liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 101
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill - Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 37, no 7, 2514-2524 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat cooperation between industries and district heating companies is often economically and environmentally beneficial. In this paper, energy cooperation between an integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill and two nearby energy companies was analysed through economic optimisations. The synergies of cooperation were evaluated through optimisations with different system perspectives. Three changes of the energy system and combinations of them were analysed. The changes were process integration, extending biofuel boiler and turbine capacity and connection to a local heat market. The results show that the single most promising system change is extending biofuel and turbine capacity. Process integration within the pulp and paper mill would take place through installing evaporation units that yield less excess heat but must in this particular case be combined with extended biofuel combustion capacity in order to be beneficial. Connecting to the local heat market would be beneficial for the pulp and paper mill, while the studied energy company needs to extend its biofuel capacity in order to benefit from the local heat market. Furthermore, the potential of reducing CO2 emissions through the energy cooperation is shown to be extensive; particularly if biofuel and turbine capacity is increased.

  • 2.
    Liu, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A systematic approach for major renovation of residential buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, buildings are responsible for about 40 % of total energy use and about 10 % of total CO2 emissions Today more than 60 % of existing Swedish residential buildings are over 40 years old and are in need of major renovation. In addition, 15 % of all multi-family buildings and 27 % of all single-family houses were built before 1945. The increased energy use and threat from CO2 emissions of the building sector create a need for energy efficiency. The important role that renovation of residential buildings will play in reducing the total energy used by the Swedish building sector as well as in reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions on both the national and global levels has been the impetus for the studies included in this thesis.

    The aim of the current research is to develop a methodology from a system perspective which can be used to analyze the energy use, optimal life cycle cost (LCC), energy efficiency measure (EEM) package, indoor environment, CO2 emissions, and primary energy use of a building or a community during major renovation. The developed methodology accomplished at three different levels, i.e. building level, cluster level and district level. The methodology considers both energy efficiency and economic viability during building renovation and will also play an important role in overall urban planning. The studied buildings include both non-listed and listed residential buildings and the tools used include building energy simulation (BES), survey, technical measurements, LCC optimization and building categorization.

    The results show that the combination of BES, technical measurements and surveys provides a holistic approach for evaluation of energy use and indoor environment of the studied residential buildings. The results from the current study also show that the 2020 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 20 %, for the building sector can be achieved by all the studied building types and that the total LCC of these buildings are below the cost-optimal point. In comparison, the 2050 energy target, i.e., reduction of energy use by 50 %, for the building sector may be achieved by the non-listed buildings, but when the constraints relevant to listed buildings are added the cost-optimality changes as some EEMs in direct conflict with the building’s heritage value may not be implemented.

    The investigation of primary energy use and CO2 emissions by the residential buildings show that the higher the energy saving, the lower the primary energy use becomes, and vice versa. With the same energy saving, the heating system with higher primary energy factor results in higher primary energy use. From a CO2 emissions point of view, EEM packages proposed to help buildings connected to a CHP based district heating system, to reduce the energy use or LCC are not consistently effective. Since these EEM packages will reduce district heating demand, the electricity produced in the CHP plant will also decrease. When the biomass is considered a limited resource, measures such as investment in a biofuel boiler are not favourable from the CO2 emissions point of view. The current study has also shown that combining building categorization method and LCC optimization method will help the community to reduce its energy use, primary energy use and CO2 emissions in a systematic and strategic way.

    List of papers
    1. Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comprehensive investigation on energy retrofits in eleven multi-family buildings in Sweden
    2014 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, 704-715 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly growing energy use in the building sector is considered a serious problem by both the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Reducing energy demand in the building sector is important for Sweden in order to reach national energy goals for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in the future. This project aims to find energy efficiency potential in multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region, which is a cold climate region in Sweden. Measurements and simulations have been made on eleven multifamily buildings from the whole region. The results include different energy efficiency measure packages, profitability analysis of individual measures and packages, and primary energy use analysis. The paper also includes CO2 emissions reduction analysis based on different methods. The project shows that the multifamily buildings in the Gävleborg region have good potential to reduce their energy use by more than 50%, which in turn will contribute to 43% primary energy reduction and 48% CO2 emissions reduction.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111051 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.08.044 (DOI)000345182000070 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, 32-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector within both the EU and Sweden accounts for about 40% of total energy use. It is therefore important to introduce energy efficiency measures in this sector in order to meet the national implementation of the Building Performance Directive. Retrofits that result in improved energy performance are important in order to meet national energy targets, but the impact on the indoor environment has to be considered. Properly chosen energy efficiency measures may affect the indoor environment positively. One retrofitted multi-family building, located in the city of Linkoping, Sweden, was chosen as the study object. The building represents a common type of construction in Sweden. This study presents an evaluation of both the indoor environment and energy use of the retrofitted building in comparison with a similar non-retrofitted building from the same area. The results show that the building has potential to reach a 39% reduction of space heating demand. The indoor environment has been improved compared to the non-retrofitted building. Adding external blinds from 15 May to 15 September between 10am-12pm on the east side and 12pm-3pm on the west side seems to be the best option for improving the indoor climate during summer. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Multi-family building; Retrofit; Building energy simulation; Energy use; Indoor environment
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120720 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.021 (DOI)000358458100003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-05-16
    3. A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, no 2, 150-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish research project Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maney Publishing, 2014
    Keyword
    cultural significance; energy efficiency; heritage values; historic buildings; life-cycle cost
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109231 (URN)10.1179/1756750514Z.00000000055 (DOI)000338773000006 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
    4. LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>LCC assessments and environmental impacts on the energy renovation of a multi-family building from the 1890s
    2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 133, 823-833 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 2020 and 2050 energy targets increase requirements on energy performance in the building stock, thus affecting both listed and non-listed buildings. It is important to select appropriate and cost-optimal energy efficiency measures, using e.g. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization. The aim of this paper is to find cost-optimal packages of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) as well as to explore the effects of specific predesigned energy target values for a listed Swedish multi-family building from the 1890s. The purpose is also to show the effects on energy use, LCC, primary energy use and CO2 emissions of different energy targets, discount rates, electricity prices and geographic locations. The results show that separate energy targets could be an effective way to simplify the implementation for listed buildings. Furthermore, a cost-optimal package of EEMs is more sensitive to changes in discount rate than in electricity price. The energy renovation has impact on the primary energy use and CO2 emissions. The lower the discount rate is, the more EEMs will be implemented and the easier the national energy targets may be achieved. A higher electricity price also leads to more EEMs being implemented but at the same time higher running costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2016
    Keyword
    LCC assessments; Environmental impacts; Energy efficiency measures package; Listed/non-listed building; Renovation; Energy targets
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133507 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.10.040 (DOI)000389087300072 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-29 Last updated: 2017-05-16
  • 3.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Biofuel Synergies2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Often biofuels are criticized in the media for their low production energy efficiency, environmental impacts and by using food for fuel production. An answer most critics rely on is stating how 2nd generation biofuels will solve all the problems the first generation biofuels possess. However, 1st generation biofuels must “pave the way” for 2nd generation biofuels. They can do this by providing the infrastructure, technology and knowledge provided by the fuels.

    In order to increase the efficiency of 1st generation biofuels, the theories of industrial symbiosis can be applied. Industrial symbiosis theories are designed to integrate production systems and other industries to improve energy efficiency and environmental performance. By integrating biofuel production systems, the by-products of biofuels can be used in subsequent processes. By making use of by-products, excess heat, etc. the energy efficiency can be improved and allow for more benefits including economic and environmental performance.

    Industrial symbiosis literature includes many examples of how industries can benefit from one another but does not include much literature on the integration of biofuels. Synergies do however exist as there are many by-products which are highly prized in other industries, e.g. glycerol and DDGS. The biofuels themselves can even be used in subsequent processes.

    The aim of producing this literature study is to find relevant biofuel synergies1 within various fields from scientific literature. By searching for keywords and combining these with keywords related to biofuel synergies we can review the extent and knowledge of synergies between external industries with biofuels, between biofuel industries and the use of their byproducts throughout various research fields.

    The main research questions to be answered are:

    • What do other research fields use biofuel by-products for?
    • What are the current trends for the use of biofuels and their by-products?
    • What substrates/by-products/wastes from other industries can be used for biofuel production?
    • Which synergies exist in the literature beyond those presented in other phases of the research project?
    • What are some potential uses for biofuels, their by-products and industrial wastes and utilities to integrate in symbiosis?
  • 4.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hackl, Roman
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster2014In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 71, 113-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the production of biofuels from algae cultivated in municipal wastewater in Gothenburg, Sweden. A possible biorefinery concept is studied based on two cases; Case A) combined biodiesel and biogas production, and Case B) only biogas production. The cases are compared in terms of product outputs and impact on global CO2 emissions mitigation. The area efficiency of the algae-based biofuels is also compared with other biofuel production routes. The study investigates the collaboration between an algae cultivation, biofuel production processes, a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial cluster for the purpose of utilizing material flows and industrial excess heat between the actors. This collaboration provides the opportunity to reduce the CO2 emissions from the process compared to a stand-alone operation. The results show that Case A is advantageous to Case B with respect to all studied factors. It is found that the algae-based biofuel production routes investigated in this study has higher area efficiency than other biofuel production routes. The amount of algae-based biofuel possible to produce corresponds to 31 MWfuel for Case A and 26 MWfuel in Case B.

  • 5.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    University of Arizona, USA.
    An Inventory and Analysis of Synergies in the Biofuel Industry2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As biofuels are becoming a part of national renewable energy goals, a great deal optimism is placed on second generation biofuels to overcome the criticism of first generation biofuels. However, optimization of first generation biofuels through process integration and the exchange of by-products and energy can give many environmental and economic benefits. Synergies have therefore been identified which can incorporate biofuel industries and offer integration with external industries. An inventory of synergies between biofuel and external industries has been provided by the synthesis of two methods, a synergies development workshop and literature review. The compilation includes 148 synergies, with each synergy categorized based on its interaction with biofuel and external industries and additionally the specific industry each synergy is destined. A large number of synergies consist of integrated biofuel synergies, though many synergies exist with external industries including  the food industry, energy and fuel industry, municipalities, algae production and agricultural industry. Synergies developed for this article are primarily by-product related synergies for handling major by-products and wastes from the biofuel and external industries for subsequent processing and further biofuel production.

