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  • 1.
    Santini, Marina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Strandqvist, Wiktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Cederblad, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lind, Leili
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik, Örebro universitet.
    Designing an Extensible Domain-Specific Web Corpus for “Layfication”: A Case Study in eCare at Home2019Ingår i: Cyber-Physical Systems for Social Applications / [ed] Maya Dimitrova and Hiroaki Wagatsuma, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global, 2019, s. 98-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of data-driven science, corpus-based language technology is an essential part of cyber physical systems. In this chapter, the authors describe the design and the development of an extensible domain-specific web corpus to be used in a distributed social application for the care of the elderly at home. The domain of interest is the medical field of chronic diseases. The corpus is conceived as a flexible and extensible textual resource, where additional documents and additional languages will be appended over time. The main purpose of the corpus is to be used for building and training language technology applications for the “layfication” of the specialized medical jargon. “Layfication” refers to the automatic identification of more intuitive linguistic expressions that can help laypeople (e.g., patients, family caregivers, and home care aides) understand medical terms, which often appear opaque. Exploratory experiments are presented and discussed.

  • 2.
    Santini, Marina
    et al.
    RISE SICS Linköping, Sweden.
    Strandqvist, Wiktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alirezai, Marjan
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Can We Quantify Domainhood?: Exploring Measures to Assess Domain-Specificity in Web Corpora2018Ingår i: Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 903. Springer, Cham / [ed] Elloumi M. et al., 2018, Vol. 903Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Web corpora are a cornerstone of modern Language Technology. Corpora built from the web are convenient because their creation is fast and inexpensive. Several studies have been carried out to assess the representativeness of general-purpose web corpora by comparing them to traditional corpora. Less attention has been paid to assess the representativeness of specialized or domain-specific web corpora. In this paper, we focus on the assessment of domain representativeness of web corpora and we claim that it is possible to assess the degree of domain-specificity, or domainhood, of web corpora. We present a case study where we explore the effectiveness of different measures - namely the Mann-Withney-Wilcoxon Test, Kendall correlation coefficient, Kullback–Leibler divergence, log-likelihood and burstiness - to gauge domainhood. Our findings indicate that burstiness is the most suitable measure to single out domain-specific words from a specialized corpus and to allow for the quantification of domainhood.

  • 3.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik , Örebro Universitet.
    Hammar, Karl
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH, Datateknik och informatik.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanova, Valentina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Databas och informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    SmartEnv Ontology in E-care@home2018Ingår i: SSN 2018 - Semantic Sensor Networks Workshop: Proceedings of the 9th International Semantic Sensor Networks Workshopco-located with 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018) / [ed] Maxime Lefrançois, Raúl Garcia Castro, Amélie Gyrard, Kerry Taylor, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2213, s. 72-79Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper we briefly introduce SmartEnv ontology which relies on SEmantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology and is used to represent different aspects of smart and sensorized environments. We will also talk about E-carehome project aiming at providing an IoT-based health-care system for elderly people at their homes. Furthermore, we refer to the role of SmartEnv in Ecarehome and how it needs to be further extended to achieve semantic interoperability as one of the challenges in development of autonomous health care systems at home.

  • 4.
    Santini, Marina
    et al.
    RISE SICS East Linköping, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. RISE SICS East Linköping, Sweden.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alireza, Marjan
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    A Web Corpus for eCare: Collection, Lay Annotation and Learning - First Results2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper, we put forward two claims: 1) it is possible to design a dynamic and extensible corpus without running the risk of getting into scalability problems; 2) it is possible to devise noise-resistant Language Technology applications without affecting performance. To support our claims, we describe the design, construction and limitations of a very specialized medical web corpus, called eCare_Sv_01, and we present two experiments on lay-specialized text classification. eCare_Sv_01 is a small corpus of web documents written in Swedish. The corpus contains documents about chronic diseases. The sublanguage used in each document has been labelled as “lay” or “specialized” by a lay annotator. The corpus is designed as a flexible text resource, where additional medical documents will be appended over time. Experiments show that the lay-specialized labels assigned by the lay annotator are reliably learned by standard classifiers. More specifically, Experiment 1 shows that scalability is not an issue when increasing the size of the datasets to be learned from 156 up to 801 documents. Experiment 2 shows that lay-specialized labels can be learned regardless of the large amount of disturbing factors, such as machine translated documents or low-quality texts that are numerous in the corpus

  • 5.
    Hägglund, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sverige.
    Karlsson, M. G. Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klein, Gunnar
    Örebro Universitet, Örebro, Sverige.
    Koch, Sabine
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sverige.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå Universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro Universitet, Örebro, Sverige.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Världsbäst på eHälsa kräver internationellt samarbete2017Ingår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är glädjande att myndigheter nu äntligen tittar mer på internationellt delade detaljerade dokumentationsmodeller för innehåll i journaler. Vi hoppas att de ger tillräckligt kraftfulla och tydliga budskap så att de upphandlande vårdgivarna också ser vikten av detta. Om vi ska bli världsbäst på eHälsa krävs internationellt samarbete, skriver flera forskare i medicinsk informatik.

  • 6.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Örman, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lind, Leili
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shahsavar, Nosrat
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Det krävs en riktad satsning på e-hälsa2016Ingår i: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488, nr 18, s. 22-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cornet, Ronald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Does SNOMED CT post-coordination scale?2014Ingår i: e-Health – For Continuity of Care / [ed] Christian Lovis, Brigitte Séroussi, Arie Hasman, Louise Pape-Haugaard, Osman Saka, Stig Kjær Andersen, IOS Press, 2014, Vol. 205, s. 1048-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SNOMED CT is a compositional terminology. Construction of post-coordinated expressions allows users to specify new meaning by referencing existing SNOMED CT concepts. The use of post-coordinated expressions in information systems requires special software, a reasoner, to give the exact relations between post-coordinated expressions and existing SNOMED CT content. Thus, the performance characteristics of reasoners are important for implementation of post-coordination in information systems. This study aims to test how reasoners perform when a large number of post-coordinated expressions are added to SNOMED CT. The time needed to classify an ontology consisting of SNOMED CT plus an increasing number of post-coordinated expressions is measured. The best performing reasoner in this test classifies SNOMED CT plus 1 million post-coordinated expressions in 42 seconds. The time to classify grows a little less than quadratic as the size of the ontology increases. In conclusion, classification time is not a problem using current reasoners and current SNOMED CT releases even if a large number of post-coordinated expressions are added.

