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  • 1.
    Kim, Sunghee
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sense of smell in marine mammals is traditionally thought to be poor. However, increasing evidence suggests that pinnipeds may use their sense of smell in a variety of behavioral contexts including communication, foraging, food selection, and reproduction. Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm, I assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between 12 enantiomeric odor pairs, that is, between odorants that are identical in structure except for chirality. The fur seals significantly discriminated between eight out of the twelve odor pairs (according to p < 0.05, with carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol, limonene oxide, menthol, beta-citronellol, fenchone, and alpha-pinene), and failed with only four odor pairs (isopulegol, rose oxide, limonene, and camphor). No significant differences in performance were found between the animals (p > 0.05). Cross-species comparisons between the olfactory performance of the fur seals and that of other species previously tested on the same set of odor pairs lend further support to the notion that the relative size of the olfactory bulbs is not a reliable predictor of olfactory discrimination abilities. The results of the present study suggest that sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals.

  • 2.
    Grundström, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of an Appraisal Module for Virtual Characters2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of artificial intelligence the production of believable emotions are vital to be able to produce believable behavior of virtual agents. This is done with a process called affective appraisal, which means that events and situations are appraised and emotions are produced accordingly. The Artificial Intelligence and Computer Graphics (AICG) lab at Linköpings University has been devel- oping an AI architecture for virtual agents. This architecture had an appraisal module in need of improvement. This M.Sc. thesis had the purpose of doing this.

    Several approaches to affective appraisal are discussed and compared and finally one approach, called the OCC model, is chosen for implementation. This model is suitable for a real-time AI architecture as it is simple, easy to implement and can produce a wide range of emotions. The implementation of the OCC model is described in terms of how its different parts are incorporated into the previously existing AI architecture. Three extensions to the OCC model are also implemented to improve the results: emotional memories, the appraisal of unexpected events and interaction between the produced emotions.

    Finally the implementation is tested and the results of the tests are discussed. It is found that the implementation produces sufficient results for the scope of the thesis and for the requirements of the AI architecture into which it is incorporated. 

  • 3.
    Aria, Erfan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of automated vehicle effects on driver’s behavior and traffic performance2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) offer the possibility of helping drivers to fulfill their driving tasks. Automated vehicles are capable of communicating with surrounding vehicles (V2V) and infrastructure (V2I) in order to collect and provide essential information about driving environment. Studies have proved that automated vehicles have a potential to decrease traffic congestion on road networks by reducing the time headway, enhancing the traffic capacity and improving the safety margins in car following. Furthermore, vehicle movement and driver’s behavior of conventional vehicles will be affected by the presence of automated vehicles in traffic networks. Despite different encouraging factors, automated driving raises some concerns such as possible loss of situation awareness, overreliance on automation and degrading driving skills in absence of practice. Moreover, coping with complex scenarios, such as merging at ramps and overtaking, in terms of interaction between automated vehicles and conventional vehicles need more research. This thesis work aims to investigate the effects of automated vehicles on driver’s behavior and traffic performance. A broad literature review in the area of driving simulators and psychological studies was performed to examine the automated vehicle effects on driver’s behavior. Findings from the literature survey, which has been served as setup values in the simulation study of the current work, reveal that the conventional vehicles, which are driving close to the platoon of automated vehicles with short time headway, tend to reduce their time headway and spend more time under their critical time headway. Additionally, driving highly automated vehicles is tedious in a long run, reduce situation awareness and can intensify driver drowsiness, exclusively in light traffic. In order to investigate the influences of automated vehicles on traffic performance, a microscopic simulation case study consisting of different penetration rates of automated vehicles (0, 50 and 100 percentages) was conducted in VISSIM software. The scenario network is a three-lane autobahn segment of 2.9 kilometers including an off-ramp, on-ramp and a roundabout with some surrounding urban roads. Outputs of the microscopic simulation in this study reveal that the positive effects of automated vehicles on roads are especially highlighted when the network is crowded (e.g. peak hours). This can definitely count as a constructive point for the future of road networks with higher demands. In details, average density of autobahn segment remarkably decreased by 8.09% during p.m. peak hours in scenario with automated vehicles. Besides, Smoother traffic flow with less queue in the weaving segment was observed. Result of the scenario with 50% share of automated vehicles moreover shows a feasible interaction between conventional vehicles and automated vehicles. Meaningful outputs of this case study, based on the input data from literature review, demonstrate the capability of VISSIM software to simulate the presence of automated vehicles in great extent, not only as an automated vehicle scenario but also a share of them, in traffic network. The validity of the output values nonetheless needs future research work on urban and rural roads with different traffic conditions.

  • 4.
    Antunez de Mayolo, Eduardo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Study of the Optical Properties of sp2-Hybridized Boron Nitride2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nitride-based semiconductor materials make it possible to fabricate optoelectronic devices that operate in the whole electromagnetic range, since the band gaps of these compounds can be modified by doping. Among these materials, the sp2-hybridized boron nitride has properties that make it a potential candidate for integration in devices operating in the short-wavelength limit, under harsh environment conditions, due to the strength of the B-N bond.  Nevertheless, this binary compound has been the less studied material among the nitrides, due to the lack of complete control on the growth process.

    This thesis is focused on the study of the optical properties of sp2-hybridized boron nitride grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, at the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, at Linköping University, Sweden. The samples received for this study were grown on c-plane aluminum nitride as the buffer layer, which in turn was grown by nitridation on c- plane oriented sapphire, as the substrate material. The first objective of the research presented in this thesis was the development of a suitable ellipsometry model in a spectral region ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet zones of the electromagnetic spectrum, with the aim of obtaining in the process optical properties such as the index of refraction, the energy of the fundamental electronic interband transition, the frequencies for the optical vibrational modes of the crystal lattice, as well as their broadenings, and the numerical values of the dielectric constants; and on the other hand, structural parameters such as the layers thicknesses, and examine the possibility of the presence of roughness or porosity on the boron nitride layer, which may affect the optical properties, by incorporating their effects into the model. The determination of these parameters, and their relation with the growth process, is important for the future adequate design of heterostructure-based devices that incorporate this material. In particular, emphasis has been put on the modeling of the polar lattice resonance contributions, with the TO- LO model, by using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry as the characterization technique to study the phonon behavior, in the aforementioned spectral region, of the boron nitride. On the other hand, spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible-ultraviolet spectral range was used to study the behavior of the material, by combining a Cauchy model, including an Urbach tail for the absorption edge, and a Lorentz oscillator in order to account for the absorption in the material in the UV zone. This first step on the research project was carried out at Linköping University. 

    The second objective in the research project was to carry out additional studies on the samples received, in order to complement the information provided by the ellipsometry model and to improve the model itself, provided that it was possible. The characterization techniques used were X-ray diffraction, which made it possible to confirm that in fact boron nitride was present in the samples studied, and made it possible to verify the crystalline quality of the aforementioned samples, and in turn relate it to the quality of the ellipsometry spectra previously obtained; the Raman spectroscopy made it possible to further verify and compare the crystalline qualities of the samples received, as well as to obtain the frequency for the Raman active B-N stretching vibration in the basal plane, and to compare this value with that corresponding to the bulk sp2-boron nitride; scanning electron microscopy made it possible to observe the rough surface morphologies of the samples and thus relate them to some of the conclusions derived from the ellipsometry model; and finally cathodoluminescence measurements carried out at low temperature (4 K) allowed to obtain a broad band emission, on all the samples studied, which could be related to native defects inside the boron nitride layers, i.e., boron vacancies. Nevertheless, no trace of a free carrier recombination was observed. Considering that the hexagonal-boron nitride is nowadays considered to be a direct band gap semiconductor, it may be indirectly concluded, in principle, that the dominant phase present in the samples studied was the rhombohedral polytype. Moreover, it can be tentatively concluded that the lack of an observable interband recombination may be due to the indirect band gap nature of the rhombohedral phase of the boron nitride. Spectroscopic ellipsometry does not give a definite answer regarding this issue either, because the samples analyzed were crystalline by nature, thus not being possible to use mathematical expressions for the dielectric function models that incorporate the band gap value as a fitting parameter. Therefore, the nature of the band gap emission in the rhombohedral phase of the boron nitride is still an open research question. On the other hand, luminescent emissions originating from radiative excitonic recombinations were not observed in the cathodoluminescence spectra. This second step of the project was carried out at the Leroy Eyring Center for Solid State Science at Arizona State University.  

