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  • 1.
    Toivo, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Change Management and Supply Chain Management: Employee issues in implementation processes of SCM - The action and re-action related to changes in each stage of an implementation process2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competition on today’s market is fierce. Providing a defect-free product is no more a competitive advantage. Now money and focus is put on managing the supply chain, a competitive tool to thriving in today’s business climate. There are two distinct flow pipelines: the order information transfer pipeline and the product transfer pipeline, both dependent on the collaboration efforts of individuals.

    Evolving within supply chain management equals integrating the supply chain from basic to complex; from baseline or functional to internal or external. Bringing focus to where it is found to be lacking, this literary study highlights and connects issues that may arise during implementation of external supply chain integration. The focal point is thus on employee reactions to change, with each stage of implementation that the implementation issues connect to. Simultaneously, the study provides (pre)requisites to management during the different stages, which would support the implemented transition in its different phases.

    The result of this study is a Manger Model that gives an overview of each of the implementation stages, the requisites for management and issues regarding employees at each of the stages. Constructed to be applicable to more than just external integration the model encompasses all the gathered models and theories through a discussion of not only the complexity of the internal and the external supply chain, but also the complex nature of the individuals caught within the implementation, both from the manager’s as well as the employee’s point of view.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Generating SkePU Code from Automatically Detected Algorithmic Patterns in C Source Programs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern heterogeneous multi-core architectures containing one or multiple GPU de- vices require expert knowledge in order to be fully utilized through parallelization by the programmer. Software written for one hardware setup might not easily be portable to work as efficiently on a differing architecture. Automatic parallelization of sequential C code to make efficient use of such architecture in an extensible man- ner would facilitate the porting of legacy code and provide a non-expert programmer with a tool granting access to modern hardware architectures.

    We present an early prototype of such an extensible tool-chain and attempt to apply it on domain-specific C source code. It is based on a generic tool for hierarchical pattern matching in C source codes, where the user can define own patterns and recognition rules, and a code generation back-end. We show how it, combined with existing libraries, can be used to automatically port sequential legacy code to different multicore architectures, such as multicore CPUs and GPUs. Our tool is an attempt to do this and yields valid parallelized code, but fails to reach speedup for most implemented patterns. The tool is applied on one test case, a legacy ODE implementation in C, with similar results. A reason for slowdown is discussed in the concluding section.

  • 3.
    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln: En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a central part of the modern society and has change our everyday life in many ways. An area that’s been strongly affected by this development is the Swedish retail e-commerce market. E-commerce sales have increased six-fold over the course of the past decade and forecasts indicate that this expansive trend will continue. This trend places significant challenges on Swedish retail companies who have a legacy of exclusively carrying out their sales in the traditional brick and mortar format. The subject of this study was originally proposed by the Swedish retail company Företag X[1], who have decided to embark on their e-commerce initiative in early 2016. Företag X asked the author of this report to help with finding out what it takes to develop a small e-commerce store, in such a way that it becomes a successful part of the company, contributing to the company’s overall profitability. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify practices and methods that enable successful expansion of e-commerce for medium-sized, Swedish retail companies.

    In order to achieve the purpose, a qualitative multi-case study design was chosen for the study. Information for the theoretical framework was collected from articles in scientific journals and books, and supplemented with secondary empirical data in the form of reports from companies. Qualitative primary data were then collected from interviews with three chosen companies, which were found with through a small cross-sectional study of 20 competitors to Företag X where their EBITDA margins over the past five years were studied.

    The study results showed an expansive trend on the Swedish retail e-commerce market, and it seems that this trend is set to continue over the next decade. As a consequence, market climate is changing and shifting towards becoming more digitalized, which requires companies to review their sales organizations. The main trend in the market is called “omni-channel retailing" and means that a company is integrating its brick and mortar and e-commerce sales to enable a seamless shopping experience for the customer. This trend has emerged as a response to a new buying patterns observed among customers, who move between their digital and physical sales channels during the purchase.

    The study indicates that the e-commerce-related issues that are most important to address and work with are in the following areas:

    • Customer Focus
      • IT
      • Customer relations
      • Responsiveness to customers
    • Cost effectiveness
      • Supply chain and logistics
      • Strategy and governance
    • Resistance Management
      • Education
      • Synchronization between brick and mortar stores and e-commerce store

    This study represents the author’s master’s thesis in the Industrial Engineering and Management program at Linköping University, Sweden.

    [1] Företag X are known by a different name, but have asked to remain anonymous in this study

  • 4.
    Servitja Robert, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A First Study on Hidden Markov Models and one Application in Speech Recognition2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech is intuitive, fast and easy to generate, but it is hard to index and easy to forget. What is more, listening to speech is slow. Text is easier to store, process and consume, both for computers and for humans, but writing text is slow and requires some intention. In this thesis, we study speech recognition which allows converting speech into text, making it easier both to create and to use information. Our tool of study is Hidden Markov Models which is one of the most important machine learning models in speech and language processing.

    The aim of this thesis is to do a rst study in Hidden Markov Models and understand their importance, particularly in speech recognition. We will go through three fundamental problems that come up naturally with Hidden Markov Models: to compute a likelihood of an observation sequence, to nd an optimal state sequence given an observation sequence and the model, and to adjust the model parameters. A solution to each problem will be given together with an example and the corresponding simulations using MatLab. The main importance lies in the last example, in which a rst approach to speech recognition will be done.

  • 5.
    Rydberg, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dependence on pH of Structural and Dynamical Changes of a Calmodulin Domain Mutant2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved protein able to bind Ca2+. When Ca2+ is bound the protein can bind and activate further proteins with several individual functions. CaM switches to a more open conformation when Ca2+-bound and is able to do so at a high rate. Little is known about the conformational switches between apo and Ca2+-bound states. A hypothesis suggests that protonation/deprotonation of a histidine side-chain is part of the answer and thus the dynamics of CaM would be pH dependent. This was further investigated in this thesis. Methods to carry out the project included protein expression of isotope labelled CaM-TR2C E140Q, standard protein purification and protein adapted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results suggest that CaM-TR2C E140Q is likely to depend on pH and that histidine 107 (H107) may have a central role in the conformational changes observed. At lower pH it was also suggested that CaM-TR2C E140Q obtained a more open conformation with weakened intramolecular interactions and that the tertiary structure of CaM-TR2C E140Q may have been disrupted.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coordination of material flows and operations flows at the FUS in Linköping2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examensarbetet Koordinering av materialflöden och verksamhetsflöden vid FUS i Linköping genomfördes för att ge stöd åt beslutsfattande gällande flödet av byggnadsmaterial från den norra godsmottagningen av sjukhuset till den östra utbyggnaden under året 2015.

  • 7.
    Fellenius, Beatriz
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mapping and evaluation of the purchasing process at Ahlvar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modebranschen är en ständigt föränderlig bransch som präglas av långa ledtider, osäkra prognoser och starkt trendfokus. Ahlvar By Frida Ahlvarsson är ett svenskt modeföretag som verkar inom just denna bransch. Ahlvar upplever precis som många andra små modeföretag problem kopplade till branschens uppbyggnad. Problemen som företaget upplever är främst ekonomiska men har också att göra med höga lagernivåer och hög arbetsbelastning. I detta arbete görs en granskning av Ahlvars inköpsprocess med hjälp av Business Process Management (BPM) för att identifiera orsakerna bakom de problem som företaget upplever. Det fastslås att företagets ekonomiska problem främst är kopplade till höga produktionskostnader medan de höga lagernivåerna främst beror på avsaknaden av statistiska prognoser. Den höga arbetsbelastningen verkar i sin tur ha att göra med det faktum att det som enmansföretag är svårt att handskas med inköpsprocessens många steg och parallella processer. För att identifiera lösningar till dessa problem presenteras teori kring inköpsprocesser och även information om hur tre liknande modeföretag arbetar. De tre andra företagen är Filippa K, Företag X och House of Dagmar. Tillsammans med teorin görs en jämförelse mellan dessa tre och Ahlvar. Jämförelsen visar att det finns många likheter mellan företagen och att mycket av deras arbetssätt har goda kopplingar till teorin. Dock i identifieras även vissa markanta skillnader mellan Ahlvar och de andra företagens arbetssätt. Utifrån jämförelsen fastslås tre huvudsakliga rekommendationer för hur Ahlvar ska förändra sin inköpsprocess i syfte att förbättra sin ekonomiska situation med hjälp av en mer effektiv försörjningskedja. Rekommendationerna är att företaget bör hitta fler leverantörer, byta leverantörsland från Kina till ett eller flera länder i Europa och att börja göra enklare prognoser på tidigare års försäljning. Som en följd av bytet av leverantörsland rekommenderas även företaget att förändra sitt val av transportslag från flygplan till lastbil och båt vid frakt av produkter.

  • 8.
    Seidu, Mohammed Nazib
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Predicting Bankruptcy Risk: A Gaussian Process Classifciation Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops a Gaussian processes model for bankruptcy risk classification and prediction in a Bayesian framework. Gaussian processes and linear logistic models are discriminative methods used for classification and prediction purposes. The Gaussian processes model is a much more flexible model than the linear logistic model with smoothness encoded in the kernel with the potential to improve the modeling of the highly nonlinear relationships between accounting ratios and bankruptcy risk.