  • 8.
    Holm, Tua
    et al.
    Östergötland County Council, Linköping, Sweden.
    Norr, Anders
    Östergötland County Council, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lessons learned from starting to implement SNOMED CT2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    National eHealth – the strategy for accessible and secure information in health and social care – is a Swedish initiative aiming at improving information management within the healthcare and social services sector. SNOMED CT is one tool in this strategy. To gain experience from SNOMED CT implementation, the National Board of Health and Welfare (host of the National Release Center of SNOMED CT) funded a number of pilot projects during 2013. Our project was one of these, focusing on facilitation of information sharing by using SNOMED CT in two application areas as described below. Furthermore, the project initiated a dialog with the EHR vendor concerning future SNOMED CT implementation.

    One area was transfer of discharge summaries from hospital care at Östergötland County Council to municipal home care. A discharge summary consists of a template with encoded headings, associated free text fields, and instructions about intended content. These headings were mapped to SNOMED CT.

    The other area was transfer of information from the EHR system at hospitals in three counties to the Swedish Stroke Register, a national quality register. The specification of information requested by the register was analyzed. Then, an EHR template was outlined, taking into account the clinical stroke process requirements, quality register requirements, and the information model of the EHR system. The draft template was based on mappings to SNOMED CT to facilitate a mutually agreed template. That means a template common for the three county councils, as well as information transfer to the register, and at the same time reduce the need for double documentation, information searching and other manual routines.

    Lessons learned include that mapping EHR template components and other EHR objects to SNOMED CT concepts holds potential benefits, regardless of whether one’s EHR system can handle mappings. Mapping activities may aid review and management of existing and development of new templates. Furthermore, mappings may be used as a common point of reference when information is shared. Mapping ambiguous template headings to SNOMED CT concepts was found to be time consuming and uncertain and mapping seems to be most useful when EHR contents are structured. These mapping source prerequisites imply that existing documentation practice needs to be revised and that organizations must support end users in that process. The project also concluded that mappings would be even more advantageous if EHR systems can handle mappings of different objects types. Organizations also need to allocate adequate resources for managing its own mappings as well as contributing to the development of SNOMED CT as such.

    Finally, the project found that training of mapping personnel benefits from integrating theoretical instruction and practical use of SNOMED CT, and that finding the correct concept in SNOMED CT calls for clinical expertise in order to be successful.

  • 9.
    Sundvall, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eneling, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Chen, Rong
    Cambio Healthcare Systems.
    Örman, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Applying representational state transfer (REST) architecture to archetype-based electronic health record systems2013Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 13, nr 57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The openEHR project and the closely related ISO 13606 standard have defined structures supporting the content of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). However, there is not yet any finalized openEHR specification of a service interface to aid application developers in creating, accessing, and storing the EHR content.

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style can be used as a basis for a platform-independent, HTTP-based openEHR service interface. Associated benefits and tradeoffs of such a design are also explored.

    Results

    The main contribution is the formalization of the openEHR storage, retrieval, and version-handling semantics and related services into an implementable HTTP-based service interface. The modular design makes it possible to prototype, test, replicate, distribute, cache, and load-balance the system using ordinary web technology. Other contributions are approaches to query and retrieval of the EHR content that takes caching, logging, and distribution into account. Triggering on EHR change events is also explored.

    A final contribution is an open source openEHR implementation using the above-mentioned approaches to create LiU EEE, an educational EHR environment intended to help newcomers and developers experiment with and learn about the archetype-based EHR approach and enable rapid prototyping.

    Conclusions

    Using REST addressed many architectural concerns in a successful way, but an additional messaging component was needed to address some architectural aspects. Many of our approaches are likely of value to other archetype-based EHR implementations and may contribute to associated service model specifications.

  • 10.
    Cornet, Ronald
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    User-Directed Coordination in SNOMED CT2013Ingår i: MedInfo 2013: Proceedings of the 14th World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics / [ed] Lehmann, C.U., Ammenwerth, E., Nøhr, C., Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2013, s. 72-76Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of post-coordination of SNOMED CT concepts, especially by clinical users, is both an asset and a challenge for SNOMED CT implementation. To get insight in the applicability of post-coordination, we analyzed scenarios for user-directed coordination that are described in the documentation of SNOMED CT. The analyses were based on experiences from previous and ongoing research and implementation work, including national mapping projects, and investigations on collection of data for multiple uses. These scenarios show various usability and representation problems: high number of relationships for refinement and qualification, improper options for refinement, incorrect formal definitions, and lack of support for applying editorial rules. Improved user-directed coordination in SNOMED CT in real practice requires advanced sanctioning, increased consistency of definitions of concepts in SNOMED CT, and real-time analysis of the post-coordinate expression.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kron, Bengt
    Region Västra Götaland.
    An integrated Expression Repository EHR system2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of this work is to develop and test a system for storing and querying pre- and post-coordinated SNOMED CT expressions in an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. SNOMED CT is here used as a reference terminology and to allow abstraction of EHR data for transfer to quality databases.

    Background: Enumerating all combinations of SNOMED CT concepts is not possible due to combinatorial explosion. E.g. pain may be qualified by severity (7 severities), pain character (152), body site (25888 sites), course (31) etc. giving a total of some 800 million possible, although not always sensible, different ways to express pain.

    For SNOMED CT to be useful, terminology services need to be integrated with the other parts of the information infrastructure, e.g. EHRs. As the boundary between terminology and information model representation may vary among use cases, care should be taken in implementing such integrations.

