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  • 1.
    Motes-Rodrigo, Alba
    et al.
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Majlesi, Parandis
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Pickering, Travis Rayne
    Univ Wisconsin, WI 53706 USA; Ditsong Natl Museum Nat Hist, South Africa.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Axelsen, Helene
    Kristiansand Zoo, Norway.
    Minchin, Tanya C.
    Kristiansand Zoo, Norway.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Hernandez-Aguilar, R. Adriana
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Chimpanzee extractive foraging with excavating tools: Experimental modeling of the origins of human technology2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 5, artikel-id e0215644Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hypothesized that tool-assisted excavation of plant underground storage organs (USOs) played an adaptive role in hominin evolution and was also once considered a uniquely human behavior. Recent data indicate that savanna chimpanzees also use tools to excavate edible USOs. However, those chimpanzees remain largely unhabituated and we lack direct observations of this behavior in the wild. To fill this gap in our knowledge of hominoid USO extractive foraging, we conducted tool-mediated excavation experiments with captive chimpanzees naive to this behavior. We presented the chimpanzees with the opportunity to use tools in order to excavate artificially-placed underground foods in their naturally forested outdoor enclosure. No guidance or demonstration was given to the chimpanzees at any time. The chimpanzees used tools spontaneously in order to excavate the underground foods. They exhibited six different tool use behaviors in the context of excavation: probe, perforate, dig, pound, enlarge and shovel. However, they still excavated manually more often than they did with tools. Chimpanzees were selective in their choice of tools that we provided, preferring longer tools for excavation. They also obtained their own tools mainly from naturally occurring vegetation and transported them to the excavation site. They reused some tools throughout the study. Our new data provide a direction for the study of variables relevant to modeling USO extractive foraging by early hominins.

  • 2.
    Hottges, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Madeleine
    Boras Djurpk, Sweden.
    Hard, Therese
    Boras Djurpk, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How does feeding regime affect behaviour and activity in captive African lions (Panthera leo)?2019Ingår i: JOURNAL OF ZOO AND AQUARIUM RESEARCH, ISSN 2214-7594, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 117-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lions (Panthera leo) are popular zoo animals and obligate carnivores. In the past, zoos focused on the nutritional aspect of feeding, whereas today they also aim to encourage naturalistic feeding opportunities. AZAs Lion Care Manual recommends a frequent feeding schedule, while other sources highlight the benefits of unpredictable, infrequent feeding schedules. Further, the husbandry guidelines for lions by EAZA propose to feed lions separately. To assess how lions are affected by feeding frequency, we collected data on five event behaviour categories (social affiliative, agonistic, exploratory, marking, maintenance) and four state behaviour categories (inactive, active, feed, pace) of four captive lion prides held on either high frequency (HF: feeding pieces of meat on four to five occasions per week) or low frequency feeding (LF: feeding a whole carcass on one occasion per week). We found that some event behaviour categories (agonistic, exploratory and marking) and one state behaviour (feeding) were more frequent for lions on HF feeding. Lions on both feeding regimes engaged more often in agonistic behaviour and were more inactive on feeding days than fasting days. On fasting days, activity and pacing, as well as exploratory, maintenance, marking and social behaviour, were more frequent than on feeding days. During the consecutive fasting days, the lions on LF feeding were increasingly active in terms of walking, trotting and running. The results show that LF feeding with whole carcasses allowed the prides to resolve social discrepancies during feeding, which reduced aggression between feedings. LF feeding resulted in satiety of the lions to the extent of altered behaviour during feeding day and the first fasting day, whereas lions on HF feeding showed unvarying behaviour during feeding and fasting days suggesting a lack of satiety.

  • 3.
    Sörensen, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmarden Wildlife Pk, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are able to detect hidden food using olfactory cues alone2019Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 202, s. 69-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are known to strongly rely on chemical signals for social communication. However, little is known about their use of the sense of smell in foraging and food detection. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether captive meerkats are able to (1) detect hidden food using olfactory cues alone, (2) discriminate between the odor of real food and a single food odor component, and (3) build an association between the odor of real food and a novel odor. We employed the buried food test, widely used with rodents to assess basic olfactory abilities and designed to take advantage of the propensity of certain species to dig. We found that the meerkats were clearly able to find all four food types tested (mouse, thicken, mealworm, banana) using olfactory cues alone and that they successfully discriminated between the odor of real food (banana) and a food odor component (iso-pentyl acetate). In both tasks, the animals dug in the food-bearing corner of the test arena as the first one significantly more often than in the other three corners. No significant association-building between a food odor and a novel odor was found within the 60 trials performed per animal. We conclude that meerkats are able to use olfactory cues when foraging for hidden food. Further, we conclude that the buried food test, employed for the first time with a non-rodent species, is a useful means of assessing basic olfactory capabilities in meerkats.

  • 4.
    Motes-Rodrigo, Alba
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Hernandez-Aguilar, R. Adriana
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Preferential hand use by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in manual and tool digging2019Ingår i: Primates, ISSN 0032-8332, E-ISSN 1610-7365, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 367-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digging for underground storage organs of plants has been reported in various populations of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). However, it is unknown so far whether chimpanzees display lateral biases in manual digging as direct observations of this behavior are still lacking. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess, for the first time, hand preferences for digging in a group of nine captive chimpanzees. We found that with only one exception, all individuals engaged in manual digging for buried food. Five individuals displayed a significant right-hand preference, two a significant left-hand preference, and one was ambidextrous. No apparent differences between males and females were found with regard to the direction or strength of hand preferences for manual digging. Only one out of four parent-offspring pairs was congruent in their preferred hand for manual digging. Three of the eight chimpanzees who dug manually also used tools in order to excavate buried food. Among those three individuals, one displayed a significant right-, one a significant left-hand preference, and one was ambidextrous. Only one of these three chimpanzees was consistent in preferring the same hand for manual and tool digging. The present findings are in line with the notion that chimpanzees display significant hand preferences at the individual level for haptic-guided behaviors, with a tendency for the right hand.

  • 5.
    Norlen, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sjöström, Desiree
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Madeleine
    Borås Zoo, Sweden.
    Hard, Therese
    Borås Zoo, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Taste responsiveness of Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) to five food-associated saccharides2019Ingår i: Primates, ISSN 0032-8332, E-ISSN 1610-7365, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 29-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a two-bottle choice test of short duration, we determined taste preference thresholds for sucrose, fructose, glucose, lactose, and maltose in three Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Further, we assessed relative preferences for these five saccharides when presented at equimolar concentrations and determined taste preference difference thresholds for sucrose, that is, the smallest concentration difference at which the chimpanzees display a preference for one of the two options. We found that the chimpanzees significantly preferred concentrations as low as 20mM sucrose, 40mM fructose, and 80mM glucose, lactose, and maltose over tap water. When given a choice between all binary combinations of these five saccharides presented at equimolar concentrations of 100, 200, and 400mM, respectively, the animals displayed significant preferences for individual saccharides in the following order: sucroseamp;gt;fructoseamp;gt;glucose=maltose=lactose. The taste difference threshold for sucrose, expressed as Weber ratio (I/I), was 0.3 and 0.4, respectively, at reference concentrations of 100 and 200mM. The taste sensitivity of the chimpanzees to the five saccharides falls into the same range found in other primate species. Remarkably, their taste preference thresholds are similar, and with two saccharides even identical, to human taste detection thresholds. The pattern of relative taste preferences displayed by the chimpanzees was similar to that found in platyrrhine primates and to the pattern of relative sweetness as reported by humans. Taken together, the results of the present study are in line with the notion that taste sensitivity for food-associated carbohydrates may correlate positively with phylogenetic relatedness. Further, they support the notion that relative preferences for food-associated carbohydrates, but not taste difference thresholds, may correlate with dietary specialization in primates.

