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  • 1.
    Lennartsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    2+2=5! Orsaker till barns svårigheter i matematikinlärning och lämpliga åtgärder.2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om matematiksvårigheter.

    Jag ville att mina studier skulle leda till att jag blir bättre på att bemöta elever som har svårt med matematik och därför valde jag att utgå från följande frågeställningar: Vad kan det finnas för orsaker till att elever har matematiksvårigheter? Vilka svårigheter har eleverna och hur kan man arbeta för att hjälpa dem.

    Genom att läsa litteratur och intervjua sju lärare har jag sökt svar på mina frågor. Under arbetets gånghar jag fått reda på en mängd olika faktorer som kan orsaka matematiksvårigheter. Många av dessa kan härledas till elevens omgivning och det verkar handla om att det inte enbart är en aspekt som gör att en elev får matematiksvårigheter.

    Svårigheter som framkommit handlar bl.a. om att eleverna har svårt med sin taluppfattning, svårt att lära sig tabeller, svårigheter att kunna bedöma rimlighet, svårt med positionssystemet och språkliga svårigheter. Det gäller att inte fokusera för mycket på vilka svårigheter eleven har utan istället försöka förstå hur eleven tänker och utifrån det försöka hjälpa eleven.

    Vad det gäller åtgärder har jag fått massor med exempel på hur man kan arbeta. Det finns inte en viss metod man kan använda utan det är bra att ha en bank av tips på hur man kan arbeta. Det centrala är att man utgår från den enskilda eleven och försöker finna lämpliga åtgärder. Det är också viktigt att man försöker få eleven delaktig i sitt eget lärande.

    Under skrivandets gång känns det som om jag har fått mycket ny kunskap vilket förhoppningsvis gjort mig bättre rustad för att möta elever som har svårare för matematik än andra.

  • 2.
    Saraste, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abbott, Allan
    Katashev, A
    Murans, G
    3D analysis of spine and chest wall form and mobility. Application of a new method to evaluate treatment outcome in pediatric spine deformities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    A new optical scanning method is applyed for a static and dynamic analysis of thorax and spine deformities in brace and surgically treated scoliosis patients to capture intervention dependent changes over time. The costs and additional information captured by the method is analysed.

    Introduction

    To evaluate the intervention dependent changes in spine and chest wall deformities, such as mobility of thorax, volume, symmetry of growth, and possible growth distorting factors are poorly known and should be studied. In patients with neuropathic spine deformities, the seat loading is of importance to enhance balanced sitting and preventing pressure problems. Quantitative methods to be used for over time comparisons need to be further developed.

    In adolescents the decision to treat a spine deformity is mainly based on radiographic findings, whereas many patients are more interested in how their body configuration deviates from the normality. There is a need to implement and evaluate a method for this purpose. In brace treated children and adolescents, a non-radiation producing examination is to prefer for repeated follow-up controls.

    Methods

    A consequtive series of children with spine deformity, who are enrolled in the treatment protocol, are invited to take part in the tests. In surgery group, tests are performed before and 3 months after surgery aimed to correct the spine and/or thorax deformity. In brace treatment and follow-up groups tests are made at the same time points as x-rays. The static and dynamic recordings are performed by and optic scanenr Artec 3D (Artec Group, San Diego, CA), and the sitting load distribution measurements with a sensor mat (Clin-seat Type 5315 by Tekscan, Boston, Massachusetts, USA). 60 children/year in brace treatment, 40 in surgery, and 50 in the follow-up group are estimated to be included. These methods´ costs and benefits as well as their added value for the clinical decision making will be evaluated after 2-3 years.

    Results

    A feasibility test shows that clinically small enough differences can be recorded and numerically expressed and analysed. An application on a consecutive, clinical patient group will be carried on.

    Conclusion

    The optical scanning method by Artec, allows a static and dynamic capturing of respiratoryassociated thorax movements and the changes of a spine deformity over time. The new method will be applied in a consecutive series of patients.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Havik, Odd
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway.
    Nordgreen, Tine
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway.
    6 Internet-supported versus face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for depression2016In: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, ISSN 1473-7175, E-ISSN 1744-8360, Vol. 16, no 1, 55-60 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depression and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent and there is a need for different forms of psychological treatments that can be delivered from a distance at a low cost. In the present review the authors contrast face-to-face and Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for depression. A total of five studies are reviewed in which guided ICBT was directly compared against face-to-face CBT. Meta-analytic summary statistics were calculated for the five studies involving a total of 429 participants. The average effect size difference was Hedges g=0.12 (95% CI: -0.06-0.30) in the direction of favoring guided ICBT. The small difference in effect has no implication for clinical practice. The overall empirical status of clinician-guided ICBT for depression is commented on and future challenges are highlighted. Among these are developing treatments for patients with more severe and long-standing depression and for children, adolescents and the elderly. Also, there is a need to investigate mechanisms of change.

  • 4.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nilheim, Katarina
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    6-month-olds and delayed actions: An early sign of an early explicit memory?2004In: Cogniţie, Creier, Comportament/Cognition, Brain, Behavior, ISSN 1224-8398, Vol. VIII, no 3-4, 249-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1996 Barr, Dowden and Hayne reported that 6 month old infants imitate new actions with objects after a substantial delay. This is a finding in need of independent replications and the study reported here presents one such attempt. Forty-five 6 months old Swedish infants (22 girls) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=30) or acontrol condition (n=15). The procedure replicates the method used by Barret al. with one exception: The imposed delay was 10 minutes instead of 24 hours. Overall it was found that the children in the imitation group displayed significantly more target acts than the children in the control group and it is concluded that infants are capable of using deferred imitation as means for learning new actions already at 6 months.

  • 5.
    Byrne, Brian
    et al.
    University of New England.
    Coventry, William
    University of New England.
    Olson, Richard
    University of Colorado.
    Hulslander, Jacqueline
    University of Colorado.
    DeFries, John
    University of Colorado.
    Corley, Robin
    University of Colorado.
    Willcutt, Erik
    University of Colorado.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    A behaviour-genetic analysis of orthographic learning, spelling and decoding2008In: Journal of research in reading (Print), ISSN 0141-0423, Vol. 31, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a longitudinal twin study of literacy and language, we conducted a behaviour-genetic analysis of orthographic learning, spelling and decoding in Grade 2 children (225 identical and 214 fraternal twin pairs) in the United States and Australia. Each variable showed significant genetic and unique environment influences. Multivariate analyses revealed very high genetic correlations among the variables, indicating that the same genes are involved in their aetiology. These genes are partly independent of those contributing to intelligence. A further analysis indicated that the covariation between decoding and orthographic learning is mediated by shared genes rather than by a direct causal path. The authors argue that a learning parameter, most directly assessed by orthographic learning in this study, underlies all three literacy variables. The results are also discussed in relation to Share's self-teaching hypothesis, which may require modification. © United Kingdom Literacy Association 2008.

  • 6.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Västra Götalandsregionen, Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    A Biopsychosocial and Long Term Perspective on Child Behavioral Problems: Impact of Risk and Resilience2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health has become a prominent issue in society. Yet, much remains unknown about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the association between biological, psychological and social factors of risk and resilience and behavioral problems in a birth cohort of Swedish children. 1723 mothers and their children were followed from birth to the age of 12 as part of the South East Sweden Birth Cohort Study (the SESBiC study). Information was gathered through register data, standardized questionnaires and DNA samples.

