinking behavior and information sources. Results. During pregnancy, 94% (n=869) of the responding women abstained from alcohol, including 13% (n=117) who were already abstainers. Six percent (n=55) continued drinking during the pregnancy. Those who continued drinking during pregnancy were older, had more often given birth and drank more frequently before pregnancy than the women who abstained. Half of the respondents (n=428) believed that decreases in alcohol intake during pregnancy reported in previous studies could be due to inaccurate self-reporting. The main message from maternity health care providers was perceived to be complete abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy (85%, n=777), although 8% (n=76) claimed that they had not received any advice regarding this. Media attention concerning risks associated with drinking during pregnancy was seen as slightly more important to achieve reduced alcohol intake during pregnancy than advice from maternity health care providers. Conclusions. A majority of women in this study reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. © 2008 Informa UK Ltd. (Informa Healthcare, Taylor & Francis AS).

  • 43.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Jeppsson, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Internmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Consumer satisfaction with a weight-gain intervention programme for obese pregnant women.2008Ingår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 163-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to investigate women's attitudes and satisfaction with a weight-gain intervention programme during pregnancy.

    Design: exploratory, descriptive study. Data were collected via interviews.

    Setting: University hospital.

    Participants: 56 obese pregnant women who attended antenatal care at the University Hospital of Linköping's obstetrical department and took part in an intervention programme aimed at reducing weight gain during pregnancy, between November 2003 and August 2004.

    Findings: the interviews comprised several questions concerning attitudes and opinions of the programme. Most of the women expressed positive experiences with the treatment and would attend the programme if they became pregnant again. Most of the women stated that they had changed their eating and exercise habits during pregnancy, and almost all of them had continued with these new habits. Even though the weight gain goal of a maximum 6.9 kg was reached by less than half of the participants, most of the women were satisfied with their weight gain. A total of 71.4% of the women participated in aqua aerobics classes. They stated that they were most satisfied with this form of exercise, and that it also was a good social experience.

    Key conclusions and implications for practice: a pregnant woman herself must be actively involved in setting her own goals to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Considerable effort and support must be placed on discussing strategies, pitfalls and risks. In order for the woman to maintain the change in attitude and habits, she must probably be given continuous feedback and reinforcement over the long term.

  • 44.
    Cedergren, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Hyperemesis gravidarum that requires hospitalization and the use of antiemetic drugs in relation to maternal body composition2008Ingår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 198, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether maternal prepregnancy body mass index was associated with the use of antiemetic drugs in early pregnancy and/or with the occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, population-based, cohort study. Women who delivered singleton infants (n = 749,435) from 19952003 were evaluated concerning the use of antiemetic drugs in early pregnancy (data available from 1995). Women who delivered singleton infants (n = 942,894) from 1992-2001 were evaluated concerning hospitalization because of hyperemesis gravidarum (data available until 2001). Adjusted odds ratios were determined by Mantel- Haenszel technique and were used as estimates of relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Underweight pregnant women were more likely to use antiemetic drugs (RR, 1.19, 95% CI, 1.14-1.24) and to become hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum (RR, 1.43, 95% CI, 1.33-1.54) compared with ideal weight women. Obese women were less likely to use antiemetic drugs (RR, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.89-0.97) and less likely to require hospitalization because of hyperemesis (RR, 0.90, 95% CI, 0.85-0.95) compared with women with an ideal body mass index. CONCLUSION: The use of antiemetic drugs and the occurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum are related to maternal body composition.

  • 45.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Jeppsson, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Internmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Endokrin- och magtarmmedicinska kliniken US.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Weight gain restriction for obese pregnant women: A case-control intervention study2008Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 115, nr 1, s. 44-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To minimise obese women's total weight gain during pregnancy to less than 7 kg and to investigate the delivery and neonatal outcome. Design: A prospective case-control intervention study. Setting: Antenatal care clinics in the southeast region of Sweden. Population: One hundred fifty-five pregnant women in an index group and one hundred ninety-three women in a control group. Methods: An intervention programme with weekly motivational talks and aqua aerobic classes for obese pregnant women. Main outcome measures: Weight gain in kilograms, delivery and neonatal outcome. Results: The index group had a significantly lower weight gain during pregnancy compared with the control group (P < 0.001). The women in the index group weighed less at the postnatal check-up compared with the weight registered in early pregnancy (P < 0.001). The percentage of women in the index group who gained less than 7 kg was greater than that of women in the control group who gained less than 7 kg (P = 0.003). The percentage of nulliparous women in this group was greater than that in the control group (P = 0.018). In addition, the women in the index group had a significantly lower body mass index at the postnatal check-up, compared with the control group (P < 0.001). There were no differences between the index group and the control group regarding birthweight, gestational age and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The intervention programme was effective in controlling weight gain during pregnancy and did not affect delivery or neonatal outcome.

  • 46.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Optimal gestational weight gain for body mass index categories2007Ingår i: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 110, nr 4, s. 759-764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To establish optimal gestational weight gain for each maternal body mass index (BMI) category based on significant risk estimates of adverse maternal and fetal outcome. METHODS: The study population consisted of 298,648 singleton pregnancies delivered in Sweden between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The number of individuals in each weight gain class was compared with the number of individuals in all other weight gain classes in the same BMI group with regard to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Odds ratios were calculated after suitable adjustments. RESULTS: The optimal gestational weight gain in women by prepregnancy BMI was 9-22 lb (4-10 kg) for BMI less than 20, 5-22 lb (2-10 kg) for BMI 20-24.9, less than 20 lb (less than 9 kg) for BMI 25-29.9, and less than 13 lb (less than 6 kg) for BMI of 30 or more. CONCLUSION: The gestational weight gain limits for BMI categories determined in this large population-based cohort study from Swedish Medical Registers showed that a decreased risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes was associated with lower gestational weight gain limits than was earlier recommended, especially among obese women. © 2007 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  • 47.
    Cedergren, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Detection of fetal structural abnormalities by an 11-14-week ultrasound dating scan in an unselected Swedish population2006Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, nr 8, s. 912-915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. To determine the detection rate of fetal structural abnormalities by a routine 11-14-week ultrasound scan for dating in an unselected pregnant population. Methods. A prospective observational cohort study of 2,708 unselected pregnant women attending an abdominal ultrasound examination at 11-14 weeks gestation. The number of major fetal structural abnormalities diagnosed after birth was obtained from a computerized database at the same unit. Results. Out of 2,708 pregnant women, 89 (3.3%) were found to have a missed abortion at the time of the ultrasound scan and 33 (1.2%) were diagnosed as twins. Thirteen major structural abnormalities were detected, three cases of anencephaly (one case also had a spina bifida), one case with hydranencephaly, one fetus with Dandy-Walker syndrome, two cases with gastroschisis, one case with a bilateral hydronephrosis, one case with a generalized hydrops, one fetus with multiple malformations, and three cystic hygromas. An additional 19 major structural defects were detected at birth. Four cases of neural tube defects and nine fetuses with congenital heart defects were diagnosed. The antenatal ultrasound detection rate was 40.6% (13/32). Nine patients had a nuchal translucency greater than 3.0 mm (excluding cystic hygromas), two of them had chromosomal abnormalities (trisomy 21 and trisomy 18). Conclusions. Fetal structural abnormalities were detected in 41% (95%CI = 24-59) of the cases in an unselected pregnant population at a routine 11-14-week ultrasound scan for dating purpose. Two out of nine fetuses with a nuchal translucency greater than 3.0 mm had a chromosomal abnormality. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 48.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Effects of gestational weight gain and body mass index on obstetric outcome in Sweden2006Ingår i: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 93, nr 3, s. 269-274Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of low and high gestational weight gain, in different maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) classes, on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Method: A prospective population-based cohort study of 245,526 singleton term pregnancies. Women were grouped in five categories of BMI and in three gestational weight gain categories, < 8 kg (low weight gain), 8-16 kg and > 16 kg (high weight gain). Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were evaluated after adjustments for maternal age, parity, smoking, year of birth. Result: Obese women with low gestational weight gain had a decreased risk for the following outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval): preeclampsia (0.52, 0.42-0.62), cesarean section (0.81, 0.73-0.90), instrumental delivery (0.75, 0.63-0.88), and LGA births (0.66, 0.59-0.75). There was a 2-fold increased risk for preeclampsia and LGA infants among average and overweight women with excessive weight gain. High gestational weight gain increased the risk for cesarean delivery in all maternal BMI classes. Conclusion: The effects of high or low gestational weight gain differ depending on maternal BMI and the outcome variable studied. Obese women may benefit from a low weight gain during pregnancy.

  • 49.
    Cedergren, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Källén, Bengt AJ
    Lund .
    Obstetric outcome of 6346 pregnancies with infants affected by congenital heart defects2006Ingår i: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, ISSN 0301-2115, E-ISSN 1872-7654, Vol. 125, nr 2, s. 211-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate whether pregnancies with infants affected by congenital heart defects are associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. Study design: In a prospective population-based cohort study from Sweden (1992-2001), 6346 singleton pregnancies with infants affected by congenital heart defects were, after suitable adjustments, compared to all delivered women. Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular defects was 9.1 per 1000 births. Among them, mothers of 6346 infants (71%) had information on maternal smoking habits and maternal height and weight in early pregnancy that enabled the calculation of BMI. All cases with known chromosomal abnormalities and/or maternal pre-existing diabetes were excluded. Eighty-four percent (n = 5338) had an isolated cardiovascular defect. Severe types occurred in 21.7% (n = 1378). In the group of pregnancies with infants affected by congenital heart defects as compared to all delivered women, there was an increased risk of the following outcomes (adjusted OR (95%CI)): pre-eclampsia (1.21 (1.06-1.37)), cesarean section (1.91 (1.79-2.03)), instrumental delivery (1.21 (1.10-1.34)), pre-term delivery (2.58 (2.39-2.79)), small-for gestational age (1.96 (1.77-2.16)), meconium aspiration (1.51 (1.28-1.77)), and fetal distress (1.38 (1.17-1.63)). Conclusions: Pregnancies with infants affected by congenital heart defects are associated with several obstetric and neonatal complications. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Cedergren, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Källén, Bengt
    Maternal obesity and the risk for orofacial clefts in the offspring2005Ingår i: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, ISSN 1055-6656, E-ISSN 1545-1569, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 367-371Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To estimate whether obese women have an increased risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring, compared with average-weight women. Design and Participants: The study was based on information on maternal body mass index (BMI) collected in early pregnancy and on the existence of orofacial clefts in the offspring, ascertained from multiple sources. The study included 1686 women who had infants with an orofacial cleft and as controls all delivered women (n = 988,171) during the study period, 1992 through 2001. Infants with chromosome anomalies were excluded. The women were divided into underweight (BMI <19.8), average weight (reference group, BMI 19.8 to 26), overweight (BMI 26.1 to 29), and obese (BMI >29). Adjustments were made for year of birth, maternal age, parity, and maternal smoking. Results: Obese (BMI >29) mothers had an overall increased risk for having an infant with orofacial clefts: odds ratio 1.30 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.53). This increased risk was higher when the cleft was associated with other major malformations than when it was isolated. There was no statistically significant difference between the risk estimates for cleft lip and cleft palate. Conclusions: In this large sample, a positive association appears between maternal obesity in early pregnancy and orofacial clefts in the offspring. The explanation for this association is not known, but a relationship with undetected type 2 diabetes is one possibility.

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