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  • 1.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Østergaard Madsen, Christian
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Policies: Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks2019Ingår i: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019 San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, Ida; Janssen, Marijn; Lee, Habin; Polini, Andrea; Rodrígues Bolívar, Manuel Pedro; Jochen Scholl, Hans; Tamborious, Efthimios, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 18, s. 301-310Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is said to be the next big phase in digital- ization. There is a global ongoing race to develop, implement and make use of AI in both the private and public sector. The many responsibilities of governments in this race are complicated and cut across a number of areas. Therefore, it is important that the use of AI supports these diverse aspects of governmental commitments and values. The aim of this paper is to analyze how AI is portrayed in Swedish policy documents and what values are attributed to the use of AI. We analyze Swedish policy documents and map benefits, considerations and risks with AI into different value ideals, based on an established e-government value framework. We conclude that there is a discrepancy in the policy level discourse on the use of AI between different value ideals. Our findings show that AI is strongly associated with improving efficiency and service quality in line with previous e- government policy studies. Interestingly, few benefits are highlighted concerning engagement of citizens in policy making. A more nuanced view on AI is needed for creating realistic expectations on how this technology can benefit society.

  • 2.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostergaard Madsen, Christian
    IT Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hofmann, Sara
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Close encounters of the digital kind: A research agenda for the digitalization of public services2019Ingår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 427-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to e-government research by presenting a review and discussion on how digitalization of public services has affected the interaction between citizens and government. We argue for a conceptualization and critical reflection on the nature of the underlying interaction between citizens and public officials - the public encounter - that digital public services are developed to support. We apply a qualitative and hermeneutic approach and illustrate that digital public services change public encounters concerning when, where, and how interactions occur, what each actor does, and the skills required of them. By relating these changes to emerging digital technologies (e.g. data mining, machine learning, sensor technology, and service automation), we illustrate that while these new technologies carry the potential to further digitalize service provision and fulfill the democratic goals of digital government, authorities can apply the same technology to restrict, control, and surveil citizens. Based on a critical discussion on what digitalization might entail for society, we identify problem areas arising from this development and propose a research agenda for understanding this phenomenon further. We raise questions and ethical concerns regarding accountability and reskilling of citizens and public officials as public service provision becomes citizen self-service.

  • 3.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Creating Local Government Innovation: Lessons Learned From An Institutional Theory Perspective2019Ingår i: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, I., Janssen, M., Lee, H., Polini, A., Rodríguez Bolívar, M.P., Scholl, H.J., Tambouris, E, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11685, s. 125-138Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector is facing an equation that cannot be solved by continuingdoing business as usual. External demands of availability, quality andresilience of services, as well as internal demands of resource efficiency, areputting pressure on the public sector to seek for innovation. In this study, wefocus on local government innovation where high expectations are set on betterutilisation of employees’ creativity and innovative capacity. Based on a qualitativecase study of an innovation programme in a Swedish local governmentorganisation, this study applies institutional theory as a theoretical lens tofurther investigate and analyse the relationship between formal and informalstructures of local government innovation. The institutional structures related tonorms and values, legitimacy and decoupling as well as digital artefacts as institutionalcarriers are discussed. Implications for practice show that formal structures,processes and digital artefacts to support local government innovation areimportant in this work. However, to achieve government innovation, equal attentionshould also be given to informal institutional structures of innovation.For research, this implies that government innovation studies can benefit froman institutional theory perspective to develop a better understanding of how informalstructures affect related processes. We conclude by arguing that theneeded change towards the innovative bureaucracy is a transformative innovationin itself that needs to be acknowledged.

  • 4.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkar, Pradip K.
    School of Business Technology and Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Young, Leslie W.
    School of Business Technology and Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    To couple or not to couple: A case study of institutional legitimacy relating to SaaS applications in two universities2019Ingår i: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, ISSN 0959-3845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The predominant narrative is that contemporary organisations, motivated by economic-rationalist aspirations, adopt cloud applications on the premise of achieving cost-savings and efficiency gains. However, how they actually adopt and rollover such new or emerging technologies may be influenced by acts, patterns and processes of institutional legitimacy. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamics surrounding decisions on how specific cloud applications are adopted from the context of institutional theory, with a particular focus on the concepts of coupling and decoupling.

    Design/methodology/approach

    To examine this phenomenon, two qualitative case studies, using a reflexive research approach, of an Australian and a Swedish university have been undertaken, both of which adopted commercial cloud applications for e.g. e-mail, collaboration and storage (as examples of software as a service) at different points in time. One of the universities was known for its early adoption of cloud applications, but had decelerated further deployment of such services, while the other, despite its conservative reputation, has made rapid strides in this regard.

    Findings

    The findings of the dual case studies reveal that organisations, contrary to economic-rationalist claims, may or may not decide to adopt particular commercial cloud-based offerings for the support of core operations, on the basis of how they perceive their institutional legitimacy being affected by a complex network of influential actors, both internally and in the external spaces. Therefore, this paper offers an institutional theory-based discourse and rich illustrations on how the role of technology is played out in enhancing relationships between an organisation and such actors in terms of legitimacy focusing acts of coupling and decoupling.

    Originality/value

    In the analysis and findings the authors, in a novel way, illustrate how organisations strive for: institutional legitimacy through acts of coupling, and the revelations of consequential decoupling. The value is based on a rich case description, analysis and application of institutional theory.

  • 5.
    Simonofski, Anthony
    et al.
    KU Leuven-University of Namur, Belgium.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vanderose, Benoît
    University of Namur, Belgium.
    Snoeck, Monique
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Towards a Decision Support Guide for User Participation in Public e-Service Development2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is often reported as a success factor for public e-service development. However, in practice, project managers face challenges to involve users due to lack of methodology, time, or context awareness. In order to tackle this lack of context awareness, we describe a conceptual model summarizing the impact of four influencing factors on user participation decisions. From this model, we then derive a decision support guide that helps project managers from public organizations understand when and how to include users in the development process. Following the design science research approach, the conceptual model is built in an iterative manner based on several literature sources and validated through in-depth interviews and group discussions with project managers and researchers. This paper contributes to research as it helps to frame the conditions impacting participation and opens the discussion for the addition of other factors. Then, it also contributes to practice as project managers developing public e-services will be able to reach a better situated participation.