  • 5.
    Hanson, Maryam
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Study on Smart Dust Networks2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is done for the department of Electronic System at The Institute of Technology at Linköping University (Linköpings Tekniska Högskolan). Study's focus is to design and implement a protocol for smart dust networks to improve the energy consumption algorithm for this kind of network.

    Smart dust networks are in category of distributed sensor networks and power consumption is one of the key concerns for this type of network. This work shows that by focusing on improving the algorithmic behavior of power consumption in every network element (so called as mote), we can save a considerable amount of power for the whole network.

    Suggested algorithm is examined using Erlang for one mote object and the whole idea has put into test for a small network using SystemC.

  • 6.
    Blomgren, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Decoupled Design of Auxiliary Systems for Internal Combustion Engines2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigated if decoupled design of the air intake and exhaust systems for four-stroke internal combustion engines is possible. Using the information found design guidelines were set up for the formula student team ELiTH Racing. The literature study revealed that the systems are not uncoupled, and the inuence of exhaust geometry on air intake behavior needed more thorough investigation. Experiments were designed, using a single cylinder engine with simple intake and exhaust geometries. The tests were attempted, but had to be abandoned due to time constraints. Successful tests would have yielded results in the form of pressure measurements, froma Prandtl-tube, in the air intake, and footage of smoke tests. As a secondary task the potential of computer simulations during the design process was investigated, which yielded a suggestion on how to set up a complete reasonable computational model of the systems. This also resulted in that the design guidelines included how to use computer simulations for the design process. Finally a few ways to expand this work are presented.

  • 7.
    Heredia, Cessi
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Class Management, Teaching and Teacher-students Interactions in Crowded Classrooms: An observational analysis in an urban Catholic single gendered school2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of my concerns has been how children behave in a crowded classroom with few available opportunities to interact and rehearse the lesson with their peers and teacher. This research paper allows me to explore how teacher`s directives/ manners  (verbal & non-verbal communication) during the English lesson,  impact and fix children`s behaviours temporarily.  I have conducted this emprirical case study in a religious catholic, monolingual, Spanish school conformed only by girls aged 7-9, who are in the third level of its primary level.  As my interest was to analyze the talk of my purpose sampling (teacher-student) and the interactive behaviour in the natural occurring situation in this social setting, the method I chose was the analysis of social interaction, on Conversation Analysis. This allows me to unfold the talk-in-interaction and concentrate on micro-analytic situations using the standard convention to transcribe my selected analysis. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to explore and demonstrate how disciplinary acts were deilvered by the teacher affecting the child`s subjectivity and performance in a crowded classroom.

  • 8.
    Mattsson, Angelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Milicevic, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hushållens konsumtionsbeteende- En ekonometrisk studie om makrovariablers påverkan på hushållenskonsumtion i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The household’s consumption represents two thirds of GDP- growth and can therefor be seenas the engine of the Swedish economy. Changes in the consumption are important to analyzesince consumption is such a big part of the GDP. The purpose of our thesis is to examine theSwedish consumption behavior and analyze whether changes in the interest rate and othermacroeconomic variables affect the households consumption. The macroeconomic variablesthat will be used in our thesis are: the household’s disposable income, interest rate, stockmarketindex and property price index. In order to describe what affects consumption we willbe using some of the most well-known consumption theories such as: Keynes consumptiontheory, Life-cycle hypothesis and Permanent income hypothesis.

    We have done an econometric study where we have examined if there is a long-termrelationship between our chosen variables but also the relationship between the householdsconsumption and the chosen macroeconomic variables. The result of the econometric studyproves that our estimates are in accordance with the theories. However we do believe that thehousehold’s prerequisites have an impact for which theory they identify with. Our estimatesshow that changes in the macroeconomic variables have an important meaning for thehousehold’s consumption and also that changes in the interest rate can affect household’sconsumption.

  • 9.
    Yalman, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    "Shh kan ni vara tysta": En studie om lärares syn på elevers störande beteenden i klassrummet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine what high school teachers perceive as disruptive behaviors of students in the classroom. The  study examines the measures and approaches used against disruptive behavior. The method that was used for this study is semi-structured interviews, where I used an interview guide. The results are divided into themes based on the project issues. The results shows that high school teachers that participated in the study,  perceived disruptive student behavior as something that creates a bad working environment for the students themselves, their classmates and the teachers. It is considered that to prevent disruptive student behavior, one has to continuously work with the students. The teachers believe that one should have a good dialogue and  communication with the students, in order to prevent disruptive student behaviors.

  • 10.
    Danielsson Piazze, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abelsson, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riskhantering och styrningsaspekter vid tidsrelaterade orderförändringar i företag som levererar till projekt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Uncertainty and risk are often present during construction projects, which can create problems for several parties involved in the process. This could amount to an order change in terms of delivery time. When it is of importance to satisfy the needs of the client concerning correct delivery time, the delay in a construction project can mean that the supplier of the project has to delay its products to achieve customer satisfaction. This draws attention towards the organizations internal behavior and flexibility among its employees to manage the risks that occurs. To make employees act in a way that is in the organizations best interest, management control systems can be used. By applying risk management on companies that deliver to a construction project, uncertainty can be acknowledged and described as well as highlight the difficulties this can create for employees.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe and partly chart uncertainty in regard of delivery time, and the management of it concerning customer specific deliveries with special attention to the interaction between different departments.

    Methodology: By using a qualitative method the study wants to, with the help of a multiple case study, compare how two companies manage uncertainty that occurs during customer specific deliveries. This was carried out by interviewing departments concerned with time related order changes at both companies.

    Conclusion: The study concludes that companies delivering to projects are exposed to predictable uncertainty and can handle this by either focus on following established rules or customer satisfaction. Following rules means that there is a predetermined answer on how to handle the uncertainty within the company. Customer satisfaction, on the other hand, means that results control and making the employees feel motivated is in focus. This means that risk management and management control systems are working together to manage uncertainty.

    Keywords: uncertainty, risk management, management control system, time related order changes, delivery

  • 11.
    Fahlström, Zara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Askestad, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Vem gynnas av föräldraskap?: Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that parenting is important for an individual's career development. In both Sweden and the US there has been support for a pay gap between individuals who have children and those who do not have children. Mothers have a lower wage than women without children, while it is not clear if dads have a better or worse career development than men without children. Research indicates that it may be caused by individuals' different attitudes, perceptions and behavior towards individuals with family which differs based on a social norm concerning the parents' careers. The decision to start a family may therefore affect an individual's finances and long-term career. To promote equal pay for equal work, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms for this development in order to design effective measures to reduce the pay gap. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyze parenthood’s importance to an individual's career in terms of hiring, compensation and promotion.

    In a vignette experiment 11,059 full-time program students in grades two to five, at Linköping University, were asked to answer an online questionnaire. The questionnaire has been designed based on the status characteristic theory (SCT) to investigate whether parenting is seen upon as having a negative or positive status that may explain differences in career outcomes. Based on the identity economics a number of background questions were included to investigate whether there is a connection between respondents' backgrounds, personal traits, and thereby potential identities. Collected primary data has been analyzed using hypothesis testing and regression analysis. The results indicate that employability, wage and promotion, are not affected by parenting but of perceived competence. However, support is found for that respondents' background, mainly gender and age, but also in some cases faculty affiliation, affect the outcome of the variables. The results thus contributes to a deeper understanding of what affects the seemingly inexplicable career differences. 