    In study I, stability of maternal symptoms of depression and the impact on child behavior at age 12 were investigated. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was found to be 12.0 % postpartum. Symptoms of postpartum depression significantly increased the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms 12 years later in women. Children whose mothers reported concurrent symptoms of depression and anxiety had an increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12, but no long term effect on child behavior was seen for postpartum depressive symptoms. The greatest risk was seen for children whose mothers reported symptoms of depression on both occasions. In study II, the impact of gene-environment interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met and experience of life events together with symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety on child behavior at age 12 was studied. A main effect of 5-HTTLPR was noticed, but no geneenvironment effects were shown. Similarly to study I, concurrent symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety were an important predictor of child behavioral problems. A high degree of psychosocial stress around childbirth was found to have long lasting detrimental effects on child behavior, increasing the risk for internalizing problems at age 12. Study III investigated the impact of geneenvironment interactions of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met and life events together with symptoms of maternal depression and birth characteristics on behavioral problems at age 3. Symptoms of postpartum depression were found to predict internalizing as well as externalizing problems in children three years later. Child experience of life events was a stable predictor of behavioral problems across the scales similar to sociodemographic factors such as parental immigration status and unemployment. No gene-environment interaction effects of 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met were shown. Study IV used the risk factors identified in studies I-III to investigate factors of resilience to behavioral problems at age 12. The l/l genotype of 5-HTTLPR was associated with a lower risk for behavioral problems at age 12, especially for children facing low adversity. Good social functioning was found to be a general resource factor, independent of the level of risk, while an easy temperament was associated with resilience for children with a high degree of adversity. However, effect sizes were small.

    In summary, the results from the present thesis emphasize the importance of maternal mental health and sociodemographic factors for child mental health at ages 3 and 12, which must be taken into account in clinical settings. Moreover, it adds to the null-findings of the gene-environment effect of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on behavioral problems in children, but indicates a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms at age 12.

    List of papers
    1. Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age
    2013 (English)In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 17, no 3, 405-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children of depressed mothers have been shown to express behaviour problems to a greater extent than children of non-depressed mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine the persistence of depressive symptoms in mothers and to evaluate the relative importance of symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) and concurrent maternal symptoms of depression, on child behaviour at age 12. A birth cohort of 1,707 children and their mothers was followed from 3 months after birth to 12 years after birth. Self-reported symptoms of depression in mothers were assessed at baseline and 12-year follow-up where 893 mothers (52.3 %) and their children participated. The mothers reports on the behaviour of their children at age 12 were used. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors that increased the risk of child behaviour problems. At baseline, 10.4 % scored above the cutoff for symptoms of postpartum depression. At follow up, 18.2 % scored above the cutoff for depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that ongoing maternal symptoms of depression, as distinct from PPD-symptoms, was the strongest predictor of child behaviour problems at age 12. The gender of the child and socio-demographic factors at baseline were additional factors that affected the risk of behaviour problems in the 12 year old children. Children of mothers who reported symptoms of depression, both postpartum and at follow-up, were at a greater risk of behaviour problems compared to children of women with no depressive symptoms on either occasion. Our findings indicate that recurrent and ongoing maternal depressive symptoms significantly increase the risk of child behaviour problems as reported by mothers, while symptoms of PPD do not seem to result in an increased risk of behaviour problems in 12 year olds. High maternal socio-demographic life stress at childbirth constitutes an important risk factor for later child behaviour problems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2013
    Keyword
    CBCL, Children, Mental health, Postpartum depression, SESBiC-study
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90750 (URN)10.1007/s10995-012-0985-z (DOI)000316021200003 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-05 Created: 2013-04-05 Last updated: 2016-01-22
    2. Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, no 1, 10- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.

    METHODS: Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2013
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104869 (URN)10.1186/1753-2000-7-10 (DOI)23518193 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2016-01-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The early environment is important for child development and wellbeing. Gene-by-environment studies investigating the impact of the serotonin transporter genelinked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms by life events on mental health and behaviour problems have been inconclusive. Methodological differences regarding sample sizes, study population, definitions of adversities and measures of mental health problems obstacle their comparability. Furthermore, very few studies included children. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of risk factors covering pregnancy and birth, genetic polymorphism, experience of multiple life events and psychosocial environment, and child behaviour at age three, using a comparably large, representative, population-based sample.

    Methods: A total of 1,106 children, and their mothers, were followed from pregnancy to age three. Information on pregnancy and birth-related factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms, child behaviour and child experiences of life events were filled in by the mothers. Child saliva samples were used for genotyping the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between psychological scales and genetic polymorphisms.

    Results: Symptoms of postpartum depression increased the risk of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Experience of multiple life events was also a predictor of behavioural problems across the scales. No gene-by-environment or gene-bygene-by-environment interactions were found. Children of immigrants had an increased risk of internalizing problems and parental unemployment was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing type of problems.

    Conclusion: This study shows the importance of the psychosocial environment for psychosocial health in preschool children, and adds to  the literature of null-findings of gene-by-environment effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF in children

    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124207 (URN)10.1186/s12887-016-0614-x (DOI)000377535800002 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:Funding was obtained from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS), the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Clas Groschinsky Memorial Foundation, Stockholm, Samariten Foundation, Stockholm, the Hallsten Research Foundation and ALF, County Council of Ostergotland.

    Vid tiden för publicering förelåg publikationen endast som manuskript

    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2016-07-06Bibliographically approved
    4. A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve
    Show others...
    2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

    Keyword
    Child, genotype, longitudinal, mental health, resilience
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124208 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2016-01-22Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A Biopsychosocial Approach to Risk and Resilience on Behavior in Children Followed from Birth to Age 122017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 4, 584-596 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and childrens experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. The l/ l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region was associated with lower internalizing scores, but not mainly related to the level of adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilience for children exposed to high adversity. Social functioning was found to be promotive independent of the risk level. The results support a multiple-level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors.

  • 8.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

  • 9.
    Knutsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Blueprint for Women’s Fulfilment: A Reading of Three Novels in the Early Fiction of Margaret Drabble2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will argue that Margaret Drabble has developed a pattern, that there is a blueprint for fulfilment in the life of the modern independent woman to be found inher early work. Three of Drabble's novels will be examined, moving from The Millstone(1965) and The Waterfall (1967), with their descriptions of two young heroines'pregnancies and lives with infant children, on to the more mature main character of TheRealms of Gold (1975). These three books form a chronology, both in regard to whenthey were written and, more importantly, to the different stages of a woman’s life thatthey represent. This will make it possible to see how Drabble perceives the demands ofsociety and different relationships influencing a woman's actions, her search foridentity, and the direction and fulfilment of her life. The pattern will be traced throughthree themes which are made visible in the novels in varying degrees. These are singlemotherhood and the role of the family, missing husbands and sexual fulfilment, andcareer and social interaction.The method is an analysis of the texts where the selected novels form the basis andstructure of the essay.

  • 10.
    Osvaldsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
    A case for dialogue between studies of interaction and psychoanalysis in child development.2017In: Research on Children and Social interaction, ISSN ISSN 2057-5807 (print)Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A change in life as experienced by first-time fathers2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 1, 64-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the attitude of men towards pregnancy, childbirth and child-caring is different from that of women. Up to now, research has focused mainly on motherhood. The aim of this study was to explore first-time fathers’ experiences during early infancy of their children. Grounded theory and constant comparative method were used and 20 fathers aged 20–48 participated. Interviews were carried out in 2002–2003. ‘Changing life’ emerged as the core category consisting of the categories: becoming a father, alternating between work and home, changing relationship towards partner and developing relationship with their child. Changing life implied that they have left bachelor life and become responsible for a child. Becoming a father was much more fantastic than they could have imagined and they suggested that they performed childcare to the same extent as the mother when both parents were at home. Still fathers viewed the mother as the main parent, partly because of their alternating between work and home and because the mothers breast-feed the infants. Fathers’ attitude towards breast-feeding seemed to be ambiguous; it was a matter of necessity, but made them feel insignificant. Changing relationship towards partner was common but it was not necessarily for the worst and often resulted in a more closely united relationship. However, tiredness because of lack of sleep could result in increased irritability towards problems. Developing relationship with their child implied increasing possibilities to learn to know the infant’s signals. Fathers are one of two parents, and hence are important for their child’s growth and development, emotional health and cognitive development. Knowledge about first-time fathers’ experiences during the early infancy of their children may bring about increased support from midwives and child health nurses.