  • 6.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fonseca, Jorge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production:: Quantifying Industrial Symbiosis in the Biofuel Industry2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about many issues, including the energy output versus input and the competition with food, has been raised andthe sustainability of biofuels in recent years has been constantly debated. However, the current biofuel systems may be optimized to increase the energy efficiency and environmentalperformance. By using concepts from industrial symbiosis, the material and energy exchangesmay be optimized to result in these performance improvements. This paper offers aquantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuelindustry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach.Results show that although increasing integration between the biogas and ethanol plants isassumed to produce environmental benefits, not all impact categories have achieved this andthe results depend upon the allocation methods chosen. Thus the increasing integration alsobrings about increased complexity for the system.

  • 8.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, 388-404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 9.
    Renbjörk, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ATEX classification for construction of bio-fuel factory2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensprojekt är utfört på Ageratec AB som ligger strax utanför Norrköping. Syftet med hela examensprojektet är att göra layoutritningar som används vid ATEX-klassning för byggnationer av biobränslefabriker, som sedan skall ut till beställaren/kunden.

    Min huvuduppgift var att rita en layoutritning för en speciell modell av biobränslefabrik - processor P1000. Detta från uppmätning av processor P1000 till färdig layoutritning i 3D uppritad i AutoCAD, med klassningsplan över farliga ställen och zoner i fabriken. Tanken var att om tiden medgav skulle även ritningar tas fram för de resterande modeller av biobränslefabriker, vilket inte blev fallet. Ageratecs kunder måste nämligen ta hänsyn och följa ATEX-direktiv för arbete i explosionsfarlig miljö som gäller för att driva en biobränslefabrik.

    Vad ATEX-klassning innebär, hur en biobränslefabrik byggs upp och fungerar från början till färdig framställning av biobränsle samt en översikt över de olika typer av biobränslen som finns, tas upp i denna rapport.

    Ageratec startade år 2004 av Gert och David Frykerås. Det är ett familjeföretag med en omsättning på 30 miljoner per år och 32 anställda år 2007. Ageratec tillverkar och säljer helautomatiska processorer över hela världen i olika storlekar som hanterar en volym mellan 1000-288 000 liter biodiesel per dygn. Biobränslefabrikerna är helautomatiskt styrda med hjälp av ett PLC-system från Mitsubishi Electric.

    Processorerna är framtagna för framställning av biobränsle av vegetabiliska oljor, där anläggningen renar oljan och tillsätter metanol eller etanol. Produkten som kommer ut ur anläggningen är så rent och lättflytande att det kan användas som bränsle till dieselmotorer som det är eller blandas med vanlig diesel.

    Med hjälp av utrustning från Ageratec så är det nu möjligt för rapsodlare att även bli lokala drivmedelsproducenter och förvandla den odlade rapsen till biodiesel. Det enda som krävs är en processor från Ageratec samt tillgång till någon typ av fettsyra. Tider och sekvenser sköts automatiskt av PLC-systemet vilket gör att kunden inte behöver tänka på sådant.

    Biodiesel/RME (RapsMetylEster) är ett miljöbränsle som bildar koldioxid men skillnaden är att den mängd koldioxid som bildas av biobränslet är samma mängd som växterna behöver för sin tillväxt. Biodiesel släpper ut 60-80 procent mindre utsläpp av växthusgasen koldioxid jämfört med vanlig dieselolja. Koldioxidhalten ökar alltså inte vid förbränning av biobränsle. Det enda som bidrar till växthuseffekten är koldioxid, därför måste vi vara noga med att inte odla mer än vad vi behöver.

    Den svenska regeringens mål är att 5,75 procent av transportbränslet år 2010 ska utgöras av förnyelsebara drivmedel. Den svenska rapsarealen har ökat med över 70 procent, till 95 000 hektar under de senaste åren. De flesta dieselmotorer behöver inte anpassas på något sätt för att köra på biodiesel.

  • 10.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedrén, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bioenergy as an Empty Signifier2016In: Review of Radical Political Economics, ISSN 1552-8502, Vol. 48, no 2, 235-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article provides insight into the contemporary international bioenergy debate and scrutinizes how the idea of biofuel production as a win-win-win solution to energy insecurity, climate change, and agricultural stagnation came into being, what discursive forces bind such a conceptualization, and where dislocations arise. Based on critical assumptions of discourse theory developed by Laclau and Mouffe, the analysis explores assessments, reports, policy papers, and other central documents from three influential international organizations—the International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization—that provide an entry point to the global debate on biofuels. We show that the bioenergy concept occupies specific positions and conveys different meanings within the three overlapping discourses of energy, climate, and agriculture. These three discursive areas are further “sutured” around the notion of biofuel production, where a hegemonic thread of the capitalist market economics, fixated on economic growth and presupposing the necessity of cost-effectiveness, results in internal contradictions and dislocations within the win-win-win conceptualization, emptying bioenergy of any content.

  • 11.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mwakaje, Agnes G
    University Dar Es Salaam.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biofuel development initiatives in Tanzania: development activities, scales of production and conditions for implementation and utilization2009In: JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 17, no Sp. Iss. SI Suppl. 1, S69-S76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years biofuel activities have increased dramatically in Africa. Simultaneously biofuels have become popular for fuel alternatives and criticism in the media. Nonetheless biofuel initiatives are taking place on different scales. A depiction of several of these activities has been produced through descriptions and categorization based on scale, distribution and implementation. These initiatives exist due to a complex interaction of social and technical factors which have influenced their success for being introduced, and continues to influence the scale on which they exist and what will happen to them in the future. Conditions for implementation are furthermore explored regarding legislation, use of biofuels, environmental sustainability and the production of a new energy system in Tanzania.

  • 12.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Biofuel production in Europe - Potential from lignocellulosic waste2010In: Proceedings Venice 2010, Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to analyze the biofuel potential in Europe fromlignocellulosic waste (wood waste and paper and cardboard waste). Ethanol from fermentationand Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel from gasification are the two biofuels considered. As thosebiofuels are not yet commercially available, the optimal locations of the production plants haveto be determined. The analysis is carried out with a geographic explicit model that minimizes thetotal cost of the biofuel supply chain. A mixed integer linear program is used for theoptimization. The results show that ethanol production plants are selected in a majority of thestudied cases. Ethanol plants are mainly set up in areas with a high heat demand and/or highelectricity or heat price, whereas FT diesel production plants are set up in areas where the heatdemand is low all year round. A high cost for emitting CO2 as well as high transport fossil fuelprices favor the selection of FT diesel over ethanol production plants. With a CO2 cost of 100€/tCO2 applied, the biofuel production from waste can potentially meet around 4% of theEuropean transport fuel demand.

  • 13.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biofuel Synergy Development: Classification and Identification of Synergies Using Industrial Symbiosis2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many critics argue that biofuel production worldwide account for huge losses in energy and materials. Moreover, a large portion of studies around biofuel production are concentrated on stand-alone plants, particularly ethanol production. However, by including by-products and making use of excess energy and material streams, industrial symbiosis methods can be applied to biofuel industries to improve both environmental and economical performance. The following report outlines an approach to apply industrial symbiosis to several biofuel industry actors through synergy development. Synergies were produced during a brainstorming session in order to bring forward innovative and technically feasible ideas toward partnership. From those synergies developed, the report outlines a method to classify synergies and cooperation between biofuel and external industries in order to ease implementation and understanding of possible symbiosis options for industry and academia.

  • 14.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county2013In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, no 4, 379-395 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

  • 15.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biogas and Renewable Fuel Consumption: 2008 Figures for Linköping and Östergötland2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, biogas consumption in Linköping has been increasing. With the expansion of infrastructure and vehicles capable of using biogas, Linköping is a leading model for biogas vehicles and fleet worldwide. Over the past few years biogas production has grown at a nearly constant rate of 20%. Since the start when only a limited amount of biogas was delivered primarily to the bus fleet, over 8.5 million m3 were delivered in 2009 (Svensk Biogas, 2009). Currently biogas is used in the public transport sector, vehicle fleets and more than a thousand personal vehicles. This development, along with the use of ethanol and biodiesel has led to a large increase in the use of renewable fuels in the municipality. While biogas and other renewable fuels make up only a small portion of the vehicle fuels consumed in the municipality, this portion continues to grow.

    Regional and national administrations have been challenged with European directives to include renewable energy in many sectors. In the transport sector, according to the European Directive 2003/30/EC all countries are to have a 5.75 % share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010 (EU, 2003). Thereafter, every member state is required to have a minimum of 10% in 2020. To meet these goals, member states are looking for solutions in various technologies, i.e. biofuels, hybrids, electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cells. Currently, biofuels are being employed in nearly all the member states to fulfill the targets, with biogas, ethanol and biodiesel being most common. Sweden is a leader in the use of ethanol, while municipalities such as Linköping have put an emphasis in making use of industrial wastes to produce biogas. Locally produced renewable energy will thus provide vehicle fuel for the municipality of Linköping in order to reduce environmental impacts and meet vehicle fuel targets.

    Linköping has become a benchmarked city in the use and production of biogas. However, how much biogas and other renewable fuels does Linköping currently employ? The aim of this research paper is to analyze the use of renewable and fossil fuels in the region in order to quantify the percentage in relation to the European Directive 2003/30/EC. The research project will provide details regarding the share of petrol, diesel, biodiesel, ethanol and thereafter biogas in the current vehicle fuel consumption.