  • 12.
    Berg, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergström, Alfred
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Överreaktion på Stockholmsbörsen: Bevis från Sverige2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the 1960’s, when psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahnemancompared their cognitive models of decision-making under risk anduncertainty with economic models of rational behavior a new field withinmodern financial economics was born. Theories within behaviouralfinance have since tried to explain financial anomalies that pointedtowards inefficient markets. One such anomaly is the overreactionhypothesis and was first proposed by De Bondt & Thaler in 1985. Itstates that investors overreact to new information and that security priceswill therefore “overshoot” their fundamental values. An extreme rise ordrop in price is followed by a reversal in the opposite direction.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether an overreaction effectcan be observed on the entirety of the Stockholm stock exchange andwhat causes it.

    Completion: For each week in the years 2003-2014 the 5 stocks with the highest(lowest) return on the Stockholm stock exchange have been placed inwinner (loser) portfolios to be evaluated the succeeding 10 weeks. A significant difference between abnormal returns (ACARlosers - ACARwinners>0) is seen as support for the overreaction hypothesis.

    Conclusion: The results show that the winner and loser portfolios show proof of anoverreaction effect the first week in the evaluation period. This effect,however, disappears completely when the portfolios are value-weighted,indicating signs of a small-firms effect rather than an overreaction effect.

  • 13.
    Renström, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automatic age estimation of children based on brain matter composition using quantitative MRI2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a child can be monitored by studying the changes in physical appearance or the development of capabilities e.g. walking and talking. But is it possible to find a quantitative measure for brain development? The aim of this thesis work is to investigate that possibility using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) images by answering the following questions:

    • Can brain development be determined using qMRI? If so, what properties of the brain can be used?
    • Can the age of a child be automatically detected with an algorithm? If so, how can this algorithm function? With what accuracy?

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect properties in the brain changing with age, based on MRI images. These properties have e.g. been changes in T1 and T2 relaxation time, i.e. properties in water signal behavior that can be measured using multiple MR acquisitions. In the literature this was linked to a rapid myelination process that occurs after birth. Furthermore the organization and growth of the brain is a property that can be measured and monitored.

    This thesis have investigated several different properties in the brain based on qMRI images in order to identify those who have a strong correlation with age in the range 0-20 years. The properties that were found to have a high correlation were:

    • Position of the first histogram peak in T1 weighted qMRI images,
    • Fraction of white matter in the brain,
    • Mean pixel value of PD weighted qMRI images,
    • Volume of white matter in the brain,

    Curves on the form f(x) = ae^(-bx) +c are fitted to the data sets and confidence intervals are calculated to frame the statistical insecurity of the curve. The mean error in percent for the different properties can be seen in the list below:

    Property, Mean error [%] 0-20 years, Mean error [%] 0-3 years

    Peak position: 53.84, 98.17

    Fraction of WM: 118.97, 71.67

    Mean pixel value: 200.89, 126.28

    Volume of WM: 241.72, 72.58

    The conclusions drawn based on the presented results are that there are properties in the brain that correlates well to aging, but the error is too large for making a valid prediction of age over the entire range of 0-20 years. When decreasing the age range to 0-3 years the mean error becomes smaller, but it is still too large. More data is needed to evaluate and improve this result.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Emelie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilismen ur ett genusperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie i Norrköping om mänsoch kvinnors förhållande till fordonet bil ochexisterande normer kring kvinnor och män2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims is to look at car traffic, which contributes to a significant environmental impact, from a gender perspective. The purpose of the study is also to compare with previous studies and to analyze how this is corresponds with frame and situation of people living in Norrköping. In order to approach this suitably, a quantitative study in the form of surveys have been conducted - with a sample of 100 respondents to represent Norrkoping. This method assisted in the raised questions. To best get a perspective of correlation between the sexes and between different questions in the questionnaire, a chi-square test was applied.

    The results of the study showed that different expectations about men’s and women’s behavior and relationship to the usage of vehicles in society exists, in Norrköping, yet also that the habits around the usage reflects additional differences. Men and women have similar approaches to the usage of vehicles, with an environmental consciousness, with regards to the given car or such, in a comparable degree independent of their gender. This study has found that both men and women, to a notable degree, regard men to be more interested in cars and that they are more prone to drive one. It also shows that several of the respondents, regard women to be over-all more environmentally aware than men. This would align with the contemporary norms of society based on previous research. However, in contrast, the results also highlight that both genders, in Norrköping, spend the comparable amount of time driving a car and have similar awareness of environmental factors. The differences in the expectations around the given behavior of men and women are there but their reported behavior does not necessarily follow those predictions.

  • 15.
    Pettersson, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Can stress-related behavior in dogs be due to pain? A pilot study.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs and other pets can have back pain for years that no one notices. As a result they become stressed and can e.g. develop aggressiveness or decrease their feeding. There are indications that chiropractic treatments can treat these animals but this is not commonly known by veterinarians. This study investigated stress related behaviors and average heart rate in ten dogs before and after chiropractic treatment. A control group of eight dogs was also tested but did not receive the treatment. The test consisted of three parts: 1) one part without owner interaction, 2) one part where a human approached and 3) one part were the owner commanded the dog to sit and lie down. Eight out of ten owners experienced a positive change in their dogs’ behavior one week after the treatment though the test results did rather point at more stressful behaviors. The test group showed an increase in yawning and panting from the first to the second test (after the treatment) and showed a higher heart rate after the treatment compared to the control group during part 1. Probably due to that the treatment and the tests were in the same local and the dogs became stressed by being there again. Part 3 did show a possible increase in movability and contact with the owner but more studies are needed to confirm the change that the owners experienced. Though, this study is a step in the right direction; more animals could be treated and saved from euthanizing if chiropractic and the diagnosis of this back injury are taught to veterinarians.

  • 16.
    Rehn, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Modeling of scatter radiation during interventional X-ray procedures2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During catheterized x-ray interventions the patient and medical staff is exposed to scatter radiation, as a consequence of tissue interactions. Ionizing radiation for medical purpose is potentially dangerous and can cause malignancy, skin damage and more. Studies have suggested an increase in the prevalence of eye lens cataract, thyroid cancer and left sided brain tumors in doctors. Therefore, it is mandatory to reduce the radiation dose in medicine, a principle known as ALARA (as low as Reasonably Achievable). Lead aprons, collars and shieldings are safety precautions to protect the team in the operating room. The x-ray equipment and surgical techniques are constantly evolving and the interventions become more complex which may increase the x-ray dose. Although x-ray imaging is required in interventional procedures endeavors of reducing radiation exposure to staff is of high interest. There is a need to increase the awareness about scatter radiation and radiation protection efforts are gaining momentum. Initiative to train a dose reducing behavior by education and awareness are key documents within the European Union’s guidelines on Radiation protection.

    The aims of this thesis were to create a 3D model for representation of real-time exposure and accumulated scatter radiation to staff performing interventional x-ray procedures and identify parameters that affect the scatter radiation.

    Extensive measurements were made with real time dosimeters while irradiating an anthropomorphic phantom. For five lateral C-arm projections, 68 - 80 data points each were used to measure scatter dose distribution around the patient. In the typical operator position, the effect of craniocaudal projection angle, patient size, field size, image detector height and pulse rate on scatter radiation dose was also investigated.

    It was possible to create a 3D model from interpolated measurement data that can generate dose rate with promising results. Six out of eight modelled doses deviated +/- 26.6 % from the validation cases. A model that delivers relative dose is an intuitive approach in education for interventional x-ray radiation safety. The staff position in relation to the x-ray source and the patient size have a significant correlation to the dose rate. Additional measurements are needed to ensure the reliability of the model. This work completes the effect of scatter radiation distribution around the patient table, which is not yet evaluated as thoroughly by other authors.