  • 12.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A classmate in distress: School children as bystanders and their reasons for how they act2006In: The Fifth National Open Conference on Group and Social Psychology GRASP,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A classmate in distress: schoolchildren as bystanders and their reasons for how they act2007In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, ISSN 1573-1928 (Online), Vol. 10, no 1, 5-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that bystanders more often fail to or are slower to help a victim in emergency when there are other bystanders than when there are not. The study presented in this paper is a qualitative case study with a focus on students’ own reasons why they do not help a classmate in emergency when there are other children witnessing the emergency situation in the real-life classroom case studied. Grounded theory methods were used to analyse the data. The individual conversations with the students indicated a variety of definitions of the specific distress situation when they recalled and talked about the classroom incident. During the process of the analysis seven concepts of definitions associated with passive or non-intervention bystander behaviour were constructed and grounded in the empirical material: trivialisation, dissociation, embarrassment association, busy working priority, compliance with a competitive norm, audience modelling, and responsibility transfer. Relations between these concepts of definitions were also analysed. However, this study is a first step and a first report from an ongoing study about school children as helper and bystander.

  • 14.
    Esamai, Fabian
    et al.
    Department of Child Health and Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Mining, Simeon
    Department of Child Health and Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lewis, David H.
    A comparison of brain, core and skin temperature in children with complicated and uncomplicated malaria2001In: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, ISSN 0142-6338, E-ISSN 1465-3664, Vol. 47, no 3, 170-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prospective study was carried out in which brain, core and skin temperatures were studied in children with cerebral malaria (n = 23), uncomplicated malaria (n = 12) and normal children (n = 9) using the zero heat flow method. Patients with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria were admitted to the paediatric wards (mean age, 6 years 8 months ± 2 years 8 months). Normal children, children of the investigators, of the same age group, served as controls. Parasitaemia levels were similar in the cerebral and uncomplicated malaria cases. Higher brain than core temperatures would have been expected in cerebral malaria but not in uncomplicated malaria but this was not the case in this study. There was no statistical difference in brain, core and skin temperature between cerebral and uncomplicated malaria patients. However, there was a highly significant difference between normal children and cerebral and uncomplicated malaria patients. Brain temperature was 0.02–0.2°C below core temperature in all the groups with larger differences during the febrile period. Mean differences of brain minus core, brain minus skin and core minus skin between the two groups of patients were not statistically significant. There was no correlation between temperature and the level of coma or parasitaemia for cerebral and uncomplicated malaria patients. There was a positive correlation between brain and core temperature in both groups of patients during the febrile phase. Brain temperature remained lower than core temperature in cerebral and uncomplicated malaria as in normal children. Normal thermoregulation appears to be maintained in cerebral malaria.

  • 15.
    Esamai, Fabian
    et al.
    Department of Child Health and Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Jivaji, S.
    Department of Human Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lewis, David H.
    Anabwani, G. M.
    Department of Child Health and Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    A comparison of core and skin temperature among normal and febrile children with cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, and measles1995In: Pathophysiology, ISSN 0928-4680, Vol. 2, no 1, 55-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-four children were studied to compare the pathogenesis of fever in cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria and measles at the Eldoret District Hospital (EDH). A control group of normal children was used. The three patient groups were studied for three consecutive days measuring skin and core temperature three-times a day using the Liquid Crystal Device (LCD) thermometer. A statistical analysis of the results within and between the groups was carried out for core and skin temperature over the study period. No statistical differences were found between the groups for either the skin or the core temperature, but a significant statistical difference was demonstrated between the core and the skin temperature for all of the groups for each of the three days. No statistical difference was found when the differences between the core and skin temperature were compared between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria. The possible roles of fever in morbidity and mortality are discussed, with special reference to cerebral malaria.

  • 16.
    Bang, Peter
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute and University Hospital.
    Bjerknes, R
    University of Bergen.
    Dahlgren, J
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Dunkel, L
    Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
    Gustafsson, J
    University of Uppsala.
    Juul, A
    University of Copenhagen.
    Kriström, B
    Umeå University.
    Tapanainen, P
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Åberg, V
    Inst Prod Synthe IPSEN AB, Kista, Sweden .
    A Comparison of Different Definitions of Growth Response in Short Prepubertal Children Treated with Growth Hormone2011In: HORMONE RESEARCH IN PAEDIATRICS, ISSN 1663-2818, Vol. 75, no 5, 335-345 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response. Subjects and Methods: Short GH-treated prepubertal children [n = 456; height (Ht) SD score (SDS) <=-2] with idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD, n = 173), idiopathic short stature (ISS, n = 37), small for gestational age (SGA, n = 54), organic GHD (OGHD, n = 40), Turner syndrome (TS, n = 43), skeletal dysplasia (n = 15), other diseases (n = 46) or syndromes (n = 48) were evaluated in this retrospective multicenter study. Median age at GH start was 6.3 years and Ht SDS -3.2. Results: Median [25-75 percentile] first-year gain in Ht SDS was 0.65 (0.40-0.90) and height velocity (HtV) 8.67 (7.51-9.90) cm/year. Almost 50% of IGHD children fulfilled at least one criterion for poor responders. In 28% of IGHD children, Ht SDS gain was <0.5 and they had lower increases in median IGF-I SDS than those with Ht SDS >0.5. Only IGHD patients with peak stimulated growth hormone level <3 mu g/l responded better than those with ISS. A higher proportion of children with TS, skeletal dysplasia or born SGA had Ht SDS gain <0.5. Conclusion: Many children respond poorly to GH therapy. Recommendations defining a criterion may help in managing short stature patients.

  • 17.
    Sundell, Anna Lena
    et al.
    Department of Paediatric Dentistry, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Törnhage, Carl-Johan
    Department of Paediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg's University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marcusson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    A comparison of health-related quality of life in 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with and without cleft lip and/or palate2017In: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 0960-7439, E-ISSN 1365-263X, Vol. 27, no 4, 238-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The current understanding on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young Swedish children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is sparse, and therefore, research on impact of CL/P on HRQoL in children is needed.

    Aims To investigate HRQoL in 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with CL/P in comparison with non-cleft controls. Also to analyse whether there were any differences in HRQoL between children with cleft lip (with or without cleft palate, CL ± P) and cleft palate only (CP) and/or gender differences. Design A total of 137 children with CL/P and 305 non-cleft controls participated. HRQoL was measured with KIDSCREEN-52.

    Results All children in the study exhibited HRQoL within or above the age-matched reference interval of the method with similar results in both groups; however, in the dimension ‘social support and peers’, the 10-year-old children with CL/P perceived lower HRQoL than the non-cleft controls, but it did not reach statistical significance. Type of cleft or gender did not influence HRQoL.

    Conclusions Both 5- and 10-year-old Swedish children with CL/P had HRQoL in the normal reference interval. Their general life situations were well adjusted to their clefts, but the older children with CL/P felt more excluded and less supported by peers.

  • 18.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Brandt, Signe Kofoed
    Habilitation Services, Kullbergska Hospital, Katrineholm, Sweden.
    A Comparison of Recordings of Sentences and Spontaneous Speech: Perceptual and Acoustic Measures in Preschool Children's Voices.2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1557-8658, Vol. 26, no 5, 13- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-controlled recording in a studio is fundamental in most voice rehabilitation. However, this laboratory like recording method has been questioned because voice use in a natural environment may be quite different. In children's natural environment, high background noise levels are common and are an important factor contributing to voice problems. The primary noise source in day-care centers is the children themselves. The aim of the present study was to compare perceptual evaluations of voice quality and acoustic measures from a controlled recording with recordings of spontaneous speech in children's natural environment in a day-care setting. Eleven 5-year-old children were recorded three times during a day at the day care. The controlled speech material consisted of repeated sentences. Matching sentences were selected from the spontaneous speech. All sentences were repeated three times. Recordings were randomized and analyzed acoustically and perceptually. Statistic analyses showed that fundamental frequency was significantly higher in spontaneous speech (P<0.01) as was hyperfunction (P<0.001). The only characteristic the controlled sentences shared with spontaneous speech was degree of hoarseness (Spearman's rho=0.564). When data for boys and girls were analyzed separately, a correlation was found for the parameter breathiness (rho=0.551) for boys, and for girls the correlation for hoarseness remained (rho=0.752). Regarding acoustic data, none of the measures correlated across recording conditions for the whole group.