    We compare the linear logistic regression with the Gaussian process classification model in the context of bankruptcy prediction. The posterior distributions of the GPs are non-Gaussian, and we investigate the effectiveness of the Laplace approximation and the expectation propagation approximation across several different kernels for the Gaussian process. The approximate methods are compared to the gold standard of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling from the posterior.

    The dataset is an unbalanced panel consisting of 21846 yearly observations for about 2000 corporate firms in Sweden recorded between 1991−2008. We used 5000 observations to train the models and the rest for evaluating the predictions. We find that the choice of covariance kernel affects the GP model’s performance and we find support for the squared exponential covariance function (SEXP) as an optimal kernel.

    The empirical evidence suggests that a multivariate Gaussian processes classifier with squared exponential kernel can effectively improve bankruptcy risk prediction with high accuracy (90.19 percent) compared to the linear logistic model (83.25 percent).

  • 9.
    Hall, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    ”Det blir kreativare ju längre ned i kedjan man kommer” - Upplevelser av organisationsklimatet och dess förutsättningar för kreativitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då den globala konkurrensen ökar ställs idag allt högre krav på organisationeratt skapa innovationer, därmed måste organisationerna kunna tillvarata och främja medarbetarnas kreativitet. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersökahur medarbetare i en global organisation, inom högteknologisk utveckling och produktion, upplever organisationsklimatet samt hur det upplevda organisationsklimatet kan påverka förutsättningarna för kreativitet. Studien baseras på åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med medarbetare på olika positioner, avdelningar och nivåer i organisationen.

    Studien tyder på att det delvis råder goda förutsättningar för kreativitet i den närmsta arbetsgruppen där klimatet är tryggt och medarbetarna är motiverade. Dessa förutsättningar tycks många gånger hämmas av en otydlig och inkonsekvent ledning som ger svagt idéstöd och genom bristande tillit skapar otrygga och passiva medarbetare genom hela organisationen. Studien tyder därmed på att den högsta ledningen har ett stort ansvar över om förutsättningar för kreativitet ska vara ett reellt värde i organisationen.

  • 10. Varelogianni, Georgia
    et al.
    Hussain, Rashida
    Strid, Hilja
    Oliynyk, Igor
    Roomans, Godfried M
    Johannesson, Marie
    The effect of ambroxol on chloride transport, CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.2013In: Cell Biology International, ISSN 1065-6995, E-ISSN 1095-8355, Vol. 37, no 11, 1149-1156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambroxol, a mucokinetic anti-inflammatory drug, has been used for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). The respiratory epithelium is covered by the airway surface liquid (ASL), the thickness and composition of which is determined by Cl(-) efflux via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na(+) influx via the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). In cells expressing wt-CFTR, ambroxol increased the Cl(-) conductance, but not the bicarbonate conductance of the CFTR channels. We investigated whether treatment with ambroxol enhances chloride transport and/or CFTR and ENaC expression in CF airway epithelial cells (CFBE) cells. CFBE cells were treated with 100 µM ambroxol for 2, 4 or 8 h. mRNA expression for CFTR and ENaC subunits was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); protein expression was measured by Western blot. The effect of ambroxol on Cl(-) transport was measured by Cl(-) efflux measurements with a fluorescent chloride probe. Ambroxol significantly stimulated Cl(-) efflux from CFBE cells (a sixfold increase after 8 h treatment), and enhanced the expression of the mRNA of CFTR and α-ENaC, and of the CFTR protein. No significant difference was observed in β-ENaC after exposure to ambroxol, whereas mRNA expression of γ-ENaC was reduced. No significant effects of ambroxol on the ENaC subunits were observed by Western blot. Ambroxol did not significantly affect the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Upregulation of CFTR and enhanced Cl(-) efflux after ambroxol treatment should promote transepithelial ion and water transport, which may improve hydration of the mucus, and therefore be beneficial to CF-patients.

  • 11.
    Klapuh, Alen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, William
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Attitydundersökning av Arconas arbete med bygglogistik2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kostnaden för att bygga hus stiger mer än kostnaden för vanliga konsumtionsprodukter vilket leder till allt dyrare hus. En anledning till detta är att byggprocessen inte hänger med i utvecklingen och att äldre metoder fortfarande används. För att få ett effektivare byggande behöver metoderna därför utvecklas eller nya metoder behöver träda fram, ett exempel på en ny metod är tredjepartslogistik som fler och fler byggföretag använder sig av.

    I denna rapport får du läsa om företaget Arcona AB (Arcona) som samarbetar med logistikföretaget Servistik och som vill undersöka hur arbetarnas attityd är till logistikkonceptet som Arcona använder sig av. Ett projekt, Bryggmästaren, är undersökt i det här arbetet och det är en ombyggnation från kontor till hotell i Stockholm city.

    Anledningen till att Arcona hade intresse av en attitydundersökning av deras koncept var för att de vill få fram information till möjliga förbättringar, för att se om företaget är på rätt spår med konceptet och för att se hur redan gjorda förändringar har påverkat arbetet på byggarbetsplatsen.

    Logistikkonceptet kan sammanfattas enligt följande. Lagbasarna på byggarbetsplatsen beställer material från olika grossister. Det beställda materialet levereras till Servistiks lager och tas emot, inspekteras och lagras. När materialet behövs på byggarbetsplatsen gör lagbasarna avrop till Servistiks lager som i sin tur packar ihop ordern och levererar det till byggarbetsplatsen. Väl framme lastar Servistiks personal av material och distribuerar runt det på byggarbetsplatsen. Leveranstiden från att avropet har gjorts till det att materialet är på plats på bygget är 3 dagar.

    Studien har baserats på intervjuer som har gjorts med Arconas egen personal och med underentreprenörer som har arbetat för Arcona på projektet Bryggmästaren. Åtta stycken intervjuer har gjorts på Arconas platskontor på Bryggmästaren varav en var via telefon. De intervjuade var platschefer, projektchefer, produktionsledare, projektingenjörer, lagbas och underentreprenör.

    Samtliga av respondenterna är positivt inställda till logistikkonceptet som Arcona driver i samarbete med Servistik. De tycker att det är en bra idé och att det låter bra i teorin men de menar också på att ifall det ska fungera så behövs det en viss utveckling eller förändring av konceptet för att det även ska gå att tillämpas i praktiken på ett framgångsrikt sätt. Ett antal förbättringsförslag som dyker upp är:

    • Leveranstiden från lagret behöver minskas för att göra konceptet lite mer flexibelt.
    • Materialkunskapen hos Servistiks personal behöver förbättras så att de har mer koll på vad som exakt kommer in till deras lager.
    • Internetsidan för lagret som visar materialstatus på lagret måste förenklas så att allt ska gå smidigare.
  • 12.
    Ramberg, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Principen novus actus interveniens: Vem bär ansvaret för skadan? En undersökning av brytandet av kausaliteten i den svenska och engelska skadeståndsrätten2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att klargöra vad principen novus actus interveniens innebär. Principen kan möjliggöra att det skadeståndsrättsliga ansvaret begränsas och upphävs för den initiala skadevållaren, om en utomstående tredje man medverkar eller orsakar en skadas inträffande. Med hjälp av principen novus actus interveniens bryts orsakssambandet och den tredje mannen övertar ansvaret för skadan som inträffat. En skada som orsakas av extraordinära naturhändelser eller av den skadelidande själv kan också medföra att principen novus actus interveniens kan appliceras. Det råder oklarheter om principen utgör gällande rätt i Sverige och därmed jämförs rättsläget avseende principen novus actus interveniens med den engelska skadeståndsrätten. Inom den engelska rätten har principen tillämpats i praxis och den nämns även i den engelska doktrinen. Framställningen grundas huvudsakligen på material som hämtats från doktrinen och praxis i svensk och engelsk rätt. För att en mellankommande handling ska kunna bryta orsakssambandet uppställs vissa krav, bland annat ska handlingen ha varit oförutsebar och ha företagits med minst vårdslöshet. En klar formel för hur principen kan tillämpas existerar inte, utan det beror på omständigheterna i varje enskilt fall. Principen novus actus interveniens nämns inte vid sitt latinska namn i den svenska doktrinen, men det framkommer resonemang i den svenska doktrinen och det finns praxis som kan härledas till principen. Därmed kan det konstateras att det inte är omöjligt att principen kan komma att användas, trots att de svenska domstolarna har ett restriktivt förhållningssätt mot principen.

  • 13.
    Nylander, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vägen till korrekt lagerdata: En studie på detaljhandelsbolaget ÖoB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att verka inom detaljhandeln i Sverige innebär idag att verka på en marknad med en stortotal omsättning. Det innebär också att verka på en marknad med ett stort antal aktörer. Varje år öppnar allt fler kedjor och butiker, som alla slåss om de 33 % av det genomsnittliga hushållets inkomst, som idag spenderas inom just detaljhandeln. Konsumenters ökade prismedvetenhet, tillsammans med den hårdnande konkurrensen, ställer krav på  de  som verkar inom detaljhandeln, och att leva upp till kundernas förväntningar blir allt viktigare.