    Results: A system is developed to support the management of post-coordinated SNOMED CT expressions. This expression repository allows subsumption testing of pre- and post-coordinated expressions using a full view, i.e. historical views are possible. A transitive closure of the Is a-relation is updated continuously with new post-coordinated expressions stored in the repository. The repository is also integrated with an openEHR-based EHR system including archetype querying possibilities. The integrated system allows querying of terminology-bound archetype instances using pre- and post-coordinated SNOMED CT expressions.

  • 12.
    Vikström, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Maria
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Health Informatics Centre-(HIC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Koch, Sabine
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Health Informatics Centre-(HIC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjerpe, Per
    R&D Centre, Skaraborg PC, Skövde; Social Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Gunnar H
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Coding of procedures documented by general practitioners in Swedish primary care-an explorative study using two procedure coding systems2012Ingår i: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 13, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Procedures documented by general practitioners in primary care have not been studied in relation to procedure coding systems. We aimed to describe procedures documented by Swedish general practitioners in electronic patient records and to compare them to the Swedish Classification of Health Interventions (KVÅ) and SNOMED CT.

    Methods

    Procedures in 200 record entries were identified, coded, assessed in relation to two procedure coding systems and analysed.

    Results

    417 procedures found in the 200 electronic patient record entries were coded with 36 different Classification of Health Interventions categories and 148 different SNOMED CT concepts. 22.8% of the procedures could not be coded with any Classification of Health Interventions category and 4.3% could not be coded with any SNOMED CT concept. 206 procedure-concept/category pairs were assessed as a complete match in SNOMED CT compared to 10 in the Classification of Health Interventions.

    Conclusions

    Procedures documented by general practitioners were present in nearly all electronic patient record entries. Almost all procedures could be coded using SNOMED CT.

    Classification of Health Interventions covered the procedures to a lesser extent and with a much lower degree of concordance. SNOMED CT is a more flexible terminology system that can be used for different purposes for procedure coding in primary care.

  • 13.
    Adelöf, Anna
    et al.
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Lindberg, Christina
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Barlow, Lotti
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Gerdin, Ulla
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Bränd Persson, Kristina
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Ericsson, Erika
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Testi, Stefano
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Förvaltning av SNOMED CT som en del i det nationella fackspråket för vård och omsorg2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förvaltningsrapporten fokuserar på Snomed CT, eftersom det redan i dag finns rutiner för förvaltningar av termbanken och nationella hälsorelaterade klassifikationer. Ett särskilt utvecklingsarbete kommer att krävas för dessa delar.

    Rapporten tar upp syfte och mål med förvaltningen. Utöver det redogör rapporten för vilka konkreta ansvarsområden som ingår i förvaltningen av Snomed CT. Målet för förvaltningen är att Socialstyrelsen regelbundet ska kunna tillhandahålla en kontrollerad och uppdaterad release av Snomed CT. Det skulle möjliggöra användning inom vård och omsorg. Rapporten tar även upp behovet av kompetens, utbildning och finansiella resurser.

  • 14.
    Barlow, Lotti
    et al.
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Gerdin, Ulla
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Almborg, Ann-Helene
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Kron, Bengt
    Regionkansliet Hälso- och sjukvårdsavdelningen, Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Lindberg, Christina
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Bränd Persson, Kristina
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Ahlzén, Karin
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Ericsson, Erika
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Adelöf, Anna
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wolff Foster, Lisa
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Widigson, Lena
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Bratt, Maria
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Testi, Stefano
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Staerner Steen, Anna
    Fackspråk och informatik, Regler och tillstånd, Socialstyrelsen.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nationellt fackspråk för vård och omsorg: Slutrapport2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Ett tillgängligt och använt nationellt fackspråk ska bidra till en god och säker vård och omsorg. Det ska även medverka till att kvaliteten och resultaten på området ska kunna följas upp och jämföras på ett mer effektivt sätt. Slutrapporten presenterar resultatet av projektet Nationellt fackspråk för vård och omsorg samt förslag till förvaltning och utveckling.

    Resultatet

    Resultatet innefattar bland annat att det internationella begreppssystemet Snomed CT är översatt till svenska och att det är förberett för förvaltning och distribution. Socialstyrelsen har även tagit fram och testat metoder för förvaltning och utveckling av det nationella fackspråket i sin helhet. Därtill har representanter för målgrupperna informerats och fått kunskap.

    Rapporten innehåller en utförlig beskrivning av det nationella fackspråkets sammantagna innehåll: Socialstyrelsens termbank, klassifikationer och kodverk, den svenska versionen av Snomed CT, metoder för utveckling och förvaltning samt regler för användning.

    Förvaltning, införande och resursbehov

    I rapporten finns förslag till hur hela det nationella fackspråket kan tas omhand av Socialstyrelsen och hur det kan införas i vården och omsorgen. Projektets övergång till en långsiktigt hållbar organisation kräver resurser. Därför redogör rapporten för det förväntade resursbehovet för förvaltning och utveckling. Bland annat föreslås en treårig utbildningsinsats samt stimulansbidrag för införande.

    Krav på styrning, samordning och förtydligat ansvar

    Rapporten betonar behovet av en samlad och medveten styrning av utvecklingen inom området. Socialstyrelsen vill ha en samordnande roll i utvecklingen och förvaltningen av det nationella fackspråket. Myndigheten föreslås få det initiala ansvaret för att utbilda användare och att driva frågor om det nationella fackspråket.

    Vidare vill Socialstyrelsen få ett uttalat mandat att samordna de nationella aktiviteter som drivs med koppling till Snomed CT. Rapporten pekar ut några särskilt prioriterade områden som myndigheten borde få i uppdrag att arbeta vidare inom.