  • 19.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    A comparison of studio recordings and recordings of spontaneous speech: assessments of voice quality in pre-school children2011In: Pan European Voice Conference (PEVOC9), Marseille, France / [ed] Antoine Giovanni & Nathalie Henrich, Marseille, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well controlled recording in a studio is the basis for voice rehabilitation. However, this laboratory like recording method can be questioned since voice use in a natural environment may be quite different. In children’s natural environment high background noise levels are common and an important factor contributing to voice problems. The noise exposure often occurs in day-care centers with the children themselves as the primary noise source (McAllister, Granqvist, Sjölander, Sundberg 2009). The aim of the present study was to compare perceptual evaluations of voice quality from a controlled recording to recordings of spontaneous speech in children’s natural environment in a day-care setting. Ten five-year-old children were recorded three times during a day at the day-care. The controlled speech material consisted of repeated sentences. Matching sentences were selected from the spontaneous speech. All sentences were repeated times three. The recordings were randomized and analyzed acoustically and evaluated perceptually by three expert listeners. Statistic analyses of all recordings showed that the laboratory sentences represent spontaneous speech characteristics regarding degree of hoarseness (r=.52) and to a lesser extent also for breathiness (r=. 401). For boys a correlation was found only for the parameter breathiness (r=.539) and for girls only for hoarseness (r=.648).  

     

    References

    McAllister, A., Granqvist, S. Sjölander, P. Sundberg, J. (2009). Child voice and noise: A pilot study of the effect of a day at the day-care on ten children’s voice quality according to perceptual evaluation. J Voice, Sep;23(5):587-93.

  • 20.
    Hedin, H
    et al.
    Uppsala.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Larsson, S
    Uppsala univ.
    A cost analysis of three methods of treating femoral shaft fractures in children: A comparison of traction in hospital, traction in hospital/home and external fixation2004In: Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6470, Vol. 75, no 3, 241-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is no consensus as to which is best treatment of femoral fractures in children. Patients and methods: We performed a cost analysis comparing three treatments of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 3-15 years at 3 hospitals during the same period (1993-2000). The analysis included total medical costs and costs for the care provider and were calculated from the time of injury up to 1 year. Results: At hospital 1, treatment consisted of external fixation and early mobilization. At hospital 2, the treatment was skin or skeletal traction in hospital for 1-2 weeks, followed by home traction. At hospital 3, treatment was skin or skeletal traction in hospital until the fracture healed. Results: The average total costs per patient were EUR 10,000 at hospital 1, EUR 23,000 at hospital 2, and EUR 38,000 at hospital 3. Interpretation: The main factor for determining the cost of treatment was the number of days in hospital, which was lower in children treated with external fixation.

  • 21.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A cross sectional study: computer based assistive technology device for use by children with physical disabilities2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Arnett, Anne
    et al.
    University of Denver, USA.
    Pennington, Bruce
    University of Denver, USA.
    Willcutt, Erik
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Dmitrieva, Julia
    University of Denver, USA.
    Byrne, Brian
    University of New England, Armidale, Australia .
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Olson, Richard
    University of Colorado, USA.
    A cross-lagged model of the development of ADHD inattention symptoms and rapid naming speed2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 8, 1313-1326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has identified contemporaneous associations between cognitive deficits and symptom phenotypes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, no studies have as yet attempted to identify direction of effect. The present study used cross-lagged path modeling to examine competing hypotheses about longitudinal associations between rapid naming speed and symptoms of inattention in children. 1,506 school-age twins from Australia and the U.S. were tested for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and rapid naming speed at three and four time points, respectively. Symptom severity of inattention from Kindergarten to fourth grade is consistently predicted by previous rapid naming, over and above auto-regressive and correlational associations in the model. Likewise, inattention symptoms have a small but significant predictive effect on subsequent rapid naming. The findings support a reciprocal relationship between naming speed and ADHD inattentive symptoms.

  • 23.
    Danne, Thomas
    et al.
    Hannover, Tyskland .
    Battelino, Tadej
    Ljubljana, Slovenien .
    Kordonouri, Olga
    Berlin, Tyskland .
    Hanås, Ragnar
    Barnklin, Uddevalla .
    Klinkert, Christof
    Bad Oeynhausen, Tyskland .
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Barrio, Raquel
    Madrid, Spanien.
    Aebi, Christine
    Wildermeth, Schweiz .
    Gschwend, Sylvia
    Biel, Schweiz .
    Mullis, Primus-E
    Zug, Schweiz .
    Schumacher, Urs
    Munsterlingen, Schweiz .
    Zumsteg, Urs
    Basel, Schweiz .
    Morandi, Anita
    Verona, Italy .
    Rabbone, Ivana
    Turin, Italien .
    Cherubini, Valentino
    Marche, Italien .
    Toni, Sonia
    Florence, Italien .
    de Beauforte, Carine
    Luxemburg .
    Hindmarsh, Peter
    London, UK .
    Sumner, Alex
    Peterborough, UK.
    van Waarde, Willie M
    Groningen, Holland .
    van den Berg, Norbert
    Almere, Holland .
    Phillip, Moshe
    Petah Tikva Israel.
    A cross-sectional international survey of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in 377 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 10 countries2005In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, Vol. 6, no 4, 193-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To document current practices using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by downloading electronically the 90-d pump data held within the pump memory and relating that to clinical data from children and adolescents in different pediatric diabetes centers from Europe and Israel. Methods: Data of patients (1-18 yr) treated with CSII in 23 centers from nine European countries and Israel were recorded with the ENCAPTURE software (PEC International, Frankfurt, Germany). The number of patients who participated was 377 (48% female, mean diabetes duration ± SD: 6.8 ± 3.7 yr, age: 12.9 ± 3.8 yr, preschool n = 33, prepubertal n = 95, adolescent n = 249, CSII duration: 1.6 ± 1.2 yr, local HbA1c: 8.1 ± 1.2%). Results: The total insulin dose was lower than previously reported for injection therapy (0.79 ± 0.20 U/kg/d). Covariance coefficient of daily total insulin was high in all age groups (adolescents 19 ± 9%, prepubertal 18 ± 8 and preschool 17 ± 8). The distribution of basal insulin infusion rates over 24 hr (48 ± 12% of total dose) varied significantly between centers and age groups. The number of boluses per day (7 ± 3) was not significantly different between the age groups (average daily bolus amount: 0.42 ± 0.16 U /kg). The rate of severe hypoglycemia (coma/convulsions) was 12.4 episodes per 100 patient-years and the number of diabetes-related hospital days was 124 per 100 patient-years. Discussion: Pediatric CSII patients show a high variability in their insulin therapy. This relates both to age-dependent differences in the distribution of basal insulin as to the age-independent day-to-day variation in prandial insulin. © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2005.

  • 24.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Centre for Clinical Research in Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Sahlqvist, Lota
    Centre for Clinical Research in Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: Background factors and self-reported health complaints2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, 270-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To examine background factors for bullying and associations between bullying victimisation and health problems.

    METHODS:

    A cross-sectional study on all pupils in grades 7 and 9 in a Swedish county was conducted in 2011 (n=5248). Data have been analysed with bi- and multivariate models.

    RESULTS:

    14% of the children reported that they had been bullied during the past 2 months. Background factors for bullying were: gender (girls more often); age (younger students more often); disability/disease; high body mass index, and having parents born abroad. There were strong associations between being bullied and poor health and self-harm. Associations with poor general health for boys and girls and mental health problems for girls showed stronger associations with higher frequency of bullying than with lower. For boys, physical bullying had stronger correlations with poor general health than written-verbal bullying.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Bullying is a serious public health problem among young people and healthcare professionals have an important task in identifying exposed children. Children who are "different" are more exposed to bullying, which implies that school personnel, parents, and other adults in these children's social networks can play an important role in paying attention to and preventing the risk of bullying.