  • 6.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Balanced and integrated e-government implementation – exploring the crossroad of public policy-making and information systems project management processes2018Ingår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 191-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify and elaborate on the various interpretations and implications of e-government as a process of public policy-making and as an act of information systems (IS) project management. The paper contributes to the search for a theoretical conceptualization by bridging policy project management and policy-making in public sector organizations at a crossroad of e-government to improve sustainable e-government research. Design/methodology/approach: The research design of this paper focus on a model balancing the two research fields; public policy-making and analysis, and project management in the IS field. Through this model, four critical aspects of the processes are identified: objective, incentives/motivation, input/trigger and coordinative actor. These critical aspects are illustrated through findings from four case studies that are re-analyzed here. The cases show how the conceptual model through different dimensions can balance the two perspectives to reach a more sustainable outcome of e-government. Findings: The paper shows that the two perspectives on e-government – public policy-making and project management – can be balanced and thereby reach a more sustainable outcome at this crossroad. The case studies re-visited in this paper are compared and serves as illustrations of these perspectives and different configurations of them in search for the crossroad. Research limitations/implications: A main contribution of the paper is that e-government projects should be studied in, and taking both public policy-making and IS project management into account to be sustainable and successful. Even if the case studies have been conducted in Sweden, the conceptual results in this paper can be analytically generalized into other setting. However, there is a need for more comparative and conceptual studies in the field of e-government to shed light on the multi-faceted crossroads illustrated in this paper. Practical implications: The paper offers new insights on how to integrate, bridge and even balance the two aspects of e-government policy aspects and projects management to achieve more sustainable and successful e-government. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the crossroad of policy aspects and IS project management approaches in the e-government field. The paper points at the need to further develop the understanding and design of e-government at the crossroad of information system models and political science concepts. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 7.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Galzie, Zara
    Linköpings universitet.
    Coordinating Public E-services: Investigating Mechanisms and Practices in a Government Agency2018Ingår i: 17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Peter Parycek, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Evangelos Kalampokis, Shefali Virkar, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11020, s. 13s. 85-97Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination is an important enabler when creating and managing coherent, integrated, secure and smart public electronic services (e-services). With an increased demand for such services, coordination as an internal organizational phenomenon is becoming increasingly important. Based on a qualitative case study, and informed by coordination theory, this paper investigates two different theoretical views applied on internal e-service coordination within a government agency in Sweden. At the outset, the agency is seeking one generic way to coordinate the current heterogeneous and fragmented internal e-service landscape in a more efficient way. Hence, our aim also includes investigating the prerequisites and potential for this type of coordination. We conduct this study in two stages. First, we apply a well-established theoretical lens from organizational theory on a set of coordination efforts, thereby perceiving coordination as a planned and anticipated activity based on a fixed set of mechanisms. Second, we apply a lens of coordinating as emergent practice, which allows for an in-depth investigation of more flexible and dynamic aspects of coordinating activities in daily work. By combining these two views, we argue that this approach can facilitate and increase understanding of the dynamics and flexibility needed to understand the type of coordination needed in public e-service contexts. This also implies that there is no single best practice or ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to internal e-service coordination. Instead, organizations need to acknowledge the need for combined multi-dimensional views revealing the inherent complexity of coordination; as planned as well as emerging activities.

  • 8.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?2018Ingår i: The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 72-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e-service development. However, at the same time development of public e-services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e-government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e-service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e-service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e-service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad-hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e-service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

  • 9.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Identitet arbete privatliv: användning av smarta ID-kort2018Ingår i: Ett smartare samhälle?: Sju perspektiv på digitaliseringen av vår vardag / [ed] Lotta Gröning och Elin Whilborg, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, 1, s. 112-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskan Mikael kliver upp tidigt på morgonen för att åka till jobbet. Han jobbar på en mindre vårdcentral ungefär tre mil hemifrån och måste åka strax före halv sju på morgonen. På väg ut till bilen kommer han plötslig ihåg att han måste ha med sig sitt nya ID-kort. Utan kortet kan han inte jobba…

  • 10.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization2018Ingår i: Electronic Government: EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek P., Springer Verlag , 2018, s. 169-183Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When focusing on open government data (OGD) publishing and related barriers, there are several complexities present. Largely, current research is focused on publishing and usage of OGD; and we argue that there are a need to investigate and to systematise OGD barrier research in order to understand and outline an expanded scope of the phenomenon. We expand by clarifying barriers linked to the release decision and the data’s organisational context. To investigate the OGD barriers, we conduct a systematic literature review, identifying 34 articles as a point of departure for our analysis. From these articles we create, present and discuss illustrations on historical development, barrier types, and different research focuses on OGD. When analysing the articles, we identify a focus on technical, organisational, and legal barrier types, while studies on open data usage and systems are less frequent. Our analysis also identifies some possible open data research barriers. In the article we also relate barriers to an expanded OGD process (Suitability, Release, Publish, Use, and Evaluation), identifying 46 barriers with possible linkages. The results is an expanded scope and a conceptual illustration of OGD barriers. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

  • 11.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Löfstedt, Truls
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Understanding an Integrated Management System in a Government Agency – Focusing Institutional Carriers: Focusing Institutional Carriers2018Ingår i: Electronic Government. EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek, Peter; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Tambouris, Efthimios; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Virkar, Shefali, Springer International Publishing , 2018, s. 15-28Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Working with an integrated management system (IMS) is a challenging task. In public organizations, the formalization of an IMS including the communication of control mechanisms, rules, goals and culture are crucial. Several types of carriers are used in order to communicate the content in an IMS – both human actors and artefacts. An artefact studied in this paper is an intranet, as one carrier of the IMS. The purpose of this paper is to explore how institutional theory – focusing institutional carriers – can help us to understand how an IMS is represented through human actors and technology in a government agency. The conclusion is that the application of an institutional carrier perspective on an IMS can help us to understand the past and present, the role, and the relative success of such a system. An IMS can be aligned or misaligned related to three dimensions of structure, process and people. Achieving an aligned and legitimate IMS is crucial in order to achieve goals in an organization. The implications of this study are that further research and practice should give more attention to institutional carriers when studying and improving IMS.

  • 12.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vetenskaplig kunskap och bildning för samhällets framtida digitalisering: ett nationellt centrum: Utredningsrapport 2018-11-052018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitalisering innehåller en potential för fortsatt förändring i och av samhället. Samtidigt har digitalisering många former och uttryck och det är inte självklart att goda sidor realiseras. Utredningen, som bygger på studier av tidigare forskning, intervjuer och enkäter, visar med tydlighet att det finns ett behov av vetenskaplig kunskap och bildning för att nå en mera reflekterad praktik gällande samhällets digitalisering. Det framkommer ett antal glapp i mötet mellan nuvarande digitaliseringsforskning och -praktik som gör att den kunskap om digitalisering som genereras inom både forskningen och inom praktiken inte tillräckligt ömsesidigt och aktivt tas tillvara. Med sådana glapp riskerar vi att inte nyttja den potential som finns i digitalisering inom både privat och offentlig sektor; att inte tillräckligt lära av generell kunskap, sammanhang och heller inte av framgångsmönster eller misstag i praktiken. För att framgångsrikt kunna adressera dessa glapp ställs höga krav både på praktiken, på den vetenskapliga kunskapsgenereringen och på den bildning som finns idag och i framtiden. Digitalisering är därmed både kunskapskrävande och kunskapsdrivande. Att samla en förmåga att kunna adressera dessa glapp är centralt för att vi som nation skall kunna nå de intentioner om att bli bäst på att nyttja digitaliseringens möjligheter som allt oftare artikuleras. Här krävs en medveten, långsiktig och samlad satsning på forskning om digitalisering bortom enskilda ämnen och specifika tillämpningsområden. En mångdisciplinär forskning med en samtidig ämnesmässig legitimitet har en viktig roll att spela för att bidra till en reflekterad digitaliseringspraktik. Relevant och vederhäftig utbildning på grundläggande och på avancerad nivå, forskarutbildning samt fort- och vidareutbildning likaså. Sammantaget skall detta resultera i en hantering av digitalisering som en kvalificerad praktisk kunskap guidad av såväl nyttoorientering som av klassiska bildningsideal. Ett nationellt centrum för vetenskaplig kunskap och bildning om samhällets digitalisering kan anta dessa utmaningar och stå för en relevant, möjliggörande, men också kritisk, och rigorös forskning för att ta sig an de ”stora frågorna”. Ett sådant centrum, organiserat med en mindre kärna, och ett omfattande nätverk av forskning och utbildning om digitalisering baserat i Sverige, kan ta en samordnande och tankeledande roll i arbetet. Centret kan vara den kunskapsgenerator och -resurs som krävs för att ta det svenska samhällets digitalisering, och dess olika sektorer, till nästa och nödvändiga nivå av framgång.

  • 13.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. School of InformaticsUniversity of SkövdeSkövdeSweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    External User Inclusion in Public e-Service Development: Exploring the Current Practice in Sweden2017Ingår i: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, s. 60-70Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last decade e-government research has underlined the importance of an external user perspective in public e-service development and there have been numerous attempts to provide guidance and directions for government agencies in this matter. Individual research studies show little progress in this matter, but a more generalisable picture of the current state of external user inclusion is missing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better and more generalisable understanding of Swedish government agencies’ current practice of external user inclusion in public e-service development. In order to do so, we have interviewed Swedish government agencies regarding their perceptions on external user inclusion. Our findings show mixed results regarding attitudes towards and current practice of external user inclusion. It is clear that organisational size and previous experience of public e-service development matter. At the same time challenges such as a general lack of resurces and a lack of time are seen as general barriers, regardless of agency level and size.