    Kunskapsstyrning och normgivning

    En viktig slutsats i rapporten är att användningen av det nationella fackspråket behöver regleras för att målet om ökad säkerhet för klienter och patienter ska kunna uppnås. I dagsläget bedöms föreskrifter vara den metod som bäst kan garantera ett brett genomförande.

    Målgrupper för slutrapporten

    Slutrapporten riktar sig till beslutsfattare i kommuner och landsting, vård- och omsorgspersonal med särskilt intresse eller ansvar för dokumentationsfrågor och professionella organisationer. Den riktar sig också till terminologiansvariga i kommuner och landsting, IT-direktörer, IT-leverantörer samt aktörer inom den nationella strategin för eHälsa.

  • 15.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vikström, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Gunnar H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Örman, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enriching a primary health care version of ICD-10 using SNOMED CT mapping2010Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Semantics, ISSN 2041-1480, Vol. 1, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order to satisfy different needs, medical terminology systems musthave richer structures. This study examines whether a Swedish primary health careversion of the mono-hierarchical ICD-10 (KSH97-P) may obtain a richer structureusing category and chapter mappings from KSH97-P to SNOMED CT and SNOMEDCT’s structure. Manually-built mappings from KSH97-P’s categories and chapters toSNOMED CT’s concepts are used as a starting point

    Results: The mappings are manually evaluated using computer-producedinformation and a small number of mappings are updated. A new and polyhierarchicalchapter division of KSH97-P’s categories has been created using thecategory and chapter mappings and SNOMED CT’s generic structure. In the newchapter division, most categories are included in their original chapters. Aconsiderable number of concepts are included in other chapters than their originalchapters. Most of these inclusions can be explained by ICD-10’s design. KSH97-P’scategories are also extended with attributes using the category mappings andSNOMED CT’s defining attribute relationships. About three-fourths of all conceptsreceive an attribute of type Finding site and about half of all concepts receive anattribute of type Associated morphology. Other types of attributes are less common.

    Conclusions: It is possible to use mappings from KSH97-P to SNOMED CT andSNOMED CT’s structure to enrich KSH97-P’s mono-hierarchical structure with a polyhierarchicalchapter division and attributes of type Finding site and Associatedmorphology. The final mappings are available as additional files for this paper.

  • 16.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enrichment of Terminology Systems for Use and Reuse in Medical Information Systems2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic health record systems (EHR) are used to store relevant heath facts about patients. The main use of the EHR is in the care of the patient, but an additional use is to reuse the EHR information to locate and evaluate clinical evidence for treatments. To efficiently use the EHR information it is essential to use appropriate methods for information compilations. This thesis deals with use of information in medical terminology systems and ontologies to be able to better use and reuse EHR information and other medical information.

    The first objective of the thesis is to examine if word alignment on bilingual English-Swedish rubrics from five medical terminology systems can be used to build a bilingual dictionary. A study found that it was possible to generate a dictionary with 42 000 entries containing a high proportion of medical entries using word alignment. The method worked best using sets of rubrics with many unique words that are consistently translated. The dictionary can be used as a general medical dictionary, for use in semi-automatic translation methods, for use in cross-language information retrieval systems, and for enrichment of other terminology systems.

    The second objective of the thesis is to explore how connections from existing terminology systems and information models to SNOMED CT and the structure in SNOMED CT can be used to reuse information. A study examined whether the primary health care diagnose terminology system KSH97-P can obtain a richer structure using category and chapter mappings from KSH97-P to SNOMED CT and the structure in SNOMED CT. The study showed that KSH97-P can be enriched with a poly-hierarchical chapter division and additional attributes. The richer structure was used to compile statistics in new manners that showed new views of the primary care diagnoses. A literature study evaluated which kinds of information compilations those are necessary to create graphical patient overviews based on information from EHRs. It was found that a third of the patient overviews can have their information needs satisfied using compilations based on SNOMED CT encodings of the information entities in the EHR and the structure in SNOMED CT. The other overviews also need access to individual values in the EHR. This can be achieved by using well-defined information models in the EHR.

    Delarbeten
    1. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment
    Visa övriga...
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 6, nr 35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods: The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results: A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion: In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems. © 2006 Nyström et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35769 (URN)10.1186/1472-6947-6-35 (DOI)28502 (Lokalt ID)28502 (Arkivnummer)28502 (OAI)
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Mikael Nyström, Magnus Merkel, Lars Ahrenberg, Pierre Zweigenbaum, Håkan Petersson and Hans Åhlfeldt, Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment, 2006, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, (6), 35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-6-35 Licensee: BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Creating a medical dictionary using word alignment: The influence of sources and resources
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Creating a medical dictionary using word alignment: The influence of sources and resources
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 7, nr 37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Automatic word alignment of parallel texts with the same content in different languages is among other things used to generate dictionaries for new translations. The quality of the generated word alignment depends on the quality of the input resources. In this paper we report on automatic word alignment of the English and Swedish versions of the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, NCSP, KSH97-P and parts of MeSH and how the terminology systems and type of resources influence the quality. Methods. We automatically word aligned the terminology systems using static resources, like dictionaries, statistical resources, like statistically derived dictionaries, and training resources, which were generated from manual word alignment. We varied which part of the terminology systems that we used to generate the resources, which parts that we word aligned and which types of resources we used in the alignment process to explore the influence the different terminology systems and resources have on the recall and precision. After the analysis, we used the best configuration of the automatic word alignment for generation of candidate term pairs. We then manually verified the candidate term pairs and included the correct pairs in an English-Swedish dictionary. Results. The results indicate that more resources and resource types give better results but the size of the parts used to generate the resources only partly affects the quality. The most generally useful resources were generated from ICD-10 and resources generated from MeSH were not as general as other resources. Systematic inter-language differences in the structure of the terminology system rubrics make the rubrics harder to align. Manually created training resources give nearly as good results as a union of static resources, statistical resources and training resources and noticeably better results than a union of static resources and statistical resources. The verified English-Swedish dictionary contains 24,000 term pairs in base forms. Conclusion. More resources give better results in the automatic word alignment, but some resources only give small improvements. The most important type of resource is training and the most general resources were generated from ICD-10. © 2007 Nyström et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40825 (URN)10.1186/1472-6947-7-37 (DOI)54255 (Lokalt ID)54255 (Arkivnummer)54255 (OAI)
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Mikael Nyström, Magnus Merkel, Håkan Petersson and Hans Åhlfeldt, Creating a medical dictionary using word alignment: The influence of sources and resources, 2007, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, (7), 37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-7-37 Licensee: BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-10 Skapad: 2009-10-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    3. Enriching a primary health care version of ICD-10 using SNOMED CT mapping
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enriching a primary health care version of ICD-10 using SNOMED CT mapping
    Visa övriga...
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Semantics, ISSN 2041-1480, Vol. 1, nr 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order to satisfy different needs, medical terminology systems musthave richer structures. This study examines whether a Swedish primary health careversion of the mono-hierarchical ICD-10 (KSH97-P) may obtain a richer structureusing category and chapter mappings from KSH97-P to SNOMED CT and SNOMEDCT’s structure. Manually-built mappings from KSH97-P’s categories and chapters toSNOMED CT’s concepts are used as a starting point