    .

  • 25.
    Zhao, Juan
    et al.
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Han, Zhenhui
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xi
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Du, Shuxu
    Capital Medical University, Peoples R China.
    Dong Liu, Angie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Lukas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Li, Xueying
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Jing
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Zhenyu
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Gai, Yong
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jinyan
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Ping
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Chaoshu
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Du, Junbao
    Peking University, Peoples R China; Minist Educ, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Hongfang
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    A cross-sectional study on upright heart rate and BP changing characteristics: basic data for establishing diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and orthostatic hypertension2015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 6, e007356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We aimed to determine upright heart rate and blood pressure (BP) changes to suggest diagnostic criteria for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and orthostatic hypertension (OHT) in Chinese children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1449 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were randomly recruited from two cities in China, Kaifeng in Henan province and Anguo in Hebei province. They were divided into two groups: 844 children aged 6-12 years (group I) and 605 adolescents aged 13-18 years (group II). Heart rate and BP were recorded during an active standing test. Results: 95th percentile (P-95) of delta heart rate from supine to upright was 38 bpm, with a maximum upright heart rate of 130 and 124 bpm in group I and group II, respectively. P-95 of delta systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase was 18 mm Hg and P-95 of upright SBP was 132 mm Hg in group I and 138 mm Hg in group II. P-95 of delta diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase was 24 mm Hg in group I and 21 mm Hg in group II, and P-95 of upright DBP was 89 mm Hg in group I and 91 mm Hg in group II. Conclusions: POTS is suggested when delta heart rate is greater than= 38 bpm (for easy memory, greater than= 40 bpm) from supine to upright, or maximum heart rate greater than= 130 bpm (children aged 6-12 years) and greater than= 125 bpm (adolescents aged 13-18 years), associated with orthostatic symptoms. OHT is suggested when delta SBP (increase) is greater than= 20 mm Hg, and/or delta DBP (increase) greater than= 25 mm Hg (in children aged 6-12 years) or greater than= 20 mm Hg (in adolescents aged 13-18 years) from supine to upright; or upright BP greater than= 130/90 mm Hg (in children aged 6-12 years) or greater than= 140/90 mm Hg (in adolescents aged 13-18 years).

  • 26.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nawab, Bahadar
    COMSATS University Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    A Cultural - spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health - The case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan2011In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, Vol. 17, no 1, 57-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sanitation issue is entering the development discussion and the UN proclaimed 2008 the year of sanitation. The study aims to understand the cultural–spatial dimension among Muslim communities of excreting and recirculating human excreta in North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. Information on local perceptions and cultural understanding was collected through interviews, group discussions and observations in four selected villages. The study identifies a diversity of excreting practices among age groups and sexes, and varied adherence to expressed cultural norms. Interviewees express less resentment towards urine compared to faeces, however, their negative attitude subsides when faecal matter is mixed with water since this changes appearance, odour—and cultural meaning. Religious dictums about excreta and sewage accommodate contradicting routine behaviours to cater for needs of residents and farmers. For example, when mothers pray wearing soiled clothing, and in the use of wastewater as fertiliser for food production. The excreta-related practices are compatible with good hygienic behaviour as outlined by WHO Guidelines, except for children who are allowed to defecate anywhere.

  • 27.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möllerstrand, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wikström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ‘A daddy is the same as a mummy’: Swedish children in lesbian households talk about fathers and donors2014In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 21, no 1, 119-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article discusses how 12 children (five to eight years) in planned lesbian familiestalk about families, parents and specifically ‘daddies’ as such and not having a father themselves.Findings from child interviews demonstrate that the children described daddies as ‘the same’ asmummies, i.e. as having the same functions. This contrasts with previous research showing howchildren of heterosexuals often describe mothers and fathers as different. The children varied interms of how they labelled donors. Some children adopted the denomination ‘daddy’, drawing ona paternity discourse, while others simply referred to him as ‘a man’.

  • 28.
    Lindell, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A descriptive study of mental health services provided for physically abused children in Sweden: A four-year follow-up of child and adolescent psychiatric chartsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since there has been a considerable increase in the number of police reports on physical child abuse in Sweden since the mid 1980s, there should be an increased number of children in need of trauma-focused mental health treatment. During 1986-1996 there were 126 children reported as being physically abused by a parent or equivalent and reported to the police in a police district in Sweden. Fifty-seven of these children (45%) had been the objects of interventions from Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Services. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and content of this. Questions addressed were: What interventions were provided prior to, at the acute situation, and during the 4 years after the physical abuse incident? This group of children was referred to (CAPS) for different reasons, but few for physical abuse. Only 35 out of 122 referrals were made under the label of child physical abuse. Overall, interventions were almost exclusively directed toward the parents. Six out of 126 physically abused children received individual therapy. Abuse was not mentioned in the charts for 23 of the children, even though 8 of them had been referred due to  abuse. The results of this study indicate that physically abused children often have been in contact with mental health services prior to the abuse for different reasons. Individual interventions for physically abused children were rare due to for instance CAPS workloads, poor motivation among parents and children, and maybe due to professionals’ lack of knowledge regarding effective treatment.

  • 29.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A dialogical approach to Theory of Mind in aided and non-aided child interaction2013In: Aided Communication in Everyday Interaction / [ed] Niklas Norén, Christina Samuelsson and Charlotta Plejert, Guildford: J & R Press , 2013, 153-187 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wang, Chen
    Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    A fifteen-year follow-up of neurological conditions in VLBW children without overt disability: Relation to gender, neonatal risk factors, and end stage MRI findings2008In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, Vol. 84, no 5, 343-349 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Very low birthweight (VLBW; birth weight ≤ 1500 g) children run a greater risk than controls of developing neurosensory disabilities, but also minor neurological disturbances.

    Aims: To assess neurological status from the neonatal period up to fifteen years of age in VLBW children without overt neurological disability in relation to gender, neonatal risk factors, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings of the brain.

    Study design: A population based follow-up study of VLBW children and their controls.

    Subjects: Eighty VLBW children without overt disability, in a cohort of 86 surviving VLBW children, were enrolled in a follow-up study at 40 weeks gestational age and at 4, 9, and 15 years of age. 56 VLBW children were examined with cerebral MRI at 15 years of age.

    Outcome measures: Neurological test scores. MRI findings, principally white matter damage (WMD).

    Results: VLBW children were inferior in neurological assessments in comparison with controls at 40 weeks gestational age and 4 and 15 years of age. VLBW girls did not differ from their controls at 9 and 15 years. Fourteen of 56 (25%) VLBW children had abnormal MRI findings and 13 were evaluated as mild WMD. Children with WMD did not differ in neurological outcome from those without WMD at any examination. Mechanical ventilation and/or intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) during the neonatal period were significantly related to less a favourable outcome at follow-up examinations.

    Conclusion: A cohort of VLBW children without overt neurological disability had a poorer neurological condition up to adolescence in comparison with controls. A quarter of the VLBW children had mild WMD but without relation to the neurological functions. Mechanical ventilation and IVH were related to poorer neurological outcome.

  • 31.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A follow-up study of postnatal depressed women: Recurrent maternal depressive symptoms and child behaviour after four years2007In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, Vol. 10, no 4, 141-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and self reported health of women who have shown previous postpartum depressive symptoms. To examine the behavior of four-year-old children born to mothers affected by postpartum depression.