  • 17.
    Seybold, Christoph
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calibration of fundamental diagrams for travel time predictions based on the cell transmission model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic increases constantly and the negative consequences in the form of traffic jams can be realized especially in urban areas. In order to provide real time traffic information to road users and traffic managers, accurate computer models gain relevance. A software called Mobile Millennium Stockholm (MMS) was developed to estimate and predict travel times and has been implemented on a 7km test stretch in the north of Stockholm. The core of the software is the cell transmission model (CTM) which is a macroscopic traffic flow model based on aggregated speed observations. This thesis focuses on different calibration techniques of the so called fundamental diagram as an important input factor to the CTM. The diagrams illustrate the mathematical function which defines the relation between traffic flow, density and speed. The calibration is performed in different scenarios based on the least square (LS) and total least square (TLS) error minimization. Furthermore, sources, representing the traffic demand, and sinks, representing the surrounding of the modeled network, are implemented as dynamic parameters to model the change in traffic behavior throughout the day. Split ratios, as a representation of the drivers‘ route choice in the CTM are estimated and implemented as well. For the framework of this work, the MMS software is run in a pure prediction mode. The CTM is based on the source, sink, split and fundamental diagram parameters only and run forward in time. For each fundamental diagram calibration scenario an independent model run is performed. The evaluation of the scenarios is based on the output of the model. The results are compared to existing Bluetooth travel time measurements for the test stretch, which are used as ground truth observations, and a mean average percentage error (MAPE) is calculated. This leads to a most reasonable technique for the fundamental diagram calibration – the total least square error minimization.

  • 18.
    Besterman, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Indexerade beräkningsenheter: Robert Shillers indexeringsparadox2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several scientists have, over the years, identified problems related to inflation and contributed with suggestions to solutions. The term Money Illusion is a well-known phenomenon that explains difficulties of separating nominal value from real value. The central bank of Sweden has decided that inflation should be low but positive and the inflation target is set to two percent. Robert Shiller presents Indexed Units of Account as a solution to problems related to inflation depending on knowledge and behavior. He defines an Indexed Unit of Account that is meant to operate in parallel to the local currency.

    Aim: The aim is to discuss the prerequisites for an implementation of new indexed units of account, which works in tandem with the currency, in Sweden as well as critically examine the theories of indexed units of account made by Robert Shiller.

    Completion: The thesis is qualitative in nature and is based on semi-structured interviews with people in banking, insurance and a senior lecturer in economics at the University of Linköping. The interviews have assumed the same interview template. Collected interview data, together with theories of inflation, indexing and transaction costs has formed the basis for the analysis.

    Conclusion: The conclusion in the paper is that the low inflation prevailing in Sweden is not seen as a big enough problem to warrant a more widespread use of indexation by individuals. Robert Shiller has also underestimated the costs associated with indexing, in the form of transaction costs, which most likely means that his advocacy of indexation is a paradox. 

  • 19.
    Edman, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marklinder, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kundanpassad returhantering: E-handelsföretag och deras kunder, en studie om klädbranschen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of the e-commerce companies in the retail industry are not profitable which is partly due to the high percentage of returned goods, which in the current situation is between 20-50 percent. In recent years the proportion of returned goods has increased and is also believed to increase in the future. By lowering the returns of goods with a few percent the e-commerce companies could save several millions, however customer loyalty can be lost unless the companies meets the customers’ expectations regarding the returns process.

    Purpose: The purpose is to identify the difference in customers’ returning behaviors in order to understand how companies' returns management can be adapted to different customer segmentations.

    Research method: The authors of the thesis have used a qualitative research method with a hermeneutic approach and applied both an explorative and a deductive approach.

    Results: The study has identified two different types of customer groups with different purchase and returns behaviors, thus companies should segment the customers based on these factors and the customers should be treated differently by the companies when it comes to returns management. The companies can improve their profitability by customizing their returns management because it generates greater customer satisfaction, increased added value and improved customer loyalty which results in increased profitability for the companies.

  • 20.
    Eklund Rimsten, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Det ger sig självt om man är en bra terapeut". En intervjustudie av hemuppgifter i familjeterapi.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The homework is an important part of both Functional Family Therapy (FFT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). The goal of this essay has been to determine if, and in what way, homework is used in the context of family therapy, that is the frame of FFT. One hypothesis at the beginning of this work was that the interactional home assignments have started to be replaced by the behavior oriented ones that are a part of DBT.

    The individuals participating in the study are all working in a psychiatric outpatient clinic (BUP) in Uppsala. They are all using either Functional Family Therapy (n=3) or Dialectical Behavior Therapy (n=2) as treatment methods.

    The purpose of the study has been to try to understand more of the homework as a therapeutic instrument, especially the relational homework that family therapists are expected to work out on the basis of a manual that is provided within FFT. Two methods have been used to examine this: a survey and focus group interview.

    The results show a relatively large width when it comes to the therapists view on and practice of homework, though the general pattern indicates that they work out both relational as well as behavior oriented assignments in their practical work. However, there is a need and a wish of the family therapists to gain more clarity on how to determine and give a family a relational oriented homework. The conclusion of this essay is that a clarification like that is not possible, unless you go to the bottom with and define what the relational function is and how to use it in what within Functional Family Therapy is called the Relational Assessment Phase.

  • 21.
    Arbman, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Familjerelationer i förändring? En studie av FFT-behandling avseende Frågor om Familjemedlemmar och Familjeklimat.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is an evaluation of Functional Family Therapy (FFT). The aim was to investigate whether a FFT treatment meant a change for a youth and his parents regarding their description of family climate and dyads within the family. The target group consisted of 29 families that during 2011-2013 completed the FFT treatment at Ungdomscentrum (Youth Centre), in Uppsala community. The families had completed the self-assessment forms Issues of Family members and Family climate before and after the treatment. The results showed several significant differences that were consistent with previous research of the model, both internationally and nationally. Criticism and blame had been reduced between family members and the parents considered themselves less over-involved in their youth after the treatment. Current Family climate, it turned out that the adolescents, mothers and fathers experienced more closeness and less distance within the family in the end of treatment. The evaluation confirmed that the FFT- model provides some effect for families with a teenager with behavior problems. The strong emphasis on changing family patterns of communication to a more supportive one, is crucial for the family to complete their treatment and for the result of the treatment.

  • 22. Kato, Naoko
    et al.
    Kinugawa, Koichiro
    Ito, Naomi
    Yao, Atsushi
    Watanabe, Masafumi
    Imai, Yasushi
    Takeda, Norihiko
    Hatano, Masaru
    Kazuma, Keiko
    Adherence to self-care behavior and factors related to this behavior among patients with heart failure in Japan2009In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 38, no 5, 398-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adherence to self-care behavior is important for patients with heart failure (HF) to prevent exacerbation of HF. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence, identify associated factors, and clarify the impact of previous HF hospitalizations on adherence in outpatients with HF. METHODS: A total of 116 outpatients completed a questionnaire, including the Japanese version of the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale, to assess adherence. RESULTS: Regardless of previous hospitalizations, adherence to seek help if HF worsened was poor. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and brain natriuretic peptide showed that diabetes mellitus and being employed were independent predictors of poorer adherence to self-care behavior (P = .03, P = .02, respectively), but the experience of previous HF hospitalizations was not a predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Self-care strategies for HF should target patients with diabetes mellitus and employed patients. Further study is necessary to develop effective programs for such patients.

  • 23.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Real time highway traffic prediction based on dynamic demand modeling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic problems caused by congestion are increasing in cities all over the world. As a traffic management tool traffic predictions can be used in order to make prevention actions against traffic congestion. There is one software for traffic state estimations called Mobile Millennium Stockholm (MMS) that are a part of a project for estimate real-time traffic information.In this thesis a framework for running traffic predictions in the MMS software have been implemented and tested on a stretch north of Stockholm. The thesis is focusing on the implementation and evaluation of traffic prediction by running a cell transmission model (CTM) forward in time.This method gives reliable predictions for a prediction horizon of up to 5 minutes. In order to improve the results for traffic predictions, a framework for dynamic inputs of demand and sink capacity has been implemented in the MMS system. The third part of the master thesis presents a model which adjusts the split ratios in a macroscopic traffic model based on driver behavior during congestion.

  • 24.
    Strengbom, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobile Services Based Traffic Modeling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, communication systems have been dominated by voice applications. Today with the emergence of smartphones, focus has shifted towards packet switched networks. The Internet provides a wide variety of services such as video streaming, web browsing, e-mail etc, and IP trac models are needed in all stages of product development, from early research to system tests. In this thesis, we propose a multi-level model of IP traffic where the user behavior and the actual IP traffic generated from different services are considered as being two independent random processes. The model is based on observations of IP packet header logs from live networks. In this way models can be updated to reflect the ever changing service and end user equipment usage.