    Results: The mappings are manually evaluated using computer-producedinformation and a small number of mappings are updated. A new and polyhierarchicalchapter division of KSH97-P’s categories has been created using thecategory and chapter mappings and SNOMED CT’s generic structure. In the newchapter division, most categories are included in their original chapters. Aconsiderable number of concepts are included in other chapters than their originalchapters. Most of these inclusions can be explained by ICD-10’s design. KSH97-P’scategories are also extended with attributes using the category mappings andSNOMED CT’s defining attribute relationships. About three-fourths of all conceptsreceive an attribute of type Finding site and about half of all concepts receive anattribute of type Associated morphology. Other types of attributes are less common.

    Conclusions: It is possible to use mappings from KSH97-P to SNOMED CT andSNOMED CT’s structure to enrich KSH97-P’s mono-hierarchical structure with a polyhierarchicalchapter division and attributes of type Finding site and Associatedmorphology. The final mappings are available as additional files for this paper.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2010
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap Data- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58030 (URN)10.1186/2041-1480-1-7 (DOI)20618919 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-07-21 Skapad: 2010-07-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12
    4. Views of diagnosis distribution in primary care in 2.5 million encounters in Stockholm: a comparison between ICD-10 and SNOMED CT
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Views of diagnosis distribution in primary care in 2.5 million encounters in Stockholm: a comparison between ICD-10 and SNOMED CT
    Visa övriga...
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Informatics in Primary Care, ISSN 1476-0320, E-ISSN 1475-9985, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 17-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Primary care (PC) in Sweden provides ambulatory and home health care outside hospitals. Within the County Council of Stockholm coding of diagnoses in PC is mandatory and is done by general practitioners (GPs) using a Swedish primary care version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10). ICD-10 has a mono-hierarchical structure. SNOMED CT is poly-hierarchical and belongs to a new generation of terminology systems with attributes (characteristics) that connect concepts in SNOMED CT and build relationships. Mapping terminologies and classifications has been pointed out as a way to attain additional advantages in describing and documenting healthcare data. A poly-hierarchical system supports the representation and aggregation of healthcare data on the basis of specific medical aspects and various levels of clinical detail. Objective To describe and compare diagnoses and health problems in KSH97-P/ICD-10 and SNOMED CT using primary care diagnostic data and to explore and exemplify complementary aggregations of diagnoses and health problems generated from a mapping to SNOMED CT. Methods We used diagnostic data collected throughout 2006 and coded in electronic patient records (EPRs) and a mapping from KSH97-P/ICD-10 to SNOMED CT to aggregate the diagnostic data with SNOMED CT defining hierarchical relationship Is a and selected attribute relationships. Results The chapter level comparison between ICD-10 and SNOMED CT showed minor differences except for infectious and digestive system disorders. The relationships chosen aggregated the diagnostic data to 2861 concepts showing a multidimensional view on different medical and specific levels and also including clinically relevant characteristics through attribute relationships. Conclusions SNOMED CT provides a different view of diagnoses and health problems on a chapter level and adds significant new views of the clinical data with aggregations generated from SNOMED CT Is a and attribute relationships. A broader use of SNOMED CT is therefore of importance when describing and developing primary care. © 2010 PHCSG, British Computer Society.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    The British Computer Society, 2010
    Nyckelord
    Classification; Diagnosis; ICD-10; Medical records systems computerised; Primary care; SNOMED CT
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57019 (URN)20429975 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-06-14 Skapad: 2010-06-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12
    5. Data Needs for Patient Overviews: A Literature ReviewCompared with SNOMED CT and openEHR
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Data Needs for Patient Overviews: A Literature ReviewCompared with SNOMED CT and openEHR
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient overviews automatically generated fromelectronic healthcare data have different data needsdepending on their complexity. A literature reviewbased on a broad MEDLINE search found 16 suchoverviews for which the data needs were analyzedand compared with features provided bySNOMED CT and openEHR. Five systems used onlyinformation type, while five systems also presentedparticular values from its information entities. Sixsystems also aggregated or filtered the information.In addition to that, two systems provided referenceranges and three systems provided more advanceddecision support. The simple data needs can be metusing information entity markups based onSNOMED CT and SNOMED CT relationships. Morecomplex data needs can be satisfied using theopenEHR reference model and archetypes tostructure data and the archetype query language toretrieve individual data values. The most advancedoverviews also need additional methods foraggregation, filtering and connection to knowledgerepresentation.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap Data- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58615 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-18 Skapad: 2010-08-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12
  • 17.
    Vikstrom, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    Nystrom, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strender, Lars-Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    Nilsson, Gunnar H
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    Views of diagnosis distribution in primary care in 2.5 million encounters in Stockholm: a comparison between ICD-10 and SNOMED CT2010Ingår i: Informatics in Primary Care, ISSN 1476-0320, E-ISSN 1475-9985, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 17-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Primary care (PC) in Sweden provides ambulatory and home health care outside hospitals. Within the County Council of Stockholm coding of diagnoses in PC is mandatory and is done by general practitioners (GPs) using a Swedish primary care version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10). ICD-10 has a mono-hierarchical structure. SNOMED CT is poly-hierarchical and belongs to a new generation of terminology systems with attributes (characteristics) that connect concepts in SNOMED CT and build relationships. Mapping terminologies and classifications has been pointed out as a way to attain additional advantages in describing and documenting healthcare data. A poly-hierarchical system supports the representation and aggregation of healthcare data on the basis of specific medical aspects and various levels of clinical detail. Objective To describe and compare diagnoses and health problems in KSH97-P/ICD-10 and SNOMED CT using primary care diagnostic data and to explore and exemplify complementary aggregations of diagnoses and health problems generated from a mapping to SNOMED CT. Methods We used diagnostic data collected throughout 2006 and coded in electronic patient records (EPRs) and a mapping from KSH97-P/ICD-10 to SNOMED CT to aggregate the diagnostic data with SNOMED CT defining hierarchical relationship Is a and selected attribute relationships. Results The chapter level comparison between ICD-10 and SNOMED CT showed minor differences except for infectious and digestive system disorders. The relationships chosen aggregated the diagnostic data to 2861 concepts showing a multidimensional view on different medical and specific levels and also including clinically relevant characteristics through attribute relationships. Conclusions SNOMED CT provides a different view of diagnoses and health problems on a chapter level and adds significant new views of the clinical data with aggregations generated from SNOMED CT Is a and attribute relationships. A broader use of SNOMED CT is therefore of importance when describing and developing primary care. © 2010 PHCSG, British Computer Society.