    Methods: Longitudinal study. The index group (n = 251) constituted of all women with postpartum depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), in a population-based study made in the late 1990s. The control group (n = 502) consisted of women without postpartum depressive symptoms on the EPDS at the same occasion. Approximately four years after delivery these women were asked to answer a short questionnaire on general health, the EPDS, and also to assess their child’s behavior with the Richman Pre-School Behaviour Checklist. Results: Women with a history of postpartum depressive symptoms were approximately 6 times more likely to have recurrent depressive symptoms (OR = 5.82, 95% CI: 3.79–8.93), compared to those without postpartum depressive symptoms, and they were also more likely to experience physical and mental illness. Although postpartum depressive symptoms in the mothers were involved in explaining the likelihood of behavioral problems in their four-year-old children, mothers with current depressive symptoms were the most likely to have a child with behavioral problems (OR = 4.71, 95% CI: 1.88–11.78). Conclusion: Postpartum depressive illness constitutes a risk for future illness as well as maternal perceived behavioral problems in offspring. In order to diminish long-term adverse consequences for the mother and the child there is a great need to recognize and treat women with postpartum depressive symptoms as early as possible.

  • 32.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saduaskaite-Kühne, Vaiva
    Laboratory of Paediatric Endocrinology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Padaiga, Zilvinas
    Laboratory of Paediatric Endocrinology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A fourfold difference in the incidence of type 1 diabetes between Sweden and Lithuania but similar prevalence of autoimmunity2004In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 66, no 2, 173-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether other autoimmune disorders in addition to type 1 diabetes are more common in Sweden than Lithuania, and if there are any differences in inheritance patterns of both type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders.

    Data from 517 children in southeast Sweden and 286 children in Lithuania aged 0–15 years were included in the study. Age- and sex-matched control children were randomly selected. Information was collected by questionnaire.

    Of the children with diabetes in Sweden, 13.2% had a family member with type 1 diabetes compared to 7% of children with diabetes in Lithuania (P<0.01) (OR=2.01). No such difference was seen for other autoimmune diseases in family members of children with diabetes (Sweden 12%, Lithuania 14%, n.s.). Control children in Lithuania had family members with autoimmunity more frequently (15.3%) than control children in Sweden (7.4%, P<0.001) (OR=2.26). This difference was most pronounced in mothers. The Lithuanian control children had an autoimmune disease more frequently than the controls in Sweden (4.7% versus 1.5%, respectively, P<0.001) (OR=3.21).

    There seem to be environmental factors that specifically contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes, factors which are less related to the development of autoimmunity in general.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Faldella, Giacomo
    Instituto Clinico di Pediatri,a Bologna, Spanien.
    Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie
    GlaxoSmithKline Belgium.
    Storsaeter, Jann
    GlaxoSmithKline Solna, Sverige.
    Silfverdahl, Sven-Arne
    Barnkliniken, Örebro.
    Ekholm, Leif
    BVC, Örebro.
    A fourth dose of DTPa-IPV vaccine given to 4-6 year old children in Italy and Sweden following primary vaccination at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 37, no 3, 221-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy 4-6 y old children from Italy and Sweden immunized with DTPa and inactivated or oral polio vaccines at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age, received 1 dose of combined DTPa-IPV (n = 211) or DTPa+IPV as separate doses (n = 205) in a randomized trial. The pre-booster seroprotection rates were similar in each group and were above 60% against all antigens except diphtheria (31.3% and 37.0%) and PT (21.5% and 25.9%) in the DTPa-IPV and DTPa+IPV groups, respectively. At least 99.5% of subjects had seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus and polioviruses and ≥96% showed a vaccine response to each pertussis antigen after vaccination. Post-booster antibody levels increased at least 51-fold for anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus, at least 18-fold for anti-pertussis antibodies and at least 32-fold for antibodies against all 3 poliovirus types, compared to prior levels. DTPa-IPV was comparable to DTPa+IPV in terms of seroprotection rates and mean antibody levels against each vaccine antigen. Similar reactogenicity profiles were observed between groups including swelling >50 mm [13% (9.1, 18.7) vs 17% (12.4, 23.4)] or involving an adjacent joint [0% (-,-) vs 1.5% (0.3, 4.3)] and were consistent with previous reports. The combined DTPa-IPV vaccine could be used to add DTP valences to the IPV vaccine currently given to children in Scandinavia and Italy at 4-6 y of age and reinforce protection against 4 diseases. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  • 34.
    Lindell, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A four-year follow-up study of help provided by the Social services for physically abused childrenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the number of child physical abuse cases reported to the police has been increasing, little research has been performed to investigate whether interventions directed towards physically abused children are working or not. This paper examines contacts that physically abused children have with the social services 4 years after the physical abuse incidents were reported to the police. This is done in an effort to investigate the characteristics of child and parent that determine whether or not abused children are still receiving help from the social services 4 years after the abuse incidents. All physically abused children whose perpetrators had been reported to a Swedish police district between 1986-1996, were followed through the files (n = 113) of the social services. Four years later 69 children were still receiving interventions from the department. Intervention by the social services prior to a reported abuse incident increased the odds 18.7 times that a child would still receive interventions 4 years after the incident, and the presence of a mentally ill mother increased the odds 11.8 times.

  • 35.
    Bernardi, R. E.
    et al.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Zohsel, K.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hirth, N.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Treutlein, J.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Laucht, M.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Spanagel, R.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Sommer, W. H.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    A gene-by-sex interaction for nicotine reward: evidence from humanized mice and epidemiology2016In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 6, no e861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that vulnerability to nicotine addiction is moderated by variation at the mu-opioid receptor locus (OPRM1), but results from human studies vary and prospective studies based on genotype are lacking. We have developed a humanized mouse model of the most common functional OPRM1 polymorphism rs1799971_A4G (A118G). Here we use this model system together with a cohort of German youth to examine the role of the OPRM1 A118G variation on nicotine reward. Nicotine reinforcement was examined in the humanized mouse model using i.v. self-administration. Male (n = 17) and female (n = 26) mice homozygous either for the major human A allele (AA) or the minor G allele (GG) underwent eight daily 2 h sessions of nicotine self-administration. Furthermore, male (n = 104) and female (n = 118) subjects homozygous for the A allele or carrying the G allele from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were evaluated for pleasurable and unpleasant experiences during their initial smoking experience. A significant sex-by-genotype effect was observed for nicotine self-administration. Male 118GG mice demonstrated higher nicotine intake than male 118AA mice, suggesting increased nicotine reinforcement. In contrast, there was no genotype effect in female mice. Human male G allele carriers reported increased pleasurable effects from their first smoking experience, as compared to male homozygous A, female G and female homozygous A allele carriers. The 118G allele appears to confer greater sensitivity to nicotine reinforcement in males, but not females.

  • 36.
    Benson, Mikael
    et al.
    Unit for Clinical Systems Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mobini, R.
    Unit for Clinical Systems Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barrenäs, F.
    Unit for Clinical Systems Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halldén, C.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Naluai, Å.T.
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Säll, T.
    Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cardell, L.O.
    Division of ENT diseases Huddinge, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A haplotype in the inducible T-cell tyrosine kinase is a risk factor for seasonal allergic rhinitis2009In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 64, no 9, 1286-1291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Identification of disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) may be facilitated by focusing on genes in a disease-associated pathway.

    OBJECTIVE: To search for SNPs in genes that belong to the T-cell receptor (TCR) pathway and that change in expression in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients with SAR.

    METHODS: CD4+ cells from patients with SAR were analysed with gene expression microarrays. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared in 251 patients and 386 healthy controls.

    RESULTS: Gene expression microarray analysis of allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients with SAR showed that 25 of 38 TCR pathway genes were differentially expressed. A total of 62 SNPs were analysed in eight of the 25 genes; ICOS, IL4, IL5, IL13, CSF2, CTLA4, the inducible T-cell tyrosine kinase (ITK) and CD3D. Significant chi-squared values were identified for several markers in the ITK kinase gene region. A total of five SNPs were nominally significant at the 5% level. Haplotype analysis of the five significant SNPs showed increased frequency of a haplotype that covered most of the coding part of ITK. The functional relevance of ITK was supported by analysis of an independent material, which showed increased expression of ITK in allergen-challenged CD4+ cells from patients, but not from controls.