  • 6.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Kolmården Wildlife Park, Kolmården, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Attractant or repellent?: Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and to a blood odor component in a mesopredator, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta)2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 12, artikel-id 152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-established that the odor of mammalian blood is attractive to top predators such as tigers and wolves and aversive to prey species such as mice and rats. Recent studies have shown that the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (TED) elicits corresponding behavioral responses in these two groups of mammals. Here we assess whether a mesopredator, that is, a small-bodied carnivorous mammal that is both predator and prey, is attracted to or repelled by the odor of mammalian blood and TED. To this end, we assessed the behavior of a group of 15 captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with horse blood or with TED, and compared it to their behavior toward a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate). We found that the meerkats displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing and pawing when these were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant difference was found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with horse blood and TED, respectively. These results demonstrate that meerkats, despite being small-bodied mesopredators, are clearly attracted to the odor of mammalian blood. Further, the results suggest that a single blood odor component can be as efficient as the odor of real blood in eliciting behavioral responses in this herpestid mammal, similar to previous findings in feline and canine top predators.

  • 7.
    Lahger, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Behavioral responses of CD-1 mice to conspecific and heterospecific blood odors and to a blood odor component2018Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 184, s. 205-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The odor of blood may have both aversive and attractive properties for mammals, depending on the species of the odor donor and the species perceiving the odor. To better understand the informational content of blood odor for a prey species we assessed behavioral responses of male CD-1 mice (n = 60) to the odor of blood of same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics, of a natural predator of mice (cat), and of a herbivore (horse) and an omnivore (human) non-predator of mice. Further, we assessed their behavior towards the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal which recent studies have shown to be as attractive to mammalian predators as the odor of real blood. A two-compartment test arena was used to record approach/avoidance behavior when the animals were presented with an odor in one compartment and a blank control in the other compartment. We found that both conspecific and heterospecific blood odors elicited significant avoidance behavior in the mice whereas a control odor (n-pentyl acetate) did not. The blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal was also significantly avoided and thus appears to play an important role in the perception of mammalian blood odor in this prey species. These results support the notion that mammalian blood odor contains an olfactory warning signal which elicits an adaptive behavioral avoidance response in a prey species, the mouse. Our finding that the mice avoided the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to the same degree as the odor of real blood suggests that this volatile compound might be (part of) this warning signal.

  • 8.
    Hernandez-Hernandez, Julio C.
    et al.
    Laboratorio Biología de la Conducta, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Morales-Mavil, Jorge E.
    Laboratorio Biología de la Conducta, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hernandez-Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Laboratorio Biología de la Conducta, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Diet selectivity in relation to food quality and availability by the endemic Perote squirrel (Xerospermophilus perotensis)2018Ingår i: Therya, ISSN 2007-3364, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 121-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic fluctuations have a biogeochemical effect on food availability and quality, resulting in adjustments of the foraging and food selection behavior of animals. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation on abundance of food resources and its effect on food selection of Xerospermophilus perotensis, an endemic species of ground squirrel in the Oriental Basin. Food selection behavior was recorded using focal animal and continuous behavior sampling on a squirrel population inhabiting the grassland of a semi-arid area. The results show that their diet consisted of 6 plant species with significant differences in the time spent feeding on each plant species (X2 = 128.96; P = 0.01). The species with the highest feeding times included Scleropogon brevifolius (63.6 %), Verbena bipinnatifida (10.6 %) and Erigeron pubescens (10.5 %). These plant species had the highest percentage of vegetation cover and availability among seasons, but they were of low nutritional quality with regard to their protein/fiber ratio. However, during specific periods, associated either with gestation and lactation or prior to hibernation, the squirrels increased their protein consumption. This suggests that squirrels are opportunistic feeders, and under certain conditions tend to select plant species that provide them with better quality diets.

  • 9.
    Malidaki, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of an odor or taste stimulus applied to an artificial teat on the suckling behavior of newborn dairy calves2018Ingår i: Journal of Animal Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2055-0391, Vol. 60, artikel-id 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In their first days of life, dairy calves in artificial rearing systems often have difficulty using an artificial teat for feeding. Methods: We examined the age at which calves are able to stand up voluntarily and suckle as well as their suckling behavior when presented with a plain dry teat versus a dry teat modified with a presumably attractive odor or taste substance. Single-housed newborn dairy calves (n = 51) were presented for ten consecutive days with a two-minute two-choice test, in which suckling time was recorded for 1) a plain (control) teat versus a glucose-coated teat (taste test) and 2) a plain teat versus a teat with a "Freshly Cut Grass" odor (odor test). Results: On average, the calves were able to stand up voluntarily and suckle from the second or third day of age on. The "Freshly Cut Grass" odor had no significant effect on their suckling behavior. In contrast, the calves showed a significant preference for suckling the glucose-coated teat and displayed a significantly longer total suckling time in the taste test compared to the odor test. There were no significant differences between sexes regarding suckling behavior. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that glucose had a significant effect on the calves’ teat preference and significantly increased total suckling time with a dry artificial teat. As such, glucose may increase suckling motivation in non-efficient drinkers or ill calves with low motivation to suckle

  • 10.
    Rodrigo, Alba Motes
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Ramirez Torres, Carlos Eduardo
    Univ Guanajuato, Mexico.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Univ Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hand Preferences in Two Unimanual and Two Bimanual Coordinated Tasks in the Black-Handed Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi)2018Ingår i: Journal of comparative psychology (1983), ISSN 0735-7036, E-ISSN 1939-2087, Vol. 132, nr 2, s. 220-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spider monkeys are interesting to study with regard to hand preferences, as they are one of the few primate species that lack a thumb and, thus, are unable to perform a precision grip. Further, being platyrrhine primates, they also largely lack independent motor control of the digits and, thus, have only limited manual dexterity. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess hand preferences in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in 4 tasks differing in task demand: simple unimanual reaching for food and 3 versions of the widely used tube task, including 2 bimanual versions that differ from each other in the degree of fine motor control needed and a unimanual version that does not require coordinated action of the hands. We found that black-handed spider monkeys display significant hand preferences at the individual, but not at the population, level. This was true both in the 2 bimanual coordinated tasks and in the 2 unimanual tasks. Further, our results show that the majority of animals were consistent in the hand they preferred in these 4 tasks. Our findings only partially support the notion that task demand positively correlates with strength of hand preference. Finally, we found that the index finger was the most frequently used digit in all 3 tube tasks, although the animals also used other digits and 2- and 3-finger combinations to extract food from a tube. We conclude that limited manual dexterity does not prevent spider monkeys from displaying strong and consistent hand preferences at the individual level.