    Ett företag verksamt inom just detaljhandeln är ÖoB AB, en kedja som i dagsläget har nästan 100 butiker runtom i Sverige. Med sitt lågpriskoncept har de i flera år lockat kunder men de inser nu att enbart låga priser inte längre räcker till. Konsumenter ställer idag även krav på god kundservice. I syfte att på sikt kunna erbjuda sina kunder en bättre fyllnadsgrad är företaget nu intresserat av att minska skillnader mellan sitt verkliga och registrerade lagersaldo, att uppnå så kallad korrekt lagerdata.

    Exakt när lagerdata räknas som korrekt kan variera.  Oavsett  vilket  mått  som  används  så gäller att lagerdata inte bara ska nå den nivå för vad som  är  korrekt,  utan  även  hållas korrekt. Det kräver kunskap om vad som bidrar till problemet och  hur  det  kan  undvikas. Korrekt lagerdata innebär alltså ett krav på att företaget har kontroll på sina processer.

    Det här examensarbetet syftade till att hjälpa ÖoB AB komma  närmare  korrekt  lagerdata genom att få bättre kontroll på processen från att varor anländer till butik, tills det att de säljs och lämnar butiken. För att uppnå det, söktes svar på vilka arbetsmoment inom processen som kunde bidra till inkorrekt lagerdata om de utförs fel, men även svar på hur dessa fel uppstod. Studien syftade även till att ta fram förslag på hur  problemen  kunde minskas.

    Genom studien framkom att fel som bidrog till inkorrekt lagerdata kunde uppstå i samtliga steg i processen. Dessutom fanns det, för de flesta arbetsmoment som utfördes i varje processteg, en mängd olika fel som kunde inträffa. Några fel berodde på faktorer som låg utanför butikspersonalens kontroll, så som rena systemfel, medan några var fel på grund av den mänskliga faktorn, till exempel rent slarv. Även fel orsakade av en kombination av dessa faktorer kunde identifieras, till exempel att en vara skadats under transport utan att det upptäcks vid leverans på grund av bristfällig kontroll.

    Okunskap, men även rent ointresse, är mänskliga faktorer som visat sig bidra  till  att  fel uppstår i processen. Flera brister kunde dock hänvisas till stor tidspress i butik orsakad av ojämn arbetsbörda, som helt enkelt medför att butikspersonal inte alltid har den tid som går åt för att faktiskt utföra vissa moment med den noggrannhet som krävs. Genom att först och främst ge varuhusets chefer den kunskap som krävs för att styra och planera arbetsfördelningen för sin personalstyrka, kan  arbetskraften  anpassas  efter  arbetsbehovet. Det kombinerat med ytterligare åtgärder som bidrar till en jämnare arbetsbörda, bör minska risken för fel orsakade av tidspress och är en del av det åtgärdspaket som tagits fram för att hjälpa företaget komma närmare korrekt lagerdata.

    Detaljhandeln är ett brett område och marknadens aktörer kan kraftigt skilja sig åt i flera avseenden, bland annat  sortimentstorlek.  Även  hur  varuflödet  hanteras  kan  variera  stort. Att direkt applicera de slutsatser som med denna studie framkommit, på ett annat företag inom samma bransch, kan  därför  bli  svårt.  Denna  rapport  kan  trots  det  innehålla information som är värdefull även för andra företag än ÖoB AB och på längre sikt, tillsammans med ytterligare fallstudier inom området, hoppas författaren att mer generella slutsdatser ska gå att fastslå.

  • 14.
    Wikberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jerlström Hultqvist, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of the S&OP process at Seco Tools AB: Aligned with today´s supply chain planning processes 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Companies strive to produce as close to customer demand as possible to reduce the cost, inventories, etc. One process that deals with this issue of balancing demand and supply is Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP). Seco Tools is a company with their head-office located in Fagersta, Sweden, which is experiencing high inventory levels and a need of cutting cost. The ongoing project Supply Chain Planning at Seco Tools resulted in the implementation of a new software which enables them to improve demand, inventory, and supply planning. As a result of the improved planning ability, a new S&OP process is developed and in need for improvement.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the current S&OP process from the Supply Chain Planning project and to suggest future improvements for Seco Tools AB.

    Research objectives:

    1. Study and describe the current S&OP process at Seco Tools.

    2. Analyse and identify differences in Seco Tools’ S&OP process compared to the literature and a benchmark company.

    3. Perform deeper analyses within financial integration and the use of KPIs in Seco Tools´ S&OP process.

    4. Suggest future improvements to Seco Tools regarding their S&OP process based on the identified differences from research objective 2 and the deeper analysis from research objective 3.

    Method:

    The planning report set the framework for the carrying through of the thesis. A literature study regarding S&OP and a case study performed at Seco Tools regarding their S&OP have been done in parallel. Seco Tools’ S&OP process has been studied and described with the help of interviews, observations, and internal documents. Analysis was made where Seco Tools S&OP was compared to the theoretical S&OP and the S&OP at AstraZeneca. The analysis led to recommendations to Seco Tools regarding improvements in their S&OP process.

    Conclusions:

    Two opportunities for improvement were highlighted during the analysis of Seco Tools S&OP. They were financial integration and the use of cross-functional KPIs covering all the departments that were suggested to be involved in S&OP at Seco Tools. Seco Tools should integrate their finance in the process to compare S&OP against the business plan, and the company’s strategy should be well understood by the participants in S&OP. The knowledge of the company’s strategy together with the right authorities in the process will improve the decision making in Seco Tools’ S&OP. Seco Tools also need to implement an S&OP scorecard with KPIs that covers all departments in the company and the strategy as well. This helps to further develop cross-functionality and to early on make root cause analysis of identified problems. Cross-functionality and KPIs are believed to be general recommendations that all companies can use as well, not only something that Seco Tools can take advantage of. A template for an S&OP scorecard especially for Seco Tools has been made. It contains 16 cross-functional KPIs covering all steps and departments involved in S&OP at Seco Tools.

  • 15.
    Maddula, Ravi
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Near threshold operation of 16-bit adders in 65nm CMOStechnology2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the thesis is to implement different architectures of 16-bit adders such as; Ripple CarryAdder (RCA), Manchester Carry Chain Adder (MCCA) and Kogge Stone Adder (KSA), in 65nm CMOS technology and to study their performance in terms of power, operating frequency and speed at near threshold operating regions. The performance of these adders are evaluated and compared with each other and a final conclusion is made as to which adder structure is more suitable for implementation in a 65nmtechnology for low power applications. Several optimisation techniques are performed for the adders to reduce the delay and power consumption. Propagation delay is the most critical or essential parameter to be considered, hence, to minimise the delay of the adder, a technique called sizing and ordering are required for the transistors. The purpose of the thesis is to make a fair comparison among adders over several metrics which include linearity, delay and power.

    Simulation results of MCCA achieved a greater significant performance upon or over RCA and KSA, and proved it is the best suitable adder for low power applications.

  • 16.
    Melin, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vidhall, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Namecoin as authentication for public-key cryptography2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public-key cryptography is a subject that is very important to everyone who wants confidentiality and privacy in networks. It is important to understand how public-key cryptography systems work and what flaws they have. In the first part of this report we describe some of the most common encryption schemes and key agreements. We carefully investigate their flaws, if they are broken and what threats have dire consequences. We find that the biggest issue is authentication and we present current solutions to the problem. The current solutions are flawed because they rely too much on trusting different entities. It is only required that one trusted entity becomes malicious for the entire authentication system to be compromised. Because of this we propose an alternative system in the second part, Namecoin. A risk analysis in form of an attack tree is performed on the Namecoin system, where we describe how the attacks are executed and what you can do to prevent them. We present different threats against the system and we describe how dire the consequences are and the probability of their execution. Since Namecoin is an implementation of the block chain algorithm we have also explained how the block chain works in detail. We present why we think that Namecoin is a system that should replace the currently used certificate authority system. The certificate authority system is flawed because it is centralized and dependant on that no authority makes any mistakes. The Namecoin system does not become compromised unless more than 50 % of the hashrate in the system is used with malicious intent. We have concluded that the biggest threats against Namecoin have such a low probability that they can be neglected.

  • 17.
    Fredriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Backman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur butikschefen påverkar butikens lönsamhet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the latest decade the Swedish electronic industry has been exposed to intensified competition and lower profitability. The consequences have been that major retail chains have gone out of business. In order to survive, the companies need to handle their stores as efficiently as possible. As a result it’s crucial how the store manager operates the store. Therefore it is interesting to study how store managers practice their work in order to see what leads to high profitability. Our review of research reveals that there’s a knowledge gap of qualitative studies regarding how store managers should work.

    Aim The aim of the study is to investigate how store managers works and from that identify factors in the store managers way of work that affects the result and leads to differences in store performance.

    Methodology The study is made with a qualitative approach and is built on data from interviews with 10 store managers. The respondents have been divided in to a high-performance focus group and a comparison group in order to clarify the differences in their approach of work.

    Conclusion The study shows a number of differences in how high-performance store managers handle their work. However, the biggest difference is the leadership philosophy they choose to practice, which affect everything they do.

  • 18.
    Moa, Hall
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Det blir kreativare ju längre ned i kedjan man kommer": Upplevelser av organisationsklimatet och dess förutsättningar för kreativitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då den globala konkurrensen ökar ställs idag allt högre krav på organisationer att skapa innovationer, därmed måste organisationerna kunna tillvarata och främja medarbetarnas kreativitet. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur medarbetare i en global organisation, inom högteknologisk utveckling och produktion, upplever organisationsklimatet samt hur det upplevda organisationsklimatet kan påverka förutsättningarna för kreativitet. Studien baseras på åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med medarbetare på olika positioner, avdelningar och nivåer i organisationen.