  • 14.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Idé- och innovationsarbete i Linköpings kommun: analys och resultat av utvärdering2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I nutid existerar en samsyn kring att den offentliga sektorns innovationsförmåga utgör en mycket viktig potentiell resurs för att möta såväl samtidens som framtidens utmaningar. Denna outnyttjade resurs i form av medarbetares idé- och innovationskraft kan, genom ett systematiskt och strukturerat främjande, stöd och utnyttjande hjälpa offentlig sektor att nå ytterligare förbättringar och effektiviseringar med hänsyn till resursutnyttjande. Genom att omsätta medarbetares förmåga i form av kreativitet och innovationskraft till reell nytta har, som fokuseras i denna utvärdering, den kommunala sektorn bättre förutsättningar att bemöta dagens och morgondagens utmaningar på ett effektivt och ändamålsenligt sätt. För att möta samtidens krav och utmaningar i det lokala samhället, måste därmed traditionella sätt att organisera och strukturera verksamhet utmanas och förändras för att i större utsträckning främja aktörs- och nätverksdrivna ansatser.

    Denna rapport presenterar utvärderingen av Linköpings kommuns arbete att introducera och etablera ett idé- och innovationssystem - en idé och innovationsfrämjande struktur och stödfunktion. Dessa insatser har erhållit positiv respons, men ett bredare genomslag i operativ verksamhet kan hittills anses vara begränsat. Följande analys fokuserar identifierade utmaningar inom områden som styrning och samordning, förankring av centrala begrepp samt förutsättningar och kultur. Utvärderingens resultat presenteras som tydliga åtgärder och strategiska ställningstaganden. Dessa framhåller vikten av en balanserad och nyanserad helhetssyn på idé- och innovationsprocessen. Med ökad proaktivitet, samverkan i nätverk, minskad distans till operativ verksamhet, tydlig förankring av centrala begrepp samt aktivt främjande av en kreativ arbetsmiljö och innovationskultur ser vi en god potential för fortsatt positiv vidareutveckling av kommunens idé- och innovationssystem.

  • 15.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    NOT ANOTHER NEW WINE IN THE SAME OLD BOTTLES: MOTIVATORS AND INNOVATION IN LOCALGOVERNMENT E-SERVICE DEVELOPMENT2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2017, s. 691-702Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    E-services hold the potential to innovate how the public sector operates, and to increase the transparencyof public services. Numerous research initiatives have illustrated the innovation power of eservices;with new technology and new solutions to existing problems. Research on this topic also emphasizesthat in order for public e-services to reach their full potential, they need to be designed in away that users find useful and beneficiary. Interestingly, in practice, only fragments of this claimedinnovation seem to take place. Today, most public e-services launched are merely electronic versionsof existing services with no, or very low, degree of innovation. In this paper, we analyse empirical datafrom local government e-service providers. The aim is to explore the current practices in local governmente-service development with respect to how aspects related to innovative and high quality serviceprovisioning are handled. In doing so, we analyse what basic motivators there are for local governmentsto offer e-services in the first place, and how such motivators influence innovation in localgovernment e-service development. The analysis concludes that local governments are facing a challengingsituation in terms of a general lack of resources regarding time, competence, and skills, aswell as a dispersed user segment where needs and wills often are hard to grasp. Furthermore, localgovernments are facing conflicting interests and agendas. At the end of the day, the heights of innovationare then hard to achieve. We call for further research on the applicability of previous researchfindings in other research areas in order to promote more innovative e-service provisioning.

  • 16.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Open Government Data in an e-service Context: Managerial and Conceptual Challenges, Completed Research Full Paper2017Ingår i: Proceeding of the Americas Conference on Information Systems: E-Government (SIGEGOV), Americas Conference on Information Systems , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open government data (OGD) includes different data sets that are launched by government organizationsin order to stimulate third-party development of e.g. apps for mobile devices. At the same time agovernment organization is expected to provide useful public e-services. Government organizations oftoday tend to treat OGD and e-services separately, so is the e-government community. The aim of thispaper is to address challenges related to the work with OGD within an e-service context from: (1) amanagerial, and (2) a conceptual perspective. A qualitative case study of the Swedish TransportAdministration and their work with OGD and e-services as an empirical base in this paper. This paperillustrates, using a set of analytic categories generated from previous studies, that there are severalchallenges related to the managerial and conceptual work and perspectives concerning OGD. There arealso different patterns present when managing e-services and OGD (bottom-up vs. top-down).

  • 17.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Time to Refuel the Conceptual Discussion on Public e-Services: Revisiting How e-Services Are Manifested in Practice2017Ingår i: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, s. 92-101Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various models and frameworks describing the nature of e-services in the public sector. Many of these models are based on previous conceptualizations and have evolved over time, but are first and foremost conceptual creations with weak empirical grounding. In the meantime, practitioners in the field have continued to further develop e-services, and new advancements in technology have enabled new solutions for e-services. In the light of advancements in practice, and the limitations seen in current conceptual work concerning public e-services, we identify a need to refuel the conceptual discussion on e-services in the public sector by empirically investigating how e-services can be manifested in practice. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the possible variations of e-services in practice, and to discuss this variation in relation to the conceptual representation of the phenomenon. Based on qualitative interviews with employees involved with e-service development and provision at a large governmental agency, we illustrate that an ‘e-service’ can take on many different forms within an organization; ranging from downloadable forms, to complicated self-service systems that require expertise knowledge and IT-systems with specific processing capacity. The notion that all services mediated through a website can be understood under one general umbrella term, without further categorization, needs to be challenged.

  • 18.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Action in action research: Elaborating the concepts of action, roles and dilemmas in a public e-service development project2016Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Information Technology, ISSN 1328-7265, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 118-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of action by addressing actions and roles in the practice of action research, illustrated by dilemmas in an action research project on information systems development in public sector. The main ambition with action research is being able to solve organisational problems through intervention and to contribute to scientific knowledge. The main emphasis has so far been on the “research part”. Here the authors focus on the “action part” of action research to generate rigorous research, to solve local problems and to deal with evident dilemmas in action research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This is a qualitative case study. The empirical illustrations of this paper originate from an action research project that focused the two e-service development initiatives analysed below. The analysis is structured using key aspects and phases proposed by Avison et al. (2001). As a result of the analysis, the concept of action is elaborated. The action elements action, actor, motive, space and time are analysed together with different roles. This goes beyond the existing action research literature.

    Findings

    The conclusions show that there is a need to understand actions and roles within action research projects – not separating action from research. Research is also seen as action. The practice of action research is also discussed as context-bounded interactive social action: action research as a recurrent, interactive and dynamic activity. It is also identified that the understanding of roles, actions and interaction can help handle dilemmas in action research.

    Research Limitations/implications

    The authors contribute to the body of knowledge concerning action research in the information systems research field and in general by exploring the need to study the concept of action (e.g. situations and elements), to be explicit concerning the different phases, roles and responsibilities and management of different dilemmas in action research. A limitation of this study is that the inter-organisational development character in this study adds an extra dimension into the practice of actions research only partially highlighted. Another limitation is focus on public agencies. However, this is not critical for the results on action elements and the action research dilemmas that are studied.

    Practical Implications

    The understanding of roles, actions and interaction can solve the dilemmas and challenges linked to the practice of action research in the information systems field, but such understanding can help discover and handle dilemmas in action research.

    Originality/value

    The originality in this research is an illustration of and a perspective of action research as a context-bounded interactive social action: action research as a recurrent, interactive and dynamic activity. The value is that this knowledge can help handle dilemmas in action research.