  • 16.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, 2914-2922 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  • 17.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill - the need for economic policies promoting biofuels2010In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, Vol. 21, 1207-1212 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse economic policy support for biofuels, with the aim to determine the amount of support necessary to make investments in a gasification based biorefinery producing DME (dimethyl ether) profitable for a pulp and paper mill. As a case the integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill of Billerud Karlsborg is studied, using mixed integer linear programming and different future energy market scenarios. The results show that the required support is strongly connected to the price ratio of oil to biomass, with the support ranging from 10 EUR/MWh biofuel (lower than the present tax exemption of 14 EUR/MWh) to 61 EUR/MWh. The required support is shown to be sensitive to changes of the capital cost, but not to the pulp and paper production rate of the host mill. It is concluded that strong policy instruments will be required for forest industry based biorefineries to be desirable for the future.

  • 18.
    ASTON, WJ
    et al.
    CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    BIOSENSORS AND BIOFUEL CELLS1984In: Biotechnology & genetic engineering reviews, ISSN 0264-8725, Vol. 1, 89-120 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 19.
    Turner, Anthony
    et al.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    and one more author,
    Biosensors and biofuel cells1984In: Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews / [ed] G.E. Russell, Newcastle Upon Tyne: Intercept , 1984, 1, 89-120 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenges for developing a system for biogas as vehicle fuel: lessons from Linkoping, Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are being employed in nearly all the EU member states to fulfill the targets set up by the European Directive 2003/30/EC to have a 5.75% share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010. In Sweden ethanol is the leading biofuel, while biogas mainly depend on local initiatives with the city of Linköping as a case in point.

    Our purpose with this article is to analyze the development of biogas in Linköping within a framework of technological transition theory. To this we add a set of concepts from large technical systems-literature to address and re-analyze two earlier studies on the biogas development in Linköping to achieve a deeper understanding of this success story. We argue that the establishment of a development trajectory for biogas depended on the ability of the involved actors to establish and nurture their social network, to create learning processes and stimulate the articulation of expectations and visions. It was also important that these three factors were allowed to influence each other for the system to gain a momentum of its own.

    Furthermore, the biogas development in Linköping is found to be interesting in that the triggers for the development came from a variety of levels and angles. Initially, the rising fuel prices after the oil crises in the 1970’s resulted in an increased interest in renewable fuels in general. Second, an anticipated national pipeline for natural gas planned through Linköping was considered a huge potential for methane exports. A part from these external energy incentives, the local trigger was the bad urban air quality caused by the public transport authority’s bus fleet. The breakthrough came when it was discovered that by-product biogas from the wastewater treatment facility could be used as a fuel for transport.

    When the plans for the national pipeline were rejected, a fruitful co-operation between the municipally owned production facility and the public transport authority was set up to meet the constructed demand from public transport. This cooperative pair-arrangement was the starting point for the biogas niche trajectory as other actors subsequently were enrolled to increase the size and agency of the network.

    Nowadays, biogas and other renewable fuels play a significant role in the supply of transport fuels for Linköping. In 2009, a total of 9.5% of all transport fuels used in Linköping were from renewable sources, i.e. biogas (4.6%), ethanol and biodiesel. This puts the city well ahead of the European target of 5.75% renewable fuels by 2010.

  • 21.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations2012In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, Vol. 37, no 5, 581-588 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks critically at how food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-oriented international organizations have consolidated and modified the biofuel discourse in relation to the agricultural system. Using Foucault-based genealogical analysis of discursive formations, the paper traces the last 20 years of institutions’ biofuel debate in relation to rural production. We find that the prevalent motive is an aspiration to combine the agriculture and energy markets into one, which prompts structural changes and challenges in the rural sector. This has implications for the future role and shape of global agriculture and – contrary to the food vs. fuel perspective – calls for re-conceptualizing the biofuel debate as the food vs. food dilemma.

  • 22.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    CHP or biofuel production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, 40-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 25.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies:: Application in the Biofuels Industry2009In: Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Parks, Aalborg: GIN 2009 , 2009, 2394- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transportation, i.e. biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, a vast range of unique resource flows, surpluses and by-products exist in each respective process. The current research project aims to find synergies, demands and surplus material and energy flows which will thereafter be applied to the biofuel industry and external industries in a collaborative effort to increase energy efficiencies and environmental performance through the use of synergies and industrial symbiosis. This is being conducted in order to determine conditions for implementation, why some processes and synergies exist, how the processes can be made better and to identify new material flows between industries.

    During an investigation of synergies apparent in the regional biofuel industries, many synergies were discussed during a brainstorming session with industrial actors and researchers. These synergies were recorded and classified in terms of their interaction with other biofuel and external industries. Using the theories of industrial symbiosis, a classification method was developed based upon these interactions as well as the origin and destination of their resources. Previous terms from the theories of synergies research were used as background material. Thereafter symbols and classifications were based on the interactions of the synergy, i.e. between biofuel industries and external synergies. Furthermore the origins/destinations were also classified as either a product/process or as a utility but with expanded and refined boundaries.

    Example: 2UP (A synergy of Class 2, i.e. biofuel to external industry synergy, which originates as a utility and is destined as a product/process for the external industry.)

    Thus far the project has produced a classification scheme for biofuel synergy projects and research. Using the classification method, synergies produced at future brainstorming sessions and discussions with industry will alleviate the reproduction, recording and organization of synergies for upcoming interaction with biofuel industries worldwide.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Climate impact of the electrification of road transport in a short-term perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the transport sector, replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is considered a desirable alternative. Due to increased integration of renewable energy sources in electricity generation, EVs are often considered emission-free although current electricity generation is largely dependent on fossil fuels. By 2018, the European Union (EU) requires biofuels to ensure 60% emission reductions in a lifecycle perspective, in order to avoid unsustainable production. No such criteria apply to EVs, although several European countries aim for an EV mass market by 2020. This study aims to show how a rapid, large-scale deployment of EVs will affect the GHG emissions, using Sweden as an example. GHG emissions from the energy use of electric and conventional vehicles are compared, applying a life cycle perspective on the fuels. Results show that with assumed electricity generation, EVs cause GHG emissions 25% higher than emissions from conventional vehicles. Hence, in a short-term perspective, a large-scale introduction of EVs is not beneficial for the climate. Nonetheless, a comprehensive approach to EVs, similar to EUs biofuel sustainability policy, may help reduce GHG emissions from the electricity generation system.

  • 27.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conditions for resource-efficient production of biofuels for transport in Sweden2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation has continued to increase worldwide and fossil-fuel dependency is strong which leads to a number of problems, e.g. increased emissions of green-house gases (GHG) and risks related to energy security. Biofuels have until now been one of the few renewable alternatives which have been able to replace fossil fuels on a large scale. The biofuel share in relation to the total use of fuel in the transportation sector is still small, but in many places in the world political targets are set to increase the share of renewable fuels, of which biofuels are supposed to be an important part. Within the European Union targets for renewable energy have been set, including within the transportation sector, where 10% shall come from renewable sources by 2020 according to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU RES). Biofuels also need to fulfill the sustainability criteria in the EU RES, to be regarded as renewable. Depending on how biofuels are produced their resource efficiency varies, and the differences in environmental and economic performance can for instance be significant.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and analyze conditions for a development towards increased and more resource-efficient production of biofuels in Sweden. The conditions have been studied from a regional resource perspective and from a biofuel producer perspective since it has been assumed that the producers are in possession of important knowledge, and potentially will play an important role in future biofuel development. The concept of resource efficiency used in this thesis includes an environmental and economic perspective as well as an overall societal dimension to some extent. The region of Östergötland in Sweden was used for the assessment of the resourcefocused biofuel potential for the year 2030, where two scenarios based on assessments regarding socio-technical development in relation to regional resources were used. The scenarios were based on semi-structured interviews with biofuel actors, literature studies and information from experts in the field. In the EXPAN (Expansion) scenario a continued development in line with the current one was assumed, but also an increased availability of feedstock primarily within the agricultural and waste sectors (also including byproducts from industry) for biofuel production. In the INNTEK (Innovation and Technology development) scenario greater technological progress was assumed to also enable the use of some unconventional feedstock besides increased available arable land and improved collection/availability of certain feedstock. Biomass feedstock from four categories was included in the potential: waste, agriculture, forestry and aquatic environments. One important feedstock which was not included in this study, but which is often included in studies of potential, is lignocellulosic material from the forest. This choice was also supported by the regional actors who judged it as less probable that there will be any large-scale use of such feedstock for biofuels in this region within the given timeframe. Regarding arable land available for biofuel production a share of 30% was assumed at maximum in the region, of which 15% is already used for cereal production for ethanol fuel. On these additional 15% assumed to be available for biofuel production year 2030, ley cropping for production of biogas was assumed in this study. Aquatic biomass is often not included in biofuel potentials. Here, algae were assumed to be a potentially interesting substrate for biogas production since harvesting algae in for instance the Baltic Sea could be seen as a multifunctional measure, i.e., contributing additional environmental benefits such as reducing eutrophication. Based on the assumption that the energy need in the transportation sector will be the same in 2030 as in 2010, up to 30% could be substituted with biofuels in the EXPAN scenario and up to 50% in the INNTEK scenario, without seriously conflicting with other interests such as food or feed production. In the study of potential, production systems for biogas production were   prioritized since such systems were judged to have a large potential for resource efficiency. This is because they have a big capacity to utilize by-products and waste as feedstock, and also because they can contribute to closing the loops of plant nutrients, seen as an important goal in society, if the digestate is returned to arable land.