    Thus, the work can be divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with modeling the traffic from different services. A subscriber is interested in enjoying the services provided on the Internet and traffic modeling should reflect the characteristics of these services. An underlying assumption is that different services generate their own characteristic pattern of data. The FFT is used to analyze the packet traces. We show that the traces contains strong periodicities and that some services are more or less deterministic. For some services this strong frequency content is due to the characteristics of cellular network and for other it is actually a programmed behavior of the service. The periodicities indicate that there are strong correlations between individual packets or bursts of packets.

    The second part is concerned with the user behavior, i.e. how the users access the different services in time. We propose a model based on a Markov renewal process and estimate the model parameters. In order to evaluate the model we compare it to two simpler models. We use model selection, using the model's ability to predict future observations as selection criterion. We show that the proposed Markov renewal model is the best of the three models in this sense. The model selection framework can be used to evaluate future models.

  • 25.
    Vigren, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Palmertz, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expressed Emotion hos föräldrar och självskadande beteende hos ungdomar.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is the second most common cause of death among young people throughout the world, and self-injury has been shown to be a risk factor related to suicide attempts. The human suffering, suicide risk, societal costs, and potentially severe consequences associated with self-injury make it essential to develop effective programs of treatment for it. One such program, intensive contextual treatment (IKB), was developed and implemented in Uppsala in order to provide assistance to adolescents exhibiting self-injuring behavior and to their parents. The aims of the present quantitative study were to investigate 1) the effectiveness of IKB in reducing parental expressed emotion (EE); 2) the effectiveness of IKB in reducing self-injury in adolescents; and 3) the relationship between a high level of parental EE and self-injury. The participants in the study, 30 families in Uppsala who have undergone IKB treatment, were requested to fill in self-response forms and to be interviewed at both the beginning and completion of treatment. The results show that IKB had a positive effect upon reducing both parental EE and self-injury in adolescents.

  • 26.
    Semelius Granevald, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Psykosociala faktorers och läsförmågans betydelse vid beteendeproblem: En kvalitativ studie om pedagogers erfarenheter av och uppfattningar om risk- och skyddsfaktorer vid utagerande och internaliserande beteendeproblem hos barn och unga i förskola och skola2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att mot pedagogers praktiska erfarenheter och professionella praktik pröva olika teorier kring risk- och skyddsfaktorer vid utagerande och internaliserande beteendeproblem hos barn och unga samt beteendeproblemens koppling till läsförmåga för att se hur teorierna fungerar i relation till praktiken. Studien är kvalitativ och datainsamlingsmetoder har varit semistrukturerade intervjuer och kompletterande enkäter med sammanlagt tio informanter. Dataanalysen har inspirerats av en fenomenografisk metodansats i de första analysstegen. Resultatet visar bland annat att informanterna har erfarenheter och uppfattningar av att barns/elevers beteendeproblem dels kan handla om förmågor och färdigheter hos individen själv, exempelvis bristande kommunikativ förmåga eller svag självkänsla, dels att faktorer i hemmiljön och/eller förskolan/skolan verkar hindrande för barnets/elevens utveckling och lärande. Framför allt visar materialet att lärarens relation till barnet/eleven och föräldrarna har stor betydelse för utgången av beteendet. Denna studie bidrar bland annat till forskningen på så sätt att slutsatser dras att det bland informanterna finns en osäkerhet i bemötandet och hanterandet av framför allt barn och unga med internaliserande beteende samt att förskolan/skolan har behov av dels mer kunskap om beteendeproblem, dels bättre tid och forum för reflektionsarbete och relationsskapande. Insatser bör vidare sättas in tidigt och gärna fokusera på att lära barnen läsa. Sammantaget finns det på flera punkter en överensstämmelse mellan denna studies resultat och med den empiriska forskning som tidigare gjorts i ämnet beteendeproblem hos barn och unga.

  • 27.
    Lagerquist, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Discrete vortex switching in nonlinear optical waveguides2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this diploma work a discrete cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLS) is used as a model for the evolution of the electric field in a system of coupled waveguides with nonlinear index of refraction.The DNLS is inferred from Maxwell’s equations by expanding the induced charge polarization in a power series, thereby perturbing a single electromagnetic mode. The properties of the model are then derived form a stationary action principle, of particular interest is the construction of a continuity equation and thereby a power flow J between the sites. For systems with periodic boundary conditions there exist so-called vortex solutions with J circulating over the sites. Numerical experiments in the 6-site system are then carried out to investigate the behavior of the current when a vortex solution is perturbed to see whether this could result in a reversed current (vorticity). When a large perturbation was applied to a vortex solution near the limit of linear stability a "vortex breather" solution with a sinusoidally flowing current was found.

  • 28.
    Karlsson Linnér, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Berglund, Axel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Avveckling på den svenska aktiefondmarknaden: Påverkas avvecklingen av Premiepensionssystemet?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research from Dahlquist & Martinez (2013) suggest that pension savers in the Swedish Premium Pension system are inattentive to bad investment outcomes compared to investors in the retail market. The authors draw the conclusion that funds of low quality therefore may be able to stay in the market longer than if they would have been disciplined by retail investors.

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to analyze the rate of attrition in the Swedish mutual equity fund market to study if the Swedish Premium Pension System has an effect on the market’s competetive conditions.

    Methodology: The thesis carry out a quantitative study of a stratified and randomized sample of 175 Swedish mutual equity funds that form a panel in the period of 2010 up until and including 2013. Mutual fund attrition is tested through a longitudinal probit model where the differences between the Premium Pension market and the retail market are compared. The attrited mutual equity funds in the sample are examined qualitatively to see how the fee changes after mergers and what official reasons of attrition are stated by the investment companies to their customers. The results of the study are analyzed with a Game Theoretic approach called Trust Games and with theories of Institutional Economics.

    Results and Conclusions: The results of the thesis are that the main explanatory variables that explain survival of mutual equity funds in a given year are a fund's age and assets under management. There is no statistically significant effect on the market's attrition rate caused by the Premium Pension System for the whole period of study, although an arguable effect for the year 2012 is observed through an interaction term, . The study analyzes how the Premium Pension System can cause opportunistic behavior which slows down the rate of attrition through the Trust Game and other possible explanations for the observed difference in the year 2012.

  • 29.
    Fredriksson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Störande elevbeteenden på gymnasiet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie sett ur ett lärarperspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit tvådelat. För det första var syftet att beskriva och förstå sex gymnasielärares uppfattningar om störande beteende hos elever i den gymnasiala klassrumsmiljön. För det andra handlade det om att beskriva och förstå gymnasielärarnas åtgärder och korrigeringar gentemot störande beteende. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ ansats där semistrukturerade intervjuer har tillämpats som metod för inhämtande av data.

    Resultatet visar att gymnasielärarna som deltog i studien uppfattar störande elevbeteenden som något som förskjuter fokus från det som är avsett att göras. Elevbeteenden uppfattas störande först när de påverkar andra elever alternativt läraren själv. Då beteendet påverkar andra elever uppfattas det störande från en lärare med elevperspektiv. När beteendet påverkar läraren uppfattas det störande ur ett lärarperspektiv.

    Resultatet visar även att det finns ett samband mellan mest störande och mest förekommande störande beteenden. I denna studie uppfattar de deltagande lärarna Otillåtet prat samt Otillåten mobiltelefon-/datoranvändning som mest störande och mest förekommande störande elevbeteenden.

    Åtgärder och korrigeringar av störande elevbeteenden förekommer på tre olika nivåer: Organisations-, Grupp- och Individnivå. Exempel på åtgärder och korrigeringar som gymnasielärarna använder sig av är Ordningsregler, Elevavtal, Relationer, Tillsägelser, Samtal samt Avvisning.

    En slutsats som kan dras är att Relationer är en faktor som flera av lärarna betonar som den viktigaste delen för att förebygga störande elevbeteenden. Lärarna menar att goda Relationer på lång sikt ger en bättre effekt vid korrigeringar av störande elevbeteende. En annan slutsats är att Otillåten mobiltelefon-/datoranvändning är ett störande elevbeteende som i tidigare forskning inte har uppmärksammats, en ny kunskap inom området.