  • 19.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Challenges and Benefits in an Open Data Initiative: A Local Government Case Study of Myths and Realities2016Ingår i: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation: Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research, PhD Papers, Posters and Workshops of IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016 / [ed] Hans Jochen Scholl, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Bram Klievink, Ida Lindgren, Peter Parycek, Efthimios Tambouris, Maria Wimmer, Tomasz Janowski, Delfina Sá Soares, IOS Press, 2016, Vol. 23, s. 111-122Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the myths and realities of open data at local government (a focused municipality) level. There are many expectations related to open government data (OGD) covering e.g. public transportation, car parks, public committee minutes and air quality measurements and the effects of more open public agencies and commercial possibilities, together with citizen benefits. Expectations are often uncritical and expressed in terms of rationalized myths. The purpose of this paper is to investigate myths and realities in a case study and to present lessons learned from focusing such dimensions in an ongoing and emerging local government OGD initiative. This study confirms previous research on open data myths, challenges and benefits from a local government perspective. The conclusions also illustrate three important findings directed to the existing body of research regarding the importance of alliances of stakeholders in OGD initiatives, aspects of heterogeneous organizations launching open data and reflections on the division of labour between public and private actors when handling different communication channels. Implications for research and practice are also outlined together with limitations and further research. 

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granath, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    In search of ICT in smart cities: Policy documents as idea carriers in urban development2016Ingår i: Electronic government: 15th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2016, Guimarães, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings, 2016, Vol. 9820, s. 215-227Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how policy documents carry and institutionalize smart city ideas from high policy level to concrete policy level in an urban development context. We analyze the national urban development vision for Sweden and documents in a local urban development project in a Swedish city, in order to explore what kind of roles and expectations ICT is given in these documents. We contrast this with views of how social and environmental aspects are discussed in the studied documents. In order to understand and analyze the result we apply the concept of institutional carriers from institutional theory to our findings. Our analysis shows that as carriers of how ICT can contribute to increased sustainabilityin urban development, the policy documents do not function very well. ICT aspects are not put forth by any policy-making actor, neither on national nor on local level. The notion of institutional carriers helped us understand that without a responsible actor focusing on ICT’s role in smart cities, it is easy to forget or lose sight of technology

  • 21.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Managing the development of e-ID in a public e-service context: Challenges and path dependencies from a life-cycle perspective2016Ingår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 72-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to analyse and understand the contemporary management of electronic identification (e-ID) development to: identify and formulate challenges and reflect upon the use of a combination of perspectives. To generate knowledge on this issue, we investigate e-ID development in Sweden from: an e-government systems development lifecycle perspective and a project challenge and critical success factor (CSF) perspective. Design/methodology/approach– This is a qualitative case study covering an analysis of the three years in a larger project focusing e-ID in a public e-service setting. Empirical sources have been face-to-face interviews; official documents and different kind of forums for presentations and discussions in, for example, hearings arranged by authorities; meetings with the coordinating agency, and practitioners’ networks events. Findings– This study concludes that there are significant challenges involved in managing e-ID development because of its contextual and integrated character. Challenges involve the organization and management of the program and can be traced back to e-government, general project management literature and theory on path dependency. Based on this study, we can question, e.g. governance models, centralization and a narrow focus on the technical artefact. Our study is also an illustration of a possible way to analyse e-ID within an e-government initiative. Research limitations/implications– The present study shows that an e-ID can be considered as a back office-enabler for launching e-services, but also highlights the need for management of the artefact as an integral part of e-service development because it is intertwined with the use of e-services from a user perspective. This aspect together with the insights related to challenges and success factors including path dependency provides implications for future practice of e-ID management and development in particular and information systems artefact development in general. Originality/value– This paper addresses challenges related to the development of e-ID in a public e-service setting. Few studies have theoretically combined a lifecycle perspective on challenges and success factors related to e-ID development while also focusing different dimensions of path dependency as an example of a challenging area within a program frame. Studying e-ID as a contemporary phenomenon from a contextual perspective in line with sociomaterial thinking – with a focus on the interplay between technology and people –can also help us to understand and discuss artefact development in general.

  • 22.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective2015Ingår i: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, s. 183-196Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    E-service development has grown to become a daily practice in most public organizations as a means for realizing digital agendas and e-government initiatives on different levels (local, regional, national and transnational governmental levels). Public e-service development is often an inter-organizational (IO) effort with multiple actors and organizations involved in the multi-faceted dimensions of design, development and delivery decisions. Still, there is a lack of research focusing on IO public e-service development practices in particular. In order to address this lack we elaborate on reported challenges and their implications for IO public e-service development in practice. By returning to two empirical cases of IO public e-service development, the IO dimension is evolved. Our purpose is to highlight challenges in IO public e-service development with implications for research and practice. Findings are presented as eight emerging lessons learned from an inside-out perspective related to phases in IO public e-service development processes.

  • 23.
    Wassrin, Siri
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Open Innovation Contests for Improving Healthcare - An Explorative Case Study Focusing on Challenges in a Testbed Initiative2015Ingår i: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, s. 91-104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Working with innovation is important in several sectors and industries. One emerging arena for innovation is the arrangements of innovation contests. The aim of the paper is to describe and characterize an open innovation contest for improving healthcare, and to address the challenges involved. The research is a qualitative, explorative and interpretive case study of a Swedish region providing publicly funded healthcare. The conclusions show the need to generate and analyze data from actors with several perspectives in the contest. Challenges identified include defining and precisely expressing the problem, separating and delimiting the different problems and achieving a joint view. Other challenges were identifying and attracting knowledgeable participants, to consider incentives, and communicating the contest. In the collaboration stage, challenges involved the contest design, enabling knowledge sharing, managing various agendas, and being open-minded to new ideas; and finally, assessing whether the problem is suitable for open innovation contests at all.

  • 24.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pragmatic Dilemmas in Action Research: Doing Action Research With or Without the Approval of Top Management?2015Ingår i: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 28, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes a basic assumption that action research should be conducted in terms of acceptance by management. The importance of approval from the responsible stakeholders at the work practice, which is the subject of action research, has traditionally been emphasized in academic literature. External pressure can constrain an organisation to initiate and fulfil different types of needs for change. In this article we address the question of whether it is appropriate to accomplish action research in a way that creates pressure on an organisation to act. If the public risks suffering as a result of an organisation´s inability or unwillingness to identify and rectify serious problems, there are strong arguments to answer “yes” to this question. This answer is particularly relevant when it comes to governmental organisations. The public has a legitimate requirement that tax-financed organisations should be well-functioning. This article illustrates how action research can put pressure on a work practice, and discusses the problems and challenges of this type of research design. An important contribution to action research literature based on this paper is that it shows that the dilemma in action research of balancing practice interests and those of science is not just about dealing with a dual agenda. The interest of the practice interests is multi-faceted. This paper points at the relationship between action research and principles for conducting critical research in information systems. Practical implications that can be drawn based on this paper are for example that it clarifies the challenge of different considerations that may be eligible in action research.

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Contextual Factors Influencing Health Information Systems Implementation in Public Sector: Investigating the Explanatory Power of Critical Success Factors2014Ingår i: Electronic Government: 13th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2014, Dublin, Ireland, September 1-3, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Frank Bannister, Springer, 2014, s. 59-71Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we approach the field of critical success factors (CSF) by analyzing a successful case of IT implementation within the public health sector. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs can explain a successful case. The main conclusion drawn is that even though the studied organization shows signs of common CSFs, this alone cannot explain the success. An important contribution from this study is thus the focus on contextual factors when trying to understand what makes an implementation project successful.