    The utilization of by-products and waste however in many cases requires cooperation between different actors in society. Within the research field of industrial symbiosis, cooperation regarding material and energy flows is studied from different perspectives, e.g. how such cooperation between actors evolves and to what extent such cooperation can contribute to improving the environmental and economic performance of systems. Both these perspectives are interesting in relation to biofuels since production often involves a large number of energy- and material flows at the same time as resource efficiency is important. How the producers organize the production when it comes to feedstock, energy, by-products and products and what influences this is therefore interesting to study. In this thesis four biofuel producers of three different biofuels (ethanol, biodiesel and biogas) on the Swedish market were studied, focusing on how they organize their biofuel production in terms of e.g. their material and energy flows, and how they intend to organize it in the future. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with the biofuel producers as well as literature studies. In all the cases, a number of areas of material and energy flow cooperation were identified and it could also be concluded that there had been some change regarding these patterns over time. Looking into the future a clear change of strategy was identified in the ethanol case and partly also in the biodiesel case where a development towards improved valorisation and differentiation of by-product flows was foreseen. If such a “biorefinery” strategy is realized, it can potentially improve the economic viability and resource efficiency in these biofuel producers. In the biogas cases, instead a strategy to lower the costs for feedstock through the use of lower quality feedstock was identified. This strategy also has a potential to increase economic viability and improve the resource efficiency. However, the success of this strategy is to a large extent dependent on how the off-set of the biofertilizer can be arranged regarding the economic challenges that the biogas producers’ experience, and yet no strategy for implementation regarding this was identified. The EU Renewable Energy Directive was mentioned in relation to most cooperation projects and therefore regarded as an important critical factor. All of the studied companies also struggle to be competitive, for which reason the importance of the direct economic aspects of cooperation seems to increase.

    List of papers
    1. Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
    2013 (English)In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, no 4, 379-395 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102371 (URN)10.4155/bfs.13.23 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-12-09 Created: 2013-12-09 Last updated: 2015-09-21
    2. Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
    2015 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, 269-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2015
    Keyword
    biofuels, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, industrial ecology and symbiosis, synergies, material and energy flows, connectedness, resource efficiency
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123223 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2015.073416 (DOI)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved
  • 28.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing efficient industrial systems through increased integration: applications in the forest industry2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this work is that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The character and the extent of a company's environmental impact is to a large extent determined in this interaction between companies and other external actors.

    The objective of this study was to find and evaluate examples of integration in the Swedish forest industry, and to develop an approach for initiating integration. The results are based on socio-technical case studies, and functionality, organisation and development of integrated systems have been addressed. The types of integration discussed are integrated biofuel upgrading, material and energy exchange between industries and/ or community, and the possibility to initiate the development of a local industrial ecosystem. It is argued that a certain degree of integration exists within the forest industry today, and in the cases studied here the integration is considered fruitful from the companies' point of view. Some means of improvement are suggested in the systems studied and it is confirmed that these can give environmental advantages.

    The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved and a willingness to act. One factor that can have both a positive and a negative impact is if the company is part of a larger group. With regard to the integration of biofuel upgrading, it is seen that it is important to show that the biofuel combine is a way to develop the company in its strategic direction. Important factors for the development of a local industrial ecosystem were local roots and good knowledge of the system. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified.

    List of papers
    1. Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
    2005 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, 38-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

    It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

    Keyword
    Pellet production; Biofuel combine; Energy efficiency; Forest industry; Success factors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12640 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.09.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
    2. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
    2007 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, 442-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

    Keyword
    industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis networks, forest industry, integration, energy system analysis
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12641 (URN)10.1002/bse.485 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
    3. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, tius role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intra-organisational issues may impede inter-organisational integration.

    Keyword
    forest industry, energy and material exhanges, integration, co-operation, industrial ecosystems, industrial symbiosis, actors' views
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100822 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2013-11-12
  • 29.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Elin
    Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers.
    Harvey, Simon
    Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Economics Unit, Luleå University of Technology.
    Alriksson, Stina
    School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University.
    Wang, Chuan
    PRISMA, Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Resin, Monika
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Hoffner, Nils
    Billerud Karlsborg AB.
    Development of a regional-economic process integration model for Billerud Karlsborg AB2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy-intensive industrial sector that faces several challenges such as increased competition and rising feedstock and energy prices. To adress this, it is crucial for the industry to improve the material and energy efficiencies to the greatest possible extent. Process integration methods like pinch analysis and mathematical programming are useful tools for evaluating possible process alternatives, i.e. applications of new technologies, changes to new equipment and/or different operating conditions. Development of industrial energy combines is an interesting approach towards an overall optimization of energy and material flows. One problem is often that there are a large number of essentially different actors and financers that are interested in studying other parameters than those that are normally investigated in process integration studies, for example national or regional economics and various social values.In this project, engineering, economic and statistical tools and methods have been applied separately as well as in combination for different types of investigations conducted at the paper and pulp mill Billerud Karlsborg AB in Kalix, Sweden. One main objective has been to develop a process integration model of the mill based on the reMIND method to be used for introductory process simulations of the existing mill configuration. Additionally, pinch analysis has been used to identify alternatives for energy savings in the mill. Another objective has been to develop a regional economic market model (ReCOM) that should be suitable for analysis and predictions of price changes on relevant feedstock markets. A more simplified model based on the reMIND method has been used for intitial studies on how the mill can be turned into a biorefinery. The main purpose of that work has been to investigate if biomass gasification can be economically interesting for the mill and if so, under what boundary conditions. A statistical technique, conjoint analysis, has been used to study and analyze the attitude of employed people at the mill to changes in the production process that may affect for example the local and global environment etc. Finally, possible interactions between the different models and tools have been investigated.The reMIND modelling of the existing mill configuration has showed several alternatives to save steam and fuel. For example, if the wood-chips supplied to the digester is pre-heated from a temperature of 0°C to say 60°C by the use of low grade residual heat, approximately 1.5 ton per hour of 10 bar steam or 5 ton per hour of biomass fuels can theoretically be saved. Furthermore, if the inlet liquor temperature to effect 4 of the evaporation plant increases from 85 to 105°C, the steam used for evaporation decreases from 77 to 66 ton per hour and as a consequence, the biomass fuel supply to the bark boiler decreases from 51 to 39 ton per hour. This, however, also leads to a slightly reduced electricity production, from 35 to 34 MW due to a reduced production of the high pressure steam.The results from the developed ReCOM model, suggest that only none to small changes in the fibrous input prices from an increase in the fuel price (affecting the forestry sector) and a small price increase as a result from a reduced supply of purchasable wood-chips and pulp wood. The small effect that increasing fuel prices has on the fibrous input prices can largely be explained by the relatively small cost share that fuels have in the forestry sector. An increase of the labour costs would most likely have a larger impact. As for the price effect from a reduction in the supply of purchasable wood-chips, there is a substitution possibility between purchased and internally produced wood-chips for the pulp mill. However, when the limit for how much internally produced wood-chips is reached its will probably results in larger price effectsThe Pinch study of the mill indicated that there is a theoretical steam-saving potential of 18.5 MW, corresponding to 12% of the current steam demand. Two different retrofit proposals were suggested for how to achieve specific steam saving levels in practice. According to a basic retrofit proposal, a steam saving of 5.8 MW could be achieved at an investment cost of 7 MSEK while a more rigorous retrofit would enable steam savings of 11 MW at an investment cost of 14.5 MSEK. An approach for using these results in a reMIND model of the mill has also been proposed.The results from the more simplified reMIND modelling have showed that if the mill starts to produce DME via biomass gasification, the necessary policy support to make it economically feasible ranges from 92-561 SEK per MWh biofuel (DME) over four different future scenarios. This could be compared to the Swedish exemption from energy tax on biofuels, which currently amounts to approximately 275 SEK per MWh. It is also concluded that biomass gasification results in a larger net CO2 reduction when integrated with the pulp and paper mill, than when the mill and the gasification plant operate separately.The conjoint analysis showed that it is possible to find groups of respondents that were unknown prior to the study. If an organisation wants to implement a change in the process, conjoint analysis can be used to identify groups of participants with similar preferences and then tailor information to suit these specific groups.Many possibilities for the different models to interact have been identified and illustrated. The interaction between the reMIND method and ReCOM is based on exchanging information on fibrous input prices and quantities and conducted through an iterative process. The results indicate that the models can interact to produce more robust and reliable conclusions regarding optimal resource utilization suggesting that the described approach is feasible and that further research efforts can be made to extend the models. Pinch analysis and reMIND modelling has in other studies shown to be able to interact iteratively. In this study, the retrofit proposals obtained from the pinch analysis could serve as inputs to future reMIND modelling. Another interaction between reMIND and pinch analysis that has been identified during the project is to use pinch analysis to evaluate the opportunity to pre-heat certain process streams. The results from a conjoint analysis are quantitative in form of regression coefficients. However, to use these numbers for example in a Pareto front analysis will be difficult as the numbers has no monetary, energy or emission unit. Nonetheless, conjoint analysis can interact in many different ways with ReCOM as well as the reMIND models. For example, to choose scenarios to be modelled in ReCOM where the factors in the conjoint analysis can be tailored to indicate how the market would respond in a hypothetical situation. Conjoint analysis can be used to weight different factors in the reMIND model. The weighting can possibly also be used in the ReCOM model.This work has illustrated how the various engineering, economic and statistical methods and tools can be used both separately and in combination to help an industry towards more energy-efficient production processes.

  • 30.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, no 1, 214-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95 MW with biogas. electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholms district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about (sic)76 million and (sic)130 million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO(2) emissions of about 0.7 million tonnes annually.