  • 30.
    Fagerhierta, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tidspress och ekonomiskt risktagande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and time pressure is more present in todays labor markets. In financial markets a securities broker is forced to take decisions on investments under high cognitive load and under extreme time pressure. The research of decision under risk gained new ground with the development of the prospect theory and gave us new insights to the decision making of men. Prospect theory has shown that people are risk seekers when dealing with loss decisions and risk avert when dealing with profit decisions. The value function are defined over gains and losses. Losses looms larger then gains. Although much research conducted on the decision making under risk no previous research have been done showing how time pressure affects decision at risk by using skin conductance.

    This paper aimed through a randomized experiment with 23 participants examine how time pressure affects individuals' decisions related to risk. Furthermore, it intends to analyze whether time pressure mediate a possible effect of stress by using skin conductance.

    The results show that there is an increase in risk aversion for gains. This risk aversion was also statistically significant at the 1% level when each participant's responses were used and almost at 5% level when the mean values from each participant was used. Upon loss a risk -seeking behavior could be noticed but it was not statistically significant at the 5 % level. Stress levels as measured by skin conductance showed that the time-pressed group showed signs of stress. However, no stress data was significant at the 5 % level.

  • 31.
    Ekdahl, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skolan: en arena där normalitet och avvikande görs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will analyse how Asperger’s syndrome and autism spectrum disorder is made in two municipal high schools. I have interviewed school personnel and analysed the schools’ policy documents and diagnostic manuals. In this essay AS and ASD are being deconstructed as political and ideological object and I analyse techniques in school, that makes these objects to subjects.

    The school’s mission is to foster and educate pupils to become desirable citizens and at the same time its aim is to provide an equivalent school. The diagnostics function as explanatory models for behaviors’ that are made problematic in school, in the interaction of the aims of the school. The diagnostics are used as explanatory models that enable efficiency in the disciplining of the pupil, based on political interests.

    The medical discourse, the school’s compensatory discourse and the discourse of "a school for everybody" is manifested by a therapeutical ideology which directs thoughts about problems, such as illness, away from structures and towards individuals. The individuals will be directed to activation so that they strive to develop a behavior that is desired by the dominating order.

  • 32.
    Karjalainen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Klarholm, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Termomekanisk utmattning av Sanicro 25: Materialmodellering med finita elementmetoden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to describe the austenitic stainless steel Sanicro 25 from a thermomechanical point of view. The thermal and mechanical properties of the material make it suitable for use in coal – and thermal power plants. By the use of Sanicro 25 it would be possible to bring the efficiency of these plants up while bringing the carbon emissions down.A material model is created from material testing and validated through simulation in the finite element software Abaqus. The model that has been derived describes the material behavior during loading and stress relaxation for the first cycle in a thermomechanical fatigue test well. The unloading part of the cycle however cannot be described correctly by the use of this model.

  • 33.
    Elisabeth, Ahlgren
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marker generation for Fine Mapping a QTL in the chicken2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to design and test five SNP markers in an inbred chicken cross between Red Junglefowl and domestic White Leghorn of the 8th generation. The markers lie in a region affecting the tonic immobility behaviour which differs significantly between the two species. The markers could be identified by usage of PCR and pyrosequencing. The data obtained were further used in a small scale quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. QTL analysis is a statistical method to link phenotypic traits to genotypic data. Four out of five markers could be genotypes and thereby, made it possible to proceed with the QTL analysis. The results showed that there is no QTL associated with the markers identified. The two flanking markers were closest to a significant difference between genotypes and it is therefore a possibility that a QTL lies close further down or up the searched region. From the line map it is indicated that there is little recombination in the marker region.

  • 34.
    Myklebust, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Dry Clutch Micro-Slip Control and Temperature ConsiderationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an automatic clutch in the powertrain it is possible to micro-slip the clutch. Micro-slip is a continuous small slip in the clutch used to isolate the driveline from the oscillations in the torque produced by a combustion engine. A control structure has been designed for a micro-slip controller. The basic components are a Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller based on a linearized driveline model and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that can compensate the torque request from the LQ controller for the thermal dynamics of the clutch. To remove some stationary errors, integral action has been added to the LQ controller by adding an extra state. An anti-windup scheme is used, and the additional parameters depend on clutch conditions. The reference slip value is set according to a derived formula for the flywheel-speed-oscillation amplitude together with a dynamic safety margin that can increase during transients. Altogether the controller has a simple structure and there should be no technical problems to implement it in a production vehicle. In simulations with transient torque, unknown road grades, and a mass parameter that has been varied by a factor of 2, the controller is able to follow the slip reference without locking up. The simulations are performed on a non-linear driveline model, previously validated with data, that has been augmented with a model for the oscillative torque produced by the engine in order to more accurately describe micro-slip conditions. The torque model is a sinusoidal model and has been fitted to high resolution data. The oscillation amplitude and frequency agree well with the data. The thermal behavior of a clutch with micro slip is analyzed and the EKF should be used for temperature surveillance together with some suggested counter measures although there were no excessive temperatures during simulations of recorded driving missions. However, the simulations show that the fuel consumption increase might be too large for a heavy-duty-truck application if micro-slip control is to be used at all operating conditions. Further analysis of costs versus benefits are required on a vehicle level but the feasibility of a micro-slip control system for a dry clutch truck has been proven.

  • 35.
    Gunnarsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actionplanering och Samarbete (APAC) mellan multipla AI-agenter2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers an implementation of an artificial intelligence (AI) system for cooperation between multiple AI-agents. It was done as a part of a master thesis in Media Technology and a master thesis in Computer Engineering at Linköping University, campus Norrköping. The aim of the project was to explore modern techniques in AI and also develop a platform where this AI is implemented for the upcoming educational purposes. The idea is that students can use the system as a base to extend, learn and implement their own AI algorithms. Based on a literature study in AI systems the decision was made to base APAC on the GOAP system, a scalable planning architecture designed for real-time control of autonomous character behavior in games. The result of the thesis is a virtual world, made in Unity3D and C#, where the system is being used by virtual agents to build a city.

  • 36.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory-related behaviors in the South American Coati (Nasua nasua)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the use and behavioural relevance of the different senses in the South American Coati is limited. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the use of the sense of smell in this species. Twenty-five captive coatis were observed at the zoo of La Paz for a total of 120 hours to collect data on olfactory-related behaviors. The coatis frequently performed behaviors in response to the detection of odors such as sniffing on the ground, on objects, on food, on conspecifics, or in the air. In contrast, they did not display many odor depositing behaviors such as urinating, defecating, or scent-marking. The most frequently performed olfactory-related behavior was “sniffing on ground” which accounted for an average of 40 % of all recorded behaviors. In general, both adult males and non-males (here defined as adult females, as well as sub-adults and juveniles of both sexes) performed olfactory-related behaviors at similar frequencies. However, a few frequency differences for certain behaviors were found in the morning and in the afternoon, and in food or no food conditions, respectively. When food was present, for example, the coatis spent less time on olfactory-related foraging behaviors like “sniffing on ground” and “nose-digging” compared to when food was not present. The finding that scent-marking was rare in this captive group, indicates little need for territorial marking or communication of reproductive state under these circumstances. Findings from this study support the idea that Nasua nasua use their sense of smell in a variety of different contexts, and further studies are needed to extend the results.

  • 37.
    Carlqvist, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    OpenModelica Support for Figaro Extensions Regarding Fault Analysis2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The practical result of this thesis is an extension to OpenModelica that transforms Modelica into Figaro. Modelica is an equation-based object-oriented modeling language. OpenModelica is an open source implementation of Modelica. Figaro is a language used for reliability modeling. Figaro is a general representation formalism that can be transformed into reliability models like fault trees. Figaro was designed for fault analysis. Modelica was designed to model the behavior of physical systems and run dynamic simulations. Because of that, you cannot just break components and analyze what happens to a system. This work enables us to have fault analysis in OpenModelica by transforming our Modelica model into a Figaro model and invoke the Figaro compiler. This lets us break particular components and see what happens to the system. This work is part of an ongoing effort to integrate several modeling environments.