    CONCLUSION: Analysis of SNPs in TCR pathway genes revealed that a haplotype that covers a major part of the coding sequence of ITK is a risk factor for SAR.

  • 37.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Steineck, Isabelle
    Herning Hospital, Denmark .
    Gubbjornsdottir, Soffia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    A high mean-HbA1c value 3-15 months after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood is related to metabolic control, macroalbuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood - a pilot study using two nation-wide population based quality registries2014In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 15, no 3, 229-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIntensive treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes delays the onset of long-term complications. ObjectivesOn the basis of the information from two nation-wide quality registers, we investigated to which extent HbA1c values 3-15months after diagnosis in childhood are related to metabolic control, albuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood. MethodsIn Sweden, physicians register all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Swedish Pediatric Quality Registry. After 18yr of age, people with diabetes are followed by the Swedish National Diabetes Register. We identified 1543 children and adolescents with a mean age of 13.9yr at diagnosis and a mean duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus of 7.1yr. ResultsChildren and adolescents with poor metabolic control (mean HbA1c 70mmol/mol (8.6 %)) adjacent to diagnosis had a significantly higher mean HbA1c value years later as adults than did patients with a good metabolic control [less than50mmol/mol (6.7%) (pless than0.001)]. The patients in the high group were also less physically active and smoked more as adults. The proportion of females was higher in the poor metabolic group. Patients with a high mean HbA1c 3-15months after diagnosis had significantly more often macroalbuminuria and retinopathy in early adulthood. ConclusionsMetabolic control adjacent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood or adolescence can predict metabolic control in early adulthood. It is therefore very important that pediatric diabetes teams identify key factors for successful early metabolic control. Actively using quality registries may be one such factor.

  • 38.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Angbratt, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Bolme, P
    Häger, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Valter, L
    A high-precision protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for persisting obesity2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest that adolescent adiposity is established already in preadolescence. Earlier studies have confirmed a strong tracking of obesity from adolescence to adulthood. Our aim was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a population-derived protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity in preadolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analysed data obtained for child health surveillance up to age 5 from 5778 children born in a swedish county in 1991. The basic data set included age, sex, and weight and height measurements from the regular checkups between ages 1.5 and 5. Data not routinely collected in the child health centre setting were disregarded. The children were at age 10 randomly assigned to protocol derivation and validation cohorts and assessed for obesity according to IOTF criteria. The accuracy of predicting obesity in the validation cohort was measured using decision precision, specificity, and sensitivity. The decision protocol selected 1.4% of preschool children as being at obesity risk. The precision of the protocol at age 10 was 82% for girls and 80% for boys, and the specificity was 100% for both boys and girls, The sensitivity was higher for girls (41 %) than for boys (21%). The relative risk for obesity at age 10 estimated by the odds ratio for individuals selected by the protocol compared to non-selected peers was 212.6 (95% confidence interval 56.6 to 798.4) for girls and 120.3 (95% Cl 24.5 to 589.91for boys. Conclusion/Significance: A simple and inexpensive decision protocol based on BMI values proved to have high precision and specificity for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity persisting into adolescence, while the sersitivity was low especially for boys. Implementation and further evaluations of the protocol in chlid health centre settings are warranted. © 2007 Timpka et al.

  • 39.
    Plymoth, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reimers, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A Historical Overview: Care and Education Intersecting with Status and Class in Swedish Childminder Education 1975-20112015In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 9, no 3, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a perspective of status and class, this paper delineates changes in Swedish childminder education. The data are policy documents, documents from childminder training, and interviews with educators. The analysis is informed by post-structural theory. The study shows that the status of the childminder program has shifted between high and low status, and led toward differently classed life trajectories at different times. One reason for these variations is that the emphasis in childcare has shifted from care to teaching. This has at times increased the status of the education and the vocation, but also subverted the demand for childminders.

  • 40. Hilden, Malene
    et al.
    Schei, Berit
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Halmesmäki, Erja
    Langhoff-Roos, Jens
    Offerdal, Kristin
    Pikarinen, Ulla
    Sidenius, Katrine
    Steingrimsdottir, Tora
    Stoum-Hinsverk, Hildegun
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A history of sexual abuse and health: A Nordic multicentre study2004In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, Vol. 111, no 10, 1121-1127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine if a history of sexual abuse is associated with objective and subjective indicators of health and if certain abusive incidents had a stronger impact on health than others. Design: A cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: Five gynaecological departments in the five Nordic countries. Sample: Three thousand five hundred and thirty-nine gynaecology patients. Methods: The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) on abuse history and current health was mailed to all patients who consented to participate. Main outcome measures: Reason for index visit at the gynaecologic clinic as well as several questions on health were recorded. General health status was measured as self-estimated health, psychosomatic symptoms (headache, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, dizziness), number of health care visits and number of periods on sick leave. Result: A history of sexual abuse was reported by 20.7% of respondents. A history of sexual abuse was significantly associated with chronic pelvic pain as reason for index visit (P < 0.01), laparoscopic surgery (P < 0.01), psychosomatic symptoms (P < 0.01), self-estimated poor health (P < 0.01), many health care visits (P < 0.01) and high incidence of sick leave (P < 0.01). Several subgroups within the group of sexually abused women were more likely to report poor health: women abused as both children and adults, women who experienced additional emotional and/or physical abuse and women abused by a person they knew. Conclusion: Sexual abuse has a profound impact on women's health. Taking a history of sexual abuse seems particularly warranted when the patient presents with chronic pelvic pain or symptoms of a vague and diffuse nature.

  • 41.
    Nolén, Sixten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A local bicycle helmet ‘law’ in a Swedish municipality: effects on children's attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Motala, Sweden, has a non-compulsary bicycle helmet "law" that is supported by promotional activities. The applies to children aged 6-12 but is intended to increase helmet use by all cyclists.

    This study evaluate the effects of the law on children's attitudes, beliefs, and self-reported behavior. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 6-12-year-old children in the intervention area (n = 1,277) and the control area (n = 2,198), one to two months before and two years after the intervention. The avarage response rates were 76.5% in the intervention area and 79.3% in the control area. Data were analyzed by t-tests and ANOVA.

    The study showed only one positive long-term effect on children's self-reported behavior or on factors supposed to precede their behavior. Children in the intervention area indicated a stronger intention to ride a bicycle if a national compulsory helmet law in introduced. There were no other changes in Motala that differed from changes in the control area. However, the overall responses, irrespective of test occasions, were often more positive or "better" among children in the intervention area that in the control area. This is probably due to helmet promotion programs conducted before the pre-test, which makes it more difficult to find effects of the intervention. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that the non-compulsory local helmet "law" in Motala is not a realistic alternative to a mandatory national helmet law for Sweden.

  • 42.
    Nolén, Sixten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A local bicycle helmet ‘law’ in a Swedish municipality: the effects on helmet use2004In: Injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1566-0974, Vol. 11, no 1, 39-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Motala in Sweden introduced a local bicycle helmet ‘law’ on May 1, 1996. This is not a legally enacted ordinance, but instead a legislated recommendation backed up by information and education. Formally, the law applies to children (aged 6–12 years), although the intention is to increase helmet use by all cyclists. The objective of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the Motala helmet law on observed use of helmets by children and adults. Bicycle helmet use was monitored in Motala (n = 2,458/year) and in control towns (n = 17,818/year) both before and after adoption of the helmet law (1995–1998). Chi-square tests showed that helmet wearing 1995–1998 increased in Motala among all bicyclists (from 6.1% to 10.5%) and adults biking on cycle paths (from 1.8% to 7.6%). Helmet use by school children aged 6–12 increased during the first 6 months after introduction of the law (from 65.0% to 75.7%) but then progressively decreased to the pre-law level. Considering children cycling on cycle paths and for recreation in housing areas, there was a tendency towards increased helmet use during the first post-law year, but this was followed by a reduction to a lower level in 1998 than in 1995. Logistic regression analysis taking into account data from the control towns indicated that the helmet law had a positive effect on children cycling to schools during the first 6 months, and a weak delayed but more long-term positive effect on adult cyclists on cycle paths. There were no positive effects on children in housing areas and on cycle paths. The Motala helmet law probably would have had greater and more lasting effects on helmet use by bicyclists, if certain problems had been avoided during the initiation phase. Moreover, although it did have a positive influence on both school children and adults, it is not legally binding, and hence no penalties can be imposed. Presumably, compulsory legislation would have a more substantial impact on helmet wearing than a non-mandatory helmet ‘law’ such as that introduced in Motala.