  • 31.
    Whalen, Joann
    et al.
    McGill University, Canada.
    (Chunbao) Xu, Charles
    Western University, Canada.
    Shen, Fei
    Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Kumar, Amit
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Sustainable biofuel production from forestry, agricultural and waste biomass feedstocks in APPLIED ENERGY, vol 198, issue , pp 281-2832017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 198, 281-283 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 32.
    Mishra, Prashant
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjärdevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; University of Free State, South Africa.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Inter University of Accelerator Centre, India.
    Mishra, Sachin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjärdevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; University of Free State, South Africa.
    Avasthi, D. K.
    Amity University, India.
    Swart, Hendrik C.
    University of Free State, South Africa.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mishra, Yogendra K.
    University of Kiel, Germany.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute Adv Mat, Teknikringen 4A,Mjardevi Science Pk, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; Vinoba Bhave Research Institute, India.
    Electrocatalytic biofuel cell based on highly efficient metal-polymer nano-architectured bioelectrodes2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 39, 601-607 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy based devices are rapidly gaining significant research interest because of growing quest for future alternative energy resources, but most of the existing technologies suffer from poor electron transfer and slow mass transport, which hinder the fabrication of realistic high-power devices. Using a versatile strategy, here we have demonstrated the fabrication of nanoparticle-polymer framework based bioelectrocatalytic interfaces which facilitate a high mass-transport and thus offers the simple construction of advanced enzyme-based biofuel cells. It has been shown that a gold nanoparticle-structured polyaniline network can be effectively used as an electrical cabling interface providing efficient electron transfer for bio-anode and cathode. The resulting bioelectrodes are capable of excellent diffusional mass-transport and thus can easily facilitate the design of new and highly efficient membrane-less advanced bioenergy devices. The biofuel cell delivers a high-power density of about 2.5 times (i.e., 685 mu W cm(-2)) and open circuit voltage of 760 mV compared to conventional conducting polymer-based biofuel cells.

  • 33.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Vidlund, Anna
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors2005In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, 38-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

    It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

  • 34.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy policies affecting biomass gasification applications in district heating systems2009In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Applied Energy, 5-7 January 2009, Hong Kong, 2009, 1502-1512 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two gasification applications are included: co-production of SNG (synthetic natural gas) for use as transportation fuel and DH heat in a biorefinery, and BIGCC CHP (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle, combined heat and power). Using an optimisation model the level of policy support necessary to make biofuel production competitive to electricity generation, and the level of tradable green electricity certificates necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in SNG production to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, support policies promoting biofuels in the range of 16-22 EUR/MWh are needed. For investment in BIGCC CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP tradable green electricity certificates in the range of 4-15 EUR/MWh are necessary. The necessary policy support levels are very sensitive to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy tools makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future policy tools, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  • 35.
    Klugman, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy systems analysis of Swedish pulp and paper industries from a regional cooperation perspective: Case study modeling and optimization2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector uses about one third of the energy end-use in the world. Since energy use in many cases highly affects both the local and global environment negatively, it is of common interest to increase energy efficiency within industries. Furthermore, seen from the industrial perspective, it is also important to reduce dependency on energy resources with unstable prices in order to obtain economic predictability.

    In this thesis, the energy-saving potential within the chemical pulp and paper sector is analyzed. One market pulp mill and one integrated pulp and paper mill were studied as cases. Energy system changes at the mills were analyzed through cost minimization. The thesis focuses on principal energy issues such as finding the most promising alternatives for use of industrial excess heat, possible investments in electricity generation and choice of fuel. In order to find synergies, the same system was optimized first from the perspective of different operators respectively, and then from a joint regional perspective. Also, the prerequisites for a regional heat market in the region were analyzed.

    This thesis reveals that the use of excess heat from pulp and paper mills for district heating does not generally conflict with process integration measures. This is partly because of the great availability of industrial excess heat and partly because the different purposes require different temperatures and thereby do not compete. Rather, the results show that they strengthen each other since steam and hot water of higher temperatures are made available for district heating when hot water of lower temperature is used for process integration. However, there are cases when the conditions are complicated by preexisting technical solutions within a system. In these cases, a combination of measures could be necessary.

    Furthermore, it is concluded that energy cooperation in terms of a heat market between municipalities and industries in the studied region gives opportunity for positive synergies. Switching from expensive fuels such as oil to less expensive biofuel in the region proved to be particularly beneficial. Expanding the capacity for combined heat and power generation is also beneficial for the region as well as increased use of industrial excess heat for district heating. The most financially beneficial scenarios also have the greatest potential for CO2 emission reduction; the emissions would be reduced by about 700 thousand tonnes CO2/year for the region in those scenarios.

    List of papers
    1. A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures
    2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 84, no 3, 326-339 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavour is updating old pumps.

    Keyword
    Energy survey, Paper pulp industry, Energy system, Energy efficiency
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13240 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.07.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2009-05-05
    2. A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.
    2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 84, no 3, 340-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

    Keyword
    Benchmarking, Paper pulp industry, Energy system, Energy efficiency
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13241 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.07.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2009-05-05
    3. An integrated chemical pulp and paper mill: Energy audit and perspectives on regional cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated chemical pulp and paper mill: Energy audit and perspectives on regional cooperation
    2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS, 2006, 637-644 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a case study, an energy audit was performed at an integrated pulp and paper mill. A top-down approach was applied to identify and categorize the use of electricity, steam and hot water and the results of the audit are presented in this paper. Also, the connections and cooperation with both the nearby district heating system and a local steam deliverer, partly owned by the mill, are described. Potential ways to save energy are pointed out and changes in the cooperation are discussed. Moreover, a discussion of how the system can benefit from the taxation structure is presented, as the design of the studied system, in combination with the introduction of tradable green certificates, creates possibilities to exploit such benefits. As a result from this design it is shown that the introduction of these certificates promotes the use of oil to produce electricity.

    Keyword
    energy efficiency, paper industry, industrial cooperation, energy audit, district heating
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13242 (URN)960-87584-1-6 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09
    4. A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill - Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Swedish integrated pulp and paper mill - Energy optimisation and local heat cooperation
    2009 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 37, no 7, 2514-2524 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Heat cooperation between industries and district heating companies is often economically and environmentally beneficial. In this paper, energy cooperation between an integrated Swedish pulp and paper mill and two nearby energy companies was analysed through economic optimisations. The synergies of cooperation were evaluated through optimisations with different system perspectives. Three changes of the energy system and combinations of them were analysed. The changes were process integration, extending biofuel boiler and turbine capacity and connection to a local heat market. The results show that the single most promising system change is extending biofuel and turbine capacity. Process integration within the pulp and paper mill would take place through installing evaporation units that yield less excess heat but must in this particular case be combined with extended biofuel combustion capacity in order to be beneficial. Connecting to the local heat market would be beneficial for the pulp and paper mill, while the studied energy company needs to extend its biofuel capacity in order to benefit from the local heat market. Furthermore, the potential of reducing CO2 emissions through the energy cooperation is shown to be extensive; particularly if biofuel and turbine capacity is increased.

    Keyword
    Industrial energy system, Optimisation, Cooperation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18722 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.097 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-06-03 Created: 2009-06-03 Last updated: 2009-12-04
    5. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 86, no 4, 441-451 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios.

    Keyword
    District heating, CO2, Heat market, Optimization, Economic evaluation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17168 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.09.012 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-07 Created: 2009-03-07 Last updated: 2009-06-10
    6. Modeling an industrial energy system: Perspectives on regional heat cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling an industrial energy system: Perspectives on regional heat cooperation
    2008 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 9, 793-807 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Through energy efficiency measures, it is possible to reduce heat surplus in the pulp and paper industry. Yet pulp and paper mills situated in countries with a heat demand for residential and commercial buildings for the major part of the year are potential heat suppliers. However, striving to utilize the heat within the mills for efficient energy use could conflict with the delivery of excess heat to a district heating system. As part of a project to optimize a regional energy system, a sulfate pulp mill situated in central Sweden is analyzed, focusing on providing heat and electricity to the mill and its surrounding energy systems. An energy system optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming is used for studying energy system measures on an aggregated level. An extended system, where the mill is integrated in a regional heat market (HM), is evaluated in parallel with the present system. The use of either hot sewage or a heat pump for heat deliveries is analyzed along with process integration measures. The benefits of adding a condensing unit to the back-pressure steam turbine are also investigated. The results show that the use of hot sewage or a heat pump for heat deliveries is beneficial only in combination with extended heat deliveries to an HM. Process integration measures are beneficial and even increase the benefit of selling more heat for district heating. Adding a condensing turbine unit is most beneficial in combination with extended heat deliveries and process integration.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, 2008
    Keyword
    industrial energy system, energy efficiency, surplus heat, optimization, process integration, heat market, district heating, system boundary
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13245 (URN)10.1002/er.1392 (DOI)000257917100002 ()
    Available from: 2008-05-09 Created: 2008-05-09 Last updated: 2014-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 36.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhanced biofuel utilisation in Swedish industries, buildings and district heating2006In: the World Bioenergy 2006 Conference and exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping, Sweden, 30 may – 1 June, 2006, 198-203 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johnsson, Hannes
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Environmental Impact Assessments: Suitable for supporting assessment of biofuel sustainability?2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union requires that 10% of the energy in the transport sector shall come from renewable sources by 2020. In addition, biofuels used for transport need to fulfill certain sustainability requirements set out in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). To meet these requirements, the EU will need to produce and import large amounts of sustainable biofuels. Therefore, there is a need for ways to verify the sustainability of imported biofuels, so that unsustainable biofuels can be avoided. One strategy may involve analyzing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports (EIRs) conducted for specific biofuel projects. For EIRs to be useful as such information sources they need to be sufficiently comprehensive in relation to the RED but also sufficiently reliable. In this study, 19 biofuel project EIRs are analyzed with respect to how they cover the RED sustainability considerations. In addition, EIA legislation, requirements, quality, and enforcement are discussed to determine not only whether EIRs can be sufficiently comprehensive, but also sufficiently reliable for supporting information to studies intended to assess the sustainability of biofuels, from an RED perspective. Notable differences between EIRs for different types of projects were found. EIRs for projects including both plantation establishment and the construction of a biofuel plant had better RED coverage than EIRs for projects including either the plantations or the biofuel plant. As might be expected, EIAs for “plantation projects” generally leave out features related to biofuel processing, and EIAs for “biofuel plant” projects generally leave out features related to feedstock production. In general, EIA legislation is insufficient and most target countries seem to have rather low potential to enforce legislation. Several additional EIA-related problems need to be overcome in order for EIRs to be regarded as sufficiently reliable information tools.