    Studien tyder på att det delvis råder goda förutsättningar för kreativitet i den närmsta arbetsgruppen där klimatet är tryggt och medarbetarna är motiverade. Dessa förutsättningar tycks många gånger hämmas av en otydlig och inkonsekvent ledning som ger svagt idéstöd och genom bristande tillit skapar otrygga och passiva medarbetare genom hela organisationen. Studien tyder därmed på att den högsta ledningen har ett stort ansvar över om förutsättningar för kreativitet ska vara ett reellt värde i organisationen.

  • 19.
    Tallhage, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Construction of a Low-Noise Amplifier Chain With Programmable Gain and Offset2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A low-noise, variable gain amplier chain was constructed for interfa-cing a sensor to an ADC. During the course of the work two dierent methods -switched-capacitor circuits and chopping circuits - for dealing with 1/f noise wereinvestigated during the course of the work. The resulting circuit did not quitemeet the performance required by the specication, some possible improvementsare suggested.

  • 20.
    Demircioglu, Sevilay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Chenchen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perspectives of Suppliers on Corporate Social Responsibility in Emerging Economies: China and Turkey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility is attracting more public attention in business world nowadays. It has evolved well in developed countries while there still remains some CSR issues in emerging economies such as China and Turkey. Thus, when some multi- national enterprises select suppliers in China and Turkey they come with CSR requirements and pressure. In this supplier-buyer context, less study has been carried out from suppliers’ perspective on how they implement the CSR pressure and whether it has positive or negative impact on their relationship with the buyer and impact on themselves.

    In addressing this problem in this particular supplier-buyer environment, the purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives and practices of suppliers regarding CSR in emerging economies like China and Turkey with strong export relationships to companies in developed countries. In order to achieve this purpose, this thesis presents a qualitative study supported by primary data gathered by interviews and secondary data gathered by examining company documents. One Chinese supplier and one Turkish supplier were chosen as two cases in this study. Both have supplier-buyer relationships with the same buyer which has a large role in the textile industry. Interviews were conducted with two suppliers respectively to gain research data.

    The result of the study shows that: (1) CSR is perceived differently by Turkish and Chinese supplier. The Chinese supplier emphasizes their CSR perspectives on only economic and philanthropic levels while the Turkish supplier includes also ethical and legal levels. (2) In supply chains, both suppliers comply with codes of conduct from the buyer and additionally conduct CSR activities voluntarily. Both suppliers focus on philanthropy and community contribution but the Turkish supplier work on environmental friendly products. (3) There is no direct positive impact linked with CSR compliance in terms of supplier-buyer relationship for both suppliers. In other words, requirements on CSR from the buyer do not contribute much to their supply chain relationships. (4) CSR practices bring competitive advantages for both suppliers. Those competitive advantages include innovation capability and positive corporate reputation.

  • 21.
    Keller, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Implementation of LTE Baseband Algorithms for a Highly Parallel DSP Platform2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The division of computer engineering at Linköping’s university is currentlydeveloping an innovative parallel DSP processor architecture called ePUMA. Onepossible future purpose of the ePUMA that has been thought of is to implement itin base stations for mobile communication. In order to investigate the performanceand potential of the ePUMA as a processing unit in base stations, a model of theLTE physical layer uplink receiving chain has been simulated in Matlab and thenpartially mapped onto the ePUMA processor.The project work included research and understanding of the LTE standard andsimulating the uplink processing chain in Matlab for a transmission bandwidth of5 MHz. Major tasks of the DSP implementation included the development of a300-point FFT algorithm and a channel equalization algorithm for the SIMD unitsof the ePUMA platform. This thesis provides the reader with an introduction tothe LTE standard as well as an introduction to the ePUMA processor. Furthermore,it can serve as a guidance to develop mixed point radix FFTs in general orthe 300 point FFT in specific and can help with a basic understanding of channelequalization. The work of the thesis included the whole developing chain from understandingthe algorithms, simplifying and mapping them onto a DSP platform,and testing and verification of the results.

  • 22.
    Zenkevich, E.I.
    et al.
    National Technical University of Belarus, Department of Information Technologies and Robotics, Minsk, Belarus.
    Blaudeck, T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowerko, D.
    University of Zürich, Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Stupak, A.P.
    Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus.
    Cichos, F.
    Leipzig University, Institute of Experimental Physics I, Molecular Nanophotonics, Germany.
    C. von, Borczyskowski
    Institute of Physics and Center for Nanostructured Materials and Analytics (nanoMA), Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Ligand exchange dynamics and temperature effects upon formation of nanocomposites based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and porphyrins: Ensemble and single object measurements2012In: Macroheterocycles, ISSN 1998-9539, Vol. 5, no 2, 98-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dye molecules with pyridyl side substituents (porphyrins and heterocyclic perylene diimides) coordinatively attached to semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) surface form quasi-stable QD-Dye nanocomposites of various geometry in the competition with capping molecules (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide or long chain amines) exchange. This results in photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the QDs both due to Foerster resonance energy transfer and formation of non-radiative surface states. QD surface is inhomogeneous with respect to the involved attachment and detachment processes. The formation of QD-Porphyrin nanocomposites is realized at least two time scales (60 and 600 s), which is attributed to a reorganisation of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide capping shell. In a low temperature range of 220÷240 K related changes in QD absorption and emission reveal a phase transition of the capping shell (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide and amine). In QD-Dye nanocomposites, this phase transition is enhanced considerably by only a few attached dye molecules and has impact on the QD core structure followed by changes of PL quenching and exciton-phonon coupling. A combination of ensemble and single molecule spectroscopy of QD-Dye nanocomposites reveals that few or even only one attached dye molecule change the surface distribution and energy of dye related surface trap states considerably. © ISUCT Publishing.

  • 23.
    Moestedt Hellman, Jan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evaluation of magnetic biomass carriers for biogas production2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates a novel technique to increase the active biomass inside continuously stirred tank biogas reactors with possible benefits of shorter retention times, higher degree of degradation, higher methane yield and tolerance of higher organic loading rates. The technique includes addition of magnetic biomass carriers to the process which, after adhesion of active microorganisms, can be magnetically separated at reactor outflow and reintroduced to the process.

    The evaluation of magnetic biomass carriers included methods such as batch experiments, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and continuous reactor experiments with different organic loading rates and addition of volatile fatty acids. The results show that reintroduction of magnetic biomass carriers does indeed work: an accumulated biomass of microorganisms is achieved inside the reactor during a continuous process. Magnetite was selected as the most promising biomass carrier, microbiological studies of the particles show that microbiological colonization of magnetite is present with preferential adhesion of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, important for the methanogenesis. The anaerobic digestion with magnetite as biomass carrier present increased process stability and elevated degrading potential of volatile fatty acids, as well as leading to higher methane content when subjected to increased organic load. Thus, the total gas production is increased in certain situations when using magnetic biomass carriers, why further studies of appropriate hydraulic retention times, organic loading rates and substrates are warranted.

  • 24.
    Almgren, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swanström, Lennart
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, SE-72178 Västerås, Sweden.
    Pagounis, Michail
    ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.
    LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT THROUGH BUSINESS DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a study of the current sustainability management system landscape within the ABB Group and discusses the limitations and opportunities related to these systems and belonging tools. It also suggests a sustainability management model which covers both the “vertical” and “horizontal” directions along the value chain. The model describes how current management systems and tools can be better linked to the business strategy and decision situations to enable sustainable growth and profit while contributing to a “better world”. The main conclusions are that LCM needs to be explored further through the lenses of each company’s specific organization. Finally the role of a continual improvement procedure is considered the cornerstone for “true” life cycle implementation.

  • 25.
    Wadeasa, Amal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Charge transport in low-band gap polymers studied with the CELIV technique2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Charge transport is one of the most important properties in both organic and inorganic opto-electronic devices. Few experimental methods are typically used to measure this parameter in organic materials field, such as Time of flight method (TOF) and the recently proposed charge extraction in linear increase voltage (CELIV).

    In this project, we aim to design the experimental setup for the CELIV method in the laboratory at ITN. The thesis starts with simple definition for the conjugated polymers and materials used and then describe the theoretical part of the method to be able to extract some important parameters such as sample thickness, mobility, conductivity and electric field. The estimation of the thickness of the sample is compared with other well-established techniques as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscope (AFM), Ellipsometery and DekTak. Measured values of mobility and conductivity are compared to TOF results. We vary different parameters, such as polymer solution concentration, input bias, delay time, temperature and electric field. Poly (3-hexyl thiophene) or P3HT and Poly (Para-Phenylenevinylene) or PPV are the polymers characterized in this project because they have different chemical properties (side group) and physical one (regularity of the chain) and they are well-studied materials via other techniques.

  • 26.
    Granberg, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellberg, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inleveranser till SAS Bijouterier AB2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sven-Axel Svenssons Bijouterier in Söderköping is a company that imports, stores and sell accessories. They have a chain of stores called Glitter but they are also a wholesaler for retailers. They have expanded by opening new shops throughout a period of years. This expansion has caused a delay in the development of the Supply chain. In 1999 there was 14 shops in Sweden and today it is 123 shops in Norden Europe, 2004.