  • 26.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Correction: Implementing healthcare information systems - Mirroring a wide spectrum of images of an IT project (vol 3, pg 26, 2014)2014Ingår i: Health Policy and Technology, ISSN 2211-8837, E-ISSN 2211-8845, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 343-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 27.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkar, Pradip K.
    School of Business Information Technology and Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia.
    Young, Leslie W.
    School of Business Information Technology and Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia.
    Fashions in the cloud: A case of institutional legitimacy2014Ingår i: 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2014, Association for Information Systems , 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations claim to adopt IT fashions on the premise of achieving cost-savings, and performance improvements. However, current research reveals that such goals are not the only motivators behind the actual adoption of IT fashions. This paper illustrates, through the case studies of two universities, that the adoption of an IT fashion, such as Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions, can enhance the innovative image of an organisation, and render it fashionable to stakeholders. Yet, this very image may erode if issues of concern, associated with the uncertainty of new technologies, are not addressed. Through the lens of the Theory of Institutional Legitimacy, the examination of the two case studies depict IT fashions as double-edged swords, which may enhance or erode legitimacy of policy makers, thus bringing about shifts in their viewpoints on such technologies. Therefore, a deeper understanding is required of how IT fashions influence the legitimacy of IT decision-makers.

  • 28.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Implementing Healthcare Information Systems: Mirroring a Wide Spectrum of Images of an IT Project2014Ingår i: Health Policy and Technology, ISSN 2211-8837, E-ISSN 2211-8845, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 26-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the spectrum of interpretations that can be related to the implementation and use of a healthcare information system (HIS). The empirical part of this paper is based on a qualitative case study of a Swedish healthcare provider, called “Alpha”, where a HIS was implemented. By studying how different actors interpret technological and organizational changes in a healthcare case, we mirror different images of the implementation project. Put together, this diversity of images provides an illustration of the complexity associated with the process of implementing a HIS. We apply an adjusted version of Orlikowski’s practice lens, with its roots in Structuration Theory, in order to study technology in organizations (focusing inertia, application and change). The implementation process of a HIS is much too complex to be judged as being either entirely positive or negative; instead it offers an illustration of the multi-faceted and reciprocal relation between IS and organization. This challenge literature on critical success factors. This study illustrates several images of HIS implementation and use. Highlighting images is one way to illustrate reluctance, support, complexity and power that are present in HIS implementation and use. This is one important contribution from this article. The complexity in the implementation is linked to healthcare organizations as professional bureaucracies, being highly politicized and institutionalized and to the IT artefact as an integrated HIS. Viewing images as rational myths is also discussed in this paper as an original approach to understand HIS implementation.

  • 29.
    Garatli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Multi‑Channel Service Management in Public Sector … Three Interpretative Frames Illustrating E‑government and Work Practice in a Swedish State Agency2014Ingår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 112-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deliver services to citizens, public sector agencies of today offer various types of channels for interaction. In this article we aim to develop an understanding of the reciprocal relation between multi‑channel services and work prac tice. By showing how actors at different organizational levels in an agency differ in their interpretation of multi‑channel services we have generated knowledge that is essential in multi‑channel strategy formulation. The study illustrates an example of a n agency that works actively and in a mature way with e‑government and e‑services. This qualitative case study illustrates that the top level management, middle management and the case officers need to confront and discuss their understanding of e‑governm ent and their work practice in order to reach a situation where strategies actually are influencing daily work more explicitly. An important aspect is the decision to adopt an internal or external perspective on multi‑channel service management. The resul t of this decision might be to view multi‑channel service management as a way of reaching either internal agency efficiency or external citizen benefits.

  • 30.
    Veenstra, Anne Fleur van
    et al.
    TNO, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Theoretical and practical implications from the use of structuration theory in public sector information systems research2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Avital, Leimeister and Schultze, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain better understanding of the development, implementation and use of information technology(IT), many scholars in the field of information systems (IS) use structuration theory (ST). However, STis, so far, more seldom applied to, and reflected upon, in studies of public sector IS to account for(unexpected) outcomes of IT development and implementation. This paper creates an overview of theuse of ST in studies on public sector IT in order to identify theoretical and practical implications forthe digital public sector. Most (ten out of twelve) papers in this field apply ST to empirical studies,while three papers were found to adapt ST to fit public sector settings, and none were found tocritically address ST. While ST as a lens for studying public sector IT was thus seen to have practicalusefulness, theoretical usefulness is still underdeveloped regarding theory adaption andcontextualization. Based on this study we argue that there is a need to further investigate the risksassociated with the transfer to the public sector as it is important to achieve conscious adaptation anduse of ST in public sector IS in order to progress with using ST in that context.

  • 31.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hedström, Karin
    Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vem är vem på nätet?: en studie av elektronisk identifiering2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att identifiera sig är något vi gör i många olika vardagssituationer; exempelvis när vi ska styrka vår ålder i krogkön, uträtta bankärenden eller bli insläppta av vakten på en bevakad arbetsplats. För att identifiera oss i dessa situationer använder vi oftast någon form av fysisk identitetshandling; ett körkort, pass eller ID-kort. Samtidigt har vi idag ett samhälle där allt fler ärenden går att utföra via nätet, där såväl offentliga som kommersiella aktörer erbjuder elektroniska tjänster (e-tjänster) i ökande omfattning. Vi blir därmed alltmer beroende av informationsteknik (IT) i samhället för att samverka och kommunicera effektivt och enkelt. Vår riskexponering och sårbarhet ökar i takt med att vi utför allt fler ärenden via e-tjänster. Känslig information kan utnyttjas av obehöriga eller missbrukas på olika sätt.

    Elektronisk identifiering blir i dessa sammanhang en viktig komponent och förutsättning för att kunna erbjuda och använda effektiva och säkra e-tjänster. När man identifierar sig på nätet och i IT-system kan man göra det på många olika sätt; man kan logga in med användarnamn och lösenord, använda elektroniska ID-lösningar (eID) med dosor och koder, scanna fingeravtryck, använda e-tjänstekort och kortläsare eller RFID-teknik. Man skulle kunna betrakta dessa identifieringslösningar som rent tekniska landvinningar, som bara syftar till att man ska kunna nå den e-tjänst man vill använda. Likt en nyckel som används för att låsa upp dörren så att man kommer in i sitt hus. Vi menar dock att det är en alldeles för snäv syn på elektronisk identifiering – den behöver vara vidare än så för att vara fruktbar och kunna sättas i meningsfulla sammanhang av exempelvis design, utvärdering och vidareutveckling.

    Även om det är en teknisk lösning (en artefakt) med en begränsad uppgift vi avser, så kan dess utformning och sättet den införs och används på få stora konsekvenser för hela användningssituationen. Med artefakt menas här konstruerade föremål i form av olika tekniska lösningar och människors meningar kopplade till dessa. Identifieringslösningen påverkar både säkerheten i sig och den bild vi får av den e-tjänst eller det IT-system där vi identifierar oss. Dessutom påverkar den också bilden vi har av det sammanhang där vi använder identifieringslösningen. Om vi använder en e-tjänst som erbjuds av exempelvis den kommun där vi bor, påverkas också vår tilltro till kommunen och samhället av hur vi uppfattar identifieringslösningen och e-tjänsten. Samma resonemang gäller om vi köper en vara av ett privat företag på nätet. Med andra ord påverkas samhällets såväl som företagens legitimitet av hur vi som medborgare eller kunder uppfattar olika IT-lösningar.

    Den här boken handlar därför om de möjligheter och utmaningar som elektronisk identifiering kan innebära för individer, organisationer och samhället. Vi talar inte om isolerade tekniska problem i första hand, utan anlägger ett vidare perspektiv på de möjligheter och problem som kommer med e-tjänster och elektronisk identifiering.