  • 38.
    Hu, Hongzhan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring the concept of feedback with perspectives from psychology and cognitive science2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the concept of feedback from various perspectives in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, the theories of ecological psychology, situated and Distributed Cognition, Cognitive Systems Engineering and Embodied cognition are investigated and compared. Cognitive Systems Engineering provides a model of feedback and related constructs, to understand human behavior in complex working environments. Earlier theories such as ecological psychology, considered feedback as direct perception. Situated cognition clearly inherits ideas from ecological psychology, whereas distributed cognition provides a deeper understanding of feedback through artifact use. Cognitive Systems Engineering provides a systematic view of feedback and control. This framework is a suitable perspective to understanding feedback in human-machine settings.

  • 39.
    Martin, Gabi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonasson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enhancing trust online A cross Bsectional study on users judgments of online bank websites in Germany2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One the latest developments in the banking sector are online banks, which provide their services only online while physical offices are not available. Market research conducted in Germany, have shown that Germans are hesitating to adopt to the digital offered banking services. The major barrier for adoption is due to trust issues, which are rooted in perceived security and privacy protections. Earlier literature has found that other website interaction factors are also playing a role in order to enhance the trustworthiness of a website. Trust is a necessity in every economic and social relationship, since all relationships involve a possibility that one of the actors behaves opportunistically, and takes advantage of the other actor. The chance of opportunistic behavior contributes to the level of judged risk in the specific relationship, and together with trust ultimately affects the adoption of online banks. In order for users to become consumers of an online bank, they need to judge the online bank website as trustworthy. These judgments can be done either intuitively or throughout reasoning, considering information. The marketing field is emphasizing that intuitive judgments are essential in order to attract new consumer. However, the psychology field is stressing that even though most individuals tend to rely on intuitive judgments, these can be wrong since they can be based on heuristics and include biases.

    Purpose: In order to understand the formation of judgments by users of an online bank website, the purpose of our thesis is twofold. First, to measure the relationships between the website interaction factors and the concepts trust and risk. Second, with a lower degree of ambition, the purpose is to measure the relationship between intuitive and reasoned trust judgments.

    Methodology: The study was conducted through a quantitative research method. A six-point scale questionnaire was used in order to examine the relationships between trust, risk and the website interaction factors. A web-based questionnaire was sent out to German web users, where in total 122 respondents responded. The sample was equally split into online bank consumers and non-consumers. The statistical analysis of the data revealed results enabling to fulfill the purpose.

    Results: The findings of our thesis demonstrate that online bank consumers and non-consumers do not significantly differ in their judgments regarding the websites. The perceptions of the information quality, security and privacy protection are found as the most influential website interaction factors towards the trust judgments. Privacy and security protection are mostly influence website users in their risk judgment. Our study further reveals that online bank website users make their trust judgments through the first impression while further considerations of the websites' content enhance their trust judgments.

  • 40.
    Hägnemark, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vilkelyte, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relationship between entrepreneurs and policy – driven networks: Motives, expectations and emerging challenges2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The importance of supportive business networks has been widely acknowledged in the field of entrepreneurship. Due to the success of informal business networks, the same networking concept is frequently encouraged and applied by regional political authorities. However, when duplicating a certain networking approach in different settings, it is important to address motives and expectations of network actors and be aware of potentially arising threats.

    Purpose of the study: The purpose of the Master Thesis is to explore and broaden the understanding of the relationship between the two actors: entrepreneurs and policy-driven networks. The Master Thesis aims to provide a theoretical contribution to the field of entrepreneurship in identifying and describing main motives and expectations of both actors, when engaging in a mutual relationship. However, the Thesis will focus on a single actor’s perspective and the main emphasis of the research will be placed on a set of entrepreneurs and their behavior within the analyzed policy-driven network. Ultimately, main emerging challenges between the two actors will be identified and analyzed, as well as appropriate guidance to address it will be provided.

    Methodological framework: The qualitative research approach was chosen for the conducted study. A multiple case study was completed in the form eight semi- structured interviews with the anagerial levels of the analyzed policy-driven network and local entrepreneurs.

    Completion and findings: The conducted study reveals that it is a great challenge to implement a certain networking approach in a diverse context. The provided frameworks of entrepreneurship, networking and social embeddedness indicate that, when establishing a policy-driven network a considerable amount of attention should be devoted to main network actors – regional entrepreneurs.

  • 41.
    Chung, Yichu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making Knowledge Permanent in Temporary Structures: The Role of Incentives for Knowledge Integration in Project-based Organizations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is increasingly seen as the organization’s most important asset. The knowledge-based view dictates that by understanding the importance of knowledge as a competitive advantage, and leveraging it, organizations can compete in a differentiated and sustainably advantageous way. In project-based organizations where individuals with different specialized knowledge meet and create new knowledge together, this might be seen as especially valuable. Despite having a big impact on both the academic and managerial world, organizations seem struggle when actually faced with the practical implications of integrating knowledge in the firms.This problem has been highlighted both in research, as well as in an empirical pre-study. Understanding where this problem stems from is an important step in finding a way to solve it. Following the idea that the use of incentive systems has long been an effective way of steering behavior in organizational members, we wonder what the role of incentive systems is in the context of knowledge integration in project-based organizations.  

    Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate and analyze if missing or deficient incentive systems is the reason why project-based organizations struggle with knowledge integration.

  • 42.
    Shokoohi, Shima
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    "Man vill göra så mycket för dem men ibland går det bara inte att få allt här i livet.": En studie om de professionella vuxna som jobbar med ensamkommande ungdomar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses seven professional adults working with unaccompanied minors living at two different HVB homes. The purpose is to demonstrate how the staff in their daily work at these homes reason about and construct the minors’ gender, religion, ethnicity, culture, and exclusion. Using participant and partial-participant observation, a semi-structured interview guide was formulated, followed by conducting interviews of the staff. The interview data was analyzed with an intersectional perspective and with the theories stigma, ethnicity, culture, and gender. The results show that the responsibilities of the staff are beyond their job description, and that these adults must fill the shoes of an entire family tree and not only serve as authorities. The analysis reveals that the staff has clear ideas on gender and the power structure between the sexes, and also how they categorize the minors into different groups based on gender. The study also shows that the staff makes clear distinctions between communities in which social behavior, culture, religion, language, appearance, and way of thinking are tied together with the individual's ethnic background, potentially leading to an unintentional stigmatizing effect on the minors.

  • 43.
    Skoglund, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Simulation-based Evaluation of a Hybrid Storage System Combining P2P, F2F, and Cloud storage with a Distributed Reputation System2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the amount of valuable data that the average person owns increases, there is a growing need for personal low cost backup services. A variety of methods have been developed to fulfill this need, from cloud based backup services to cooperative methods where users share spare resources to store each other’s data, either using a peer-to-peer (P2P) network to store data among a large number of diverse peers, or a friend-to-friend (F2F) network to store data among a smaller number of trusted friends. There are several advantages to each method, but they all have issues that can make them unsuitable for this task.

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the possibility of avoiding these issues by creating a hybrid system that stores files using a combination of cloud storage and trust aware P2P and F2F networks. This should also give the user greater control over the distribution of files and make it more resilient towards malicious peers.

    A simple file storage system was designed that uses a combined P2P and F2F network together with a reputation system for determining how trustworthy a peer is based on its past behavior, as well as having the option of falling back on cloud storage. The user decides for each file how much data shall be stored using normal peers, friend peers, and cloud storage, and any requirements that the peers used must fulfill. A partial implementation of the system was created as part of a simulator used to evaluate how well the combined P2P and F2F networks and reputation system behaves in various circumstances, and using different distribution policies.

    While it is difficult to compare the performance of this system to that of other backup and file storage systems without more thorough testing, the results obtained show that it is in fact possible to construct a trustaware hybrid system, that it should perform better than a pure P2P or F2F system, and that it should perform well even if a majority of all peers were to act maliciously.