  • 43.
    Nolén, Sixten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A local bicycle helmet ‘law’ in a Swedish municipality: the structure and process of initiation and implementation2002In: Injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1566-0974, Vol. 9, no 2, 89-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On May 1, 1996, the Municipality of Motala in Sweden introduced a local bicycle helmet ‘law.’ It is, however, not an official law in a legal sense, but a municipally endorsed recommendation supported by promotional activities. This ‘law’ applies to children (ages 6–12), although the objective is to increase helmet use among cyclists of all ages. The study is a qualitative evaluation of the structure and process during initiation and implementation of the Motala bicycle helmet law. The aim was to describe the activities that were carried out, which actors took part and the opinions of the most closely involved actors. The results are based on analysis of written material and on interviews with eight of the actors. The mass media focused much attention on the bicycle helmet law, especially during the first six months after its introduction. The name helmet law was presumably of significance in this context. It is essential that relevant target groups provide sufficient support and that committed individuals initiate and promote the work, which, however, must not become dependent on a single individual. All issues concerning bicycle helmets should be coordinated with the law. Also, continuous engagement of the municipal government and a strategy for the control and follow-up of the law are needed. Local bicycle helmet laws of this type have a potential to produce a long-lasting effect on helmet use, provided some of the problems encountered can be avoided and some of the promotional activities are intensified.

  • 44.
    Kempe, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of early reading difficulties and subsequent problem behaviors2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, 242-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally believed that early academic failure in school develops into a downward spiral of negative motivational and behavioral consequences. In this study, children with reading difficulties were compared with typical readers on questionnaires measuring ADHD symptoms and other behavior problems such as withdrawn symptoms, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, social problems, and aggression. The results revealed that reading difficulties and problem behaviors appear more independent of each other rather than problem behaviors being a consequence of reading failure. In addition, gender differenceswere negligible when examining the relationship between reading difficulties and subsequent problem behavior. Some implications for special educationand intervention are suggested.

  • 45.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Flodmark, Olof
    Dept of Neuroradiology, KS, Stockholm .
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    A longitudinal study of reading skills among very-low-birthweight children: Is there a catch-up?2006In: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, ISSN 0146-8693, Vol. 31, no 9, 967-977 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the development of reading skills among very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children and to what extent reading difficulties at 9 years of age persist unchanged, are attenuated, or are enhanced at 15 years of age. Methods: Fifty-six VLBW and 52 normal birthweight (NBW) children were assessed on word decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension at 9 and 15 years of age. Results: VLBW children showed deficits in reading skill at 9 years of age, while most differences obtained at 15 years of age did not reach significance. VLBW children improved their reading comprehension between 9 and 15 years of age more than NBW children, and when controlling for individual differences in IQ, VLBW children improved both their reading comprehension and word-recognition skill. Conclusion: The results suggest that VLBW children display positive changes over time in reading skills. © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Eskilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants2015In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 2, 77-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization. Design: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing. Study sample: Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data. Results: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization. Conclusions: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

  • 47.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    A Look at the Roles of Look & Roles in Embodied Pedagogical Agents – a User Preference Perspective2009In: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, ISSN 1560-4292, Vol. 19(1)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical framework addressing three aspects of embodied pedagogical agents: visual static appearance, pedagogical role, and communicative style. The framework is then applied to a user study where 90 school children (age 12‑15) in a dummy multimedia program were presented with either an instructor or a learning companion condition. They were then to choose between eight visually different embodied pedagogical agents: four more naturalistic (detailed & 3D-rendered) and four more stylized (simplified & cartoonish). Finally the participants were to choose between a strictly task-oriented versus a task- and relation-oriented pedagogical agent.

    The goal of the study was to explore possible relations between the three aspects mentioned above with respect to user preferences. Results were: (i) When the agent was introduced as a learning companion, female students displayed a significant tendency to choose a more stylized visual character, (ii) When the agent was introduced as a learning companion, female students displayed a significant tendency to choose a task- and relation-oriented agent, (iii) In the case when students had chosen a more stylized character, there was a significant tendency to choose a task- and relational-oriented agent.

    The paper also discusses limitations and strengths of the study, and advocates careful descriptions in studies of this kind – especially regarding the notion of visual realism.

     

  • 48.
    Holmqvist, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löfman, Owe
    Institute of Mathematical Science and Technology, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A low incidence of Type 1 diabetes between 1977 and 2001 in south-eastern Sweden in areas with high population density and which are more deprived2008In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 25, no 3, 255-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims  To explore how socioeconomic factors and population density may contribute to the geographical variation of incidence of Type 1 diabetes in children in south-eastern Sweden.

    Method  All children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in south-eastern Sweden during 1977–2001 were defined geographically to their place of residence and were allocated x and y coordinates in the national grid. The population at risk and socioeconomic data were aggregated in 82 000 200-m squares and geocoded likewise. A socioeconomic index was calculated using a signed χ2 method. Rural–urban gradients were defined by overlay analysis in a geographic information system.

    Results  The incidence during the past 25 years has been rising steadily, particularly in the last 6 years. The incidence was highest in areas with a high proportion of small families, of families with a high family income and better education, and this was found both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of birth. In the rural–urban analysis, the lowest incidence was found in the urban area with > 20 000 inhabitants, where there was also a higher frequency of deprivation.

    Conclusions  Our findings indicate that geographical variations in incidence rates of Type 1 diabetes in children are associated with socioeconomic factors and population density, although other contributing factors remain to be explained.

  • 49.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    et al.
    Novum, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maddison, Ralph
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Novum, Sweden.
    A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 1, 50- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 +/- 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 +/- 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 +/- 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (r = 0.665-0.896, p &lt; 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  • 50.
    Carlsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Forsander, Gun
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Larsen, Sara
    Novo Nordisk Scandinavia AB, Sweden .
    Ortqvist, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    A multicenter observational safety study in Swedish children and adolescents using insulin detemir for the treatment of type 1 diabetes2013In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 14, no 5, 358-365 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 26-wk observational study in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Sweden investigated the safety and efficacy of insulin detemir (IDet) in newly diagnosed (ND) patients and those with established diabetes (ED) switching to IDet. A total of 159 patients initiated IDet as part of basal-bolus therapy, 59 in the ND stratum (mean age 9.7yr) and 97 in the ED stratum (mean age 12.5 yr). The primary outcome measure was the incidence of severe adverse drug reactions; just one major hypoglycemic event occurred in a patient in the ND stratum during the study and one patient was withdrawn due to injection-site reactions. All other events were classified as mild. In the ED stratum, there was a reduction in hypoglycemic events in the 4wk prior to study end from baseline (mean reduction of 2.46 events, not significant) and a significant reduction in nocturnal hypoglycemia (mean reduction of 2.24 events, p=0.0078). Glycemic control improved in the ND stratum as expected and, in the ED stratum, there was no significant change in HbA1c from baseline (mean reduction of -0.45%). At study end, mean daily IDet doses were 0.39U/kg (ND) and 0.54U/kg (ED). Weight increased by 5.7 and 2.0kg in the ND and ED strata, respectively, and was within the normal limits for growing children. IDet provided good glycemic control and was well tolerated, with a reduced risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in a heterogeneous cohort of children and adolescents with T1D.

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