  • 11.
    Peixoto, Luis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Univ Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olfactory sensitivity for mold-associated odorants in CD-1 mice and spider monkeys2018Ingår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 204, nr 9-10, s. 821-833Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using operant conditioning procedures, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice and three spider monkeys for mold-associated odorants. We found that with all eight stimuli, the mice detected concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm (parts per million), and with two of them individual animals even detected concentrations as low as 1 ppt (parts per trillion). The spider monkeys detected concentrations as low as 4 ppm with all eight stimuli, and with four of them individual animals even detected concentrations as low as 4 ppb (parts per billion). Between-species comparisons showed that with all eight odorants, the mice displayed significantly lower threshold values, that is, a higher sensitivity than the spider monkeys, but not than human subjects tested in previous studies. Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that in both species, the type of oxygen-containing functional group and the presence versus absence of a double bond as well as the length of the carbon backbone of the odor stimuli had a systematic effect on detectability. We conclude that both mice and spider monkeys are clearly able to detect the presence of molds and thus to assess the palatability of potential food using the volatiles produced by molds during putrefaction.

  • 12.
    Nicklasson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sjöström, Desirée
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Kolmården Wildlife Park, Kolmården, Sweden.
    Roth, Daniel
    Borås Zoo, Borås, Sweden.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Taste responsiveness to two steviol glycosides in three species of nonhuman primates2018Ingår i: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 63-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Primates have been found to differ widely in their taste perception and studies suggest that a co-evolution between plant species bearing a certain taste substance and primate species feeding on these plants may contribute to such between-species differences. Considering that only platyrrhine primates, but not catarrhine or prosimian primates, share an evolutionary history with the neotropical plant Stevia rebaudiana, we assessed whether members of these three primate taxa differ in their ability to perceive and/or in their sensitivity to its two quantitatively predominant sweet-tasting substances. We found that not only neotropical black-handed spider monkeys, but also paleotropical black-and-white ruffed lemurs and Western chimpanzees are clearly able to perceive stevioside and rebaudioside A. Using a two-bottle preference test of short duration, we found that Ateles geoffroyi preferred concentrations as low as 0.05 mM stevioside and 0.01 mM rebaudioside A over tap water. Taste preference thresholds of Pan troglodytes were similar to those of the spider monkeys, with 0.05 mM for stevioside and 0.03 mM for rebaudioside A, whereas Varecia variegata was slightly less sensitive with a threshold value of 0.1 mM for both substances. Thus, all three primate species are, similar to human subjects, clearly more sensitive to both steviol glycosides compared to sucrose. Only the spider monkeys displayed concentration-response curves with both stevioside and rebaudioside A which can best be described as an inverted U-shaped function suggesting that Ateles geoffroyi, similar to human subjects, may perceive a bitter side taste at higher concentrations of these substances. Taken together, the results of the present study do not support the notion that a co-evolution between plant and primate species may account for between-species differences in taste perception of steviol glycosides.

  • 13.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gordon, Amy R.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Monell Chemistry Senses Centre, PA 19104 USA.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lahger, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Porada, Danja K.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Jelvez Serra, Nadia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emilia
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmarden Wildlife Pk, Sweden.
    Melin, Harald
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Stensmyr, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lundstrom, Johan N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Monell Chemistry Senses Centre, PA 19104 USA; University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    A mammalian blood odor component serves as an approach-avoidance cue across phylum border - from flies to humans2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 13635Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemosignals are used by predators to localize prey and by prey to avoid predators. These cues vary between species, but the odor of blood seems to be an exception and suggests the presence of an evolutionarily conserved chemosensory cue within the blood odor mixture. A blood odor component, E2D, has been shown to trigger approach responses identical to those triggered by the full blood odor in mammalian carnivores and as such, is a key candidate as a food/alarm cue in blood. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that E2D holds the dual function of affecting both approach and avoidance behavior in a predator-prey predicted manner. E2D evokes approach responses in two taxonomically distant blood-seeking predators, Stable fly and Wolf, while evoking avoidance responses in the prey species Mouse. We extend this by demonstrating that this chemical cue is preserved in humans as well; E2D induces postural avoidance, increases physiological arousal, and enhances visual perception of affective stimuli. This is the first demonstration of a single chemical cue with the dual function of guiding both approach and avoidance in a predator-prey predicted manner across taxonomically distant species, as well as the first known chemosignal that affects both human and non-human animals alike.

  • 14.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Human and animal olfactory capabilities compared2017Ingår i: Springer handbook of odor / [ed] Andrea Buettner, Cham: Springer, 2017, s. 81-82Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Sarrafchi, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olfactory Sensitivity for the Mammalian Blood Odor Component Trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal in CD-1 Mice.2017Ingår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, nr 3-4, s. 333-342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm and an automated olfactometer, we investigated the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal. We found that two of the animals significantly discriminated concentrations down to 3.0 ppt (parts per trillion) from the solvent, and three animals even successfully detected dilutions as low as 0.3 ppt. Intraspecific comparisons between the olfactory detection thresholds obtained here with those obtained in earlier studies with other odorants show that mice are extraordinarily sensitive to this blood odor component. Interspecific comparisons of olfactory detection thresholds show that human subjects are even more sensitive to trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal than the mice tested here. Both intra- and inter-specific comparisons suggest that neither neuroanatomical properties such as the size of the olfactory epithelium, the total number of olfactory receptor neurons, or the size of olfactory brain structures, nor genetic properties such as the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the proportion of functional relative to the total number of olfactory receptor genes allow us to reliably predict a species' olfactory sensitivity. In contrast, the results support the notion that the behavioral relevance of an odorant rather than neuroanatomical or genetic properties may determine a species' olfactory sensitivity.

  • 16.
    Sievert, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Behavioral Responses of CD-1 Mice to SixPredator Odor Components2016Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 399-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammalian prey species are able to detect predator odors and to display appropriate defensivebehavior. However, there is only limited knowledge about whether single compounds of predatorodors are sufficient to elicit such behavior. Therefore, we assessed if predator-naïve CD-1 mice(n = 60) avoid sulfur-containing compounds that are characteristic components of natural predatorodors and/or display other indicators of anxiety. A 2-compartment test arena was used to assessapproach/avoidance behavior, general motor activity, and the number of fecal pellets excretedwhen the animals were presented with 1 of 6 predator odor components in one compartment anda blank control in the other compartment. We found that 2 of the 6 predator odor components(2-propylthietane and 3-methyl-1-butanethiol) were significantly avoided by the mice. The remaining4 predator odor components (2,2-dimethylthietane, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl-1-formate, and methyl-2-phenylethyl sulphide) as well as a nonpredator-associatedfruity odor (n-pentyl acetate) were not avoided. Neither the general motor activity nor the numberof excreted fecal pellets, both widely used measures of stress- or anxiety-related behavior, weresystematically affected by any of the odorants tested. Further, we found that small changes in themolecular structure of a predator odor component can have a marked effect on its behavioralsignificance as 2-propylthietane was significantly avoided by the mice whereas the structurallyrelated 2,2-dimethylthietane was not. We conclude that sulfur-containing volatiles identified ascharacteristic components of the urine, feces, and anal gland secretions of mammalian predatorscan be, but are not necessarily sufficient to elicit defensive behaviors in a mammalian prey species.