  • 18.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vikström, Anna
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Gunnar H
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Örman, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Visualization of disease distribution with SNOMED CT and ICD-102010Ingår i: MEDINFO 2010 - Proceedings of the 13th World Congress on Medical Informatics / [ed] Safran, Charles; Reti, Shane; Marin, Heimar, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2010, Vol. 160, s. 1100-1103Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for presentation of disease and health problem distribution in a health care environment rely among other things on the inherent structure of the controlled terminology used for coding. In the present study, this aspect is explored with a focus on ICD-10 and SNOMED CT. The distribution of 2,5 million diagnostic codes from primary health care in the Stockholm region is presented and analyzed through the “lenses” of ICD-10 and SNOMED CT. The patient encounters, originally coded with a reduced set of ICD-10 codes used in primary health care in Sweden, were mapped to SNOMED CT concepts through a mapping table. The method used for utilizing the richer structure of SNOMED CT as compared to ICD-10 is presented, together with examples of produced disease distributions. Implications of the proposed method for enriching a traditional classification such as ICD-10 through mappings to SNOMED CT are discussed.

  • 19.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Inserm U729, Inalco CRIM.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment2009Ingår i: Lexicography: The Changing Landscape / [ed] Salonee Priya, Hyderabad, India: The Icfai University Press , 2009, 1, s. 131-157Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexicography is a realm of growing academic specialization. Dictionaries map meaning onto use. We have innumerable dictionaries on different subjects and for different purposes which we keep referring to, time and again. Despite the frequency with which dictionaries are unquestioningly consulted, many have little idea of what actually goes into making them or how meanings are definitively ascertained. We have become so accustomed to using dictionaries that we fail to take notice of the effort and time spent in their making. Understanding the finer nuances of the art of dictionary-making will be of interest to everyone. With changing times and the penetration of technology, the bulkier forms of dictionaries have given way to softer forms. This book updates the reader to the changing notions of the lexicon and dictionary-making in the new realm of modern technology and newer electronic tools. The book introduces us to lexicography and leads us to dictionaries for general and specific purposes. It examines dictionary compilation and research and enables compilers, users, educators and publishers to look anew at the art of lexicography. It duly takes into account the fact that dictionaries are meant to fulfill the needs of specific user groups and reflects the same in the chapters devoted to various professional dictionaries, which have recently achieved widespread recognition in the lexicographical literature. A good read for students of linguistics, teachers and translators apart from general readers interested in knowing the intricate art of making a dictionary.

  • 20.
    Chen, Rong
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garde, Sebastian
    Ocean Informatics UK, London, UK.
    Beale, Thomas
    Ocean Informatics UK, London, UK.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An Archetype-based Testing Framework2008Ingår i: EHEALTH BEYOND THE HORIZON: GET IT THERE / [ed] Andersen, SK; Klein, GO; Schulz, S; Aarts, J; Mazzoleni, MC, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, Vol. 136, s. 401-406Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of EHR two-level modelling and archetype methodologies pioneered by openEHR and standardized by CEN/ISO, we are one step closer to semantic interoperability and future-proof adaptive healthcare information systems. Along with the opportunities, there are also challenges. Archetypes provide the full semantics of EHR data explicitly to surrounding systems in a platform-independent way, yet it is up to the receiving system to interpret the semantics and process the data accordingly. In this paper we propose a design of an archetype-based platform-independent testing framework for validating implementations of the openEHR archetype formalism as a means of improving quality and interoperability of EHRs.

  • 21.
    Sundvall, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Qamar, Rahil
    Department of Computer Science University of Manchester, UK.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forss, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Rector, Alan
    Department of Computer Science University of Manchester, UK.
    Integration of Tools for Binding Archetypes to SNOMED CT2008Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 8, nr S7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Archetype formalism and the associated Archetype Definition Language have been proposed as an ISO standard for specifying models of components of electronic healthcare records as a means of achieving interoperability between clinical systems. This paper presents an archetype editor with support for manual or semi-automatic creation of bindings between archetypes and terminology systems.