  • 44.
    Erni, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Smedberg, Kåre
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    2011 års uppdatering av Skuldsaneringslagen (2006:548): En granskning av hur uppdateringen påverkat enskilda näringsidkare och borgenärer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Government considered despite the introduction of the 1994 debt rescheduling act (1994:334) that a solution was needed to the problem that individual traders neither could be granted debt relief or corporate restructuring to thus be able to continue operations if they got into financial insolvency. Therefore in 2007 a special investigator was added to investigate and make proposals for debt relief for individual traders. This study was the basis for the Government bill that the Parliament in October 2010 decided upon.

    The main issue

    What impact has the new debt rescheduling act meant for traders as well as creditors?

    Purpose

    Our purpose of the bachelor thesis is to explore if the new debt rescheduling act (2006:548) has achieved the expected goals, the study will also investigate if the new debt rescheduling act has resulted in any other effects.

    Method

    The study's purpose is answered by a personal interview and several questionnaires that have been collected for the empirical material. The processing of the empirical material was made by a qualitative method. Referrals and propositions have also been used to help answer the bachelor thesis purpose, when the reference frame and the conclusion were set against each other.

    Conclusion

    The actual impact of the new debt rescheduling act (2006:548) is that individual traders can get debt relief if the insolvency was because the trader could not work for a long period of time and therefore ended up in financial trouble. In an insolvency situation the age of the debts are not considered in the same way as before, which meant that a debtor can apply for debt relief in an earlier stage. That this would contribute to deterioration in payment behavior and elevated interest rates appears unchanged. At the change of a criterion such as the age of the debt, a clear effect on the number of debt applications can be seen.

  • 45.
    Reim, Erich
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and visualization of historical traffic data collected on the Stockholm highway system2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The congestion due to traffic is a worldwide occurrence in major cities, where also the biggest part of the human population lives. To be able to control and oversee the ongoing traffic development in cities, traffic operators use different methods to observe the current trend. This is done by collecting data from stationary sensors to mobile sensors like floating car data. The data collected from stationary sensors is stored in a central database. This historical traffic data is used for analysis of traffic behavior along the main roadway network in Stockholm. Areas which are highly congested can be located as well as areas where traffic flows without problems. This thesis deals with methods to analyze and visualize the traffic behavior based on historical traffic data, measured in the city of Stockholm. Therefore a toolbox is implemented which is used to figure out bottlenecks and typical speed and flow patterns along the Stockholm highway system. Based on the typical speed and flow patterns, it is possible to calculate areas that are affected of congestion and also to determine whether congestion appears due to an incident or a bottleneck.

  • 46.
    Prokofyeva, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language Use in Two Types of Suicide Texts2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide texts are the traces left by their authors for the public allowing them to understand the causes of the desire to commit suicide, regardless of whether such notes preceded successful suicide attempts or not. The types of such texts can vary dramatically in emotional expressiveness, be it a suicide note handwritten by the author or a short post typed on a web forum dedicated to suicides. While one text can be evidence of a successful suicide attempt, the other may point to a deeply depressive state which may or may not lead to a suicide attempt in future. The main questions this study aims to answer are: (1) what is the difference between the two above-named types of suicide texts (‘suicide notes’ and ‘suicide posts’) and (2) how is it expressed linguistically? Previous works on suicide texts have been of significant importance and have managed to investigate the differences between suicide notes of the attempters and those who completed suicide (Joiner 2002) as well as underline the typical features of genuine suicide notes in comparison to fabricated suicide notes. However, no studies indicating the differences between the ‘suicide notes’ of successful suicides and the ‘suicide posts’ of authors exhibiting various degrees of depressive behavior have previously been conducted. In this thesis, the comparative analysis of ‘suicide notes’ left by those successful in their attempts  and ‘suicide posts’ composed by authors with unknown fates has been carried out with the help of discourse analysis. Both types of texts have been examined from such linguistic levels as semantics, pragmatics and syntax. The results show several distinctive features peculiar to each type. While providing a clear reason for committing suicide in the one case contrasts with detailing a number of causes for depression in the other, further differences exist in regard to expressing such emotions as (1) fear of life, (2) relief, (3) lack of hope and (4) lack of doubt versus displaying such emotions as (1) fear of death, (2) preserved desire and (3) doubt. An easy to follow structure and purposeful past tense usage in suicide notes stands in contrast to the allusions to previous suicide attempts and indistinguishable pattern found in suicide posts. At the same time, specific punctuation signs were found to be peculiar mainly to the suicide post type of text.  The results of the research also demonstrate the necessity for further investigation of the characteristic features of different types of suicide text as well as their classification. Moreover, the study indicates the possibilities of tracing the probable transformation from ‘suicide posts’ to ‘suicide notes’ which may well serve for purposes of suicide prevention, especially if an additional category, i.e., notes written by survivors, is added to the analysis. 

  • 47.
    Attaullah, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure. To match up with the emerging technologies, LTE takes the lead with good packet delivery and versatile to changes in the network due to vehicular movements and density.

    This thesis is about analyzing of LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model. This thesis work is aimed to use probability distribution function to calculate density values and develop a real traffic scenario in LTE network using density values.

    In order to analyze the traffic behavior, Aimsun simulator software has been used to represent the real situation of traffic density on a model intersection. For a realistic traffic density model field measurement were used for collection of input data. After calibration and validation process, a close to realty results extracted and used a logistic curve of probability distribution function to find out the density situation on each part of intersection. Similar traffic scenarios were implemented on MATLAB based LTE system level simulator.

    Results were concluded with the whole traffic scenario of 90 seconds and calculating the throughput at every traffic signal time and section.

    It is quite evident from the results that LTE system adopts the change of traffic behavior with dynamic nature and allocates more bandwidth where it is more needed.

  • 48.
    Rashid, Muhammad Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure. To match up with the emerging technologies, LTE takes the lead with good packet delivery and versatile to changes in the network due to vehicular movements and density. This thesis is about analyzing of LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model. This thesis work is aimed to use probability distribution function to calculate density values and develop a real traffic scenario in LTE network using density values. In order to analyze the traffic behavior, Aimsun simulator software has been used to represent the real situation of traffic density on a model intersection. For a realistic traffic density model field measurement were used for collection of input data. After calibration and validation process, a close to realty results extracted and used a logistic curve of probability distribution function to find out the density situation on each part of intersection. Similar traffic scenarios were implemented on MATLAB based LTE system level simulator. Results were concluded with the whole traffic scenario of 90 seconds and calculating the throughput at every traffic signal time and section. It is quite evident from the results that LTE system adopts the change of traffic behavior with dynamic nature and allocates more bandwidth where it is more needed.

  • 49.
    Subramanians, Sankar Saravanan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introduces the concept of assigning tasks to UEs, e.g. “cross cell border” or “move to a certain cell”. Furthermore, concepts from control theory are borrowed to control the task assignment process, making it more dynamic and robust. The second approach iteratively calculate movement patterns for the UEs in an area until it finds a movement pattern that has a high probability of satisfying the user’s requested mobility characteristics.

  • 50.
    Dully, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traffic Safety Evaluation of Future Road Lighting Systems2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While new road lighting technologies, either LED or adaptive road lighting systems, offer a wide range of unique potential benefits (mainly in terms of energy savings), it is necessary to evaluate the safety impacts of these technologies on road users. The literature survey shows that providing light on previous unlit roads has a positive effect on traffic safety. Reducing the amount of light has the opposite effect. These studies are usually conducted by using crash numbers, which makes it impossible to draw conclusions on changes in driving behaviour. Driving behaviour analyses need special approaches and indicators. Therefore indirect indicators such as speed and safety relationship, jerky driving and traffic conflict parameters are presented. The individual character of such data is difficult to deal with and limits big scale analyses. In order to have a practical example of such indicators a case study is conducted. Floating car data collected in Vienna is used to analyse travel speeds of taxi drivers at two LED test sites. A simple before-after analysis is used with data from January 2011 to May 2012 in order to examine an expected increase in speed due to a better visual performance of LED light. However the results show either no changes at all or a trend in speed reduction of 1km/h in average. Unfavourable test site locations might limit the significance of the results.

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