    The goal with this degree thesis has been to find out how the store delivery works today. If the company continues to expand the workflow to the warehouse and the shops will be affected. With simulation the store delivery can be explained and how it affects the work done in the warehouse.

    By creating a model of the real system, we have simulated how the system works today. The model is not an exact copy of the real system, it is a rough simplified image of the reality. The creation of this model makes it possible together with interviews and literature studies to make assumptions about how the delivery pattern could changes for expansions in the future.

    We start with a theoretical background about supply chains and simulation throughout a literature study. We continue with a description of the conditions for this degree thesis. The simulations have been done with a simulation tool called Arena.

    Pretty soon we could se that the pattern of the deliveries can be an obstacle for the company, in their future expansion. The warehouse deliveries works today but not satisfactory, which the company is well aware of. With help of simulation, theory and the knowledge we have got from our education, we have made some assumptions that some changes are necessary to do. In our work there are several proposals on continuing studies that can be done.

  • 27.
    Engerberg, Paulina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martinsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of vehicle utilization for Safcor Panalpina2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Safcor Panalpina (SAPA) is situated in South Africa and acts as a forwarder as well as a provider of supply chain solutions to clients all over the world. Due to keen competition, it is essential for Safcor Panalpina to continuously improve their business and enhance the efficiency throughout the chain. In order to achieve a higher profit, Safcor Panalpina needs to render a more efficient organization and face the competition from other actors on the market.

    In the present situation, Safcor Panalpina is able to supply clients by their own vehicle fleet or by an outsourced company called MPISI, which is a Black Economical Empowerment (BEE) company. BEE companies are black-owned and are a common used term introduced by the South African government, aimed to help black ownership grow their businesses.

    This thesis is mainly based on the cargo and vehicle flows from two facilities, Phase 1 and 2, to the clients in the Gauteng area, which is a province in South Africa including large cities such as Johannesburg and Pretoria. The facilities are based adjacent to the International Airport of Johannesburg.

    Safcor Panalpina claims that the utilization level for all vehicles is unacceptably low in the current situation. Since SAPA intend to reduce their own fleet, in order to expand the relationship with MPISI, they want to find the right mixture of vehicles economically viable for both parties. The purpose of this thesis is consequently to examine the utilization level of the SAPA and MPISI fleets today and further on find a new optimal fleet of vehicles. Hence, the thesis will investigate the cost perspective of the issue in order to understand what cost savings that can be achieved with this new optimal fleet.

    The chosen method for this thesis is an operation research approach entitled computer simulation, aiming to execute experiments, scenarios and finding the utilization level of each vehicle. The simulation model that is based on the real system, ended up to be a complex depiction of the actual system. Furthermore, experiments and scenarios were performed in order to find better solutions to the problem. However, the cost aspect has as well been taken into consideration in the simulation for all performed scenarios. This facilitates the cost comparisons between the original scenario, in other words the original simulation model, and the executed scenarios. The most cost saving alternative as well as the one with highest utilization level for the vehicles is consequently the chosen alternative in the end.

  • 28.
    Torp, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Önnegren, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Driving Cycle Generation Using Statistical Analysis and Markov Chains2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A driving cycle is a velocity profile over time. Driving cycles can be used for environmental classification of cars and to evaluate vehicle performance. The benefit by using stochastic driving cycles instead of predefined driving cycles, i.e. the New European Driving Cycle, is for instance that the risk of cycle beating is reduced. Different methods to generate stochastic driving cycles based on real-world data have been used around the world, but the representativeness of the generated driving cycles has been difficult to ensure.

    The possibility to generate stochastic driving cycles that captures specific features from a set of real-world driving cycles is studied. Data from more than 500 real-world trips has been processed and categorized. The driving cycles are merged into several transition probability matrices (TPMs), where each element corresponds to a specific state defined by its velocity and acceleration. The TPMs are used with Markov chain theory to generate stochastic driving cycles. The driving cycles are validated using percentile limits on a set of characteristic variables, that are obtained from statistical analysis of real-world driving cycles.

    The distribution of the generated driving cycles is investigated and compared to real-world driving cycles distribution. The generated driving cycles proves to represent the original set of real-world driving cycles in terms of key variables determined through statistical analysis.

    Four different methods are used to determine which statistical variables that describes the features of the provided driving cycles. Two of the methods uses regression analysis. Hierarchical clustering of statistical variables is proposed as a third alternative, and the last method combines the cluster analysis with the regression analysis.

    The entire process is automated and a graphical user interface is developed in Matlab to facilitate the use of the software.

  • 29.
    Glenros, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulation Games in Quantitative Logistics2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Institution of Technology and Science has for several years requested a simulation model in order to promote the KTS-department for potential students, scientists and entrepreneurs. This has resulted in a Master Thesis which consists of two parts. Part one is designed for the potential students and part two for the scientists. For the students the LogiFuel-game will be presented, which is designed in a way that students can recognize and relate to an everyday logistician problem. At the end of the simulation run the player will be evaluated based on the Wagner-algorithm. Even though the player has made the right decisions during the game, he/she will be encouraged to find another optimal solution. In part two which is named SCTemplate, the scientists will be introduced to find a robust optimum in a supply chain. In order to find a robust optimum they are able to align several predetermined parameters’.

    The report describes all of the underlying theories after which the report is divided into two parts. Each part gives the reader an overview of the user interface and model, and is ended with a presentation of the results from the applied methods and/or test runs depending on part. A discussion is conducted about each part in the end of the report and conclusions are drawn. The discussions are at first general but (and then) aimed towards the issues stated at the beginning of the report. In order to keep a wider discussion there is also a part with answers and questions.

    For the laboration a model and a user interface have been created which are capable to demonstrate that an optimum does not need to be robust. This is depicted in graphs showing the systems profit and variance. Thenceforth the Wagner-Whitinalgorithm is implemented in the game in order to evaluate the player´s acting towards an optimal plan. Furthermore the environmental concept has been incorporated by allowing the player to see hers/his generated emissions.

  • 30.
    Digerås, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integration between Optima and Farkle and verification with a use case about file storage stack integration in a quality of service manager in OSE2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    iFEST is an EU project aimed at streamlining product development by creating a standalized tool-chain. This work aims to look at how a debug and test tools can integrate with each other. The goal is to provide input for the iFEST project on how such integration should be done. The two products Optima products and Farkle developed by Enea is used for the integration. Similar integration projects are evaluated to find a possible solution to a good design. A basic design forthe integration is made based on Eclipse, previous work and analysis of the tools Optima and Farkle. The design is implemented, and verified with a use case. Use case is about integrating the layers in a file system stack.

  • 31.
    Moghadasin, Babak
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Approach on Learning Multivariate Regression Chain Graphs from Data2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The necessity of modeling is vital for the purpose of reasoning and diagnosing in complex systems, since the human mind might sometimes have a limited capacity and an inability to be objective. The chain graph (CG) class is a powerful and robust tool for modeling real-world applications. It is a type of probabilistic graphical models (PGM) and has multiple interpretations. Each of these interpretations has a distinct Markov property. This thesis deals with the multivariate regression chain graph (MVR-CG) interpretation. The main goal of this thesis is to implement and evaluate the results of the MVR-PC-algorithm proposed by Sonntag and Peña in 2012. This algorithm uses a constraint based approach used in order to learn a MVR-CG from data.In this study the MRV-PC-algorithm is implemented and tested to see whether the implementation is correct. For this purpose, it is run on several different independence models that can be perfectly represented by MVR-CGs. The learned CG and the independence model of the given probability distribution are then compared to ensure that they are in the same Markov equivalence class. Additionally, for the purpose of checking how accurate the algorithm is, in learning a MVR-CG from data, a large number of samples are passed to the algorithm. The results are analyzed based on number of nodes and average number of adjacents per node. The accuracy of the algorithm is measured by the precision and recall of independencies and dependencies.In general, the higher the number of samples given to the algorithm, the more accurate the learned MVR-CGs become. In addition, when the graph is sparse, the result becomes significantly more accurate. The number of nodes can affect the results slightly. When the number of nodes increases it can lead to better results, if the average number of adjacents is fixed. On the other hand, if the number of nodes is fixed and the average number of adjacents increases, the effect is more considerable and the accuracy of the results dramatically declines. Moreover the type of the random variables can affect the results. Given the samples with discrete variables, the recall of independencies measure would be higher and the precision of independencies measure would be lower. Conversely, given the samples with continuous variables, the recall of independencies would be less but the precision of independencies would be higher.

  • 32.
    Holstensson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Interferer Canceling Systems in a Software Defined Radio Receiver2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the work related to an interferer rejection system employing frequency analysis and cancellation through phase-opposed signal injection. The first device in the frequency analysis chain, an analog fast Fourier transform application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), was improved upon. The second device, a chained fast Fourier transform followed by a frequency analysis module employing cross-correlation for signal detection was specified, designed and implemented in VHDL.

  • 33.
    Axelsson, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janland, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    QuaySpeed - effektivare hantering av transportenheter vid hamnterminaler med hjälp av RFID2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    RFID represents, besides bar codes, another way to identify objects. The advantage with RFID, among other things, is that identification can be done without physical or visual contact and with distances of up to several meters. A possible use of RFID could be to speed up the logistic flow in the check in- and boarding processes at ferry ports. The potential earnings this could result in, is for example faster check in, faster leaving/fetching of the transport unit, better track & trace of the transport unit, increased safety and more efficient work on the quay. A number of issues were set up within three main areas: general survey of RFID technology, potential earnings and investment analysis. Besides these main areas, some other interesting issues about alternative identification methods, applications in other contexts and safety was, added to the report. The focus of this case study has nevertheless been to try to point out the potential earnings and benefits with use of RFID technology.

    As basis on order to respond to the issues, a present situation description over the studied system, from terminal – ferry transport – terminal, has been done. In this supply chain, Stena Line and Schenker have been the involved operators. On the basis of this description a case or scenario was set up where the transport units are equipped with RFID transponders. With this scenario as background, combined with discussions with RFID vendors, a cost/revenue analysis was done. Also other issues have been tried to be responded on the basis of this investment analysis combined with the scenario, discussions with RFID-vendors and a theoretical frame of reference.

    The result of the general survey of RFID technology shows, among other thing, that active UHF or SHF transponders is most common within this type of application and that the reading range complies with what is necessary. The transponder identification code does not necessary need to be of the read/write type and can consist of one of the supplier provided identification number. There is however, most often a possibility to use optional identification data, e.g. GS1: s electronic product code, EPC, which could be suitable. The result of the investment analysis shows that the major cost for Stena Line involves the system development part, while costs for hardware are almost insignificant. With continuous revenues through reduced personnel costs, the calculated payoff-time is approximately five years. The major cost for Schenker is hardware as transponders must be installed on trailer and truck. With a transponder price tag of average €20-50 and additional costs for installation, the total cost should become at least a couple of millions SEK. This includes equipping of all transport units that pass through the port of Majnabbe. With this investment, Schenker can benefit by the possibility to a later check in or the possibility to check in 24 hours per day, which can result in more loadings/unloadings and better optimization of the fleet. By identifying both truck and trailer at the quay side area, this will lead to a higher focus on port security issues. This can be seen as an increased service for both Stena Line and Schenker customers, which may result in competitive advantages.With transponder equipped trailers, this also gives the opportunity to increased track & trace applications, apart from the status reporting that today already exists in the ferry terminal. However, to benefit by this to the maximum, it also require RFID-tagging on product- or pallet level, which would lead to complete product transparency for all operators in the supply chain.

    One obstacle to introduce RFID-based check in is the laws and rules within port security, which demands full admittance control. Most likely, there can be found solutions which make automatic check in possible and still lives up to these demands.

  • 34.
    Lohm Isberg, Maximilian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and performance measurement of construction logistics2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a business with an intense flow of both material and information that require well-functioning logistics in order to not suffer from unnecessarily high costs. Suppliers play a big part regarding the costs of the distribution and handling of material and due to this a construction project’s costs are affected a great deal by the suppliers’ actions. Spinnrocken is a construction project in the town center of Norrköping. The real estate company Fastighets AB L E Lundbergs is the client and the construction company Skanska is contracted as sole constructor for the project. Spinnrocken is planned to be finalized in the summer of 2014 and consists of several rental-apartments and some smaller businesses. Spinnrocken and its central location result in major logistic challenges, because of this Lundbergs and Skanska want to analyze and evaluate the project’s logistic performance. The main purpose of this thesis is to measure the order fulfillment of interior materials, the scaffold material Doka and windows at Spinnrocken by using the so-called perfect order fulfillment measure, as defined in Supply Chain Operations Reference Model. Perfect order fulfillment indicates the delivery performance to the construction site.The combined perfect order fulfillment for the three investigated materials is 18 %. A perfect order fulfillment of 18 % means that only one out of five inspected deliveries to Spinnrocken was considered having no faults at all. The effects of a low perfect order fulfillment are disruptions in the short-term time schedule, delayed operations, additional work and that the work space at the construction site is occupied by unnecessary construction material. The resulting effects thereby affects the project’s economy negatively.

  • 35.
    Nordqvist, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analys av logistikflöde hos Inwall, Katrineholm2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Linköping University today runs the research project Industrial housing construction and its effects on the supply chain. The goal with this project is to obtain a better understanding for the development of the construction business for a more industrialized design. This thesis has been carried out as a part of the project, at Inwall in Katrineholm. Inwall is a company that perform bathroom renovations, but with a more industrialized method than the traditional one. The company packs complete “bathroom kits” at a central location and then distributes the kits to different renovation objects. At the location, the renovation process is carried out relatively standardized, in a number of steps in a certain order. For every step, there is an assembly kit with all the parts needed to perform the step. For this method, Inwall has developed a distinctive supply chain. This supply chain and the way Inwall work are the focus of this thesis.

    The purpose with the thesis is not only to generate data to the project Industrial housing construction and its effects on the supply chain but also to serve as a help to the continuous development of Inwall. The purpose will be fulfilled by answering the following questions:

    • What parts/processes should Inwall be focusing at to generate a more efficient supply

    chain?

    • What would the benefits be if a more efficient supply chain was established today?

    • How would a more efficient supply chain effect Inwalls future development?

    The thesis identifies a number of problems in the way which Inwall work today. Proposals of how to solve these problems, and thus obtain a more efficient supply chain, are given in the text. In order to say that a change really were an improvement, there must be a way measure the change. For this reason, parts of the SCOR-model are introduced. The SCOR-modell features a number of metrics, developed to measure different parts and processes of a supply chain.

    Inwalls biggest problem today is that they do not have any IT-based business system to handle the logistic processes of the company. As a result, lot of manual labour is needed and a great responsibility is placed on the people doing it. In some cases, Inwall lacks routines to handle different areas such as failing deliveries etc. If the problems in this thesis were to be solved today, the major profit would be that the amount of work placed on certain people could be reduced but it might not have any great effects on the company’s total profit in a short term basis. But on the other hand, Inwall is counting on a major expansion in a near future, and for this reason some of the problems are needed to be solved or Inwall might need to face the possibility that the logistics could get out of hand.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cost calculation for a door to door service and analysis on the possibel contribution from backhaul2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been made with the purpose of trying to attain the competitiveness between container carriers and specialised reefers in offering door-door services for perishable cargo. In order to achieve a full scale picture of the investigated cost chains a number of different analyses and calculations have been performed regarding the door-door cost chain. Two key trades where the NLC group is currently operating have been chosen as basis for this comparison. Still, the intention in this study has been to find the general benefits/disadvantages regard the chosen mode of transportation, which can be applicable to any trade using a certain mode.

    A model has therefore been constructed based on earlier studies conducted within the NLC group, relevant shipping theory and new information gathered during interviews and questionnaires. This model computes a comparison between the shipper and carrier looking at the total door-door cost. An indication on the competition in the trade is hereby attained. However most importantly is that the comparison generates an overview of the economical conditions in the trade, i.e. are the trades theoretically making money.

    The results from this study show that there is a margin in most trades between the cost to produce the service, i.e. carrier cost and the shipper cost. This is only natural however the troubles come from comparing the margins between the container and specialised reefer vessel. These result shows that the container margin in certain trades is almost three times the size of the specialised reefers looking at competing trades. This does not only indicate bigger revenue but also makes for a buffer towards market fluctuations.

    Results from the study also show the importance in taking full control of the entire cost chain and not to be governed by strong importers controlling the end of the chain. This is especially true looking at pallets transported under deck where the haulage activity plays a critical scale of balance role, with the possibility of breaking the entire cost chain.

    A backhaul cost model has also been constructed in order to find the possible effects which backhaul can play on the total round voyage cost. These results show that all investigated backhaul cargo covers the additional cost for the backhaul operation, hence giving contribution to container and ship repositioning. However only live cargo shipped in operating 40`RHC can pay the full cost for the round voyage.

    Looking at the general competitiveness between the different transport modes this study does not produce any final conclusions. A tendency can however be noticed towards container lines under the right circumstances tend to produce the door-door service at a lower cost compared to the specialised reefer.

  • 37.
    Thoresson, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westlund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Turnaround Times for Increased Capacity at the Port of Bahía Blanca2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Port of Bahía Blanca has for many years been an important center of transportation of agricultural products in Argentina. The increasing traffic to the port has resulted in an escalating need for higher efficiency, since the current facilities have problems with fatal accidents, long turnaround times and overall congestion.

    This project is focused on inbound truck traffic for four of the terminals in the port handling grain and cereals. All the trucks are compulsorily required to go through a facility called the Triangle where trucks are checked in and queued until they are allowed to proceed to the unloading facilities at the terminal. The Triangle is the case study for this project and the objective has been to analyze the turnaround time and how it could be reduced. The second part of this project examines the Triangle as an actor of its supply chain and how it is possible to develop the Triangle with respect to its supply chain.

    A simulation model of the Triangle was constructed and several scenarios were analyzed. It was then possible to determine the principal reason for congestion and long turnaround times; the reason being poor synchronization between the arrival of the trucks and the capacity at the terminals. The arrival pattern was changed in the model and this made it possible to reduce the turnaround time significantly. By creating six appointment intervals per day it was possible to reduce turnaround times by around 50 per cent for three of four terminals. Other affecting factors such as check-in, quality control and batch sizes were also analyzed; however, these factors showed much less influence on the total turnaround time.

    The structure of the supply chain was investigated, as well as the power bases of the different actors. The current structure is somewhat complex and does not encourage the changes necessary to constitute an efficient supply chain.

    This project has resulted in recommendations at both operative and strategic levels. The operative recommendations are to use the current appointment system but in a stricter manner. Each day should be divided into at least six time -slots in which trucks are expected to arrive. A differential price strategy for arriving trucks should be used in order to encourage punctuality. Penalty fees should be implemented when the terminals do not follow the stated schedule.

    In order to implement the changes and ensure the quality of the services it is necessary to instate a channel captain for this supply chain. The Consortium, the manager of the port, should take a more active role to become the channel captain to support overall optimization of the supply chain, rather than of local segments.

  • 38.
    Olofsson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallentin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Produktionsflödesvisualisering av malmförädlingen ovan jord vid LKAB2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to viewing the production flow LKAB has a lot of detailed views, each describing a specific part of the whole. What the company lacks, however, is a good overview of its supply chain above ground. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to create an application that gives a visual overview of one of the company.s production lines above ground in Kiruna. This to present a tool that makes it easier to find parts of the chain that have excess or under capacity and bottlenecks.

    The work has been carried out on site at LKAB in Kiruna and has resulted in the program ProductionFlowViz. The program is written independently of other software in use at LKAB. Within the program the user can specify a time period of historic data that he or she wants to have a closer look at. The production flow is visualized through three different views:

    a 2D-view that displays the production flow at a certain point in time

    a 3D-landscape that shows the production flow over the whole time period

    a 2D-view that displays a part of the flow over time

    The application can be used to analyse the supply chain KS-KA2-KK3 over a certain time period chosen by the user. It is possible to follow how a halt in one part of the production spreads like a wave through the rest of the flow. Visually KS seems to have excess capacity  since its parts oscillates heavily between high and low values.

  • 39.
    Åkesson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    För systemets skull och inte för naturens bästa: En studie av hållbar turism inom boendesektorn2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study environmental work in the Swedish hotel chain "Scandic" is investigated. Earlier studies point out sustainability and different environmental certificate programs as essential for the housing sector to contribute to sustainable tourism. The purpose and willingness to fulfill such a mission has been investigated by interviewing central actors in the hotel chain. The result shows that there is a desire to be part of environmental certificate programs mainly for the reason to be part of the system and not for the benefit of nature. Sustainable development is understood as being environmentally friendly. Different solutions to adapt and being more environmentally friendly is discussed. The results are connected with the perspectives of sustainable tourism and possible improvements in the housing sector are discussed. Svanen, who is a well-known eco-label in Sweden, is being discussed further on in this study. The eco-label represents a big part of the hotel chains environmental work and is therefore an important part to investigate further.

     

    Keywords; Scandic Sustainable tourism, Sustainable development, environmental adaption, Svanen. 

  • 40.
    Jullesson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiring liposomes and chloroplasts to the grid with an electronic polymer.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel thylakoid based bio-solar cell capable of generating a photoelectric current of    0.7 µA/cm2. We have introduced an electro conductive polymer, PEDOT-S, to the thylakoid membrane. PEDOT-S intervenes in the photosynthesis, captures electrons from the electron transport chain and transfers them directly across the thylakoid membrane, thus generating a current. The incorporation of the electro conductive polymer into the thylakoid membrane is therefore vital for the function of the bio-solar cell. A liposomal model system based on liposomes formed by oleic acid was used to develop and study the incorporation of PEDOT-S to fatty acid membranes. The liposomes allow for a more controllable and easily manipulated system compared to the thylakoid membrane. In the model system, PEDOT-S could successfully be incorporated to the membrane, and the developed methods were applied to the real system of thylakoid membranes. We found that a bio-compatible electrolyte and redox couple was required for this system to function. The final thylakoid based bio-solar cell was evaluated according to performance and reproducibility. We found that this bio-solar system can generate a low but reproducible current.

     

     

  • 41.
    Jörler, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sigonius, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transportflödesanalys på Peab/Skandinaviska Byggelement2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis examines the companies Peab and Skandinaviska Byggelement’s transport flow and how an increased prefabrication in the construction industry of apartment blocks will affect the transports. The recommendations given in this report are based on theory and a survey of the companies. Skandinaviska Byggelement’s factory is located in Katrineholm and supplies Peab and other customers with prefabricated construction elements. The study involves a wide perspective from suppliers to customers to identify problems, which affect the transport flow through the supply chain.

    The present transports to and from Skandinaviska Byggelement have a satisfying level of transport utilization and involve only a few practical problems. The transports are well integrated into Skandinaviska Byggelement’s overall strategy to keep low levels of inventory of incoming material. To keep these levels low, it is important to focus on the physical distribution and the flow of information, especially if an increase in production volume will occur. Concerning the distribution of prefabricated construction elements, the same situation arises even though longer unloading times are needed at the construction sites. Since the construction elements are planned to arrive according to the Just In Time-principle, delays during the transport and unloading activities cause problems for the planning on site. To avoid these problems a higher level of integration between the participants in the supply chain is necessary. Additional competition advantages are also possible with this integration.

    The use of prefabricated walls has a greater environmental impact than using a traditional construction strategy, due to increased total transport work. According to present annual volume of production at Skandinaviska Byggelement, the prefabricated walls are transported more than twice as long as the material concerning building on site. This clearly affects the impact on the environment since most of the transports are by truck. Only a few of the company’s deliveries are carried out by railway and to gain competitive advantages, a recommendation is to increase the amount of railway transports, especially if the transportation volume will increase.

    A recommendation to Skandinaviska Byggelement would be to strive for an increased standardization strategy in terms of processes and products. By this standardization, the construction elements will no longer be customer specific, which leads to a decreased workload in the design of the elements. The standardization process also improves handling within loading and unloading, leading to improved benefits for other participants in the supply chain.

  • 42.
    Petersson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Explorativ temporal visual space management för beslutsunderlag2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes VisMT 2. VisMT 2 is a software developed as a master thesis by Daniel Peterson at Linköping University in cooperation with the organization NVIS (Norrköpings Visualiserings och Interaktionsstudio).

    The purpose of VisMT 2 was to create a simple and powerful piece of software that in a novel way exposes results and performance of retail chain stores. Moreover a goal set that the program was to be based on a explorative user interface where the user can examine store related data in both the spatial and temporal dimensions.

    The program was given a user interface consisting of linked views. Interaction in one view gives feedback in related data in other views in real time.

    The program was developed C# .NET and uses Microsoft DirectX to generate 3D-graphics. The final result well satisfies the initial goal created in the initial stages of the project. Data is presented in a satisfactory way and the now VisMT 2 is expected to be evaluated by professionals in Swedish and European retail trade business. This evaluation will lay the foundation for further development.

  • 43.
    Ugochukwu, Paschal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean in the supply chain: research and practice2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is a management philosophy that enhances customer value through waste elimination and continuous improvement in a system by applying lean principles, practices, and techniques. The focus on lean implementations and research had been typically a single company without extension to the entire supply chain. When the concept of lean is implemented across the entire supply chain, however, it is referred to as lean supply chain. The purpose of this thesis is to create a structure from theory and practice of lean in the supply chain, which will enhance understanding of the field.

     The thesis is based on a comprehensive review of articles on lean in the supply chain using structured content analysis approach. The reviewed articles are classified based on the articles’ basic characteristics and contextual issues or ideas. Also, a case study of an aerospace industry was conducted in order to gain insight on lean in supply chain from a practice perspective.

     Lean in the supply chain as a supply chain management strategy aims at applying the lean concepts to the whole functions within the entire supply chain members: suppliers, focal organisations, distributors, and customers. From the literature review and the case study, it is found that researchers and practitioners view lean in the supply chain as a transformation process in the supply chain which results in a transformed and competitive supply chain called lean supply chain. The studies show that the attributes and outcomes of the major result of lean in the supply chain (lean supply chain) help in better understanding of the field. Lean supply chain is found to be linked to the following benefits: improved quality reduced cost, improved delivery, high flexibility, reduced shortage, etc. Also, it is distinguished from the traditional supply chain by the following attributes: Long-term relations with suppliers, effective communication and information sharing, integrated supply chain members, continuous improvements, and predictability. The transformation and the benefits are linked to the implementation of lean principles, practices and techniques in the supply chain. There is no rigorous and general purpose process in the implementation of lean in the supply chain; however, general and adaptable steps can be followed. Choice and order of implementation of lean tools and techniques depends on suitability, situations, preference and familiarity. It is found that from the literature review that the research approach on lean in the supply chain is structured towards gaining in-depth knowledge of the field. The emphasis on the supply chain members; suppliers and focal organisations by the authors of the reviewed articles shows their importance in the supply chain.

  • 44.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gransberg, Sophia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strategiskt inköp: en kartläggning av en strategisk inköpsfunktions roll, arbetssätt och struktur2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Problem definition: In recent years the purchasing department has been the subject of increased strategic importance and has taken an active role in creating and contributing to competitive advantage. This due to the fact that the department is an important part of the supplier-customer-chain and contributes to make sure that it does not break. Consequently, the department has taken a more complex and strategic role and this can be assumed has had an impact on the department’s work practices and structure. The connection between role, work practices and structure is complex where the role is the determinant variable and affects how work practices and structure are designed.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe a strategic purchasing department’s roles, work practices and structure and to identify problems and potential changes from the description.

    Method: The result of this study is based on a qualitative case study of an organisation that operates in the engineering industry. In total, 15 interviews were performed with employees both at the strategic purchasing department and other departments in the organisation.

    Results: The study has shown that a department for strategic purchasing performs tasks that are operative, supportive and strategic where the operative work is not described in theory as part of the strategic buyer’s work description. It is also not wanted by the organisation. Three roles have been identified this; Firefighter, Supplier-Responsible and Supplier-Developer where the first of them intrudes on the other two. One reason for the existence of operative work is that the difference between what is operative, supportive and strategic work is not always clear. There are ways of undermining the unwanted role Firefighter but implementing routines takes time. Furthermore the study has shown that structure contributes to the strategic focus of the strategic purchasing department.

  • 45.
    Unge, Peter
    et al.
    Sandviken Hospital, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bengt
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stålhammar, Nils-Olov
    Astra Hässle AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    The Cost Effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori Eradication versus Maintenance and Episodic Treatment in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in Sweden1995In: PharmacoEconomics (Auckland), ISSN 1170-7690, Vol. 8, no 5, 410-427 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the cost effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication and conventional treatment in duodenal ulcer patients treated by a general practitioner. Using a Markov chain approach, Swedish cost data and a study period of 5 years, we conclude that H. pylori eradication with omeprazole and appropriate antibiotics is a cost-effective alternative compared with both maintenance and episodic treatment. Of the patients entering the eradication strategy, most are cured and will have no relapse during a 5-year period. H. pylori eradication results in higher initial costs but, because of a very low risk of recurrence after successful eradication, the expected future costs are reduced. The investment pays off within 1 year when compared with maintenance treatment, and within 3 years when compared with episodic treatment.

  • 46.
    Farhad, Nandita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Slobodian, Nataliia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The CSR strategies of the MNCs to ensure the labor rights of migrant workers: the 2022 FIFA World Cup Project in Qatar: (The case study based on Migrant Workers of Bangladesh)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The CSR strategies of the MNCs to ensure the labor rights of migrant workers: the 2022 FIFA World Cup Project in Qatar (Case study based on Migrant Workers of Bangladesh)Authors: Nandita Farhad and Nataliia SlobodianSupervisor: Charles WoolfsonDate: May 30th, 2012Background: The Corporate social responsibility (CSR) became at the forefront of corporate strategy of many businesses. However, the area of human and labor rights as a part of CSR of the business is not deeply studied, especially when it comes to the ground level workers which constitute the majority of employees in the construction sector. There is quite a mystery in the CSR field what exactly CSR is and what are the motives and benefits of being socially responsible. MNC’s compliance to the legal system of the country is seen as one of the basis for CSR, but will it be still place for CSR when the ‘legal basis’ is missing as it is in Qatar, country of the 2022 FIFA World Cup Project.Aim: The purpose of this research is to find out whether multinational construction companies incorporate human and labor rights into their CSR strategy upstream as the basis of CSR policy, and what is even most important, downstream as a resource for CSR practice including those throughout the supply chain. This research aims to enhance the understanding of the importance of human and labor rights as the part of CSR, especially when it comes to migrant workers from the third world countries.Methodology: A qualitative study has been conducted. Relaying on the existing theories of CSR and by applying the 2022 FIFA World Cup Project case study as an empirical tool we support and review established theoretical understanding. This allows us to make use of existing knowledge in the field as well as contribute with our own findings and critical review.Completion and results: The study found that the MNCs of the 2022 FIFA World Cup Project have unclear CSR strategies, hence ineffective practices towards ensuring human and labor rights for the Bangladeshi migrant workers, especially within their supply chains.Search terms: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Multinational Corporation (MNC), human and labor rights, migrant workers, Qatar, the 2022 FIFA World Cup Project.

  • 47.
    Nangunoori, Chetan Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kumar Bhaskar, Ravichandra Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parametric Ram Air Channel Model for Flow Optimization2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ram air channel or NACA channel is used to direct the ambient air for various purposes in an aircraft, such as pressurizing the cabin or as a coolant to heat exchangers and even more other applications like a cooling of the coolant. It is designed; such that it supplies the required amount of ambient air for various operations as mentioned, even aero-dynamical features should be taken into consideration while designing.

    In past, the developed prototypes are to be designed first and then experimented to optimize the design which gives accurate predictions and makes easy to understand the phenomenon occurring. These methods can lead to lot of waste in resources and time, in order to avoid these, some new mathematical methods have been implemented before finalizing the prototype which might save resources, time and minimize the possibility of having wrong outcomes. Some additional steps are included during calculation stage prior to the prototype stage; they are the computer aided simulations. These simulations can be as accurate as real time simulations and can bring closer to accuracy rate which is a needed prior to prototype stage.

    The aim is to design a tool chain for a Ram air channel which in turn is used to optimize the flow, then supplied to heat exchangers for cooling the hot refrigerant from the avionics systems. The requirements of the heat exchanger are decided on the applications it is used and the range of temperature to be cooled.

    In this study work, firstly estimate the size of the heat exchanger for the required performance, followed by the geometry of Ram air channel designing in CAD application so that it maintains the required amount of mass flow rate for the performance of heat exchanger. Finally these both components are implemented in simulation loop to iterate the designs of NACA channel in order to get the final model to optimize the flow for a heat exchanger.

     

  • 48.
    Raman, Amitha
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Heterologous expression of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) from Physcomitrella patens in yeast Pichia pastoris2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on utilization of Pichia pastoris system for the expression of type G non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTPs) from moss Physcomitrella patens, a small, soluble, basic protein which is capable of in vitro transfer of phospholipid molecules between membranes. A 250-265 bp DNA fragment which contains the coding region of the nsLTP gene was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).  The nsLTPs were inserted into the expression vector pPCIZαA which contains the alcohol oxidase gene (AOX1) promoter. The AOX1 promoter under methanol induction allows for the expression of heterologous protein gene. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into the host strain P.pastoris KM71H by electroporation. PCR analysis showed a clear 800-900 bp fragment with AOX1 primers and a 250-265 bp fragment with gene specific primers suggesting that nsLTP gene has been successfully integrated into the P.pastoris genome. The expressed nsLTP had a molecular mass of 11-13 KDa when analyzed with SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Western blot analysis also confirmed that nsLTPs were N-glycosylated with a molecular mass of ~33KDa. A simple affinity purification procedure was adopted to purify nsLTPs from the culture supernatant, yielding 10 mg of nsLTPG2 (purity 46%), 8.8 mg of nsLTPG4 (purity 30.5%) and 9 mg of nsLTPG8 (purity 52%) from 9 mL of the supernatant. These results clearly indicate that P.pastoris is an efficient system for expression of nsLTPs.

  • 49.
    Åkesson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An LLVM Back-end for REPLICA: Code Generation for a Multi-core VLIWProcessor with Chaining2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    REPLICA is a PRAM-NUMA hybrid architecture, with support for instructionlevel parallelism as a VLIW architecture. REPLICA can also chain instructionsso that the output from an earlier instruction can be used as input to a laterinstruction in the same execution step.

    There are plans in the REPLICA project to develop a new C-based program-ming language, compilers and libraries to speed up development of parallel pro-grams. We have developed a LLVM back-end as a part of the REPLICA projectthat can be used to generate code for the REPLICA architecture. We have alsocreated a simple optimization algorithm to make better use of REPLICAs supportfor instruction level parallelism. Some changes to Clang, LLVMs front-end forC/C++/Objective-C, was also necessary so that we could use assembler in-liningin our REPLICA programs.

    Using Clang to compile C-code to LLVMs internal representation and LLVMwith our REPLICA back-end to transform LLVMs internal representation intoMBTAC1 assembler.

  • 50.
    Wilzén, Josef
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lee, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Risken för kolorektal cancer i förhållande till kostmönster, fysisk aktivitet och BMI i sydöstra Sverige: Analys av data från en fall-kontrollstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have shown several risk factors for developing colorectal cancer such as diet, physical activity and BMI. The method of analyzing diets based on dietary patterns, rather than individual food items, have been shown to be effective when investigating the colorectal cancer risk. The data was collected using a case-control study of 257 cases and 805 controls.

    Aim: Identify factors that cause increased or decreased risk in developing colorectal cancer based on diet, physical activity and BMI.

    Methods: Factor analysis was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio and 95 % confidence interval.

    Results: Factor analysis conducted ten dietary patterns, three of these patterns showed an increased risk “Soft drinks, juice and milk products” (OR=1,288; ORQ4=2,159), “Tea, but not coffee” (OR=1,228; ORQ3=1,891; ORQ4=1,668) and “Poultry, red meats and fish” (ORQ4=1,724).The dietary pattern “Food based on grain and cheese” (ORQ2=0,546; ORQ4=0,592) showed a decreased risk. BMI ten years ago (OR=1,079; OROverweight=1,491; ORObese=2,260) identified as a risk factor. To work in sedentary (OR=0,975; OR>15 years=0,517) or physically medium heavy (OR=0,977; OR6-10 years=0,497; OR>15 years=0,565) occupations indicated a decreased risk.

    Conclusions: Several dietary patterns has been identified as risk factors, this also includes BMI ten years ago. The dietary pattern “Food based on grain and cheese” and to work in sedentary or physically medium heavy occupations proved to be protective factors.

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