    Methods

    Lexical and semantic methods are applied in order to obtain automatic mapping suggestions. Information visualisation methods are also used to assist the user in exploration and selection of mappings.

    Results

    An integrated tool for archetype authoring, semi-automatic SNOMED CT terminology binding assistance and terminology visualization was created and released as open source.

    Conclusion

    Finding the right terms to bind is a difficult task but the effort to achieve terminology bindings may be reduced with the help of the described approach. The methods and tools presented are general, but here only bindings between SNOMED CT and archetypes based on the openEHR reference model are presented in detail.

    Background

    The Archetype formalism and the associated Archetype Definition Language have been proposed as an ISO standard for specifying models of components of electronic healthcare records as a means of achieving interoperability between clinical systems. This paper presents an archetype editor with support for manual or semi-automatic creation of bindings between archetypes and terminology systems.

    Methods

    Lexical and semantic methods are applied in order to obtain automatic mapping suggestions. Information visualisation methods are also used to assist the user in exploration and selection of mappings.

    Results

    An integrated tool for archetype authoring, semi-automatic SNOMED CT terminology binding assistance and terminology visualization was created and released as open source.

    Conclusion

    Finding the right terms to bind is a difficult task but the effort to achieve terminology bindings may be reduced with the help of the described approach. The methods and tools presented are general, but here only bindings between SNOMED CT and archetypes based on the openEHR reference model are presented in detail.

  • 22.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eneling, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Introduction to openEHR basic principles2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Pettersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Wihlborg, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Lövström, Rikard
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Systematizing medical alerts2008Ingår i: EHEALTH BEYOND THE HORIZON - GET IT THERE, ISSN 0926-9630, vol 136, 2008, Vol. 136, s. 753-758Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current Swedish regulations for medical alerts in health records were designed for paper records. Suggestions for computerized systems are now being investigated. A proposed model using three alert categories, graphically represented using three directions, probably combined with three severity levels is presented here. Up represents hypersensitivities, left/back represents alerting diagnosis and right/forward represents alerting current and planned treatments. A small qualitative user study of the alert classification model and some graphical representations of it was conducted. One main finding is that most respondents found the use of directions intuitive as a means of presenting categories. Context dependency, information overload, and future possibilities for automated alert-gathering are also discussed in the paper.

  • 24.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Chen, Rong
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Advancement in the standardisation of the EHR2007Ingår i: 5th Scandinavian Conference on Health Informatics 2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Creating a medical dictionary using word alignment: The influence of sources and resources2007Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 7, nr 37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Automatic word alignment of parallel texts with the same content in different languages is among other things used to generate dictionaries for new translations. The quality of the generated word alignment depends on the quality of the input resources. In this paper we report on automatic word alignment of the English and Swedish versions of the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, NCSP, KSH97-P and parts of MeSH and how the terminology systems and type of resources influence the quality. Methods. We automatically word aligned the terminology systems using static resources, like dictionaries, statistical resources, like statistically derived dictionaries, and training resources, which were generated from manual word alignment. We varied which part of the terminology systems that we used to generate the resources, which parts that we word aligned and which types of resources we used in the alignment process to explore the influence the different terminology systems and resources have on the recall and precision. After the analysis, we used the best configuration of the automatic word alignment for generation of candidate term pairs. We then manually verified the candidate term pairs and included the correct pairs in an English-Swedish dictionary. Results. The results indicate that more resources and resource types give better results but the size of the parts used to generate the resources only partly affects the quality. The most generally useful resources were generated from ICD-10 and resources generated from MeSH were not as general as other resources. Systematic inter-language differences in the structure of the terminology system rubrics make the rubrics harder to align. Manually created training resources give nearly as good results as a union of static resources, statistical resources and training resources and noticeably better results than a union of static resources and statistical resources. The verified English-Swedish dictionary contains 24,000 term pairs in base forms. Conclusion. More resources give better results in the automatic word alignment, but some resources only give small improvements. The most important type of resource is training and the most general resources were generated from ICD-10. © 2007 Nyström et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 26.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Evaluating Bilingual Medical Terminologies with Word Alignment Methods2007Ingår i: Medinfo 2007: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics: Building Sustainable Health Systems / [ed] Kuhn, Klaus A; Warren, James R; Leong, Tze-Yun, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2007, s. 244-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Sundvall, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forss, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Rong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Graphical Overview and Navigation of Electronic Health Records in a prototyping environment using Google Earth and openEHR Archetypes2007Ingår i: MEDINFO 2007 - Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics – Building Sustainable Health Systems / [ed] Klaus A. Kuhn, James R. Warren, Tze-Yun Leong, IOS Press, 2007, s. 1043-1047Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes selected earlier approaches to graphically relating events to each other and to time; some new combinations are also suggested. These are then combined into a unified prototyping environment for visualization and navigation of electronic health records. Google Earth (GE) is used for handling display and interaction of clinical information stored using openEHR data structures and ‘archetypes’. The strength of the approach comes from GE's sophisticated handling of detail levels, from coarse overviews to fine-grained details that has been combined with linear, polar and region-based views of clinical events related to time. The system should be easy to learn since all the visualization styles can use the same navigation.

    The structured and multifaceted approach to handling time that is possible with archetyped openEHR data lends itself well to visualizing and integration with openEHR components is provided in the environment.

  • 28.
    Razavi, Amir Reza
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stachowicz, Marian S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shahsavar, Nosrat
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An approach for generating fuzzy rules from decision trees2006Ingår i: Ubiquity: Technologies for Better Health in Aging Societies - Proceedings of MIE2006 / [ed] Arie Hasman, Reinhold Haux, Johan van der Lei, Etienne De Clercq, Francis Roger-France, IOS Press , 2006, s. 581-586Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying high-risk breast cancer patients is vital both for clinicians and for patients. Some variables for identifying these patients such as tumor size are good candidates for fuzzification. In this study, Decision Tree Induction (DTI) has been applied to 3949 female breast cancer patients and crisp If-Then rules has been acquired from the resulting tree. After assigning membership functions for each variable in the crisp rules, they were converted into fuzzy rules and a mathematical model was constructed. One hundred randomly selected cases were examined by this model and compared with crisp rules predictions. The outcomes were examined by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). No significant difference was noticed between these two approaches for prediction of recurrence of breast cancer. By soft discretization of variables according to resulting rules from DTI, a predictive model, which is both more robust to noise and more comprehensible for clinicians, can be built.

  • 29.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment2006Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 6, nr 35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods: The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pairs. Initially, interactive word alignment was used to create training data from a sample. Then the training data were utilised in automatic word alignment in order to generate candidate term pairs. The last step was manual verification of the term pair candidates. Results: A dictionary of 31,000 verified entries has been created in less than three man weeks, thus with considerably less time and effort needed compared to a manual approach, and without compromising quality. As a side effect of our work we found 40 different translation problems in the terminology systems and these results indicate the power of the method for finding inconsistencies in terminology translations. We also report on some factors that may contribute to making the process of dictionary creation with similar tools even more expedient. Finally, the contribution is discussed in relation to other ongoing efforts in constructing medical lexicons for non-English languages. Conclusion: In three man weeks we were able to produce a medical English-Swedish dictionary consisting of 31,000 entries and also found hidden translation errors in the utilized medical terminology systems. © 2006 Nyström et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 30.
    Sundvall, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Qamar, Rahil
    Dep of Computer Science University of Manchester, UK.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forss, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rector, Alan
    Dep of Computer Science University of Manchester, UK.
    Integration of Tools for Binding Archetypes to SNOMED CT2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Archetype formalism and the associated Archetype Definition Language have been proposed as standard for specifying models of components of Electronic Healthcare Records as a means of achieving interoperability between clinical systems. This paper presents an archetype editor with support for manual or semi-automatic creation of bindings between archetypes and terminology systems. Lexical and semantic methods are applied in order to obtain automatic mapping suggestions. Information visualisation methods are also used to assist the user in exploration and selection of mappings.

    The methods and tools presented are general, but here only bindings between SNOMED CT and archetypes based on the openEHR reference model are presented in detail.

  • 31.
    Sundvall, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Interactive Visualization and Navigation of Complex Terminology Systems, Exemplified by SNOMED CT2006Ingår i: Ubiquity: Technologies for Better Health in Aging Societies - Proceedings of MIE2006 / [ed] Arie Hasman, Reinhold Haux, Johan van der Lei, Etienne De Clercq, Francis Roger-France, IOS Press , 2006, s. 851-856Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-text queries are natural entries into the exploration of complex terminology systems. The way search results are presented has impact on the users ability to grasp the overall structure of the system. Complex hierarchies like the one used in SNOMED CT, where nodes have multiple parents (IS-A) and several other relationship types, makes visualization challenging. This paper presents a prototype, Term Viz, applying well known methods like "focus+context" and self-organizing layouts from the fields of Information Visualization and Graph Drawing to terminologies like SNOMED CT and ICD-10. The user can simultaneously focus on several nodes in the terminologies and then use interactive animated graph navigation and semantic zooming to further explore the terminology systems without loosing context. The prototype, based on Open Source Java components, demonstrates how a number of Information Visualisation methods can aid the exploration of medical terminologies with millions of elements and can serve as a base for further development.

  • 32.
    Baud, Robert
    et al.
    Medical Informatics Division University Hospital of Geneva.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Borin, Lars
    Inst för svenska språket Göteborgs universitet.
    Ewans, Roger
    The Information Technology Research Institute University of Brighton.
    Schulz, Stefan
    Inst of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg.
    Zweigenbaum, Pierre
    STIM/DSI Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris.
    Interchanging Lexical information for a multilingual dictionary2005Ingår i: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, Washington DC: AMIA Symposium; American Medical Informatics Association , 2005, s. 31-35Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To facilitate the interchange of lexical information for multiple languages in the medical domain. To pave the way for the emergence of a generally available truly multilingual electronic dictionary in the medical domain.

    METHODS:

    An interchange format has to be neutral relative to the target languages. It has to be consistent with current needs of lexicon authors, present and future. An active interaction between six potential authors aimed to determine a common denominator striking the right balance between richness of content and ease of use for lexicon providers.

    RESULTS:

    A simple list of relevant attributes has been established and published. The format has the potential for collecting relevant parts of a future multilingual dictionary. An XML version is available.

    CONCLUSION:

    This effort makes feasible the exchange of lexical information between research groups. Interchange files are made available in a public repository. This procedure opens the door to a true multilingual dictionary, in the awareness that the exchange of lexical information is (only) a necessary first step, before structuring the corresponding entries in different languages.

  • 33.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klein, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Chen, Rong
    Karolinska Institutet, Solna.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Merkel, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Halvautomatisk översättning av SNOMED CT till svenska2003Ingår i: IT i vården - terminologi, 2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Berg, Lars
    Socialstyrelsen Stockholm.
    Datorbaserat stödsystem vid användning av ICF2002Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 546-549Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Nyström, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Sundvall, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Örman, Håkan
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Data Needs for Patient Overviews: A Literature ReviewCompared with SNOMED CT and openEHRManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient overviews automatically generated fromelectronic healthcare data have different data needsdepending on their complexity. A literature reviewbased on a broad MEDLINE search found 16 suchoverviews for which the data needs were analyzedand compared with features provided bySNOMED CT and openEHR. Five systems used onlyinformation type, while five systems also presentedparticular values from its information entities. Sixsystems also aggregated or filtered the information.In addition to that, two systems provided referenceranges and three systems provided more advanceddecision support. The simple data needs can be metusing information entity markups based onSNOMED CT and SNOMED CT relationships. Morecomplex data needs can be satisfied using theopenEHR reference model and archetypes tostructure data and the archetype query language toretrieve individual data values. The most advancedoverviews also need additional methods foraggregation, filtering and connection to knowledgerepresentation.

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