    Vi har skrivit den här boken för att dela med oss av en del av de tankar och insikter som vi fått under projektet. Syftet med boken är att sätta ljuset på ett antal teman som framstår som centrala för utveckling och användning av elektronisk identifiering. Vi beskriver tre exempel som hämtar inspiration från våra studier inom projektet. Utifrån dessa exempel lyfter vi fram ett antal teman och diskuterar dessa samt sammanfattar utmaningar som vi sett i våra studier. Vår förhoppning är att Du som läser vår bok kan använda våra resonemang för att diskutera frågorna vidare i det praktiska sammanhang som Du befinner Dig i. Oavsett om Du finns på ett kommunkontor, i ett landsting, i en myndighet eller i en privat livssituation. Vi har inte haft ambitionen att skriva en vetenskaplig, teorirelaterad text, men Du som vill läsa forskningsbaserade publikationer från projektet hittar lästips i slutet av boken.

  • 32.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Inter-organizational interaction in public and private sectors – a comparative study2013Ingår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 431-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This article compares inter-organizational (IO) interaction and inter-organizational information systems (IOS) to support IO interaction in public and private sectors. The purpose of the article is to explore and discuss differences and similarities between e-government and e-business focusing IOS and interaction. This is done in order to facilitate learning between the two fields. The point of departure is two case studies performed in private and public sectors.

    Design/methodology/approach – A comparative study of two cases in two sectors (private and public) is conducted. IO concepts from industrial markets that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties) are used as analytical lenses. The empirical case study data, mainly generated from interviews, have been analyzed in a qualitative, interpretive way, using these central IO concepts from industrial markets (the IMP approach). This approach is in line with a strategy to use theory as a part of an iterative process of data collection and analysis.

    Findings – The findings in the present study show that there are several similarities concerning interaction in relations between organizations in the two sectors. There are also differences depending on the level of analysis (empirical level vs analytical level). The study shows the need to be explicit regarding organizational value, end-customer or client/citizen value and the type of objects that are exchanged in the interaction. This is presented in the article together with suggested refinements of the analytical framework used for understanding IO interaction. The latter finding is a contribution to the general field of interaction and network studies and also a contribution to the e-government field.

    Practical implications – This article is a point of departure to facilitate learning between the public and the private sectors focusing on IO relations and IOS. Learning between the two sectors is needed for researchers in the two areas as well as policy makers and practitioners developing e-government interaction and IOS.

    Originality/value – There are few articles addressing learning between the private and the public sector within the e-government area. Not at least when focusing IO issues. There is also a tendency that wheels are reinvented in the sectors and in the e-government research area. An important initiative in this article is to contribute in filling this gap by providing examples of a comparative analysis as well as understanding of how to perform such analyses of IO interaction.

  • 33.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Managing The Development Of Secure Identification - Investigating A National e-ID Initiative Within A Public e-Service Context2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the management of developing electronic identification (e-ID) within a public e-service context. e-ID is an important key enabler for secure identification, authentication and digital signing via the Internet and a part of e-service design. As users, and citizens, we become reliant on electronic solutions that give us a certain level of utility and trust, and use e-ID solutions to interact with local and central government in an e-service context. The management of e-ID development in a national context is the case in focus for investigation. Such development initiatives, and especially inter-organizational projects, face a number of challenges. Therefore it is a need for a more thorough understanding of e-ID development within a public e-service context. The purpose is to analyse the contemporary management of e-ID development in Sweden from: a) an e-government systems development life-cycle perspective and b) a project challenge and critical success factor perspective. This study concludes that there are significant challenges involved in managing integrated e-ID development. Challenges involve the organization and management of the program and can be traced back to e-government and general project management literature, but based on this study one can question, e.g. governance models, centralization, and a narrow focus on a technical artefact. Important implications from this paper are a call for further contextual studies of e-ID development, putting the user and organizational setting, path dependency, and governance models in focus.

  • 34.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Public e-services for agency efficiency and citizen benefit: findings from a stakeholder centered analysis2013Ingår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 10-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goals of e-government are to increase agency efficiency and offer benefits to citizens. These goals have often been addressed as two interplaying outcomes of public e-service development, which are possible to achieve in parallel. This article shows that the two frequently applied stakeholders of e-government (agencies and citizens) are much too extensive and heterogeneous in order to be meaningfully addressed in public e-service conceptualization and development. We conduct a stakeholder centered analysis of a public e-service development and implementation process in order to identify stakeholder groups and discuss how they differ in their perceptions and, consequently, also in their feelings of relevance and need related to the e-service. By adopting a multi-faceted perspective on stakeholders, public e-service development can be analyzed and understood in a way that takes several stakeholder groups into account. Our study contributes with deeper insights about a situation where stakeholder salience changes over time, while some stakeholder groups have low salience during the entire process. The result of conducting a stakeholder centered analysis is that we, by visualizing the stakeholder groups' differences, are better prepared to meet and combine different needs related to a planned e-service. Thus, we argue that a stakeholder centered analysis of expectations and opinions concerning the e-service help to develop e-services possible to succeed in offering both external service and internal efficiency.

  • 35.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Public e-services from inside: a case study on technology's influence on work conditions in a government agency2013Ingår i: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 455-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of citizens' increased use of public e-services for agency employees' work situation.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to accomplish the purpose of the paper the authors focus on the way in which the increased use of public e-services also implies internal process and routine changes in public administration. The authors analyze work conditions for case officers at a government agency in Sweden by applying occupational ideal types to identify the specific work conditions in the studied case. The case study is based on qualitative data collected with a back office perspective.

    Findings – The findings indicate a new hybrid organization where the increased use of e-services challenges earlier demands for competence. The transformation of e-government has implications for job codification, rule observation, job specification, and interaction with the general public.

    Originality/value – The paper extends the knowledge on how the increased use of public e-services affects back-office work conditions, with an increased high level of complexity in work content, but with low level of work autonomy. It argues that studying back-office work conditions is an important management issue in public administration research as well as practice.

  • 36.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Informatik.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sociomaterial actors in the assimilation gap: a case study of web service, management and IT-assimilation2013Ingår i: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 481-506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the conditions for the assimilation of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) in organizations and the influence of various actors in the organization and eBusiness context. To do so it draws on the literature on assimilation gap, sociomateriality and infrastructure together with a study of implementation and use of information and communication technology in and among organizations in a Swedish region. There were substantial investments in web infrastructure made on a regional level and the focus of this study is how the investments were transformed and assimilated in practices, relations and communication. Based on the empirical data from the case study, the paper extends the assimilation process into interplay among actors in organizations contexts. It describes organizations' strategies for coping with their needs for information and the actors in these processes. Two categories of actors are identified, sensemaking and sensegiving actors, as most important in assimilation of IS/IT in organizations. A sociomaterial perspective gives guidance and a better understanding of the assimilation process in terms of knowledge and interpretative frames, and how assimilation involves identity construction and negotiations among sensemaking and sensegiving actors. The contribution of this paper is a better understanding of the context of assimilation and adaptation of IT in organizations' business processes, and steps to be taken to improve readiness.

  • 37.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project2013Ingår i: Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project: 12th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2013, Koblenz, Germany, September 16-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 237-249Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss in what ways an e-government project can give both expected and unexpected effects for agency employees and their working tasks. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the fact that, besides the aim to increase agency efficiency and citizen benefit, e-government implementation might also change the salience of involved stakeholders. We do this by focusing on one stakeholder group which was reluctant and hesitating in the beginning of the studied project; marginalized, passive, easily convinced, and old-fashioned. After the e-government implementation, this group had turned to satisfied, proud, influential, active, powerful, and modern IT users. The case shows how stakeholder salience might change over time in an e-government project. Stakeholder influence aspects and IT driven change aspects are intertwined. This makes it necessary for any e-government project to address the notion of stakeholder involvement in decision-making during the development and implementation phases, but also to acknowledge e-services force to change how things and people are perceived during these phases.

  • 38.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Citizens’ Attitudes towards Electronic Identification in a Public E-service Context: An Essential Perspective in the eID Development Process2012Ingår i: Electronic Government: 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Hans J. Scholl, Marijn Janssen, Maria A. Wimmer, Carl Erik Moe, Leif Skiftenes Flak, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 260-272Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, held in Delft, The Netherlands, in September 2012. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from more then 80 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on foundations; adoption and diffusion; open government and transformation; infrastructure and technology; evaluation; and citizen perspective, social inclusion, and social media. 

  • 39.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sarkar, Pradip, K.
    RMIT University, School of Business Information Systems and Logistics, Melbourne, Australia.
    Young, Leslie, W.
    RMIT University, School of Business Information Systems and Logistics, Melbourne, Australia.
    Looking through the Clouds: A Tale of Two Universities2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th Pacific Asia Conferens on Information Systems, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing has become a popular buzzword and a trend in the IT industry. With characteristic features of scalable computing resources on-demand, and accessibility on a pay-per-use basis, it has been promoted as the harbinger of good tidings to its subscribers, such as the minimization of in-house IT infrastructures, substantial cost savings, and diminished administrative hurdles, thereby appearing as an appealing outsourcing proposition for non-IT enterprises, such as universities. This paper presents a comparative case study of two universities, one in Australia (UniOz) and one in Sweden (UniSwed). The two universities illustrate examples of how contemporary organisations interpret cloud computing, of drivers behind moving services into the cloud, and of prevailing concerns. Similarities pertaining to drivers for cloud computing are identified at the two cases (seeking scalable computing resources, and the re-allocation of IT resources to focus on core enterprise operations, with an aim to trim costs). This is identified in spite of differences in the culture of respective IT departments. Differences were also identified in terms of student vs. staff driven sourcing of services (email), and early vs. late adoption. The case study also illustrates interesting patterns in terms of the organisational implications of cloud services over time that calls for longitudinal studies. The implication of this paper is three-fold; two cases are consistent with outsourcing theories, they point to a transformation of the status quo, rather than an erosion of the role and influence of the internal IT department, and also reveals gaps in outsourcing theories and a possible future research direction in strengthening the relevant theoretical framework.

  • 40.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Emergence of a National eID Solution: an Actor-Network Perspective2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will focus on the emergence of the Swedish National Electronic Identification (eID) from an Actor-Network perspective. As being a significant part of the public sectors delivery of secure electronic services, this seemingly limited technical artifact has an interesting potential in either enabling or limiting the public sectors ambitions for better and more secure electronic services. This paper will show that the emergence can be perceived as successful, but not as a product of a long term and pre-defined strategy formulated by the government. It is rather a product of a positive and emergent synergy between the public and market sector, driven by a strong belief in its potential by the actors involved in the ongoing process. By applying a lens of actor-network theory on the emergence of the eID, we have gained useful insights into how and why different actors have affected the emergence, as well as each other. By the processes of inscribing, translating and framing, this study analyses how actors have acted and interacted during the emergence with the focus on the influence of central beliefs. We argue, that with a clear focus on the actors concerned, governments have a better opportunity to successfully plan and implement complex inter-organizational solutions for electronic identification. This paper presents one possible approach to gain a better understanding of these aspects.

  • 41.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Young citizens' attitudes towards electronic identification: A neglected perspective in an on-going development and implementation process2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from an empirical study of young Swedish university students’ attitudes towards electronic identification (eID). Three focus groups were conducted with students, as a main target group, who were asked to use a public e-service at the Swedish Board for Study Support which demanded secure electronic identification. After having conducted the assigned tasks the students’ attitudes were discussed in the focus group. Our findings show that usability and security are two main themes that the respondents found to be important in order to trust eID and e-services. This example of how citizens’ attitudes towards electronic identification can be explored in focus groups is related to the on-going national development process of a new eID solution on a strategic and artifact level. In this process no citizens are participating or involved so far. We conclude the article by discussing what might be the consequences of neglecting citizens’ attitudes in this kind of development and implementation processes.

  • 42.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Analyzing best practice and critical success factors in a health information system case: Are there any shortcuts to successful IT implementation?2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems - ECIS 2011 / [ed] Tuunainen V, Nandhakumar J, Rossi M, Soliman W, European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) and Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2011, s. 2157-2168Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses critical success factors (CSF) and best practice in relation to IT implementation in the health sector. We have studied a University Hospital’s implementation of a health information system (HIS) and particularly one clinic which implementation process was described as very successful compared to other units at this hospital. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs and best practice solutions can explain this successful case. We do this in order to explore if CSFs and best practice offer any shortcuts to successful IT implementation. By understanding the reasons behind this case’s success we can identify if CSFs and best practice potentially can explain the success, or if there are other explanations in this case. Based on our findings we discuss and question the sometimes overestimated belief in CSFs and best practice as shortcuts to success performance. An important contribution from this study is that situational and contextual factors are very critical to understand and acknowledge during HIS implementations.

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling.
    Are there any shortcuts to successful IT implementation?: A study of critical success factors and best practice in healthcare2011Ingår i: The 8th Scandinavian Workshop on E-government (SWEG’11), Tampere, Finland, 7-8 February 2011, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    COSMIC - syndabock eller frälsare?: En fallstudie av införandet av och arbetet med ett IT-system för vård- och patientadministration inom Landstinget i Östergötland2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie belyser införandet av och arbetet med ett elektroniskt vård- och patientadministrat-ionssystem –COSMIC– i Landstinget i Östergötland. Syftet med studien är att analysera och karak-tärisera införandet av och arbetet med COSMIC. Vi belyser särskilt fyra teman i vår analys: (1) Verksamhetsutveckling och IT, (2) Kompetens och arbete, (3) Tillit och säkerhet samt (4) Privat och offentligt. Denna fallstudie är kvalitativ och tolkande och bygger på flera typer av empiriska data. De metoder som använts är intervjuer med vårdpersonal i öppen- och slutenvård, projekt-ledning, projektmedarbetare och patienter, studier av såväl interna som externa dokument samt systemanvändning. Resultatet av vår studie visar att aktörer och aktörsgrupper bär på många olika bilder av införandeprocessen och av det system –COSMIC– som införs. Studien visar också att det finns förväntningar relaterade till COSMIC som berör förändrade och mera effektiva arbetssätt, tillgänglighet till information –exempelvis om patienters vårdhistorik och medicinering– samt en ökad patientsäkerhet. Dessa förväntningar har utmanats av farhågor i vårdverksamheten rö-rande både systeminförandet och systemets funktionalitet. Föreställningarna har sin grund bland annat i den negativa kritik som framfördes mot COSMIC i samband med pilotimplementering och uppgradering av systemet; negativ kritik som även har rapporterats i lokal och regional media. Betydelsen av att systemet utvecklas av en extern leverantör och landstingets relation till denna analyseras också. Den longitudinella studien visar också att COSMIC institutionaliseras i verksam-heten över tid; detta kommer exempelvis till uttryck genom att systemet blir en del av vårdens vardag och stegvis vinner en större acceptans. Beroendet av systemet ökar också över tid. Studien visar även att tillit och säkerhet påverkas av införandet av det nya systemet – samtidigt som nya risker tillkommer reduceras dock tidigare sådana. Vi karaktäriserar den förändring som systemet hittills bidragit till som snarare informationsteknisk, än samlat och samordnat administrativ och organisatorisk. Centralt blir därför att medvetet, utifrån lokala framgångsrika arbetssätt kombi-nerat med samlad erfarenhet på landstingsnivå, arbeta vidare med samordnad verksamhets- och IT-utveckling.

  • 45.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Developing Information Systems Higher Education: Lessons Learned from an Inter-organizational R&D Project2011Ingår i: Information Systems Education Journal (ISEDJ), ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 11-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on lessons learned from developing information systems (IS) higher education in an inter-organizational (IO) network focusing possibilities and challenges. Developing higher education is one area among others where organizing joint efforts in networks are possible. An IO R&D project is described and analyzed in this paper. The overall research design is qualitative and interpretive. The research is based on a case study of the project and the network collaboration between four Swedish universities as participants. Theoretical concepts that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties) helped us to describe and to analyze interaction in the IO network together with the characterization of context, content and process related to the development work. The IO network in this paper is classified as a joint problem solver; a functional network. Findings in the paper address several possibilities and challenges related to higher education development in IO networks. Findings highlight e.g. the need to involve active teachers and researchers, to manage distributed teams, to be aware of the critical and sensitive matter of opening up the “black box” of courses using critical friends, and the time and effort needed for anchoring projects and changes at the participating universities.

  • 46.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Handelshögskolan.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sjöstrand, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Entrepreneurship in the Shade of a Multinational Corporation: A Story of Fancy Footwork2011Ingår i: 21th Nordic Conference on Business Studies / [ed] Stockholm University, School of Business, Sweden, Stockholm University, School of Business, Sweden, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a case study of an engineering company named FlexLink as a point of departure. The company, that produces conceivable applications of conveyors in industrial settings, has no production, no stock and no distribution within the legal boundary of the firm. It has developed as a network organization with organic growth both in the shade of, and ahead of, the global multinational corporation, from which it springs. In order to understand the emergence of this network organization, and the visionary and strong entrepreneur who manoeuvred it to where it stands today, and its rationale, we elaborate on a dialectic model of thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis. We also discuss the rational and rhetoric explanation of the organization's emergence through the examination of critical incidents as well as reactions towards more structural limitations and restrictions, as well as windows of opportunity in the shade of the multinational corporation. This article brings up a case of an extreme outsourcing strategy that has been depicted as an internalized business concept, but in our case study the rationale and the current picture is continuously undergoing change. In the analysis we also show how the emergence of the organization can be understood in the light of theories on Schumpeters concept “creative destruction” as well as in terms of the structuration and the process of change as a duality between actor and structure. In this paper we argue that the emergence of FlexLink can be described as dialectic interplay. The network structure emerged by opposition to the mother company's rigid structure and ideology. In the story of emergence it seems to be the unforeseen consequence of tactics played by one single and dominant actor, navigating in the early days to circumvent obstacles of internal policy. Thus the new organization emerges as an antithesis to the corporate policies and modes of operation. The new business was not produced according to a pre-established strategic plan, but rather evolved from a spirit of contradiction and a more or less explicit revolt and ambition to act differently. One important contribution from this study is that entrepreneurship has many faces and applications and also describes the practice of the entrepreneur as a problem solver and a master of fancy footwork. This is elaborated in the paper together with a discussion based on the risks for stagnation or how new – second order - entrepreneurship can emerge.

  • 47.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring the Characteristics of Information Systems Maintenance: Defining Focus and Content through Objects2011Ingår i: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: Second Scandinavian Conference, on Information Systems, SCIS 2011, Turku, Finland, August 16-19, 2011. Proceedings / [ed] Salmela H, Sell A, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, s. 112-123Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of information systems (IS) maintenance within an IT and organizational setting. We discuss the characteristics of maintenance objects’ focus and content. Our results are based on qualitative case studies. In this paper a case study of a Swedish Bank is used to illustrate our discussion. Our findings show that maintenance objects can be defined by processes and/or functions or products and/or services within an organizational setting. This is done in order to increase a business perspective in maintenance management and to clarify roles of responsibility for organizational changes required from new IT capabilities. According to our findings maintenance objects can contain business solutions and IT solutions. This implies that business beneficial maintenance is supported by close cooperation between actors from the organizational setting and the IT organization. The result of the paper is a characterization of IS maintenance through definition of maintenance objects’ focus and content.

  • 48.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Frågor om tillit ... : praktik, teknik och organisation i samspel kring säkra offentliga e-tjänster: en diskussionsbok baserad på forskningsprojektet "Säkra offentliga e-tjänster - en fråga om tillit och organisering" vid Linköpings universitet 2008-20112011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det Helt okej att lämna in deklarationen på nätet eller via ett SMS. Lika vanligt är det att i första hand gå till en kommuns hemsida för att hitta öppettider på atervinningsstationen, leta böcker i bibliotekets  katalog eller för att söka upp telefonnumret till socialförvaltningen. Detta är exempel på offentliga e-tjänster.

    Offentliga e-tjänster är tjänster då informations- och kommunikationsteknik används i relationer mellan offentlig förvaltning och medborgare.

    Men det är inte alltid så att offentliga e-tjänster bara ökar tillgänglighet och effektiviserar förvaltningen. Hur görs de säkra? Kan alla använda dessa tjänster på samma sätt? Behöver de som arbetar i förvaltningen ändra sina sätt att arbeta? Skapas nya sätt att fuska? Hamnar de offentliga organisationerna i händerna på företagen som utvecklar tekniken?

    Det finns många problem och utmaningar med offentliga e-tjänster. I denna bok diskuterar forskare från Linköpings universitet hur utmaningar kring tilllit till offentliga e-tjänster kan tolkas och kanske även hanteras. Forskare från statsvetenskap och informatik har samarbetat. Här får Du en del svar och tips, men även frågor och nya perspektiv som kan vara viktiga för Dig som utvecklar, arbetar med eller bara nyttjar offentliga e-tjänster.

  • 49.
    Gäre, Klas
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    SMEs need formative infrastructure for business transformation2011Ingår i: Journal of Enterprise Information Management, ISSN 1741-0398, E-ISSN 1758-7409, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 520-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose is to study conditions for ICT-use in SMEs, actors and roles involved and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure.

    Method - The methodological point of departure and approach in this study is qualitative and more than 60 interviews are performed within a geographical region.

    Findings – Important findings from the present research is a formative ICT infrastructure can be viewed as constituted by identified needs among SMEs, in (1) sensemaking, (2) sensegiving, and (3) service infrastructures. In SMEs there is less of infrastructure and less of overhead and support services than in larger enterprises. The adoption processes in SMEs differ from the ones in larger enterprises. SMEs rely more on external relations in a public infrastructure.

    Research implications – Formative ICT infrastructure in SMEs is not a well known concept, concerning ICT use in SME’s. The need for infrastructure is different in SME’s compared to larger enterprises, and a formative infrastructure has a different meaning for SME’s. Still many questions remain unanswered.

    Practical implications - There is a need for better understanding of conditions for design of infrastructure for ICT use and development particularly in SME’s, but also in other enterprises and organizations. The emphasis on infrastructure for ICT adoption processes will help SME’s and municipalities to more relevant investments.

    Originality - The study integrates micro- and macro-perspectives and combines theories from different fields to extend the knowledge of formative infrastructure for SME’s adoption and use of ICT. 

  • 50.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Implementation and Use of an Enterprise System as a “Process of Muddling Through”2011Ingår i: 21th Nordic Conference on Business Studies / [ed] Stockholm University, School of Business, Sweden, Stockholm University, School of Business, Sweden, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise systems are the backbone of many firms of today. The implementation process is complex; so is the system itself. We need frameworks and concepts to understand complex implementation processes and use of enterprise systems in firms. This paper analyse what we can learn from an enterprise system case of an Engineering Firm, using central concepts and line of thinking from Lindblom’s classical “The Science of Muddling through”, e.g. two approaches: by root and by branch. Elements of a rational-planning approach (by root) are identified in the case concerning the handling of enterprise system maintenance. However the identification of elements compared to the second approach (by branch), the process of muddling through, is more outstanding. The rational-planning approach is evident in the rhetoric encompassing the system. The muddling through process is more evident in the everyday life with the system. Concepts in the process of muddling through can help us to understand and highlight a number of choices and actions when implementing and using the system (e.g. values and objectives, means and ends, decision making, alternative choices and the use of theory vs. practice). However these concepts are not sufficient alone, we need to focus on other concepts and phenomena discussed in this paper.

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