  • 38.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating the environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis: discussion and demonstration of a new approach2008In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 5, no 5-6, 502-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a computer model that includes a pulp mill, a paper mill, a sawmill and a biofuel upgrading plant, together with the possible energy and material exchanges between them, is used to evaluate the environmental impact of a possible Industrial Symbiosis (IS) arrangement in the forest industry. The method used is called the Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems (MIND), which is an optimisation method based on mixed integer linear programming. In this study, the emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the symbiosis system is compared to that from a system of stand-alone plants. We also discuss some of the reasons why measurement of environmental benefits is problematic, as well as the applicability of the method compared to some other frequently used methods for accounting for CO2 emissions and other environmental issues.

  • 39.
    Heinrup, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Evaluation of isobutanol tolerance and gene expression in four different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for the development of bio-butanol production2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, most transportation fuels are derived from crude oil. However, fossil fuels are limited resources and contribute to climate change, and are therefore not considered as sustainable. Biofuels are highly relevant candidates for replacing fossil fuels and research has gone into butanol as a biofuel. It has a high energy density, is less hygroscopic and can be blended up to 85% with gasoline. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered a good host for bio- butanol production; it produces small amounts of isobutanol naturally through the Ehrlich pathway, is easy to manipulate genetically and can therefore be engineered to produce higher titres of butanol. End-product toxicity, however, is a problem that needs to be solved to make butanol production in S. cerevisiae more effective, since the organism cannot tolerate higher concentrations of butanol than 2%. Four different S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in 1.5%, 2%, 3% and 4% isobutanol by spot tests and in liquid media to evaluate their tolerance. Gene expression was measured for genes RPN4, RTG1 and ILV2 to examine their up-regulation and relevance in butanol tolerance. S. cerevisiae strain Saflager 34/70 was determined as the most tolerant strain and was able to grow in 2% liquid isobutanol and 3% isobutanol on agar plates. A three-fold up-regulation of RPN4, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of proteasome gene expression, was observed. These results contribute to the progress of genetic engineering of butanol host organisms, which is needed to create a more effective production of butanol as a biofuel. 

  • 40.
    Rawat, Niharika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mishra, Prashant
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ashaduzzaman, Md
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekidag AB UCS Mjärdevi Science Park, Sweden.
    Fabrication of an atom-thick graphene bioanode for biofuel cell applications2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sekretaryova, Alina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facilitating electron transfer in bioelectrocatalytic systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioelectrocatalytic systems are based on biological entities, such as enzymes, whole cells, parts of cells or tissues, which catalyse electrochemical processes that involve the interaction between chemical change and electrical energy. In all cases, biocatalysis is implemented by enzymes, isolated or residing inside cells or part of cells. Electron transfer (ET) phenomena, within the protein molecules and between biological redox systems and electronics, enable the development of various bioelectrocatalytic systems, which can be used both for fundamental investigations of enzymatic biological processes by electrochemical methods and for applied purposes, such as power generation, bioremediation, chemical synthesis and biosensing.

    Electrical communication between the biocatalyst’s redox centre and an electrode is essential for the functioning of the system. This can be established using two main mechanisms: indirect ET and direct ET. The efficiency of the ET influences important parameters such as the turnover rate of the biocatalyst, the generated current density and partially the stability of the system, which in their turn determine response time, sensitivity, detection limit and operational stability of biosensing devices or the power densities and current output of biofuel cells, and hence should be carefully considered when designing bioelectrocatalytic systems.

    This thesis focuses on approaches that facilitate ET in bioelectrocatalytic systems based on indirect and direct ET mechanisms. Both fundamental aspects of ET in bioelectrocatalytic systems and applications of such systems for biosensing and power generation are considered. First, a new hydrophobic mediator for oxidases – unsubstituted phenothiazine and its improved ET properties in comparison with commonly used mediators are discussed. Application of the mediator in electrochemical biosensors is demonstrated by glucose, lactate and cholesterol sensing. Utilisation of mediated biocatalytic cholesterol oxidation, as the anodic reaction for the construction of a biofuel cell acting as a power supply and an analytical device at the same time, is investigated to deliver a selfpowered biosensor. Also the enhancement of mediated bioelectrocatalysis by employment of microelectrodes as a transducer is examined. The effect of surface roughness on the current response of the microelectrodes under conditions of convergent diffusion is considered. The applicability of the laccase-based system for total phenol analysis of weakly supported water is demonstrated. Finally, a new electrochemical approach derived from collision-based electrochemistry applicable for examination of the ET process of a single enzyme molecule is described.

    All together, the results presented in this thesis contribute to the solution of the ‘electronic coupling problem’, arising when interfacing biomolecules with electronics and limiting the performance of bioelectrocatalytic systems in specific applications. The developed methods to facilitate ET will hopefully promote future biosensing devices and biofuel cells. I believe the new approach for investigation of ET processes at a single enzyme molecule will complement existing single molecule techniques, giving further insights into enzymatic ET mechanisms at the molecular level and filling the gap between fundamental understanding of biocatalytic processes and their potential for bioenergy production.

    List of papers
    1. Bioelectrocatalytic systems for health applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioelectrocatalytic systems for health applications
    2016 (English)In: Biotechnology Advances, ISSN 0734-9750, E-ISSN 1873-1899, Vol. 34, no 3, 177-197 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present a brief overview of bioelectrocatalytic devices for in vitro health applications, including food safety and environmental analysis, focusing on microelectrode- and microfluidic-based biosensors, paper-based point-of-care devices and wearable biosensors. The main hurdles and future perspectives are discussed. We then consider the role of electron transfer between a biocatalyst and an electrode in biosensor design. Brief descriptions of indirect, direct and mediated mechanisms are given. The principal strategies, as well as recent developments for modulation of electron transfer in biocatalytic systems are summarised. In conclusion, we highlight some of the challenges associated with improving these redox systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    Direct electron transfer; Mediated electron transfer; Immobilisation; Microbiosensor; Nanobiosensor; Paper-based biosensor; Wearable biosensor; Self-powered biosensor
    National Category
    Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123688 (URN)10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.12.005 (DOI)000375500700004 ()26724183 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-01-08 Created: 2016-01-08 Last updated: 2016-06-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Reagentless Biosensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Wired by the Mediator Freely Diffusing in Enzyme Containing Membrane
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reagentless Biosensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Wired by the Mediator Freely Diffusing in Enzyme Containing Membrane
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 84, no 3, 1220-1223 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Wiring glucose oxidase in the membrane with an immobilized mediator is possible due to the diffusion ability of the latter, if the enzyme containing membrane is formed according to the proposed protocol, including exposing proteins to water–organic mixtures with the high content of organic solvent. In the course of the study, the new glucose oxidase mediator, unsubstituted phenothiazine, was discovered. The diffusion coefficient of the mediator in the resulting membrane is independent of the presence of enzyme. The cyclic voltammograms of the enzyme electrode after appearance of the only glucose in solution obtain a well-defined catalytic shape, which is normally observed for both the enzyme and the mediator in solution. Analytical performances of the resulting biosensor are comparable to the advanced second generation ones, which, however, require covalent linking of the mediator either to the membrane forming polymer or to the enzyme. Even without such covalent linking, the reported biosensor is characterized by an appropriate long-term operational stability allowing reagentless sensing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2012
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112343 (URN)10.1021/ac203056m (DOI)22206508 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-11-24 Created: 2014-11-24 Last updated: 2016-02-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Unsubstituted phenothiazine as a superior water-insoluble mediator for oxidases
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unsubstituted phenothiazine as a superior water-insoluble mediator for oxidases
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 53, 275-282 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The mediation of oxidases glucose oxidase (GOx), lactate oxidase (LOx) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) by a new electron shuttling mediator, unsubstituted phenothiazine (PTZ), was studied. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating-disk electrode measurements in nonaqueous media were used to determine the diffusion characteristics of the mediator and the kinetics of its reaction with GOx, giving a second-order rate constant of 7.6×103–2.1×104 M−1 s−1 for water–acetonitrile solutions containing 5–15% water. These values are in the range reported for commonly used azine-type mediators, indicating that PTZ is able to function as an efficient mediator. PTZ and GOx, LOx and ChOx were successfully co-immobilised in sol–gel membrane on a screen-printed electrode to construct glucose, lactate and cholesterol biosensors, respectively, which were then optimised in terms of stability and sensitivity. The electrocatalytic oxidation responses showed a dependence on substrate concentration ranging from 0.6 to 32 mM for glucose, from 19 to 565 mM for lactate and from 0.015 to 1.0 mM for cholesterol detection. Oxidation of substrates on the surface of electrodes modified with PTZ and enzyme membrane was investigated with double-step chronoamperometry and the results showed that the PTZ displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities even when immobilised on the surface of the electrode.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Phenothiazine; Electron transfer mediator; Enzyme biosensor; Glucose oxidase; Lactate oxidase; Cholesterol oxidase
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100391 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2013.09.071 (DOI)000329881100044 ()
    Available from: 2013-11-05 Created: 2013-11-05 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
    4. Cholesterol Self-Powered Biosensor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cholesterol Self-Powered Biosensor
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 86, no 19, 9540-9547 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring the cholesterol level is of great importance, especially for people with high risk of developing heart disease. Here we report on reagentless cholesterol detection in human plasma with a novel single-enzyme, membrane-free, self-powered biosensor, in which both cathodic and anodic bioelectrocatalytic reactions are powered by the same substrate. Cholesterol oxidase was immobilized in a sol-gel matrix on both the cathode and the anode. Hydrogen peroxide, a product of the enzymatic conversion of cholesterol, was electrocatalytically reduced, by the use of Prussian blue, at the cathode. In parallel, cholesterol oxidation catalyzed by mediated cholesterol oxidase occurred at the anode. The analytical performance was assessed for both electrode systems separately. The combination of the two electrodes, formed on high surface-area carbon cloth electrodes, resulted in a self-powered biosensor with enhanced sensitivity (26.0 mA M-1 cm(-2)), compared to either of the two individual electrodes, and a dynamic range up to 4.1 mM cholesterol. Reagentless cholesterol detection with both electrochemical systems and with the self-powered biosensor was performed and the results were compared with the standard method of colorimetric cholesterol quantification.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2014
    National Category
    Physical Sciences Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112176 (URN)10.1021/ac501699p (DOI)000343017100031 ()25164485 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish research council Formas; research centre Security Link; Swedish Institute

    Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-11-18 Last updated: 2017-11-03
    5. Arrays of Screen-Printed Graphite Microband Electrodes as a Versatile Electroanalysis Platform
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arrays of Screen-Printed Graphite Microband Electrodes as a Versatile Electroanalysis Platform
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: ChemElectroChem, ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 1, no 4, 755-762 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Arrays of microband electrodes were developed by screen printing followed by cutting, which enabled the realization of microband arrays at the cut edge. The microband arrays of different designs were characterized by physical and electro-chemical methods. In both cases, the methods showed that the microband width was around 5 mm. Semi-steady-state cyclic voltammetry responses were observed for redox probes, and chronocoulometric measurements showed the establishment of convergent diffusion regimes characterized by current densities similar to those of a single microelectrode. The analytical performance of the electrode system and its versatility were illustrated with two electrochemical assays: detection of ascorbic acid through direct oxidation and a mediated glucose biosensor fabricated by dip coating. Due to convergent mass transport, both systems showed an enhancement in their analytical characteristics. The developed approach can be adapted to automated electrode recovery.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2014
    Keyword
    graphite screen printing; microarrays; microband; sensors; voltammetry
    National Category
    Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109289 (URN)10.1002/celc.201300204 (DOI)000338296100010 ()
    Available from: 2014-08-11 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
    6. Evaluation of the electrochemically active surface area of microelectrodes by capacitive and faradaic currents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the electrochemically active surface area of microelectrodes by capacitive and faradaic currents
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods to estimate the electrochemically active surface area (EASA) of microelectrodes were compared. One is based on electrocapacitive measurements and the other on faradaic measuements. A systematic study revealed a strong influence of the surface roughness and the electrolyte concentration on the EASA of microelectrodes estimated from the electrocapacitive measurements, yielding a lack of reliability compared to the faradaic method.

    Keyword
    Electrochemically active surface area, microelectrode, microband, roughness, capacitive process, faradaic process
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125240 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-17 Created: 2016-02-17 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
    7. Total phenol analysis of weakly supported water using a laccase-based microband biosensor.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Total phenol analysis of weakly supported water using a laccase-based microband biosensor.
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 907, 45-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring of phenolic compounds in wastewaters in a simple manner is of great importance for environmental control. Here, a novel screen printed laccase-based microband array for in situ, total phenol estimation in wastewaters and for water quality monitoring without additional sample pre-treatment is presented. Numerical simulations using the finite element method were utilized for the characterization of micro-scale graphite electrodes. Anodization followed by covalent modification was used for the electrode functionalization with laccase. The functionalization efficiency and the electrochemical performance in direct and catechol-mediated oxygen reduction were studied at the microband laccase electrodes and compared with macro-scale electrode structures. The reduction of the dimensions of the enzyme biosensor, when used under optimized conditions, led to a significant improvement in its analytical characteristics. The elaborated microsensor showed fast responses towards catechol additions to tap water – a weakly supported medium – characterized by a linear range from 0.2 to 10 μM, a sensitivity of 1.35 ± 0.4 A M−1 cm−2 and a dynamic range up to 43 μM. This enhanced laccase-based microsensor was used for water quality monitoring and its performance for total phenol analysis of wastewater samples from different stages of the cleaning process was compared to a standard method.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    Laccase; microelectrode; microband; electrochemical modeling; total phenol analysis; wastewater
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123677 (URN)10.1016/j.aca.2015.12.006 (DOI)000368422900005 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish research council Formas [245-2010-1062]; research centre Security Link [VINNOVA 2009-00966]; Norrkopings fond for Forskning och Utveckling; VINNOVA

    Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
    8. Electrocatalytic Currents from Single Enzyme Molecules
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrocatalytic Currents from Single Enzyme Molecules
    2016 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 138, no 8, 2504-2507 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Single molecule enzymology provides an opportunity to examine details of enzyme mechanisms that are not distinguishable in biomolecule ensemble studies. Here we report, for the first time, detection of the current produced in an electrocatalytic reaction by a single redox enzyme molecule when it collides with an ultramicroelectrode. The catalytic process provides amplification of the current from electron-transfer events at the catalyst leading to a measurable current. This new methodology monitors turnover of a single enzyme molecule. The methodology might complement existing single molecule techniques, giving further insights into enzymatic mechanisms and filling the gap between fundamental understanding of biocatalytic processes and their potential for bioenergy production.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125241 (URN)10.1021/Jacs.5b13149 (DOI)000371453700011 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:  Swedish research council Formas [245-2010-1062]; research center Security Link (VINNOVA ) [2009-00966]; Centre in Nano Science and Technology (CeNano, Linkoping University)

    Vid tiden för dispuation förelåg publikationen endast som manuskript

    Available from: 2016-02-17 Created: 2016-02-17 Last updated: 2017-11-03Bibliographically approved
  • 42.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fields of Gold: The Bioenergy Debate in International Organizations2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of producing energy from biomass has, for the last two decades, occupied attention of policy-makers, private industries, researchers and civil societies around the world. The highly contested and contingent character of the biofuel production, its entanglement in the nexus of three problematic issues of energy, climate and agriculture, as well as its injection into the current socioeconomic arrangements, is what makes it timely to analyse.

    The thesis sheds light on the state of international debate on bioenergy by looking at deliberations of three major global institutions: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Energy Agency (IEA) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The primary aim is to trace and analyse how the concept of bioenergy is conceptualized and contextualized in assessments, reports, policy papers and other documents issued by FAO, IEA and IPCC in the 1990-2010 period. The secondary aim of the thesis, based on results derived from the primary objective, is set to problematize and reflect upon currently dominating socioeconomic arrangements that the concept of biomass-derived energy is inserted into. The research questions are organized around four distinctively contentious issues in the debate: biofuel production in developing countries, the food vs. fuel dilemma, bioenergy as a win-win-win solution and the future role of the second-generation bioenergy technology. The research questions are operationalized by applying four theoretical perspectives: the world-economy, Michel Foucault’s genealogy, discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, and Fredric Jameson’s critical approach.

    The institutional debate illustrates that, while bioenergy appears to be an easy, plausible and thus attractive patch able to temporarily fix societal challenges of energy insecurity, climate change and agricultural crisis without changing much in the socioeconomic structure, its implementation exposes internal discrepancies of the hegemonic capitalist system. Whether bioenergy could actually function as a feasible win-win-win solution is of secondary importance. It is its economic feasibility expressed in the pressure on cost-effectiveness that matters the most but, at the same time, causes serious internal discrepancies in conceptualizations pursued by the organizations. The results point to two main conclusions. On the one hand, bioenergy is inevitably entrapped by the rules and arrangements of the hegemonic system that, in turn, cause internal contradictions. On the other hand, the institutional debate attempts to stabilize the shaky conceptualization of bioenergy, so that it can appear consistent and plausible, even if the possibility of reaching the closure of meaning fades away, with more conflicts on the rise. Furthermore, the results also show that the three international organizations exhibit uniform patterns of argumentations and the way they similarly discuss biomass-derived energy illustrates the objective to stabilize the meaning and adjust the concept of bioenergy to the hegemonic system.

    List of papers
    1. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective
    2010 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 6, 1336-1343 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio–economic development.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2010
    Keyword
    Bioenergy, Biofuels, Developing countries, Brazil, FAO, IEA, IPCC
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54729 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.01.011 (DOI)000277906300017 ()
    Projects
    The Politics of Bioenergy
    Note
    Original Publication: Magdalena Kuchler, Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective, 2010, Ecological Economics, (69), 6, 1336-1343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.01.011 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations
    2012 (English)In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, Vol. 37, no 5, 581-588 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks critically at how food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-oriented international organizations have consolidated and modified the biofuel discourse in relation to the agricultural system. Using Foucault-based genealogical analysis of discursive formations, the paper traces the last 20 years of institutions’ biofuel debate in relation to rural production. We find that the prevalent motive is an aspiration to combine the agriculture and energy markets into one, which prompts structural changes and challenges in the rural sector. This has implications for the future role and shape of global agriculture and – contrary to the food vs. fuel perspective – calls for re-conceptualizing the biofuel debate as the food vs. food dilemma.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keyword
    biofuels, bioenergy, discourse, FAO, IEA, IPCC, food, energy, fuel, climate, international organizations
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80821 (URN)10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.06.005 (DOI)000308787100010 ()
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Bioenergy as an empty signifier
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioenergy as an empty signifier
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article scrutinizes the bioenergy concept in the context of the three challenges of energy insecurity, climate change, and the agricultural crisis that, borrowing from Gramsci, constitute a “global organic crisis”. The analysis, based on theoretical concepts developed by Laclau and Mouffe, explores assessments, reports, policy papers, and other central documents from three influential international organizations, i.e., IEA, FAO, and IPCC, in the areas analysed. We argue that, as a floating signifier in a given field of discursivity, the bioenergy notion loses its unfixed ability to occupy specific positions and convey different meanings within the three overlapping discursive areas of energy, climate, and agriculture. These three discursive formations are “sutured” around the notion of bioenergy, where a hegemonic thread of capitalist economics, fixated on economic growth and presupposing the necessity of cost-effectiveness, results in internal contradictions within the signification, transforming bioenergy into an empty signifier.