  • 17.
    Hanson, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jojola, Susan M.
    AFB International, 3 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304, USA.
    Rawson, Nancy E.
    AFB International, 3 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304, USA.
    Crowe, Melissa
    AFB International, 3 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304, USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Facial expressions and other behavioral responses to pleasant andunpleasant tastes in cats (Felis silvestris catus)2016Ingår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 181, s. 129-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the present study was to assess how cats react to tastes previously reported to be preferredor avoided relative to water. To this end, the facial and behavioral reactions of 13 cats to differentconcentrations of l-Proline and quinine monohydrochloride (QHCl) as well as mixtures with differentconcentrations of the two substances were assessed using a two-bottle preference test of short duration.The cats were videotaped and the frequency and duration of different behaviors were analyzed. Significantdifferences in the cats’ behavior in response to the taste quality of the different solutions included,but were not limited to, Tongue Protrusions (p < 0.039), Mouth smacks (p = 0.008) and Nose Licks (p = 0.011)with four different stimulus concentrations. The cats responded to preferred taste by keeping their Eyeshalf-closed (p = 0.017) for significantly longer periods of time with four different stimulus concentrationscompared to a water control. When encountering mixtures containing l-Proline and QHCl the cats performedTongue protrusion gapes (p < 0.038) significantly more frequently with three different stimulusconcentrations compared to an l-Proline control. A stepwise increase in the concentration of l-Prolinefrom 5 mM to 500 mM in mixtures with 50 M QHCl did not overcome the negative impact of the bittertaste on intake. The results of the present study suggest that behavioral responses provide an additionaldimension and may be more informative than consumption data alone to assess whether cats perceivetastes as pleasant or unpleasant. Thus, the analysis of behavioral responses to different taste qualitiesmay be a useful tool to assess and improve the acceptance of commercial food by cats.

  • 18.
    Scharis, Inger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Rasmussen, Gregory S. A.
    Painted Dog Conservation, Hwange National Park, PO Box 72, Dete, Zimbabwe.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Using morphometrics to quantitatively differentiateAfrican wild dog footprints from domestic dogfootprints – a pilot study2016Ingår i: African Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0141-6707, E-ISSN 1365-2028, Vol. 54, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable population estimation and species inventories areimportant for wildlife conservation, but such estimationsare often difficult due to unreliable identification of thespecies in question. Furthermore, for predator conflictresolution, it is essential to be able to reliably identify thepredator. This study presents a new method to quantitativelydistinguish African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) footprintsfrom feral domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)footprints. Footprint photographs were digitally processedusing Photoshop and the NIH image processing softwareImageJ, and total pad area and angles between thecentroids of the backpad and the digits of the paw weremeasured. Pad angles showed statistically significantdifferences between the two species and, with the exceptionthat there was no significant difference in pad areabetween African wild dog females and domestic dog males,total pad areas were also diagnostic. Consequently, thecombination of total pad area and the angle betweenbackpad and digits are useful discriminators to reliablyidentify the species from an unknown footprint.

  • 19.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Busting a myth: humans are not generally less sensitive to odors than nonhuman mammals: .2015Ingår i: Chemical Senses, 2015, Vol. 40, s. 537-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Nevo, Omer
    et al.
    Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Department of Sociobiology/Anthropology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Helmhotztr. 10-1, Containerdorf, 89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Orts Garri, Rosa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Institute of Neuroethology, University of Veracruzana, Calle y No. Dr. Luis Castelazo s/n, Col. Industrial Animas, C.P. 91190, Ciudad, Xalapa, Ver., México.
    Shulz, Stefan
    Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Heymann, Eckhard W.
    Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
    Ayasse, Manfred
    Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Helmhotztr. 10-1, Containerdorf, 89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chemical recognition of fruitripeness in spider monkeys (Atelesgeoffroyi)2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, s. 1-10, artikel-id 14895Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacitiesthat can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and theenvironment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection.Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) displayhigh olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe andunripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spidermonkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits thatbecome increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spidermonkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound thatmark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripefruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise.

  • 21.
    Wielbass, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmarden Wildlife Pk, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustatory Responsiveness of Black-and-White Ruffed Lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) to Food-Associated Sugars2015Ingår i: International journal of primatology, ISSN 0164-0291, E-ISSN 1573-8604, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 460-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonhuman primates differ widely in various aspects of their ecology and are thus particularly suitable for studying the mechanisms underlying interspecies differences in taste perception. Therefore, we assessed taste preference thresholds as well as relative preferences for five food-associated sugars in three adult black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) using two-bottle choice tests of brief duration (1 min). We found that the subjects significantly preferred concentrations as low as 25 mM sucrose and fructose, and 50 mM glucose, maltose, and lactose over tap water. When given a choice between all binary combinations of the same five saccharides presented at equimolar concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mM, respectively, the subjects displayed marked preferences for individual sugars in the following order: sucrose greater than fructose greater than glucose greater than= maltose greater than= lactose. The sensitivity of the black-and-white ruffed lemurs to the five saccharides falls into the same range as that reported in other primates. The pattern of relative preferences for food-associated sugars was found to be largely similar to that reported in platyrrhine primates and in human subjects, but differed from that reported in a catarrhine primate. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notions that the taste sensitivity in primates for food-associated sugars may correlate with phylogenetic relatedness, with body mass, and with lactose content in milk. Further, the results support the notion that relative preferences for food-associated sugars in primates, but not necessarily their sweettaste sensitivity, may correlate with dietary specialization.

  • 22.
    Hanson, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Rawson, Nancy
    AFB International, Saint Charles, MO, USA.
    Jojola, Susan
    AFB International, Saint Charles, MO, USA.
    Crowe, Melissa
    AFB International, Saint Charles, MO, USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nose Licking Good? - A Study on Taste Reactivity in Domestic Cats (Felis catus)2015Ingår i: Chemical Senses, 2015, Vol. 40, s. 535-668Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Olfaction in Nonhuman Primates2015Ingår i: Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation / [ed] Richard L. Doty, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, 3, s. 605-621Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olfactory Discrimination Learning in an Outbred and an Inbred Strain of Mice.2015Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 489-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared olfactory discrimination learning in CD-1 mice, a widely used outbred strain of mice with that of C57BL/6J mice, one of the most widely used inbred mouse strains. Using an automated olfactometer and a standard operant conditioning procedure, I found that CD-1 mice needed 60 trials to reach learning criterion in an initial 2-odor discrimination task. They improved in learning speed in subsequent discrimination tasks in which either the rewarded or the unrewarded stimulus was replaced for a new stimulus. C57BL/6J mice, in contrast, needed 120 trials to reach learning criterion in an initial 2-odor discrimination task and also needed significantly more trials than the CD-1 mice in 3 of the 4 subsequent discrimination tasks. Further, the results showed that discrimination learning performance of both mouse strains was largely unaffected by the odor stimuli used. The results of the present study demonstrate differences between an outbred and an inbred strain of mice with regard to odor discrimination learning, a classical measure of cognitive performance in comparative psychology. Thus, they emphasize the need to be careful with generalizing statements as to cognitive or sensory abilities of Mus musculus when inbred strains of mice are used.

  • 25.
    Eliasson, Moa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are less sensitive to the odor of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds.2015Ingår i: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 99, s. 46-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aliphatic ketones are widely present in body-borne and food odors of primates. Therefore, we used an operant conditioning paradigm and determined olfactory detection thresholds in four spider monkeys for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and two of their isomers (3- and 4-heptanone). We found that, with the exception of the two shortest-chained ketones, all animals detected concentrations <1ppm (parts per million), and with five odorants individual animals even reached threshold values <0.1ppm. Further, we found a significant correlation between olfactory sensitivity of the spider monkeys and carbon chain length of the 2-ketones which can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory sensitivity and position of the functional carbonyl group. Across-odorant and across-species comparisons revealed the following: spider monkeys are significantly less sensitive to the odors of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds (1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, n-acetic esters, and n-carboxylic acids) sharing the same carbon length. Spider monkeys do not differ significantly in their olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic ketones from squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, but are significantly less sensitive to these odorants compared to human subjects and mice. These findings support the notion that neuroanatomical and genetic properties do not allow for reliable predictions with regard to a species' olfactory sensitivity. Further, we conclude that the frequency of occurrence of a class of odorants in a species' chemical environment does not allow for reliable predictions of the species' olfactory sensitivity.

  • 26.
    Hernández Salazar, Laura T.
    et al.
    Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana , Xalapa , Veracruz 91000 , Mexico.
    Dominy, Nathaniel J.
    Department of Anthropology , Dartmouth College , Hanover , NH 03755 , USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi.
    The Sensory Systems of Alouatta : Evolutionwith an Eye to Ecology2015Ingår i: Howler Monkeys: Adaptive Radiation, Systematics, and Morphology / [ed] Martín M. Kowalewski et al., New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, s. 317-336Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge about the perceptual world of howler monkeys is unevenlydistributed between the fi ve senses. Whereas there is abundant knowledge about thesense of vision in the genus Alouatta , only limited data on the senses of hearing,smell, taste, and touch are available. The discovery that howler monkeys are theonly genus among the New World primates to possess routine trichromacy hasimportant implications for the evolution of color vision and therefore has been studiedintensively. Detailed information about the genetic mechanisms and physiologicalprocesses underlying color vision in howler monkeys are available. Although thesound production, vocal repertoire, and acoustic communication in the genusAlouatta have been well documented, basic physiological measures of hearing performancesuch as audiograms are missing. Similarly, despite an increasing numberof observational studies on olfactory communication in howler monkeys, there is acomplete lack of physiological studies on the effi ciency of their sense of smell.Information about the senses of taste and touch is even scarcer and mainly restrictedto a description of their anatomical basis. A goal of this chapter is to summarize ourcurrent knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, genetics, and behavioral relevanceof the different senses in howler monkeys in comparison to other platyrrhines.

  • 27.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sjöberg, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmården Wildlife Park, Sweden.
    Hartmann, Constanze
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Buettner, Andrea
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e112694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals asthe whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles inmammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical ‘‘metallic, blood-like’’ odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captiveAsian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), andSiberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalianblood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruityodor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayedsignificantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, whenthey were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Mostimportantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated withmammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the SouthAmerican bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the fivesessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can beas efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a ‘‘character impact compound’’ of mammalian blood odor. Further, the resultssuggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment for captive carnivores.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Maitz, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustatory responsiveness to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi)2014Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 127, s. 20-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The gustatory responsiveness of four adult spider monkeys to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (1 min). We found that Ateles geoffroyi responded with significant preferences for seven amino acids (glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, l-serine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-lysine) when presented at a concentration of 100 mM and/or 200 mM and tested against water. At the same concentrations, the animals significantly rejected five amino acids (l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, l-valine, l-cysteine, and l-isoleucine) and were indifferent to the remaining tastants. Further, the results show that the spider monkeys discriminated concentrations as low as 0.2 mM l-lysine, 2 mM l-glutamic acid, 10 mM l-proline, 20 mM l-valine, 40 mM glycine, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, and 80 mM l-alanine from the alternative stimulus, with individual animals even scoring lower threshold values. A comparison between the taste qualities of the proteinogenic amino acids as described by humans and the preferences and aversions observed in the spider monkeys suggests a fairly high degree of agreement in the taste quality perception of these tastants between the two species. A comparison between the taste preference thresholds obtained with the spider monkeys and taste detection thresholds reported in human subjects suggests that the taste sensitivity of A. geoffroyi for the amino acids tested here might match that of Homo sapiens. The results support the assumption that the taste responses of spider monkeys to proteinogenic amino acids might reflect an evolutionary adaptation to their frugivorous and thus protein-poor diet.

  • 29.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Structure–Activity Relationships for Aliphatic Ketones in CD-1 Mice2014Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 415-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones(2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 11 odorants, the animalssignificantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with two odorants(2-octanone and 5-nonanone), the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion).Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of themice for the 2-ketones and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest thresholdvalues at 2-octanone. Similarly, the correlation between olfactory sensitivity and carbon chain length of symmetricalketones (3-pentanone to 6-undecanone) can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significantcorrelation was found between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice and position of the functional carbonyl groupattached to a C7 backbone. A comparison between the olfactory detection thresholds obtained here with those obtainedin earlier studies suggests that mice are significantly more sensitive for 2-ketones than for n-carboxylic acids of the samecarbon chain length. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are significantly more sensitive for aliphatic ketonesthan squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, whereas the ranges of human olfactory detection threshold values overlapwith those of the mice with seven of the 11 ketones tested. Further comparisons suggest that odor structure–activityrelationships are both substance class and species specific.

  • 30.
    Rizvanovic, Alisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Discrimination Ability of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) forStructurally Related Odorants2013Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 107-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm, we assessed the ability of Asian elephants, Elephasmaximus, to discriminate between 2 sets of structurally related odorants. We found that the animals successfully discriminatedbetween all 12 odor pairs involving members of homologous series of aliphatic 1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, 2-ketones,and n-carboxylic acids even when the stimuli differed from each other by only 1 carbon. With all 4 chemical classes, the elephantsdisplayed a positive correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms ofdifferences in carbon chain length. The animals also successfully discriminated between all 12 enantiomeric odor pairs tested.An analysis of odor structure–activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather thana single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomers. Compared with other species testedpreviously on the same sets of odor pairs (or on subsets thereof), the Asian elephants performed at least as well as miceand clearly better than human subjects, squirrel monkeys, pigtail macaques, South African fur seals, and honeybees. Furthercomparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors ofbetween-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between thenumber of functional olfactory receptor genes and the proportion of discriminable enantiomeric odor pairs. Taken together,the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important role in regulating thebehavior of Asian elephants.

  • 31.
    Sunghee, Kim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmårdens Djurpark, Sweden .
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers2013Ingår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 199, nr 6, s. 535-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumentalconditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of SouthAfrican fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminatebetween 12 enantiomeric odor pairs. The results demonstratethat the fur seals as a group were able to discriminatebetween the optical isomers of carvone, dihydrocarvone,dihydrocarveol, menthol, limonene oxide, a-pinene,fenchone (all p\0.01), and b-citronellol (p\0.05),whereas they failed to distinguish between the (?)- and(-)-forms of limonene, isopulegol, rose oxide, and camphor(all p[0.05). An analysis of odor structure–activityrelationships suggests that a combination of molecularstructural properties rather than a single molecular featuremay be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomericodor pairs. A comparison between the discrimination performanceof the fur seals and that of other species testedpreviously on the same set of enantiomers (or subsetsthereof) suggests that the olfactory discrimination capabilitiesof this marine mammal are surprisingly well developedand not generally inferior to that of terrestrial mammalssuch as human subjects and non-human primates. Further,comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolutesize of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictorsof between-species differences in olfactorydiscrimination capabilities. Taken together, the results ofthe present study support the notion that the sense of smellmay play an important and hitherto underestimated role inregulating the behavior of fur seals.

  • 32.
    Sarrafchi, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odhammer, Anna M.E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Sensitivity for Six Predator Odorants in CD-1Mice, Human Subjects, and Spider Monkeys2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. e80621-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfurcontainingodorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, themice discriminated concentrations ,0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the bestscoringanimals were even able to detect concentrations ,1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Atelesgeoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants atconcentrations ,0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detectedconcentrations ,10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lowerrange of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play aspecial role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the humansubjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantlymore sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed intheir sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number offunctional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species’olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the typeof alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactorysensitivity.

  • 33.
    Linander, Nellie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hemper de Ibarra, Natalie
    Center for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, UK.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Detectability of L-Amino Acids in the European Honeybee (Apis mellifera)2012Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 631-638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The honeybee is one of several insect model systems for the study of olfaction, yet our knowledge regarding the spectrum ofodorants detectable by Apis mellifera is limited. One class of odorants that has never been tested so far are the amino acids,which are important constituents of floral nectar. Using the proboscis extension response paradigm, we assessed whether theodor of amino acids is detectable for honeybees and determined olfactory detection thresholds for those amino acids that weredetectable. We found that honeybees are able to detect the odor of 5 of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids when presented ata concentration of 50 or 100 mM. Median olfactory detection thresholds for these 5 amino acids were 12.5 mM with L-tyrosineand L-cysteine, 50 mM with L-tryptophan and L-asparagine, and 100 mM with L-proline. All detection thresholds were muchhigher than reported concentrations of amino acids in floral nectars. We conclude that in the foraging and feeding context,honeybees are likely to detect amino acids through taste rather than olfaction. Across-species comparisons of the detectabilityof and sensitivity to amino acids suggest that the number of functional genes coding for olfactory receptors may affect botha species’ sensitivity for odorants and the breadth of its spectrum of detectable odorants.

  • 34.
    Güven, Selcuk Can
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Structure-Activity Relationships for Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in CD-1 Mice2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. e34301-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic n-carboxylic acids(ethanoic acid to n-octanoic acid) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 14 odorants, the animalssignificantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.03 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with four odorantsthe best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activityrelationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the unbranched carboxylicacids and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at n-butanoicacid. A significant positive correlation between olfactory detection thresholds and carbon chain length of the carboxylicacids with their branching next to the functional carboxyl group was found. In contrast, no such correlation was found forcarboxylic acids with their branching at the distal end of the carbon chain relative to the functional carboxyl group. Finally, asignificant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds and the position of the branching of the carboxylicacids. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are more sensitive for short-chained (C2 to C4) aliphatic n-carboxylicacids than other mammalian species, but not for longer-chained ones (C5 to C8). Further comparisons suggest that odorstructure-activity relationships are both substance class- and species-specific.

  • 35.
    Løtvedt, Pia Katrine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Murali, Sathish Kumar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory sensitivity for "green odors" (Aliphatic C6 Alcohols and C6 aldehydes) - A comparative study in male CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) and female spides monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)2012Ingår i: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 101, nr 3, s. 450-457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of six male CD-1 mice for “green odors”, a group of eightstructurally related aliphatic C6 alcohols and aldehydes known to exert anxiolytic and stress-reducing effects,was investigated. With all eight stimuli, the animals discriminated concentrations!0.03 ppm(parts per million)from the solvent, and with three of the eight stimuli the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concen-trations !0.03 ppb (parts per billion). Three female spider monkeys tested in parallel were found to detect thesame eight stimuli at concentrations b1 ppm, and with six of the eight stimuli the best-scoring animals detectedconcentrations !0.1 ppm. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both species the typeof functional group attached to the aliphatic C6 backbone of the odorant molecules systematically affected theirolfactory sensitivity whereas the presence/absence of a double bond did not. In the mice, but not in the spidermonkeys, the position of a double bond and the cis/trans-configuration of the odorant molecules also had a sys-tematic effect on detectability of the “green odors”. A comparison of the detection thresholds between the twospecies tested here and those obtained in human subjects suggests that the number of functional olfactory recep-tor genes is a poor predictor of a species' olfactory sensitivity for “green odors”.

  • 36.
    Wallén, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engström, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory sensitivity for six amino acids: a copmarative study in CD-1 mice and spider monkeys2012Ingår i: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 1475-1485Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactorysensitivity of five CD-1 mice for the L- and D-forms ofcysteine, methionine, and proline was investigated. With allsix stimuli, the animals discriminated concentrationsB0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the odorless solvent, andwith three of the six stimuli the best-scoring animals wereeven able to detect concentrations\0.1 ppb (parts per billion).Three spider monkeys tested in parallel were found todetect the same six stimuli at concentrations\1 ppm, andwith four of the six stimuli the best-scoring animalsdetected concentrations B1 ppb. Both CD-1 mice and spidermonkeys displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity withthe L- and D-forms of cysteine and methionine than with theprolines, suggesting an important role of the sulfur-containingfunctional groups for detectability. Accordingly, theacross-odorant patterns of detection thresholds obtainedwith mice and spider monkeys showed a significant positivecorrelation. A comparison of the detection thresholdsbetween the two species tested here and those obtained inhuman subjects suggests that neither the number of functionalolfactory receptor genes nor the absolute or the relativesize of the olfactory bulbs reliably predicts a species’olfactory sensitivity for amino acids.

  • 37.
    Arvidsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination test by Asian elephants,Elephas maximus2012Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 105, nr 3, s. 809-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates that Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, can successfully be trained to cooperatein an olfactory discrimination test based on a food-rewarded two-alternative instrumental conditioningprocedure. The animals learned the basic principle of the test within only 60 trials and readily mastered intramodalstimulus transfer tasks. Further, they were capable of distinguishing between structurally related odorstimuli and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli after 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks ofrecess without any signs of forgetting. The precision and consistency of the elephants' performance in testsof odor discrimination ability and long-term odor memory demonstrate the suitability of this method forassessing olfactory function in this proboscid species. An across-species comparison of several measuresof olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master intramodalstimulus transfer tasks shows that Asian elephants are at least as good in their performance as mice, rats,and dogs, and clearly superior to nonhuman primates and fur seals. The results support the notion thatAsian elephants may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense ofsmell may play an important role in the control of their behavior.

  • 38.
    Phillips, Matthew
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Boman, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Österman, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willhite, David
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale Univesity School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory and Visuospatial Learning and MemoryPerformance in Two Strains of Alzheimer’s DiseaseModel Mice—A Longitudinal Study2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. e19567-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a longitudinal study design, two strains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model mice, one expressing b-amyloid plaquesand one expressing Tau protein-associated neurofibrillary tangles were assessed for olfactory and visuospatial learning andmemory and their performance compared to that of age-matched controls. No significant difference between AD andcontrol mice was found in the initial set of olfactory tasks performed at 6 months of age whereas both strains of AD miceperformed significantly poorer than the controls in visuospatial learning at this age. Subsequent tests performed on thesame individual animals at 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 18 months of age also failed to find systematic differences in olfactoryperformance between AD and control mice. In contrast, the AD mice performed consistently poorer than the controls invisuospatial re-learning tests performed at these ages. With most olfactory tasks, both AD and control mice displayed amarked decrease in performance between testing at 15 and 18 months of age. These results show that the two strains of ADmodel mice do not display an olfactory impairment in a time course consistent with human AD, but are impaired invisuospatial capabilities. The marked age-related changes observed with the olfactory tasks in both AD and control micesuggest that the observed lack of an AD-related olfactory impairment is not due to an insensitivity of the tests employed.Rather, they suggest that the olfactory system of the two AD mouse model strains may be surprisingly robust against ADtypicalneuropathologies.

  • 39.
    Kjeldmand, Luna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory sensitivity for sperm-attractant aromatic aldehydes: a comparative study in human subjects and spider monkeys2011Ingår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A, ISSN 0340-7594, Vol. 197, s. 15-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a three-alternative forced-choice ascendingstaircase procedure, we determined olfactory detectionthresholds in 20 human subjects for seven aromatic aldehydesand compared them to those of four spider monkeystested in parallel using an operant conditioning paradigm.With all seven odorants, both species detected concentrations\1 ppm, and with several odorants single individualsof both species even discriminated concentrations\1 ppbfrom the solvent. No generalizable species differences inolfactory sensitivity were found despite marked differencesin neuroanatomical and genetic features. The acrossodorantpatterns of sensitivity correlated significantlybetween humans and spider monkeys, and both specieswere more sensitive to bourgeonal than to lilial, cyclamal,canthoxal, helional, lyral, and 3-phenylpropanal. No significantcorrelation between presence/absence of an oxygen-containing moiety attached to the benzene ring orpresence/absence of an additional alkyl group next to thefunctional aldehyde group, and olfactory sensitivity wasfound in any of the species. However, the presence of atertiary butyl group in para position (relative to the functionalaldehyde group) combined with a lack of an additionalalkyl group next to the functional aldehyde groupmay be responsible for the finding that both species weremost sensitive to bourgeonal.

  • 40.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Human Sense of Smell - Our Noses are Much Better that We Think!2011Ingår i: Senses and the City: An interdiciplinary approach to urban sensescapes / [ed] Madalina Diaconu, Eva Heuberger, Ruth Mateus-Berr, Lukas Marcel Vosicky, Wien: Lit Verlag , 2011, s. 145-153Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers collected in this volume discuss the sensory dimension of cityscapes, with focus on touch and smell. Both have been traditionally considered "lower senses" and thus unworthy of being cultivated - objects of social prohibitions and targets of suppressing strategies in modern architecture and city planning. The book brings together approaches from anthropology, aesthetics, the theory of architecture, art and design research, psychophysiology, ethology, analytic chemistry, etc. (Series: Austria: Forschung und Wissenschaft - Interdisziplinar - Vol. 4)

  • 41.
    Larsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ultra-high olfactory sensitivity for the human sperm-attractant aromaticaldehyde bourgeonal in CD-1 mice2011Ingår i: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 355-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that certain aromatic aldehydes are ligands for olfactory receptors expressedin mammalian sperm cells and induce sperm chemotaxis. Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactorysensitivity of five CD-1 mice for seven aromatic aldehydes was investigated. With all seven stimuli, themice discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and withbourgeonal the animals even detected concentrations as low as 0.1 ppq (parts per quadrillion) whichconstitutes the lowest olfactory detection threshold value reported in this species so far. The presence ofa tertiary butyl group in para-position (relative to the functional aldehyde group) combined with a lack ofan additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group may be responsible for the extraordinarysensitivity of the mice for bourgeonal.

  • 42.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ringh, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How big is the gap between olfactory detection and recognition of aliphatic aldehydes?2010Ingår i: Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 806-812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the difference in concentration between olfactory detection and recognition thresholds of aliphatic aldehydes. To this end, we first determined olfactory detection thresholds for n-butanal, n-pentanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, and n-octanal in a group of 16 subjects and then assessed their ability to discriminate between all possible binary pairs of the same odorants presented at different concentrations above their individual detection thresholds. We found that the gap between detection and recognition of aliphatic aldehydes is odorant pair dependent and, at the group level, spans at least a factor of 100. However, single subjects successfully discriminated between certain aldehyde pairs presented at a factor as low as 3 above detection threshold. Our approach to determining olfactory recognition thresholds, using a performance-based measure rather than verbal labeling, not only avoids the problem of semantic ambiguity and arguable criteria, but also is applicable to nonhuman species, allowing for interspecific comparisons of recognition thresholds and of the gap between detection and recognition of odorants. The raw discrimination data from this study are available as a supplement from http://app.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Human Male Superiority in Olfactory Sensitivity to the Sperm Attractant Odorant Bourgeonal2010Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 427-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that sperm chemotaxis critically involves the human olfactory receptor OR1D2, which is activated bythe aromatic aldehyde bourgeonal. Given that both natural and sexual selection may act upon the expression of receptors, wehypothesized that human males are more sensitive than human females for bourgeonal. Using a 3-alternative forced-choicetest procedure, olfactory detection thresholds were determined for a total of 500 subjects, 250 males, and 250 femalesbetween 18 and 40 years of age. We found that male subjects detected bourgeonal at significantly lower concentrations(mean value: 13 ppb) compared with female subjects (mean value: 26 ppb), whereas no such gender difference in olfactorysensitivity was found with helional, a structural analog of bourgeonal, and with n-pentyl acetate, an aliphatic ester, which weretested in parallel. Males and females did not differ in their frequency of specific anosmia for any of the 3 odorants. Thefrequency distributions of olfactory detection thresholds were monomodal with all 3 odorants in both genders. Olfactorydetection thresholds did not differ significantly between pre- and postovulatory females with any of the 3 odorants. To the bestof our knowledge, this is the first study ever to find a human male superiority in olfactory sensitivity. Single nucleotidepolymorphisms and/or copy number variations in genes coding for olfactory receptors may be the proximate cause for ourfinding, whereas a gender difference in the behavioral relevance of bourgeonal may be the ultimate cause.

  • 44.
    Olsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Human male superiority in olfactory sensitivity to the sperm-attractant odorant bourgeonal2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lord, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Selin, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Discrimination of Aliphatic Odorants in South African Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus)2010Ingår i: JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0735-7036, Vol. 124, nr 2, s. 187-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a food-rewarded, two-choice, instrumental conditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between members of five chemical classes of aliphatic odorants presumed to differ in their abundance in the marine chemical environment. We found that the fur seals were able to distinguish between 24 of the 25 odor pairs presented and thus have a well-developed ability to discriminate between structurally related odorants, that aliphatic n-acetic esters were significantly more poorly discriminated by the fur seals than aliphatic n-aldehydes and n-carboxylic acids, and a lack of correlations between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length. These results suggest that the sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals. Further, they support the notion that regular connections between the perceived quality of odorants and their molecular structural properties are not a general phenomenon but appear to be odorant class- and species-specific. Our data support the hypothesis that a species chemical environment may affect its olfactory capabilities.

  • 46.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olfactory Perception of 6 Amino Acids by Human Subject2010Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 279-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The olfactory properties of 6 amino acids were assessed in 20 human subjects using psychophysical tests of detectability,discriminability, and chemesthesis. Mean olfactory detection thresholds were found to be 10 lM for D-methionine, 80 lM forL-methionine, 200 lM for L-cysteine, 220 lM for D-cysteine, 75 mM for D-proline, and 100 mM for L-proline. When presentedat clearly detectable and intensity-matched concentrations, the subjects readily discriminated between the odors of the L-formsof cysteine, methionine, and proline, whereas they failed to distinguish between the L- and D-forms of a given amino acid. Thesubjects also failed in localizing the side of monorhinal stimulation with all 6 amino acids when presented at the sameconcentrations as in the discrimination tasks. These results suggest that amino acids may contribute to the flavor of food notonly as taste stimuli but also as olfactory stimuli perceived via ortho- or retronasal smelling. In contrast, it is unlikely that aminoacids contribute to flavor perception via chemesthesis. Given that the odors of 4 of the 6 amino acids tested here weredetected at concentrations lower than their corresponding taste detection thresholds, this may have important implications forthe widespread use of amino acids as food additives as well as for the evaluation of off-flavors caused by amino acids.

  • 47. Phillips, K.M.
    et al.
    Österman, H.K.
    Boman, E.
    Patel, H.K.
    Kim, D.H.
    Shepherd, G.M.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willhite, D.C.
    Olfactory performance in three transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model strains2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Karlsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Elgland, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laur, Katriann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Red junglefowl have individual body odors2010Ingår i: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 213, nr 10, s. 1619-1624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  • 49.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rivas Bautista, Rosa Mariela
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia.
    Gustatory Responsiveness to Six Bitter Tastants in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates2009Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 35, s. 560-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gustatory responsiveness of six adult squirrel monkeys, four spider monkeys, and five pigtail macaques to six bitter tastants was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (2 min). Animals were given the choice between a 30-mM sucrose solution and defined concentrations of a bitter tastant dissolved in a 30-mM sucrose solution. With this procedure, Saimiri sciureus, Ateles geoffroyi, and Macaca nemestrina were found to significantly discriminate concentrations as low as 0.2, 0.05, and 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride; 1, 1, and 0.05 mM caffeine; 20, 5, and 1 mM naringin; 5, 2, and 1 mM salicin; 0.01, 0.001, and 0.02 mM sucrose octaacetate; and 0.05, 0.01, and 0.5 mM denatonium benzoate, from the alternative stimulus. With the exception of naringin in the pigtail macaques, all three species rejected all suprathreshold concentrations of all bitter tastants tested. The spider monkeys and the pigtail macaques displayed the lowest taste avoidance thresholds with three of the six tastants each; in contrast, the squirrel monkeys displayed the highest taste avoidance thresholds with four of the six tastants. The across-tastant patterns of taste avoidance thresholds were identical in spider monkeys and squirrel monkeys; both species displayed the following order of sensitivity: sucrose octaacetate > denatonium benzoate > quinine hydrochloride > caffeine > salicin > naringin. All three primate species were more sensitive to the two artificial tastants (sucrose octaacetate and denatonium benzoate) compared to the four naturally occurring tastants. However, the concentrations detected by all three primate species with the four naturally occurring tastants are well below those reported in plants or arthropods consumed by these species suggesting that they may use bitterness as a criterion for food selection.

  • 50.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ringh, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How Big is the Gap between Detection and Recognition of Aliphatic Aldehydes?2009Ingår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 34, nr 7, s. A108-A109Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely agreed that two different measures of olfactory sensitivity can be distinguished: a detection threshold, defined as the lowest concentration at which an odorant can be detected or discriminated from a blank stimulus, and a recognition  threshold,  defined as the lowest concentration at which an odorant can be assigned a recog- nizable quality or discriminated  from another  odorant. It is further widely agreed that the detection  threshold  is lower than the recog- nition  threshold.  Surprisingly  few studies,  however, have investi- gated the magnitude of the difference in concentration between olfactory  detection  and  recognition  thresholds.  It  was therefore the aim of the present study to determine olfactory detection thresh- olds for five aliphatic  aldehydes  (C4-C8) in a group  of 16 human subjects, and to assess the ability of the same subjects to discrim- inate between the same odorants presented  at different concentra- tions above their individual detection thresholds.  We found that as a group the subjects significantly discriminated  between 4 of the 10 odorant pairs when presented  at a factor  of 100, and 7 of the 10 odorant pairs when presented at a factor of 1000 above the individ- ual detection  thresholds.  The 3 remaining  odorant pairs were not discriminated  above chance level even when presented  at a factor of 1000 above  detection  threshold.  However,  single subjects suc- cessfully discriminated  between  certain  aldehyde  pairs  presented at a factor as low as 3 above detection threshold.  Further, a signif- icant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of the aldehydes tested was found. The results demonstrate that  the  gap  between  detection  and  recognition  of aliphatic  aldehydes  is odorant pair-dependent but  – at the grouplevel – spans at least a factor  of 100.

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