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  • 1.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    del Río, Pablo
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A technological innovation systems approach to analyse the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, s. 1136-1148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on intermediaries faces challenges regarding how to conceptualise and empirically demonstrate the system-level impact of intermediaries. Thus, researchers and policy analysts may experience difficulties in grasping the potential contributions of intermediaries beyond individual projects and firms to aggregate levels of an innovation system. This article combines innovation intermediary and technological innovation systems literature to develop fundamentals of an approach for analysing how organisations acting as intermediaries support firms in eco-innovation and potentially contribute to technological innovation system functions. The operationalisation of the analytical approach is illustrated using case studies on a total of eight support organisations acting as intermediaries in the region of Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. For researchers and policy analysts, the analytical approach presented in this article offers the opportunity for a step-by-step, comprehensive and transparent analysis of different types of intermediaries, their roles, and potential contributions to innovation system functions.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    ÅF infrastructure, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strategic spatial planning -a missed opportunity to facilitate district heating systems based on excess heat2019Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning is important for developing long-termvisions and strategies towards regional and local sustainability.This paper explores if and how strategic spatial planning could beuseful for overcoming some barriers related to new sustainableways of heating residential areas, using district heating systemsbased on industrial excess heat. This longitudinal study builds oninterviews with municipal and private actors in six Swedishmunicipalities. It highlights that important barriers can beovercome by influencing the design and location of residentialdistricts and industrial activities. Further, it identifies missedopportunities in local spatial planning practice as stakeholders areinvolved late in the planning when much is set, leaving littlespace for stakeholders to have an impact. Consequently, theremight be a lack of knowledge and expertise in how such issuescould enhance planning. Strategic spatial planning could facilitateconditions for excess heat-based systems of district heating as itimplies a broader systems perspective which could enhance abroader planning scope. Plan programs could bring about morestrategic spatial planning processes as these require earlystakeholder involvement. If taking stakeholder involvement onestep further to stakeholder collaboration or co-production, aneven broader planning scope would be achieved.

  • 3.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mika, Kuisma
    Aalto University School of Business. Finland.
    Kivimaa, Paula
    University of Sussex, UK & Finnish Environment Institute SYKE.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Conceptualising the system level activities of intermediaries – experiences from the support system for eco-innovators in Finland, Germany and Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual gap exists regarding the system level activities of intermediaries. This article addresses this gap by answering research questions about how the system level activities of intermediaries can be conceptualised, and empirical demonstrated. In doing so, we study intermediaries in support systems for eco-innovators in three regions across Finland, Germany and Sweden. From our empirical findings and the literature on systemic intermediaries we conceptualise four systems levels of intermediation: (i) between individual entities, (ii) within networks, (iii) across networks and (iv) within innovation systems. These four conceptual levels are based on: (a) the entities between which the intermediaries operate, (b) the intermediation roles and (c) the scope of appropriation of the potential intermediation benefits. Contrary to previous literature on systemic intermediaries which presents such intermediaries as coherent entities, our discussions suggest a heterogeneity of roles within such intermediaries on multiple system levels which can generate internal tensions. Thus, we introduce the term systemic intermediation as a flexible alternative for describing the system level activities of intermediaries compared to systemic Intermediaries dominant in the literature. For researchers and policy makers, this contribution is an essential step which can facilitate a systematic analysis of the impacts of intermediaries in innovation systems.

  • 4.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Borderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, s. 1006-1016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-09-17 10:56
  • 5.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    CDIO-based entrepreneurship courses as drivers of innovation in industrial segments2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017 / [ed] Robert Brennan, Kristina Edström, Ron Hugo, Janne Roslöf, Robert Songer and Daniel Spooner, Calgary: University of Calgary , 2017, s. 288-297Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe and discuss how in two CDIO-based entrepreneurship courses at Linköping University, Sweden, we encourage students to identify and solve challenges and problems in two adjacent industrial sectors, i.e., environmental technology and agricultural/green industries. Both courses are offered to a broad range of engineering programs. The industrial sectors chosen give the students a delimited context incorporating direction, business culture and technology, that forms a basis for the students on which to build their entrepreneurship cases. Working with real challenges gives real-life experience of how models and frameworks can be utilized and correctly executed. In addition, it increases project relevance, student motivation and learning.

    One challenge to overcome is the fact that many students lack previous work-life experience and a thorough knowledge of the industrial sectors in focus. Experiences from earlier courses told us that this made it difficult for students identify and develop realistic, yet challenging and new business ideas on their own to. To remedy this, we tested facilitating interaction with industry, and through this help the students to detect real problems. Furthermore, it was anticipated that interaction with external actors, such as established businesses, organizations and potential customers, helps students to adjust and fine-tune needs and demands to create business ideas that could have real potential. As an added benefit, this approach could enable academia to act as co-creator in industrial problem solving, i.e., to put academic knowledge to practical use in society. Based on our own experiences and student feedback we discuss how this approach forced the students out of their comfort zones, challenged their creativity and enhanced their learning.

  • 6.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    University of Los Andes, Colombia.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Public utility companies in liberalized markets - The impact of management models on local and regional sustainability2017Ingår i: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 49, s. 137-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how publicly-owned utility companies can remain competitive in liberalized markets. We study EPM, a utility company from Medellin, Colombia. We discuss the companys management model, local laws and regulations affecting it, direct and indirect benefits for the city, and risks resulting from the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy helped it remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the market. This has allowed the city to increase its revenue and, as a result, its spending on social and environmental projects. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analyzing international city networks for sustainability: A study of five major Swedish cities2016Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 134, nr part A, s. 61-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies five Swedish cities, their membership in international city networks, the different motivations for such membership, and their administrations’ expected and perceived benefits. Particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such network membership. This study is motivated by the fact that city networks can potentially contribute to global sustainability goals by accelerating the diffusion of innovations, giving members access to bidirectional information flows, improving the user-producer relationship, and providing legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes.

    The study relies on a documentation review, the collection of data from the websites of the studied cities and numerous international city networks, and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks. It was found that four of the five studied cities are active members of international networks for sustainability, but also that there are large gaps between the two largest cities and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical outreach they have through the networks they belong to.

    Some city officials claim that it is easier to be active in national networks than in international networks, due to time requirements and coordination among so many members. However, city officials see benefits for their municipal companies when they are members of international networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that it is difficult to measure direct benefits from network membership, and link improvements in the studied cities to participation in a particular network (with the exception of groups created for a specific infrastructure project, reported as “networks” by the administrations). In addition, there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies. However, the administrations expect indirect benefits such as gaining legitimacy and access to milieus where they can share information and best practices, which could lead to the improvement of both local and global environmental conditions.

  • 8.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems2016Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, s. 156-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

  • 9.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kairento, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nygårds, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Export of environmental technologies by publicly-owned companies: Approaches, drivers and obstacles among Swedish municipal companies2016Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 2175-2196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the export of environmental technology by publicly-owned companies. The export of such technologies has the potential to contribute to economic competitiveness and environmental sustainability. However, research on this emerging topic has so far largely focused on privately-owned SMEs compared to publicly-owned companies. Using interviews with twelve Swedish municipally-owned companies which develop such systems and a survey with thirty-six others, we analyse their approaches, drivers for and obstacles to export. These companies use a combination of different approaches such as subsidiaries, independent projects, licensing and private-public partnerships to engage in export. However, in contrast to private companies which are often driven by internal factors such as extra sales, these municipally-owned companies are largely motivated by external factors such as customer requests and opportunities to contribute to environmental sustainability. Furthermore, their main export barriers relate to differences between the business culture and political systems in their home and target markets. Their export experiences are influenced by their municipal ownership, the types of technologies they develop and the institutional contexts within which they operate. This study reveals an actor type struggling to find a balance between domestic obligations and commercialization in international markets.

  • 10.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Internationalisation among Swedish biogas companies: drivers, barriers and business models2016Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dugand, Santiago Mejiá
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: An analysis of governmental initiatives from eight countries2016Ingår i: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, E-ISSN 2211-4653, Vol. 17, s. 73-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Export represents a means for the diffusion of environmental technologies with potential socio-economic and environmental benefits. However, environmental technology providers experience export barriers which stifle export and thus several governments continue to formulate export promotion initiatives towards this sector. Although export promotion is identified as essential in the environmental technology policy literature, it is yet to receive attention as to which initiatives are available in different countries including their potential relevance for environmental sustainability. Such knowledge is fundamental for policy learning and transfer including identification of good practices.

    To address this knowledge gap, we use market failure and comparative public policy theories to analyse export promotion initiatives from export promotion and export credit agencies across eight countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. Three major conclusions emerge: (1) governmental initiatives to promote environmental technology export can be categorised under financial aid, information provision, education and training, and trade mobility programs; (2) policy choices regarding promotion initiatives are mediated by the institutional context and interests of policy actors (3) relevant aspects of such initiatives for environmental sustainability include the incorporation of particular environmental technology characteristics in initiative formulation, and the prioritisation between different technology and markets types for implementation.

  • 12.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roles of Academia in Supporting Eco-Design in Small Companies for Better Environmental and Economic Performance2016Ingår i: 26TH CIRP DESIGN CONFERENCE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 50, s. 745-750Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Development and diffusion of new or improved products and services is key to solve sustainability challenges such as climate change, resource depletion and loss of biodiversity. Small firms are important for developing these new solutions, but because of resource constraints they normally have to seek external support from e.g. academia and consultancy firms. This paper discusses how academia can provide such support (e.g. knowledge transfer, assessments and new perspectives) in an effective and efficient manner. To illustrate this, three examples of firms, two monitored over a long period of time, are described using interviews, previous evaluations and project reports for data collection. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 13.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gonzaléz, Pablo del Rio
    Institute for Public Policies and Goods Madrid, Spain..
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws from two bodies of literature, innovation intermediaries and technological innovation systems, to develop an approach for analysing the functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation. The link between the functions of innovation intermediaries and the functions of technological innovation systems has seldom been explicitly established in the scientific discourse and thus this article contributes to theoretical development in both literatures. To the technological innovation systems literature, this article addresses the lack of attention to the functions of innovation intermediaries who are a critical part in the formation of networks and also contribute to a number of innovation system functions. To the innovation intermediary literature, the functional approach advocates for a synthesis and consensus building in the literature regarding intermediary functions in view of the several redundancies and ambiguities on the subject matter. Empirical operationalization of the analytical approach including methodological choices from case studies in Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany are also discussed. The results of our analysis show that the functions of the innovation intermediaries are particularly relevant for the overall goals of an innovation system as compared to the configuration of intermediary actors. Particular challenges with a functional approach in this context include the difficulties of establishing a causal relation between the support functions of intermediaries and eco-innovation outcomes in firms.

  • 14.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers2015Ingår i: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 033117-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines the theoretical field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with a business model perspective to increase the knowledge about drivers and barriers behind the emergence of excess heat supply collaborations between district heating companies and industrial firms. The increased knowledge is gained by identifying and examining drivers and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industrial firms into district heating grids in Sweden. An increased recovery of excess heat has the potential to reduce the primary energy demands of district heating systems. This study examines both existing and potential developments of industrial collaborations of excess heat-based district heating systems. The focus of the study consists of two Swedish cases of existing collaboration between district heating companies and pulp and paper industries as well as 16 industrial firms that all produce unused excess heat as a by-product. Confirming earlier research results, this study shows that financial issues are both the main drivers and the main barriers behind the emergence and development of inter-organisational collaborations. In addition, this study confirms earlier research that found the trust, joint problem solving, and fine-grained information transfer are important elements of successful collaboration. This study complements and clarifies these three features by including honesty and shared visions on common goals as important qualities needed for well-functioning collaborations. Combining the IS and the business model perspective has made it possible to examine more factors related to collaboration. The business model perspective has contributed with knowledge about central components of the business agreement between the collaborating parties, and the IS-perspective has contributed knowledge of the important organisational factors behind the emergence and development of long-term sustainable business agreements between firms.

  • 15.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Boderstep Institute for Innovation and Sustainability, Germany.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clausen, Jens
    Hannover, Germany.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation: a study of business development organizations and cluster initiatives in a Swedish and a German region2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-innovation continues to gain support as a driving force for sustainable development. In this regard, pressing questions include how to stimulate the development, diffusion and use of eco-innovations. Often, firms engaged with eco-innovation need to connect to intermediary organizations (e.g. business development organizations, regional clusters, universities, financers, incubators) to get hold of necessary resources to tackle the challenges in the innovation process. This article analyses the functions of such intermediary organizations for eco-innovation by focusing on public–owned business development organizations and cluster initiatives in the Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.  We synthesise at least eight functions of intermediaries for eco-innovation as: (i) forecasting and road mapping (ii) resource mobilization (iii) networking and partnerships (iv) commercialization (v) technical consulting (vi) information scanning and distribution (vii) sector branding and legitimation (viii) prototyping and piloting.  The support functions often take a “one-size-fits-all” approach with few initiatives particularly tailored for eco-innovations. This can be explained by the market complementarity roles of public intermediaries, their resource constraints and the cross-sectoral nature of eco-innovation. Even though, intermediary functions are often appreciated by clients and financers, it is often difficult to establish a causal relation between the support and eco-innovation outcomes, a challenge which undermines the existence of intermediaries themselves. Despite these challenges, potential good practices point to a mix between general “one-size-fits-all” and tailored support activities for different types of eco-innovations and firms. Furthermore, interaction between various types of intermediaries is important since there are often numerous actors and initiatives working with eco-innovation which can confuse firms. When it comes to stimulating radical eco-innovations, a proactive approach to intermediation is particularly important. 

  • 17.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 222-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

  • 18.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Support your future today: enhancing sustainable transitions by experimenting at academic conferences2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Major societal changes which challenge societal functions and actors activities are needed to enhance sustainable development. Thus sustainable transitions research emphasizes co-evolutionary approaches involving a multitude of actors including the business sector, the government, and academia. Academic research can catalyse sustainable transitions by critically analyse current societal trends to develop and disseminate new knowledge. At research conferences, researchers and practitioners meet to network and discuss recent research findings providing arenas for testing and evaluating ideas to enhance sustainable transitions. This however requires some modifications of the standard design of a research conference. Here we report learning outcomes from experimenting at the 18th international Greening of Industry Network conference during 21-24 October 2012 in Linkoping, Sweden. The conference was a combination of a traditional conference structure with different interactive elements such as sustainability jam-sessions to discuss future challenges of six companies and clusters of companies at their site. The intention of doing so was to enhance learning outcomes both for visiting conference delegates and among actors in the host region. This was perceived by the participants as an innovative approach fostering both problem solving and creation of new ideas. Four out of the six companies continued dialogues about sustainable production fields or bio-refineries with Linkoping University. In addition we introduce and summarize research findings presented at the conference which were further developed into research articles. The essence of these articles covers sustainable industry management; cleaner production; industrial ecology; cooperation between industry, governments and academics; dissemination of concepts and technologies; methods and tools for modelling and measuring of industrial symbiosis, CO2 performance and eco-efficiency.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 29-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 20.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    An approach for analyzing public support systems for eco-innovations: Lessons from two German and Swedish regions2014Ingår i: 18th Annual Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurship Conference, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analyzing city networks for the diffusion of environmental innovations: A study of five major Swedish cities2014Ingår i: Conference Proceedings, ERSCP 2014, 14-16 October 2014, Portorož, Slovenia / [ed] Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Peter Glavič, Damijan Koletnik, Peter Virtič and Boris Horvat, Maribor: Nigrad d.d. , 2014, s. 197-206Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies five Swedish municipalities, their memberships in international city networks, the different motivations to be members of them, and the expected and perceived benefits from doing so. A particular focus is put on sustainability, environmental technology, and municipal companies as potential beneficiaries of such memberships. This study is motivated by the fact that networks have been reported by literature to accelerate the diffusion of innovation, give members access to two-way information flows, improve the user-producer relationship and provide legitimacy in the potential recipient regimes. Using a documentation review and interviews with city officials responsible for international city networks, the conclusions relate to the active participation of the studied cities in international networks, but also to the large gaps between the two largest ones and the rest when it comes to the number of memberships and the geographical reach they have through the networks they belong to. Also, cities see benefits for their municipal companies when they belong to such networks, and these companies are usually independent when it comes to choosing and administering their memberships. It was found that the benefits from belonging to international networks are difficult to monitor and measure objectively, and that there is no apparent direct correlation between membership and diffusion of environmental solutions from municipal companies.

  • 22.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Boosting eco-innovation: The role of public support organizations2014Ingår i: XXV ISPIM Conference on Innovation for sustainable Economy and Society, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a multidisciplinary and systematic review of 45 journal articles and two case interviews to investigate the role of public support organizations in the development of eco-innovations. Even though eco-innovations are regarded as a driving force within sustainable development, entrepreneurs developing such innovations face barriers such as lack of some technical expertise, limited financial, time and human resources. Generally, two aspects are needed for eco-innovation support i.e. support for technology as well as business development. The selected public support organizations offered business development support through networking, bridging and financing. However, preliminary findings on their current support activities indicate bridging to other actors who can provide technical expertise such as environmental impact assessment and eco-design could be a promising addition to business development. Potential further research includes deeper empirical investigations on the role of public support actors in the development of eco-innovations.

  • 23.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design of business concept with environmental technology2013Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

  • 24.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ríos, Ramiro Alberto
    Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, USA.
    Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America2013Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 50, s. 82-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological transitions and governance theories are employed for the analysis of the dissemination behavior of Bus Rapid Transit systems in Latin America. This process presents interesting characteristics and traits that seem to facilitate the overcoming of barriers and act as catalysts for the adoption of innovation. The present study uses a systems perspective to explore the dynamics of Bus Rapid Transit's adoption by different cities in the region and to follow its geographical dissemination, relying on historical data collected on numerous implemented projects.

    The resulting analysis provides an insight on the determinants and key points for the concept's expansion, which may be useful for the study of the dissemination of environmental technologies in cities. Contextualized, solid demonstration projects and incremental innovations, it is here argued, facilitated the adoption of new ways and promoted the dissemination of this urban mobility solution within a homogenous group of cities. A description of the Bus Rapid Transit system's approach to barriers that are also found to hinder the dissemination of environmental technologies provides a learning basis for future dissemination strategies.

  • 25.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöteknik: För en hållbar utveckling2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Promoting the export of environmental technologies: governmental initiatives in selected countries2013Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid international and widespread diffusion of environmental technologies remains an essential requirement within the framework of sustainable development. Export offers a desired means for technology diffusion due to its strategic flexibility compared to other means such as foreign direct investment and aid. However, the export of environmental technologies is stifled by market failures. Among other reasons and as a response to such market failures, several governments are formulating initiatives to promote the export of environmental technologies. Although diffusion promotion is highlighted as an important research focus, a systematic overview of governmental initiatives that aim to promote environmental technology export is not available in the literature. This gap in the literature makes it difficult to analyse program effectiveness, and identify best practices. Using documentation from export promotion and export credit agencies in eight selected countries across Asia, Europe, and North America, we discuss governmental initiatives that aim to promote the export of environmental technologies. Our synthesis reveals that governmental promotion can be categorised according to alternative promotional services and is applied across target country(ies), environmental technology type(s), firm size(s),  and firm involvement in export. In addition, using theories from market failure and diffusion studies, we discuss similarities and differences between country initiatives. Trends indicate a focus on support for small and medium sized environmental technology exporters but interesting differences emerge with the choice of target markets, technologies, and the specific export promotion services.

  • 27.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sustainable business and clean technology markets in megacities: an explorative research of their dynamics in Cairo and Mexico City2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a research project on environmental technology diffusion and the dynamics of business arenas within the sector, with two megacities as case studies: Mexico City and Cairo. The term “environmental technologies” is used in a broad sense, referring to technological solutions that contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of cities. With this in mind, a focus on the demand side (i.e. the cities) is the point of departure, and a bottom-up approach to urban sustainability is one of the most important methodological choices. This means that local actors belonging to selected (but representative) societal sectors were interviewed and their views and opinions considered for subsequent discussions about the important conditions to keep in mind when thinking of exploring these markets.

    A subsequent exploration of the supply side (i.e. Swedish environmental technology suppliers) is presented with the intention to show the sector’s composition and to describe and analyze the interactions among the main actors, the current strategies for the sector’s promotion in foreign markets and the conditions promoting or hindering further advancement.

    Transition Management theories are used as a theoretical basis to support the analysis and the methodological choices. Conclusions and recommendations are given regarding the current state of the cities and the suppliers, the strategic choices made by the government and some of the conditions that must be considered by the government and companies in order to successfully deploy their plans. Such conclusions and recommendations can be useful for policy makers, entrepreneurs and researchers in the field of technology diffusion and urban environmental studies:

    • Megacities are looking for adaptive and flexible offerings. Technological solutions that align with local structures (social, political, cultural and physical) and can adapt to actual needs (cf. apparent needs), might overcome more easily the initial unrest and distrust that new concepts bring along.
    • The micro and macro levels in the city deserve each a different language. Solutions and their implications must be translated according to the needs and expectations of actors in each level.
    • Legitimacy and trust are gained more easily with the help of strong demonstration (proof-of-concept) projects. Even better, providing graspable (i.e. contextualized), full-working examples of solutions operating within homogeneous groups helps to overcome resistance and lubricates the implementation.
    • Holistic solutions represent an interesting opportunity but face significant difficulties. This is due to their nature of being tightly tied to context and location and the complications that they must overcome under sometimes diametrically opposite milieus.
  • 28.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of excess heat-based district heating: A case study of the development of excess heat-based district heating in two Swedish communities2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and elaborates on preconditions, drivers and barriers behind the development of excess heat based systems of district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat based district heating systems are considered generally resource-efficient since it could reduce the use of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases by saving primary energy for district heating companies supplying heat to their heating customers. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation has great potential to reduce primary energy demands.

    Collaboration around heat supply is relatively rare. There is an increase but still, the increase is low compared to the supply of excess heat from the industrial processes within the country. Increased knowledge of the important aspects necessary for the collaborations to evolve could mean greater opportunities to facilitate the development of excess heat based systems of district heating.

    The aim of the study is to investigate important preconditions behind the development of excess heat based systems of district heating. It includes two existing cases of excess heat-based district heating systems in two different Swedish communities. The results are analyzed based on previous findings of the emergence and development of industrial collaborations within the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS).

    The results from the study show that relations based on; trust, honesty, shared visions on common goals, information transfer and joint problem solving are necessary for these collaborations to develop.

    These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process. This since knowledge through participation from relevant stakeholders within the collaboration is required to understand and translate the common goals and objectives into practice.

    In addition, we argue that investment subsidies are important for the future development of excess heat based systems of district heating, as a way to facilitate and encourage the long-time environmental benefits for the parties involved as well as the society at large.

  • 29.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejia-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental Technology Export Promotion: A study of governmental initiatives in selected countries2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction-This report is based on structured literature reviews and brainstorming sections on governmental export promotion initiatives for environmental technology in selected countries. It is intended to answer two fundamental questions: why governments intervene to promote environmental technology export and how this intervention is actually executed. These questions emerged in-light of two general challenges: 1) the lack of vivid scientific insights with robust theoretical underpinnings on governmental efforts to promote environmental technology export, 2) the necessity to diffuse environmental technology across borders based on the facts that some environmental technologies have a pressing demand in countries other than their home origin and that most emerging economies are now facing environmental challenges which have long existed in many developed countries.

    Approach-A structured literature review which covered public export promotion agencies and export credit agencies in the top three environmental technology exporting countries (Germany, USA, and Japan); Scandinavian environmental technology competitors to Sweden (Finland, Denmark, Norway); other European competitor (Austria) and China as an emerging exporter was employed to identify governmental export promotion initiatives. For a deeper insight Austria, Denmark and Sweden were purposively selected for an analysis into their public ‘‘action’’ plans to promote environmental technology including exports. The empirical findings were then discussed in brainstorming sections using theories and best practices to come out with conclusions, some recommendations and further questions.

    Findings-The economic justification for government involvement in export promotion is based on the theory of asymmetric information and other market failures. The market has so far not shown enough signs of inherently diffusing environmental technologies to the desired societal level, thus the need for government intervention. Governmental intervention for environmental technology export promotion are organised by one or a combination of the following in the reviewed countries: by prioritized target countries; by prioritized environmental technologies; by alternative services (information, financial, training and education, trade and mobility related programs); by firm size (large vs. small) and by firm stage in internationalization. With regards to specific action plans, crosscutting focus remains on support for small and medium enterprises; strategies in Austria and Denmark to promote environmental technologies in aggregation focus on policy information provision to enterprises whiles technology and business development is given priority in Sweden.

    Concluding remarks-The report concludes with some remarks and further questions to stir up the debate and understanding on governmental initiatives for environmental technology export promotion. Highlights include 1) the recommendation for the provision of more detailed market information to export oriented firms recognizing the importance of externalities involved in gathering such information by private firms, 2) the need for mutual collaboration between governmental export promotion agencies and their initiatives which could be confusingly large within a country and  3) a hybridization of focus on policy instruments and technology & business development in-line with the complex ecosystem of interactions between market information and the innovation of environmental technologies.

    Further questions-Several questions remain to be answered. Among them include: 1) Which theories could be used to justify governmental intervention through export promotion of environmental technologies? 2) What, When and How to measure the effectiveness of such governmental export promotion initiatives and 3) How the inherent characteristics of environmental technologies have (or should) influence their export promotion remain to be answered.

  • 30.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mejiá Dugand, Santiago
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Environmental technology exports: Analyzing Swedish government and firms' initiatives2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries have historically relied to a great extent on exports as an important component of theireconomic system. With the current globalization trends and increased competitiveness, promotingexports has therefore become a common strategy in order to boost economic growth. Exports ofenvironmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and acontribution to global sustainability. For this objective, governments provide different initiativesaimed at promoting foreign commerce among firms. The aim of this article is to assess the perceptionof the effectiveness of governmental initiatives for export promotion among Swedish environmentaltechnology firms. In addition, the article addresses firms’ internal initiatives to reach potential foreignmarkets through the use of modern communication channels. Data about 728 Swedish environmentaltechnology companies was collected and analyzed by using a combination of desktop research and aweb-based survey. The findings show a relatively high export orientation among the respondentcompanies. However, a majority of the respondents claim not to be aware of governmental initiativesthat fit their particular needs. Those who do show a high level of participation in such initiatives, butmost could not relate this participation to successful businesses abroad. From the firms’ perspective,presence on the Internet was considered to be a plausible indicator of their internal initiatives tocapture potential foreign customers. An analysis of the companies’ web sites, their languagecustomization options and the information they provide was undertaken. Results show that a largenumber of companies have functional web sites. However, the percentage of web sites with languagecustomization options was relatively low.The findings suggest that governmental initiatives have to consider the particular composition andneeds of the environmental technology sector in order to be more effective. On the other hand,although companies show to be proactive in the use of the Internet for increasing their outreach,language customization must be addressed as an important component when using such a tool. Bothgovernmental and firms’ initiatives remain important contributions to export success. In this regard,collaboration and communication between governmental export promotion agencies and firmsrepresents an important first step.

  • 31.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industry's Perspective on Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind Excess Het Supply Collaborations with the District heating sector2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and examines the preconditions, drivers, and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industry into district heating grids in Sweden. Large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat could use this otherwise-wasted industrial excess heat in systems of district heating. Using excess heat recovery in district heating grids is currently one of the most cost effective ways of providing additional heat to district heating systems. This study examines what is required for industries with excess heat production to collaborate with the district heating sector. Specifically, we analyse the preconditions behind the development of successful heat supply collaborations from an Industrial Symbiosis (IS) perspective by examine 16 industries that all produce excess heat as a by-product that is not externally used. For the industries to be willing to  enter excess heat collaboration with the district heating sector, we found that the important preconditions are mainly financial. However, we also found that there are certain organizational issues, such as relationships based on trust and personal ties that play an important role in the development of long-term successful excess heat collaborations between companies or other organizations and the district heating sector.

  • 32.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind the Development of Excess Heat-Based Systems for District heating2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies and elaborates on the preconditions, drivers, and barriers behind the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat-based district heating systems are generally considered resource-efficient because they reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation could significantly reduce primary energy demands.

    Although collaboration around heat supply in Sweden has increased, the utilization is low compared to the supply of excess heat produced as the result of industrial processes. Increased knowledge about how collaborations evolve could mean greater opportunities for the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating.

    The study includes two Swedish cases of excess heat-based district heating systems. Using approaches developed within Industrial Symbiosis (IS), we analyse how industrial collaborations with respect to excess heat-based systems emerge and develop. For these collaborations to develop, relationships based on trust, honesty, shared goals, information transfer, and joint problem solving were necessary. These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process because knowledge gained through the participation of stakeholders is required to understand common goals and objectives and to translate them into practice. The organisational features are also important in order to overcome financial and technical barriers to such collaboration.

    In addition, we argue that investment subsidies can encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating and can provide long-term environmental benefits for industry as well as for society at large.

  • 33.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion2012Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the importance of strategic spatial planning associated with the existence and development of district heating. Within the planning of new residential developments in Sweden, local authorities have the authority to influence the future development of the energy systems. The aim of this study is two-fold: to examine whether and how district heating issues are addressed in municipal spatial planning of new residential areas and to discuss how Swedish planning legislation can improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating. The study includes an investigation of the planning process in six Swedish municipalities. The results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the planning process. This delay means that important information often fails to be exchanged between the local authorities and the district heating companies, a lack of communication that undermines a widened systemic approach and long-term planning which are important preconditions for effective decision-making.

  • 34.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cherp, Aleh
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund.
    From tool technique to tool practice: Experiences from the project SEAMLESS: Strategic Environmental Assessment and Management in Local authoritiES in Sweden.2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten presenterar resultat från forskningsprojektet SEAMLESS, Strategic Assessment and Management in Local authoritiES in Sweden. Syftet med SEAMLESS var att studera konceptuella och praktiska kopplingar mellan verktyg för strategisk miljöplanering, miljöbedömning och miljöledning, speciellt mellan Miljöbedömning av planer och program (baserat på EG-direktivet 2001/42/EC) samt Miljöledningssystem (som utgår från huvudprinciperna i ISO 14001/EMAS) i kommuner. Utgångspunkten för studien var att kommuner är viktiga aktörer på miljöområdet eftersom de fattar och genomför en stor mängd beslut som direkt eller indirekt har en inverkan på miljön. Ett stort antal olika system och verktyg har utvecklats för att stötta kommunernas miljöarbete. Genom att ha ett integrerat angreppssätt finns det goda möjligheter för ett mer verkningsfullt miljöarbete.

    SEAMLESS-projektet har genomförts i fem delsteg. Först gjordes en litteraturgenomgång och en undersökning av internationell praxis vad gäller kopplingar mellan miljöbedömningar av planer och program samt miljöledningssystem. I projektets andra steg utformades en konceptuell modell av möjliga kopplingar mellan verktygen. Sedan genomfördes fallstudier i sex svenska kommuner för att få en bättre förståelse för hur verktygen används i praktiken samt vilka kopplingar som finns mellan dem. I projektets fjärde steg analyserades resultaten från de tre första stegen och utifrån detta utvecklades och genomfördes en pilotstudie. I projektets sista steg formulerades generella rekommendationer för ett integrerat angreppssätt för verktyg för strategisk planering, bedömning och management.

    Teoretiskt skulle lokala strategier för hållbar utveckling kunna gynnas av influenser från några av huvudprinciperna i miljöledningssystem och miljöbedömning av planer och program. Men att förverkliga detta i praktiken är en utmaning som kräver ett brett systemperspektiv och en viss mognad inom organisationen. När SEAMLESS-projektet genomfördes fanns det varken behov eller möjligheter för denna typ av integration i de kommuner som studerades.

    SEAMLESS-projektets huvudkoncept tool technique och tool practice användes för att förklara och analysera de förutsättningar, möjligheter och svårigheter som ett integrerat angreppssätt för med sig. Tool technique fokuserar de tekniska aspekterna av verktygsanvändning och tar inte hänsyn till den verklighet och sammanhang som verktyget ska användas i. För att få ett verktyg att fungera i praktiken krävs denna hänsyn, något som vi i SEAMLESS definierar som tools practice.

    Verktygsintegrering är ett annat viktigt koncept inom SEAMLESS, där tre viktiga stadier av integrering identifierats: formell integration, lärande integration och interaktiv integration. Vid ett för stort fokus på formell integration (som är nära kopplat till tool technique), riskerar möjliga kopplingar mellan de integrerade verktygen att gå förlorad eftersom liten eller ingen hänsyn tas till sammanhanget där de ska implementeras. För att möjliggöra integrering krävs lärande integration. Interaktiv integration är svår att uppnå och det är osäkert om detta stadium är eftersträvansvärt eftersom det riskerar att bli för komplext och resurskrävande för att vara effektivt.

    Baserat på resultat och analys har SEAMLESS-projektet resulterat i en uppsättning rekommendationer. Slutsatserna är att integration inte bör vara ett självändamål; att verktygsintegrering bör fokusera att minska gapet mellan olika professionella kulturer; samt att ett brett systemperspektiv är nödvändigt.

  • 35.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Improving energy and material flows: a contribution to sustainability in megacities2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities have become home for 50% of the world‟s population, urban systems have definitely caught public attention. The urban metabolism can be improved by transforming their linear behavior into a more circular one. This paper is based on a project initiated by the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping university, financed by Vinnova: Megatech. The aim is to study the megacities of Cairo and Mexico City in order to understand some of the problems they are facing. By improving their energy and material flows behavior, these megacities can benefit from the reduction of their dependence on fossil fuels and virgin materials; the protection of part of their social, economic and productive systems from external factors (e.g. political drawbacks, shortage/distribution problems, international prices); an increased effectiveness of their planning activities–as they would be based to a large extent on their own resources–and the reduction of their environmental burden. An in situ study will take place with the participation of local stakeholders. Information about environmental problems will be collected and potential solutions will be analyzed and suggested. A tentative model is presented, showing how the reinsertion of the outflows into the urban system could benefit these cities‟ overall environmental performance.

  • 36.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Innovatum Technology Park.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Market barriers for environmental innovations2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes market barriers experienced by Swedish innovators in start-up companies early in the process of bringing environmental innovations to the market. The studied innovators are mainly active in a business-to-business market that often involves capital-intensive industry sectors and large companies are seen as important customers. Most of the market barriers identified can be related to customer relations. The innovators experience their customers’ negative attitudes and unwillingness to try new technologies as major barriers. Furthermore, they perceived their customers to be conservative and reluctant to take risks. These barriers may be relevant in most innovation developments although they may be more articulated for environmental innovations since such innovations mostly evolve in emerging industries and since capital-intensive industry sectors dominate the area. Measures to stimulate diffusion of environmental innovation are discussed, including ways to encourage customers to test new technologies and to see the adoption of the innovation as worth the perceived risks.

  • 37.
    Mejia Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Megacities: turning ten million faces at Swedish environmental technology2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing a tremendous challenge with its current urbanization trend. In particular, two types of cities–i.e. emerging and transitional–are of interest given their rapid population growth and the subsequent pressure put on its infrastructure and logistics and on its surrounding environment. This can represent huge business opportunities for companies in Sweden, where population growth has stabilized and a lot of these problems have been already addressed. At the same time, the host city can benefit from the solution of some of their problems and a push towards a more sustainable development. In this article, the key dynamics for successful up-scaling and diffusion of environmental technologies in emerging markets are analyzed based on a case-study. The identification of key local stakeholders, such as governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs), intermediary institutions, industry representatives and academia was the raw material for a first round of interviews. The latter, provided an insight of what are the barriers to success, having in mind the specific social and economic context of the venue and its inhabitants/government’s perceptions of their current environmental situation.

  • 38.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Gustafsson (f.d. Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strategiskt och verkningsfullt?: Ledningsverktygs bidrag till kommuners hållbarhetsarbete2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommuner kan pekas ut som nyckelaktörer i arbetet för en mer hållbar utveckling. De verkar nära medborgarna och utgör en länk mellan medborgare och nationella/internationella myndigheter och aktörer. Vi har haft förmånen att under en tioårsperiod följa svenska kommuners arbete med att organisera och systematisera arbetet för ett mer hållbart lokalsamhälle. Under den tiden har vi sett en trend som innebär att det har blivit allt vanligare att kommuner tar på sig ansvar utöver det lagstadgade och arbetar mer proaktivt för ett hållbart lokalsamhälle. Det finns en uppsjö av verktyg som kommuner (och andra organisationer) kan använda för att få stöd i detta arbete. Många är förenklade och anpassade varianter av ISO 14001 och EMAS, som är internationellt accepterade verktyg, för att strukturera och systematisera miljöarbetet i en organisation.

    Den här rapporten är en syntes av de studier som vi har genomfört under det senaste decenniet. Det empiriska underlaget baseras främst på intervjuer (allt från fokusgruppintervjuer till telefonintervjuer), dokumentstudier och observationer. Rapporten syftar till att diskutera om och hur ledningsverktyg kan bidra till ett mer effektivt och verkningsfullt strategiskt miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i kommuner. Centralt för syntesen har varit att reflektera över de verktyg som kommunerna väljer att använda, på vilket sätt verktygen används samt hur detta arbete integreras i den kommunala organisationen.

    Vår forskning tar sin utgångspunkt i miljöperspektivet i hållbar utveckling i och med att vi initialt studerade hur kommuner arbetar med att införa standardiserade miljöledningssystem. Vi har följt många kommuner från deras första, ofta trevande, försök till att införa miljöledningssystem till att de har ledningssystem som integrerar miljöperspektivet med de övriga perspektiven i hållbar utveckling. Denna utveckling beskriver vi i de tre utvecklingsfaserna: interna miljöledningssystem, mogna miljöledningssystem samt hållbarhetsledningssystem. Utvecklingen har gått från en ganska snäv systemsyn, både vad gäller innehåll och aktörer i systemen, till en vidare systemsyn där olika perspektiv och flera aktörer involveras. Ett internt miljöledningssystem kännetecknas bland annat av att det främst är miljöexperterna i organisationen som är involverade, att miljöledningen sker särkopplat från verksamhetsstyrningen och att kommunerna ofta väljer att begränsa detta arbete till de tekniska förvaltningarna. I ett moget miljöledningssystem har miljöledningsarbetet en mer central roll i organisationen där de flesta verksamheter och de flesta anställda är involverade. Ett moget miljöledningssystem innebär också att kommunen har en större kunskap om vilket angreppssätt som passar de lokala förutsättningarna. Det resulterar ofta i lokalt utarbetade modeller för hur miljöledningssystemsarbetet ska organiseras och implementeras. Många kommuner inser efter en tid att det är svårt att hantera miljöfrågan i ett separat system som är skiljt från den övriga styrningen och flera upplever att de andra perspektiven i hållbar utveckling borde kunna hanteras med samma systematik som miljöfrågorna. Därför har det blivit allt vanligare att kommuners miljöledningssystem utvecklats till hållbarhetsledningssystem. Dessa har liknande egenskaper som ett moget miljöledningssystem vad gäller intern spridning och position, men det omfattar alla tre perspektiven i hållbar utveckling och bygger på en bredare samverkan där även externa intressenter är inkluderade.

    En av rapportens viktigaste slutsatser är att det är svårt för kommuner att styra i riktning mot en mer hållbar utveckling. En anledning till det är begreppet ”hållbar utvecklings” komplexitet. Det är ett begrepp som har visat sig ha olika innebörd för olika aktörer. Verksamhetsstyrning utgår från att man har tydliga mål och om man vill styra för en mer hållbar utveckling är det viktigt att ha en viss samsyn kring vad det är man vill uppnå. Ett sätt att underlätta införandet av ett miljö- och hållbarhetsledningssystem är att utgå från de strukturer och ansvarsposter som redan existerar i organisationen samt att utforma ett arbetssätt som är anpassat till dem som ska använda det. Annars riskerar ledningssystemet att bli en hyllvärmare, som inte får något genomslag i det praktiska arbetet, och som därmed begränsas i verkningsfullhet. Vi tror att ledningsverktyg kan bidra med struktur och inspiration för kommuners arbete med att organisera och systematisera sitt miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete, men det är viktigt att kommunerna reflekterar över varför de gör den här typen av insats samt om dessa gör nytta i förhållande till kommunens huvudprocesser.

  • 40.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The SIMPLE methodology for supporting innovations in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency2011Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden: Volume 10: Policy Issues / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I present my experiences stimulating development of new products and services in small companies in the environmental arena. The focus on small companies is justified since many new innovations originate from such companies and they often have special needs compared to larger companies. In the region of Östergötland Sweden, we have developed a model called SIMPLE (Successful implementation of eco-design in small enterprises) to support small companies’ environmental innovations. SIMPLE uses the Triple Helix approach. Triple Helix is often used to describe the interaction between university, government, and industry to promote innovation by building on active participation and interaction between regional actors. In short, the SIMPLE methodology uses coaching, network activities and education, and financial support to encourage development of new ideas. Three cases are presented to illustrate the diversity of innovations that can be supported using the SIMPLE methodology. Observations suggest that individual company’s needs must be the main concern of any methodology and networks can significantly stimulate individuals and organizations to speed up the development process and time to market.

  • 41.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).
    Finnveden, Göran
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, nr 2-3, s. 145-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost–benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Allt eller inget? Om kommunens roll i det hållbara lokalsamhället2010Ingår i: Samtal pågår... från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Tora Friberg och Sabrina Thelander, LiU Tryck , 2010, 1, s. 59-65Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det bättre med stora än med små kommuner? Kommer folkrörelsepartierna att bli mer kampanj- och väljarorienterade i framtiden? Hur formas en boendepolitik för det goda åldrandet? Lokala transportstrategier – hur och för vem? Hur påverkas kommunledningars samverkan om gymnasieskolan av att det finns friskolor? Är kulturekonomi framtidens lokala tillväxtmotor?</p><p>Dessa och andra frågor behandlas i denna bok. Den är ett led i Centrum för kommunstrategiska studiers, CKS, arbete med att bygga en dialog – utveckla goda samtal – mellan Linköpings universitet och medlemskommunerna i CKS. Den innehåller fjorton olika artiklar, inlägg, som forskare författat för att förmedla sina resultat, men också för att stärka en dialog med politiker och tjänstemän i kommunerna. Inläggen spänner över många olika ämnen och frågeställningar. De är i vissa fall konkreta och koncisa i andra fall beskrivande och reflekterande. Alla är de av kommunstrategisk karaktär.</p><p>I en kommun fattas en mängd olika politiska beslut kring de mest skiftande ämnen. Det kräver kunskap, reflektion och gedigna beslutsunderlag. Då kan forskares analyser och kunskapsproduktion vara till nytta. För att en fördjupad och samhällsrelevant forskning ska komma till stånd behövs emellertid reaktioner från politiker och tjänstemän. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende. Det kan hanteras genom samtal i vilka forskare, politiker och tjänstemän kan utbyta erfarenheter, tankar och kunskaper. Inläggen i denna bok visar att samtal pågår.

  • 43.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Service as a Means of Communicating User and Environmental Benefits in Ecodesign2010Ingår i: 11TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE (DESIGN 2010), VOL 1-3, The Design Society, 2010, s. 947-954Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at proposing an extended ecodesign framework by incorporating a service aspect in addition to customer, value, system, function, component, and environmental characteristics. It attempts to highlight the importance of an aspect of service: communication for customers or users. The framework is applied to a commercial toilet product that is combined with a service analysing and communicating about the product usage. It is followed by implication to design and management. Note that much insight in the paper can be applied to product design in general, not only to ecodesign.

  • 44.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards sustainability management systems in three Swedish local authorities2009Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 721-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the development towards sustainability management systems (SMSs) in three Swedish local authorities. Many local authorities have extensive experience in using standardised Environmental Management Systems (EMSs). Recently EMSs have extended their reach by widening the scope of the systems including other dimensions of sustainable development. Case studies have been performed in three of the most EMS-experienced local authorities in Sweden. These authorities have extended their EMSs into a sustainability management approach in different ways. This paper discusses the development, possible contributions, and constraints with this development. Expanding EMSs into SMSs can be seen as a learning process in which a larger systems perspective leads to increased awareness that the management system becomes limited by only managing environmental issues. Expanding the EMSs into SMSs may lead to a more complete view of the organisation's total impact on nature and society, and issues that need to be managed.

  • 45.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utvärdering av Norrköpings Klimatinvesteringsprogram, 2004-20082009Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans2009Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

  • 47.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    From Environmental Management Systems to Sustainability Managenment Systems in Swedish Local Authorities2008Ingår i: Facilitating Sustainable Innovations: Sustainable Innovation as a Tool for Regional Development,2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Miljöteknik i Norrköping - Inventering av företag och förslag på åtgärder för utveckling2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 49.
    Hjelm, Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Nyquist, Josefin
    Rehnmark, Henric
    Regional Environmental Technology Centres in Sweden, organization and working procedures2008Ingår i: Facilitating Sustainable Innovations: Sustainable Innovation as a Tool for Regional Development,2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Hojer, M.
    et al.
    Höjer, M., Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlroth, S.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dreborg, K.-H.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, T.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 5302, SE-400 14 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Finnveden, G.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Hochschorner, E.
    Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, SE 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, M.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Kräftriket 2B, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, V.
    Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Box 24300, SE-104 51 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scenarios in selected tools for environmental systems analysis2008Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, nr 18, s. 1958-1970Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of different tools for analysing environmental impacts of different systems have been developed. These include procedural tools such as strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and environmental management systems (EMS) as well as analytical ones such as life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle costing (LCC), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the system of economic and environmental accounts (SEEA) including input-output analysis (IOA). Descriptions or scenarios of the future are typically relevant elements in these tools, since they are often used to describe impacts in the future. For futures studies a number of different approaches and techniques have been developed. In an earlier paper we have presented a typology of different types of scenarios that respond to different types of questions. These include predictive scenarios, explorative scenarios and normative scenarios. The aim of this paper is to explore connections between selected tools for environmental systems analysis and different scenario types. Although there is a clear need for futures studies in several tools for environmental systems analysis, it is interesting to note that the literature on methodologies for and case studies of combinations of futures studies and environmental systems analysis tools is rather limited. This suggests that there is a need for further research in this area including both methodology and practical case studies. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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