    Keyword
    bioenergy, discourse, climate change, energy security, agriculture, international organizations
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80827 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Stability rather than change is the order of the day: the case of second-generation biofuels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability rather than change is the order of the day: the case of second-generation biofuels
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a critical look at the conceptualization of second-generation bioenergy based on the institutional discourse pursued by food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-focused international organizations. Set against the backdrop of two distinct perspectives on the understanding and role of innovation, progress, and the future in contemporary capitalist societies, the paper explores how advanced biofuels are distinguished from their conventional predecessors, how the intention to shift from first- to second-generation production patterns is facilitated and justified, and the role of innovation in pursuing this shift. I argue that the notions of “new” and “innovative” put forward in the advanced biofuel project not only exemplify the illusion of an emptied and decontextualized future, but also express an ideological view devoid of utopian potential.

    Keyword
    bioenergy, second-generation, international organizations, future, innovation, progress, ideology
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80829 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
  • 43.
    Elez, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Framtida energilösning för tillvaratagande av överskottsvärme med värmepump: Ett examensarbete utfört på Händelöverket, E.ON2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E.ON has set a goal to deliver 100% renewable and recycled energy year 2025. To achieve this goal at E.ON’s combined heat-and power plant, Händelö in Norrköping, the coal driven Boiler 12 and the biofuel driven Boiler 11 must be replaced with a new renewable and recycled solution to produce heat. A solution that is being discussed at E.ON is replacing these two boilers with a single heat water boiler, Boiler 16 which will be producing heat. In the Händelö area there are some enterprises with residual flows in form of excess heat that is not being used today. By using the excess heat, the greenhouse emissions can be reduced and the national energy system can become more efficient. Another solution is therefore replacing the boilers with an energy solution that uses the excess heat and with the help of a heat pump producing heat.

    The aim of this project has been to investigate the possibilities of a future energy solution with heat pump and how it can be used in cooperation with the Händelö plant to decrease the investment-and marginal costs of the heat production to the district heating network of Norrköping. The objective of this project has therefore been, creating a model in the modelling tool remind and VBA Excel that can calculate the profitability of the future heat pump solution in comparison to the new Boiler 16 with different scenarios of the electricity price.

    A dimensioning of a compressor heat pump has been performed to investigate the technical-and operation qualifications for a heat pump. Furthermore, different models have been created in remind and VBA Excel for a compressor heat pump and an absorptions heat pump. The absorption heat pump has not been dimensioned, a heat pump supplier has provided different values based on the technical- and operating qualifications.

    The result shows that an energy solution with an absorption heat pump is considerably more profitable than a solution consisting of a single Boiler 16. The investment cost of an absorption heat pump became 30

    – 42 MSEK cheaper than the corresponding investment cost for the Boiler 16. In addition, the marginal cost of the absorption heat pump became 79 -102 MSEK more profitable than Boiler 16’s marginal cost considering an economical life span of 20 years and different electricity price scenarios. The total profitability of the absorption heat pump became 110 – 140 MSEK. The compressor heat pump did not become profitable in comparison to Boiler 16. The investment cost for the compressor heat pump became 14 – 24 MSEK more expensive than the corresponding investment cost of Boiler 16 and the marginal cost was only 0 – 5 MSEK less expensive than considering different electricity price scenarios.

    The conclusion of the project is that E.ON should continue investigating the possibilities of investing in an absorption heat pump. The compressor heat pump is not considered being worth investigating further.

  • 44.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Optensys Energianalys .
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Future biofuel utilisation for small-scale heating and large-scale heat, electricity and automotive fuel production2008In: World Bioenergy 2008. Taking you from Know-how to Show-how,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 45.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden / KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division for Environmental Strategies Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Gävle, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How do we govern sustainable innovations?: Mapping patterns of governance for biofuels and hybrid-electric vehicle technologies2012In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 3, 50-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of governance aimed at sustainable technological innovation in the transport sector. It makes an overall assessment of governance emerging in the fields of biofuel and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) technologies, and makes a classification of its characteristics. It examines the role of different actors and levels of governance as well as preferred mechanisms and targets of governance. The assessment reveals that there are rather differential patterns of governance influencing the two fields. For instance, international-level and market-based governance are much more prevalent in biofuels, whereas industry-led and cognitive governance play comparatively stronger roles in HEV. These patterns can be understood in light of both the different institutional and actor characteristics of the two technologies, and their positions in relation to socio-technical regimes.

  • 46.
    Hjersing, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogen production in Escherichia coli: Genetic engineering of the formate hydrogenlyase complex2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels that are renewable and environmentally benign constitute an important area of research, as the supply of fossil fuels decreases and the amount of green house gases in the atmosphere increases. Biohydrogen is not as well explored as other biofuels, but its properties render it a promising complement, as it is clean and can be used directly in fuel cells to generate electricity, the only waste products being water and heat. Hydrogenproducing microorganisms have the potential to be used to recycle industrial waste, such as carbohydrates from food manufacturing. Hence the cost of waste disposal could be reduced whilst biofuel is being produced through microbial processes.

    Escherichia coli is a well-known microorganism that produces hydrogen under fermentative conditions, through the conversion of formate to hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide, via an enzyme complex called formate hydrogenlyase (FHL). The complex is anchored to the inner cell membrane and consists of seven subunits: a formate dehydrogenase, a [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase, three electron carrier proteins, which together make up a large ‘hydrophilic domain’, and two integral membrane proteins (the ‘membrane domain’).

    Even though the entire bacterial genome is known, the FHL complex remains little understood and has proven difficult to isolate and characterise. During this project, a genetically modified strain producing only the hydrophilic domain of FHL was constructed, and the resultant sub-complex was purified. It was hoped that, if a stable and homogenous core complex could be isolated, it might be subjected to further analysis, such as elucidating the subunit stoichiometry and solving the structure.

    Furthermore, FHL is notoriously oxygen labile, which hampers its study and technological development. However, oxygen tolerance is a natural feature found in some other [Ni-Fe] hydrogenases, and recent research shows that this property is likely dependent on the presence of extra cysteine residues near an important metal cluster in the enzyme. These cysteines are not present in FHL and a complex that could be active in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions may be a useful tool in optimising microbial biohydrogen processes. Thus, three strains that each expressed a modified FHL variant carrying single Cysteine-for-Glycine substitutions were constructed. The modified FHL complexes proved to remain active in vivo, and can serve as the basis of genetically engineering oxygen tolerance into this important enzyme.

  • 47.
    Hansson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Identification of a butanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and of a gene associated with enhanced butanol tolerance.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used biofuel on the market today is ethanol derived from food crops, such as maize and sugarcane. Ethanol is renewable and environmental friendly but the low energy density makes it unable to compete with fossil fuels. Enlarged focus on replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from renewable biomass have identified isobutanol and 1-butanol as future biofuels, possessing similar capabilities as gasoline e.g. high octane number and energy density. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce butanol through fermentation of carbohydrates but butanol concentrations over 2% is toxic to most strains. To reach the commercial requirements for economic and efficient isobutanol production using S. cerevisiae, higher butanol tolerance is crucial.

    The butanol tolerance of isolated strains of S. cerevisiae from different habitats were examined using spot plating and growth measurements. The results showed variance in butanol tolerance between strains, where the most tolerant strains were able to grow in isobutanol concentration up to 3 %. The expression of genes associated with increased butanol tolerance was investigated by Quantitative Real-time PCR. Data showed an upregulation of RPN4 in strains subjected to butanol induced stress. The study aims to identify butanol tolerant strains that can be engineered for efficient butanol production for sustainable biofuel production.

  • 48.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    Energy Processes, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology).
    Implications of system expansion for the assessment of well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from biomass based transportation2010In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 34, no 13, 1136-1154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show the effects of expanding the system when evaluating well-to-wheel (WTW) CO2 emissions for biomass-based transportation, to include the systems surrounding the biomass conversion system. Four different cases are considered: DME via black liquor gasification (BLG), methanol via gasification of solid biomass, lignocellulosic ethanol and electricity from a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) used in a battery-powered electric vehicle (BPEV). All four cases are considered with as well as without carbon capture and storage (CCS). System expansion is used consistently for all flows. The results are compared with results from a conventional WTW study that only uses system expansion for certain co-product flows.

    It is shown that when expanding the system, biomass-based transportation does not necessarily contribute to decreased CO2 emissions and the results from this study in general indicate considerably lower CO2 mitigation potential than do the results from the conventional study used for comparison. It is shown that of particular importance are assumptions regarding future biomass use, as by expanding the system, future competition for biomass feedstock can be taken into account by assuming an alternative biomass usage. Assumptions regarding other surrounding systems, such as the transportation and the electricity systems are also shown to be of significance.

    Of the four studied cases without CCS, BIGCC with the electricity used in a BPEV is the only case that consistently shows a potential for CO2 reduction when alternative use of biomass is considered. Inclusion of CCS is not a guarantee for achieving CO2 reduction, and in general the system effects are equivalent or larger than the effects of CCS. DME from BLG generally shows the highest CO2 emission reduction potential for the biofuel cases. However, neither of these options for biomass-based transportation can alone meet the needs of the transport sector. Therefore, a broader palette of solutions, including different production routes, different fuels and possibly also CCS, will be needed.

  • 49.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 35, no 5, 1747-1755 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energyefficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thusset on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuelscontinue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmentalperformance of first generation biofuel industries can be improved. The field ofindustrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuelindustry and theories from this research field are used in this paper to highlight howenvironmental performance improvements can be accomplished. This comes in the formof by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energyhandling. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmentalperformance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will actas a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafterbe upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a biofertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to providesupport for these theories.

  • 50.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energy efficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thus set on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuels continue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmental performance of first generation biofuel industries can be bettered. The field of industrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuel industry. It is shown in this research that integration between the respective biofuel industries is possible. This comes in the form of by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energy handling and environmental performance of the processes. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmental performance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will act as a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafter be upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a bio-fertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to provide support for these theories.

123 1 - 50 of 101
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf