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  • 1.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 2.
    Åman, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joakim, Behrendtz
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anestesipersonalens peri-operativa omvårdnad av överviktiga och obesa barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a group of patients that require special knowledge from the anesthesia staff, both general and specific. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience is necessary to adequately care for the child as it anatomically, physiologically and mentally may differ from adult patients.

    A growing problem in the pediatric population is overweight and obesity. From a stagnation in the early 2000s the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the world are again increasing.The purpose of this study was to examine peri-operative care of overweight and obese children.

    Systematic searches were done in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. After the quality audit according to SBU, twelve articles were included for analysis.

    Results suggest that overweight and obese children have a higher risk of respiratory peri-operative complications. The risk of hospital admission after outpatient surgery was also greater in this group as well as higher costs for health care.

    Overweight and obese children are complex subjects with more frequent peri-operative risk factors than normal-weight children. This group requires special knowledge of the anesthesia staff. More studies are required to secure evidence in anesthetic care for overweight and obese children.

  • 3.
    Runqvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Dyskalkyli - vad kan det vara?: En litteraturstudie om dyskalkyli och hur det visar sig hos elever i grundskoleålder2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka aktuell forskningslitteratur för att se hur dyskalkyli framställs för att som pedagog kunna upptäcka och stötta dessa elever i tid. Det syftas också till att få reda på en ungefärlig omfattning av dyskalkyli bland elever i grundskoleålder.

    För att få fram ett urval av litteratur till denna studie avgränsades sökningen till att beröra forskning om dyskalkyli, inte om att undervisa elever med dyskalkyli. Forskning från år 2000 och framåt har använts för att få så aktuella ståndpunkter som möjligt.

    Resultatet i denna studie har visat att dyskalkyli är ett omstritt begrepp som idag saknar en allmänt accepterad definition. Trots att en entydig definition saknas föreslår flera studier att dyskalkyli bland annat kan innebära brister i taluppfattningen. På grund av avsaknad av definition av begreppet dyskalkyli är det mycket oenigheter kring diagnosfrågan. Detta då det förekommer flera olika instrument för att mäta det. Ändå har flera studier gjorts där dyskalkylins omfattning bland elever i grundskoleålder är bedömd. Det uppskattas att ungefär 5-6 procent av alla elever i grundskolan har dyskalkyli.

  • 4.
    Trygg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Blom, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Ensamkommande flickor och deras framtid: Unga kvinnor som har kommit till Sverige som ensamkommande flickor, hur de talar om sin framtid samt deras upplevelser av utbildning och arbete i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study have set out to oppose the experience and outlook on future regarding education and work within the group of young women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee children. The purpose of the study is also to increase knowledge about young women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee children. Qualitative in-depth interviews with a hermeneutic research approach characterized by the author’s preconceptions have been used for the study. The key features of the study is that young women after they have moved out of the residential care home to their own apartments experience feelings of loneliness and lack of support. Experiences of segregation in school and knowledge gaps regarding education and work is also key features in the study. In the conclusion of the study possible improvements are suggested to improve young women’s contact network before moving to their own apartments, counteract segregation in school and suggest an establishment of regular dialogues. The improvements aims as a way to increase young women’s abilities to reach their goals, increase their wellbeing and improve integration.

  • 5.
    Rahmayani, Hestu Wahyu
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    EXPLORING CHILDREN’S PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES: THE INFLUENCE OF YOGA ON THEIR WELL-BEING AND EVERYDAY LIVES2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore children’s experiences of yoga and its influence on their well-being and everyday lives. The study uses qualitative methods and thematic analysis is chosen as it provides flexibility to combine theoretical assumptions with qualitative data. Analysis is based on two focus group interviews that ask about children’s views of yoga, experience of doing yoga, feelings about yoga, any differences with other physical activities, and their experience before and after yoga. The children involved in the study appeared to experience yoga in different ways, but the majority of them agreed that yoga is a positive influence on their lives. The results of this study propose that according to children’s perspectives the practice of yoga supports physical fitness and is a calm, peaceful and relaxing activity and supports the children’s understanding of their capacity and competence and helped them to reduce unstable or negative emotions. Overall, children’s perspective of yoga shows the meaning of their view and experience both in the studio and in everyday life that will give some insights to yoga teachers and studio owners; and yoga practice might contribute to social support for children both physically and mentally.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Vera Nilsson: konstnär, kvinna och mor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines Vera Nilsson's life and artistry from her social position as a woman and single mother. Nilsson was born 1888 and debutated as an artist 1917. 1924 she gives bearth to her daughter Catharina, also called Ginga. During a period of fourteen years the daughter is often seen in her work and Nilsson's portraits of children gets a lot of attention.The study has an historiographical approach and investigates women's condition within the artistic field.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Ulrica
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Placerade barns skolgång: En studie om ungdomar som är eller har varit placerade i samhällsvård och deras upplevelse av skolgång, stöd och relationer i skolan.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt både svensk och internationell forskning är placerade barns skolgång bristfällig. Syftet med denna studie är att utifrån ett barnperspektiv undersöka hur placerade ungdomar mellan 16- och 20 år har upplevt/upplever sin skolgång och hur samspelet mellan dem och lärarna har sett ut, och även om de har fått särskilt stöd under sin skoltid. Frågeställningarna är följande: Vilka erfarenheter och upplevelser av skolan har ungdomar över 16 år som varit eller är placerade i samhällsvård? Hur har samspelet mellan ungdomarna och lärarna/pedagogerna fungerat under skolgången enligt ungdomarna? Har dessa ungdomar fått något särskilt stöd under sin skolgång och vad berättar de om detta? Denna studie är inspirerad av livsberättelse som metodansats och kvalitativa intervjuer har använts som datainsamlingsmetod. Fem personer har intervjuats med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna har transkriberats. Utifrån berättelserna har teman skapats och analyserats/diskuterats utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet, barnperspektivet och det relationella perspektivet. Huvudresultaten i studien är att läraren i skolan har en viktig roll för placerade barn. Läraren behöver ge stöd, samspela och se ungdomarna som individer oavsett bakgrund eller prestation. Att ha en social tillhörighet och goda relationer med andra elever och lärare har också visat sig vara betydelsefullt. Ungdomarna nämner också att stödet de har fått i skolan har sett olika ut och upplevts både positivt och negativt. Positivt utifrån att de har fått det stöd de behöver men även negativt med skamfyllda upplevelser där ungdomarna känt sig bortvalda vilket i sin tur har lett till störande beteenden eller att de har gett upp hoppet om att lyckas i skolan.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "De kan uppträda lite udda och annorlunda": Pedagogers bild av särbegåvade och högpresterande elever i grundskolan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Norss, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Om barn i behov av särskilt stöd / Children with sepcial needs: Pedagogers samverkan med föräldrar / Pre-school teachers´cooperation with parents2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att ta reda på hur pedagoger ser på samverkan med föräldrar till barn i behov av särskilt stöd och hur de kommunicerar med föräldrarna. Studien gjordes genom intervjuer med pedagoger i förskolan för att få reda på hur pedagogerna ser på samverkan med föräldrarna.  Pedagogerna fick också berätta om vilka barn som de ansåg vara barn i behov av särskilt stöd och hur de kommunicerade med deras föräldrar.

    Resultatet visar att pedagoger ansåg att det var viktigt att vara tydliga och ärliga mot föräldrarna. Det var också viktigt att vara lyhörda för vad föräldrarnas oro och bekymmer handlade om och att lyssna på föräldrarna. Kommunikationen med  föräldrarna skedde både i den dagliga  kontakten och på enskilda möten.  Pedagogerna ansåg att man inte skulle prata om barnens svårigheter i den dagliga  kontakten utan ha enskilda samtal för det, vilket pedagogerna också tydligt förklarade för föräldrarna.

  • 10.
    Grönqvist, Bianca
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    ”För att det är kul att lyssna!”: en studie om barns uppfattningar och upplevelser kringhögläsning i förskolan.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien berör barns uppfattningar och upplevelser om högläsning i förskolan. Tidigare forskning belyser högläsning och barnlitteratur ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv. Däremot saknas studier som undersöker hur barn upplever högläsning i förskolan samt hur högläsning som aktivitet framhålls med hjälp av barn. I den här studien har högläsning ur ett barnperspektiv utifrån 4-5-åringars uttalanden undersökts. Studien innefattade barnintervjuer som sedan transkriberades och analyserades med hjälp av tematisk analys. Barnens uppfattningar och upplevelser gällande högläsning i förskolan varierade. Många av barnen saknade förståelse för vuxnas syfte eller det pedagogiska syftet med högläsningen, vilket i sin tur kan vara bakgrunden till att barnen saknade intresse för högläsning och barnlitteratur. Utfrån intervjuerna framgick det också att barn både gör medvetna och slumpmässiga bokval till högläsningsstunden. Slutsatsen av studien är att barns uttalanden om högläsning synliggör deras intresse för aktiviteten, samt hur det i sin tur påverkar hur de uppfattar och upplever bokvalen.

  • 11.
    Åkerblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Barns lek i det fria: En observationsstudie kring förskolebarns utomhuslek2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Sandgrim, Carola
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Sigrid Hjertén och Siri Derkert - två modernistiska pionjärer: En komparativ studie ur ett genusperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a comparative study and a semiotic analysis of a selection of artworks from the artists Sigrid Hjertén and Siri Derkert.

    The purpose of this paper is to study the artworks from a gender perspective. The purpose is also to examine if there are reflections and connections in their art that reflects both of the artist lives and if they in some way exceeded the norm. From each artist I have chosen artworks with similar motives, a self-portrait, one where they have painted their children, and one of an exotic woman.

  • 13.
    Söderström Gardevåg, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Malm, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Konstruktioner i barnböcker: en analys av LasseMajas detektivbyrå utifrån genus- och rollteori2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att granska genus- och rollkonstruktioner i barnböcker utifrån frågeställningarna; hur ser genus- och rollkonstruktioner ut i de studerade böckerna? Böcker är en viktig källa i barns socialisationsprocess (Hulth & Schönbäck, 2011). Studien utgår från konstruktionismen, och använder sig av bild- och textanalys för att studera LasseMajas detektivbyrå. Studien utgår ifrån genusteori och rollteori och har en deduktiv ansats.

    Resultaten visar bland annat att böckerna innehåller en genusnormativ yrkesdelning och att bilderna särskiljer kvinnor och män från varandra. Det finns vissa grundläggande normer i böckerna samt vissa yrken som har olika viktiga funktioner. Böckerna skildrar även hierarkier, att det finns skyldigheter inom givna relationer samt att vissa roller krockar med varandra. Studiens slutsats är böckerna skildrar normativa inslag gällande hur karaktärer porträtteras och tillåts agera. Konstruktionerna förmedlar att det är viktigt att kvinnor och män särskiljs, samt att ordning och stabilitet bevaras i sociala system.

  • 14.
    Weiser, Wolfgang
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Present Poise In Momentum: Embodied learning of applied aesthetics in our sense of balance – a study about sensorial cultural use of balance2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study lies in investigating the embodied learning of applied aesthetics in our sense of balance in the educational space and how it can contribute to change one of a present major public health related problem, the problem of sedentary behaviour in school and society. The investigation is not an effect study, but aims to question our sensorial cultural practice of applied aesthetics, by looking at how we use our ability to balance in the educational space.  Introducing and including elements from the field of art, the aesthetics field of knowledge and life science, the question of acknowledging embodied learning is explored mainly in the sensorial cultural praxis of our ability to balance. Embodied praxis is represented by the Alexander Technique and Elsa Gindler’s concept, with relation to modern neuromechanics. An educational view of knowledge that unilaterally enhances and rewards abstraction as well as theoretical thinking, by validating matrices and merit points, creates unbalance. Treating this unbalance solely with physical exercises enhances the conflict of how to use learning time in school and seems not to lead to a solution. By seeing the educational space as a space of embodied practice the investigation is built around participants’ sense of balance in embodied learning during a school day. The established sensorial cultural practice of how we are using our sense of balance in movement responses is observed during a school day and in a complementary inquiry explored and discussed with the children. Also the time of sitting is measured. The qualitative analysis or reading in this research of embodied learning is done by analysing directions or pointing in poise in momentum for finding inclusive or exclusive corresponsive sensorial tendencies in relation to sensorial cultural practice, including individual, social and regulative aspects. The minor quantitative part in this investigation is looking at the time spent sitting during the school day in the given conditions for defining the pupils’ sedimentary behaviour. The found embodied learning was not noticably acknowledged and not commented by the teacher.  The learning sessions were varying in space, form and in their content. In spite of the attempt of the teacher to create moveability, the children were sitting 54%  or more of the day in school. Inclusive dynamic responsiveness gave ability to balance and promoted embodied learning. Isolated or excluded responsiveness did not noticably engage the sense of balance and did not promote embodied learning. It resulted into pointing or directing downwards and leaning forward, backward or inwards into supportive furniture in accordance with gravitation. The study finds that inclusive responsiveness increases aligned balancing in poise in momentum. In its conclusion the study recognizes the value and effect of physical activity, but argues that moving to be healthy is not effectively changing sedentary behaviour. It argues instead for embodied health sufficient moving on a general sensorial level.  To be able to use our sense of balance as function of intelligence, we still need to increase acknowledgment of our evolutionary inherited skill further.

  • 15.
    Ström, Ola
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av kuratorers uppfattning om metoden "Förändrande familjesamtal".2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe the professional counselors, in Children and Youth Units at Social services in Örebro, opinion on Magnus Ringborgs model Therapeutic family conversations (FFS), and how useful they perceive it to be.

    Seventeen of the Children and Youth Units twenty-five counselors participated in the evaluation. The counselors were interviewed based on an interview form with pre-defined questions and had opportunity to comment. The focus of the evaluation was the various steps of the method and how important the counselors considered them to be. They were then asked general questions about the method´s usefulness and effectiveness.

    Most counselors had a positive approach to FFS. They considered the method to be easy to apply, facilitated family work, gave structure and streamlined the processing work. Some of the counselors did however perceive the method to have limited use in resource poor- and unmotivated families.

  • 16.
    Christianson Böhlin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Integration på öppna förskolan: fördelarna med dess verksamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An ethnological essay about two open daycares in Söderköping, one by the Swedish church and one by the community. -How to integrate refugees and there children in the social enviroment in the town.The benefits of the daily activites at the open daycares by singing and interacting with other children. In the ethnological essay I spend 3 days at the community daycare and 3 days at the daycare by the Church. After my field time I interview the daycare teachers and the priest about integration in the daycare. The essay has also got a interview with the civil servants at the social office in Söderköping aout integration.  

  • 17.
    Schön, Isabella
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    What do schoolchildren think of grades in school? The views and values regarding grades of students in year six.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to give an insight into how school children in year six, in Sweden, value and view grades. In Sweden, currently there are many debates on whether schools should have grading systems and if so, in which school year they should be introduced. In the present study seven children (3 boys and 4 girls), attending year six, were divided into two focus groups; that were simultaneously conducted. In the focus groups, the children discussed their views, values and their experiences in regard to grades. The results discerned from the two focus groups were that the seven participating school children felt that there was value and merit in receiving grades because they gained a better understanding of their own academic performance based on the grades they received. Additionally, however, the children acknowledged that they also do experience negative emotional effects from receiving grades, such as stress and the de-evaluation of their capabilities in comparison to their schoolmates. Nevertheless, the participating children perceived that grades were necessary and believed that the grading system should begin to be enforced in either year four, or year five, for the most optimal effect.

  • 18.
    Heredia, Cessi
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Class Management, Teaching and Teacher-students Interactions in Crowded Classrooms: An observational analysis in an urban Catholic single gendered school2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of my concerns has been how children behave in a crowded classroom with few available opportunities to interact and rehearse the lesson with their peers and teacher. This research paper allows me to explore how teacher`s directives/ manners  (verbal & non-verbal communication) during the English lesson,  impact and fix children`s behaviours temporarily.  I have conducted this emprirical case study in a religious catholic, monolingual, Spanish school conformed only by girls aged 7-9, who are in the third level of its primary level.  As my interest was to analyze the talk of my purpose sampling (teacher-student) and the interactive behaviour in the natural occurring situation in this social setting, the method I chose was the analysis of social interaction, on Conversation Analysis. This allows me to unfold the talk-in-interaction and concentrate on micro-analytic situations using the standard convention to transcribe my selected analysis. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to explore and demonstrate how disciplinary acts were deilvered by the teacher affecting the child`s subjectivity and performance in a crowded classroom.

  • 19.
    Asklund Andersson, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digitala spel och dyslexi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern world there is a great emphasis on the individuals ability to partake in written information; however, as there is between 5% and 8% of the Swedish population that suffers from a learning disability, this can quickly become a problem. The fact that Dyslexia is hard to detect early on adds to the burden of those affected and can even lead to low self-esteem and failing motivation to study.

     

    Therefore, there is a need for new screening tools that can detect dyslexia early, an idea centered on a game for such a tool is what this study has chosen to focus on. The viability of such a game has been tried through a series of 16 qualitative interviews and 15 benchmarking analyses. The author makes the case for the requirement specification such a game based screening tool will have, what must be considered in its development, and how kids reflect upon games.

     

    The requirement specification presented in the results serves not only as a basis for a screening tool but also gives valuable insight into the opinions of children on the topic of gaming and provides the more practical suggestions for the tool itself.

  • 20.
    Digréus, Miranda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knutsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En skälig framtid?: En kvalitativ studie om hur personal på HVB-hem för ensamkommande barn ser på barnens möjlighet till etablering i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet ensamkommande barn har sedan 2006 ökat oavbrutet och alla dessa barn blir placerade på HVB-hem eller i familjehem. Forskning visar att detta är en utsatt grupp som kan ha svårt att ta sig in på arbetsmarknaden på grund av diskriminering. Forskning visar att arbete, utbildning och socialt nätverk är viktigt för att kunna etableras i samhället. Personalen på HVB-hemmen är några av de personer som står de ensamkommande barnen närmast och därmed kan stötta barnen i vägen till etablering. 

    I denna kvalitativa studie undersöks därför vilka perspektiv och erfarenheter personalen på HVB-hem för ensamkommande barn har på barnens möjlighet till etablering. Empirin består av sex semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförda på HVB-hem i södra Sverige. Dessa har sedan analyserats med hjälp av analysmetoden fenomenografi. Med hjälp av denna analys hittades åtta kategorier. Dessa har sedan analyserats med hjälp av Bourdieus kapitalteori samt begreppet stereotypisering. 

    Resultatet visade att informanterna beskriver de ensamkommande barnens sociala nätverk och kunskaper om samhället som begränsade, men att barnen har möjligheter att förstärka dessa. De kunskaper barnen har med sig från hemlandet menar informanterna inte alltid passar in och de behöver därmed läras om. En utmaning för de ensamkommande barnen är att de blir stereotypiserade av det svenska samhället, vilket kan försvåra deras väg till etablering. 

  • 21.
    Söllvander, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magical Garden Balloon Game2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I will describe the methods used and problems I have faced and attempted to solve during my time developing a math game for younger kids, a game that makes an attempt to teach kids something called number sense. Teaching pre school kids about number sense is something relatively new and the group I have been working with are of the understanding that it’s something that is very likely to be important to prevent children from falling behind in math during the earlier years of school. Number sense basically means the ability to connect symbolic numbers to their meaning interms of sets, amounts and dimensions such as larger-smaller, higher-shorter, more-less, etc. If this proves to be useful then the quality of education will improve as a result of more children being able to keep up with their math from an early stage.

  • 22.
    Fernlund, Eva
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Lund University, Sweden.
    Schlegel, Todd T.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Platonov, Pyotr G.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Liuba, Petru
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Peripheral microvascular function is altered in young individuals at risk for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and correlates with myocardial diastolic function2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 308, no 11, H1351-H1358 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Based on previous reports of functional abnormalities in not only coronary but also peripheral vessels in adults with HCM, we aimed to assess both peripheral vascular and myocardial diastolic function in young individuals with an early stage of HCM and in individuals at risk for HCM. Children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age: 12 yr) with a family history of HCM who either had (HCM group; n = 36) or did not have (HCM-risk group; n = 30) echocardiography-documented left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as well as healthy matched controls (n = 85) and healthy young athletes (n = 12) were included in the study. All underwent assessment with 12-lead electrocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and laser Doppler with transdermal iontophoresis of ACh and sodium nitroprusside. LV thickness and mass were increased in HCM and athlete groups compared with control and HCM-risk groups. The mitral E-to-e ratio, measured via tissue Doppler, was increased in HCM (P less than 0.0001) and HCM-risk (P less than 0.01) groups compared with control and athlete groups, as were microvascular responses to ACh (HCM group: P less than 0.045 and HCM- risk group: P less than 0.02). Responses to ACh correlated with the E-to-e ratio (r = 0.5, P = 0.001). Microvascular responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in all groups (P = 0.2). HCM-causing mutations or its familial history are associated with changes in cardiac diastolic function and peripheral microvascular function even before the onset of myocardial hypertrophy. Tissue Doppler can be used to differentiate HCM from physiological LV hypertrophy in young athletes.

  • 23.
    Vallgren, Rikard
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem ska rädda världen?: En textanalys av faktaböcker för barn om klimatförändringarna 2000-20152015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the message of non-fiction books on climate change for children, published in Swedish 2000-2015. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the message is communicated in relation to how recent research shows that it should be done. The study also aims to analyze the similarities and differences in the book's message compared to the message in the public debate during the period. The issues that the study intends to answer is what message is being communicated, how it is done and if the message and the way to communicate has changed over the time period.

     

    The study was conducted in the form of a text analysis where qualitative content analysis and visual text analysis have been combined. The interpretation strategy is interpreter-related. The empirical material consists of sixteen non-fiction books, devised by searching in Swedish Children's Book Institute's catalog.

     

    The results indicate that the speech in the literature changed in a significant way during the 2000s first fifteen years, and that the changes broadly follows the changes in the contemporary Swedish climate debate. Meanwhile, clear differences are interpreted regarding what messages and symbols are highlighted in children's literature compared to the rest of society. Certain discrepancies between the speech of children's literature and research findings concerning appropriate communication strategies can also be interpreted in the analysis.

  • 24.
    Fahlström, Zara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Askestad, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Vem gynnas av föräldraskap?: Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that parenting is important for an individual's career development. In both Sweden and the US there has been support for a pay gap between individuals who have children and those who do not have children. Mothers have a lower wage than women without children, while it is not clear if dads have a better or worse career development than men without children. Research indicates that it may be caused by individuals' different attitudes, perceptions and behavior towards individuals with family which differs based on a social norm concerning the parents' careers. The decision to start a family may therefore affect an individual's finances and long-term career. To promote equal pay for equal work, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms for this development in order to design effective measures to reduce the pay gap. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyze parenthood’s importance to an individual's career in terms of hiring, compensation and promotion.

    In a vignette experiment 11,059 full-time program students in grades two to five, at Linköping University, were asked to answer an online questionnaire. The questionnaire has been designed based on the status characteristic theory (SCT) to investigate whether parenting is seen upon as having a negative or positive status that may explain differences in career outcomes. Based on the identity economics a number of background questions were included to investigate whether there is a connection between respondents' backgrounds, personal traits, and thereby potential identities. Collected primary data has been analyzed using hypothesis testing and regression analysis. The results indicate that employability, wage and promotion, are not affected by parenting but of perceived competence. However, support is found for that respondents' background, mainly gender and age, but also in some cases faculty affiliation, affect the outcome of the variables. The results thus contributes to a deeper understanding of what affects the seemingly inexplicable career differences. 

  • 25.
    Michailidou, Kyriaki
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “How useful and applicable is the program The Underwear Rule for Greek parents? Parents' perspectives on the advantages and problems with the program: an interview study”2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse is a burning issue raising concern because of the statistics which indicate that one in five children are victims of some kind of abuse. The protective program, the “Underwear Rule” was launched by the European Council in order to inform and equip parents, caregivers and children towards this sensitive issue. The program is addressed to all European countries in the exact same form and content, with only differentiation the language. This study tries to examine theoretically and empirically the applicability of the “Underwear Rule” to Greek parents, in the sense that each country has its own cultural background and cast of mind, which differentiate the acceptance and the applicability of the Rule. This relates mainly to prior research of Kirana exploring Greek parents’ perspective towards sexual education, as well to Babatsiko’s research about developing national protective programs corresponding to local and cultural demands. An interview study has been carried out, focusing on parents’ point of view about the Underwear Rule. The analysis is based on the subjective experiences and thoughts of seven parents whose children are in the age-target group covered by the Underwear Rule. The parents’ interviews have been analyzed thematically. Overall this study argues that The Underwear Rule is a good protective program, but parents would like improvements and enrichment in order the burning topic of child sexual abuse to be covered more effectively

  • 26.
    Chaulagai, Som
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding Childhood- Everyday Life and Welfare System, from the point of view of Childcare Workers in Finland.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study carried out in one children’s home in Finland. This study aims to understand how the caregivers collectively perceive their work to secure and construct the childhood of the children living in the children’s home. Furthermore, the study mainly includes caregiver’s perceptions and practices of upbringing of children in the children’s home, which have been thoroughly analysed in the study. The study follows carefully designed two qualitative research methods: focus group interview and text for data collection. The data comprise one focus group interview of seven child care workers that includes five discussion questions about children’s home, listening to the children, importance of rules, regulations and daily routines, children’s future and difficulties in the work. References have been given to the ‘text’, i.e. institution’s policy documents- rules and regulations and the Finnish Child Welfare Act for the analysis of the data. However, the study does not include the analysis of the ‘text’ itself. Moreover, thematic analysis is used for data analysis.

    The study highlights that understanding childhood comprise the process of trust building between children and care workers- allowing children’s voice, agency, independence and protection respecting the child rights, personal integrity with the provision of safe home, trustable adults and permanent routines and individual child care plan. In addition, the same body ‘caregiver’ who, at the same time, allows child autonomy, agency and independence, also regulates the children’s everyday life, controls children and creates limitation, bridge trust and protect them from developing deviancy and asocial behaviours. Such process gives special consideration to the children’s psychological as well as physical incompetency such as age, immaturity and the vulnerable past in the children’s home that partly creates dilemmas/conflicts in delivering full agency to the children as mentioned in the legal frame work. The study reveals that building trust takes place through interaction between children and care workers and is a long-term process that backs up bringing corrective experiences in children. Listening to the children means helping and teaching them to recognise own feelings, emotions and stand independent and strong for oneself in the future. Likewise, respect to the child rights and organising everyday life delivers protection and safety net to the children. The study reveals, despites various difficulties at work, such as changing welfare act, complicated bureaucracy, unlimited parental rights and surprising legal interference, the child workers have the professional as well as moral obligations to protect children and provide them a safe and intact growing environment. Finally, the study reveals that future of the children is based on the personal choices they make in future and only a few of them will have relatively better life than others. However, all of the children are always under potential risk of post-traumatic collapses.

     

    Keywords: childhood, child perspective, agency, children’s voice, building trust.

     

  • 27.
    Renström, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automatic age estimation of children based on brain matter composition using quantitative MRI2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a child can be monitored by studying the changes in physical appearance or the development of capabilities e.g. walking and talking. But is it possible to find a quantitative measure for brain development? The aim of this thesis work is to investigate that possibility using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) images by answering the following questions:

    • Can brain development be determined using qMRI? If so, what properties of the brain can be used?
    • Can the age of a child be automatically detected with an algorithm? If so, how can this algorithm function? With what accuracy?

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect properties in the brain changing with age, based on MRI images. These properties have e.g. been changes in T1 and T2 relaxation time, i.e. properties in water signal behavior that can be measured using multiple MR acquisitions. In the literature this was linked to a rapid myelination process that occurs after birth. Furthermore the organization and growth of the brain is a property that can be measured and monitored.

    This thesis have investigated several different properties in the brain based on qMRI images in order to identify those who have a strong correlation with age in the range 0-20 years. The properties that were found to have a high correlation were:

    • Position of the first histogram peak in T1 weighted qMRI images,
    • Fraction of white matter in the brain,
    • Mean pixel value of PD weighted qMRI images,
    • Volume of white matter in the brain,

    Curves on the form f(x) = ae^(-bx) +c are fitted to the data sets and confidence intervals are calculated to frame the statistical insecurity of the curve. The mean error in percent for the different properties can be seen in the list below:

    Property, Mean error [%] 0-20 years, Mean error [%] 0-3 years

    Peak position: 53.84, 98.17

    Fraction of WM: 118.97, 71.67

    Mean pixel value: 200.89, 126.28

    Volume of WM: 241.72, 72.58

    The conclusions drawn based on the presented results are that there are properties in the brain that correlates well to aging, but the error is too large for making a valid prediction of age over the entire range of 0-20 years. When decreasing the age range to 0-3 years the mean error becomes smaller, but it is still too large. More data is needed to evaluate and improve this result.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Therése
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lawrence, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    English as a Second Language for Kenyan Children in Primary School: A Trial of the Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised Edition2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a multilingual environment and there is a lack of materials available for speech and language assessment in this area (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The norms for assessment material cannot be used for both monolinguals and bilinguals, since bilinguals may have different levels of knowledge in their languages (Kohnert, 2010). The Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised edition (SLAP-R) is an assessment that can be used to evaluate English as a second language (ESL) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this instrument is an attempt to fill the gap of suitable speech and language assessment tools that can be used for all those involved in setting up clinics, schools or speech and language assessment tools (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The aim of the present study was to assess English as a second language for Kenyan children in primary school based on their result on the SLAP-R. The present study consisted of 68 participants with reported typically developed language and hearing that attended first or second grade in a public school in western Kenya. All participants were between six and nine years old, had a Bantu language as their first language and had been exposed to English for less than one year up to eight years. They had also attended preschool at their current school. The independent variables in the present study were grade, age and exposure to English. SLAP-R consists of six subtests that test expressive and receptive phonology, semantics and grammar. These parts constituted the dependent variables. In addition there is a part called ultimate expressive language skill (UELS) that consists of picture sequences where the participant should tell a story of what is happening in the pictures. The result indicated that grade had the largest effect on the participant’s performance in English as a second language. Grade two had significantly higher results regarding receptive phonology as well as expressive and receptive semantics and grammar than the participants in grade one. Most of the incorrect answers were made in the subtest expressive grammar. These answers were mainly incorrect due to other reasons than an answer in Kiswahili.

  • 29.
    Drugge, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Svensson, Elizabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Biståndets framgång i Ghana: En jämförande fallstudie av Hungerprojektet och ActionAids biståndsarbete i Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the world today there are 842 million people hungry, which corresponds to the population of the US, Japan and Europe combined. The reason for their hunger is not lack of food, according to the UN, there are enough resources in the world for everyone to be satisfied. The majority of the hungry live in developing countries; in rural or slum areas and its mainly women and children.1 In order to among other things, to correct this untenable situation the Millennium Development Goals were created. Foreign aid would solve the victim's problems, but few issues are so controversial as foreign aid. Where does the money go? Do they make any difference to the individuals? What distinguishes a functioning foreign aid?

    The aim is to try to locate the factors leading to a successful assistance. This has been developed through a qualitative comparative case study. The selected organizations has been compered to the established theories in the field, these are mostly based on William Easterly and Jeffrey Sachs. The work focuses on ActionAid and The Hunger Project's work in Ghana with emphasis on implementation.

    One of the conclusions we have made in this paper is that there need to be good communication between the organizations and the local population. If those who live in the community do not recognize the problems or if the solution is not designed to fit the local conditions, then it will not be a long-term change. It is also important that all groups in the society are involved in the work process and especially the marginalized groups that usually consist of women and children. This work can be seen as a first step to locating aid organizations' success factors, but also illustrates common problems with foreign aid. 

  • 30.
    Ebintra, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Intersectional Stigmatization of the Piranha in Prostitution: A case study of young women in prostitution  in central Lima2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is constructed upon narratives of fourteen young women, who have been working in prostitution since they were street children in central Lima, and acknowledges their stigmatization in the Peruvian society, and how they challenge their socially constructed position. By combining narrative method with an intersectional analysis I have, through a multi-layered loupe, interpreted the young women’s interpretation of themselves and their social world. I will bring forward how these young women view their subordinate and stigmatized position through their narratives surrounding their bodies as shameful, culpable, sexual and fixed. This stigmatization is intersectional as it surrounds all parts of their lives and situatedness within the Peruvian society. This situatedness is complex, involving hierarchical structures that have been present in Peru since colonization and imperialism (cf. Wade 2009). In addition, I will bring forward how the young women engage in strategies to challenge this stigmatization by applying measures to increase their respectability (cf. Skeggs).

  • 31.
    Jacobson, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Förskolan och barn som far illa: Specialpedagogers tankar kring stöd och tidig upptäckt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate special educators’ thoughts about how the work of preschool can be adjusted to give support to mistreated children and facilitate early discovery.

    A semi-structured interview has been used as method. Six special educators with preschool teaching as a basic education participated. Case reports to reflect and reason around were used as tools.

    The study shows that the special educators consider that the preschool plays a big part for mistreated children and their development. The staffs´ approach to children and their parents is essential to create good relations.

  • 32.
    Hemmingsson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klasén, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In vitro studies of Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase: Ligand binding interactions and development of a new enzymatic activity assay for TPMTwt, TPMT*6 and TPMT*82015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, one of the most malignant cancer forms in children is commonly treated with the thiopurine 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in combination with a high dose of methotrexate (MTX). 6-Mercaptopurine is in the body metabolized by the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT). Polymorphic variants of TPMT express different catalytic activities, and for this reason the dosage of 6-MP needs to be individualized. In order to better optimize the treatment it is important to understand how mutations in TPMT affect its enzymatic activity.

    In this thesis we have investigated how the wild type and two variants of TPMT interact with different ligands using fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry. Experiments with MTX, ANS and furosemide resulted in a similar binding strength for the wild type and the variant TPMT*8, while the other variant TPMT*6 showed a slightly weaker binding. A binding affinity for polyglutamated MTX to TPMTwt was also determined which resulted in an almost twice as strong binding compared to MTX.

    Today’s methods to determine enzymatic activity are either based on radioactivity, time consuming or expensive. As an alternative the use of a spectrophotometric assay using 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) was investigated. The method showed positive results and could hopefully be adapted to plate readers in future experiments. Using 5.5’-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB, also known as Ellman’s reagent) the amount of accessible thiol groups on the protein was estimated. This revealed a similar relationship between TPMTwt and TPMT*6, while the result for TPMT*8 was inconclusive.

  • 33.
    Hägerström, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samverkan mellan skola, socialtjänst och polis: Tre aktörers uppfattning om samverkan kring elever som far illa eller riskerar att fara illa.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att få förståelse för hur aktörer som arbetar i skolan, hos polisen och inom socialtjänsten uppfattar sin samverkan med de andra aktörerna kring elever som far illa eller riskerar att fara illa, samt vad de ser som framgångsbärande faktorer och utvecklingsbara områden i samverkan. Studien är kvalitativ och empirin är insamlad med hjälp av webenkäter. Dataanalysen är genomförd med tematisk analys där olika teman utlästs. Resultaten visar att samverkan upplevs som såväl positiv som utvecklingsbar och att de olika aktörerna har olika bilder av hur väl samverkan fungerar. I diskussionen kopplas resultaten till tidigare forskning och litteratur och de framgångsbärande faktorer som respondenterna tar upp, överensstämmer till stor del med tidigare forskning, men även fler goda exempel på framgångsbärande faktorer kommer fram. Flera av de utvecklingsbara områden som tas upp i studien har funnits med i tidigare forskning, men ytterligare exempel framkommer också. I analysen dras paralleller till studiens olika teoretiska perspektiv.  Sammantaget finns det på många punkter en överensstämmelse mellan denna studies resultat och den empiriska forskning som tidigare gjorts i ämnet, men även en del nya exempel tas upp som vidare kan utveckla specialpedagogiska verksamheter.

  • 34.
    Netin, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pehrson, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopedisk gruppbehandling för barn med språkstörning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study objective was to investigate interaction in speech and language therapy groups for children with language impairment and to investigate whether treatment was implemented in the home environment. The material was collected from a speech and language therapy center in the south of Sweden and from the participants’ home environment. In total, seven video recordings were made of speech and language therapy sessions in two different groups. Five sessions were recorded in one of the groups, and the remaining two were recorded in the second group. Three SLPs, eight children and eleven parents participated in the study. Interviews with two of the participating SLPs and two of the participating parents were conducted. Video recordings from a home setting were collected from two of the participating children. All of the collected video recorded material was transcribed and analyzed according to principles of Conversation Analysis. The results show that the SLPs in therapy use imitation-based and modelling strategies to elicitate language production. Manual signs and recasts were found to be used as treatment strategies. Other phenomena in treatment were repairs, feedback and face-saving strategies. The study highlights the asymmetry in the interaction between children and SLPs, but also shows that the interaction sometimes departs from interaction of an institutional kind. The results indicate that one of the participating parents has implemented manual signs in the interaction during treatment as well as in the home environment. The study shows that two parents use recasts in the interaction with their children.  

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zetterlund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Behandlas barn olika?: Smärtskattning på barn efter skoliosoperation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite improved guidelines and treatment of children, postoperative pain is still a problem. Painassessment in children and specially children with cognitive disibilities demands knowledge in existing pain measurement tools for nurses. Then all children have the opportunity to express their pain.

    Aim: To find out if there is a difference in the frequency of assessment in postoperative pain in children after surgery for scoliosis.

    Design: A retrospective study.

    Methods: The study was performed in Linköping University hospital. Children admitted 2008-2009 for Idiopatic scoliosis or Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery, in age 0-18 years and available via the data journal were included in the study.

    Results: Children with Idiopatic scoliosis had a higher freqvence of painassessment compared with Neuromuscular scoliosis. Children who didn´t understood verbal information had less frequence of painassesment compered with those who understood verbal information. Girls were assessed for pain significant more often as compared to boys in the group who understood verbal information.

    Conclusion: There was differences between children who were able to express themselves and those who weren´t in painassessment, but also gender matters and to ensure all children’s right to similar care it´s of importance to access different pain measurement tools.

  • 36.
    Johansson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Alternativ och Kompletterande Kommunikation: Förskolepedagogers uppfattningar om syfte, metod och förväntade resultat av tecken- och bildstöd.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka användningen av tecken- och bildstöd för att stärka barns kommunikation i förskolan. Vad pedagoger har för uppfattningar om syfte, metod och förväntade resultat, med att använda Alternativ och Kompletterande Kommunikation.

    Studien är inspirerad av den kvalitativa forskningsstrategin och baseras på 3 intervjuer med pedagoger i förskolan, samt observation av en verksamhet.

    Personer med olika funktionsnedsättningar kan ha varierande svårigheter i kommunikation och de behöver få stöd med alternativa sätt för att kommunicera. Slutsatsen är att, oavsett vilka behov av stöd barnen har, eller vilken metod som används, är det möjligt att med förebygga språk- eller kommunikationssvårigheter med hjälp av AKK.

  • 37.
    Odeskog, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenberg, Noomi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Validering av föräldraskattningsformuläret SCDI-III för svenska barn i tre års ålder2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory (SCDI-III), a parent report instrument, is a modified form of the third version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, and has been developed as a research tool for the investigation of the language ability of children aged 2;6 - 4;0 years.

    It is of great importance that children who are most at risk of developing a language impairment are identified in time in order to increase the possibility to stimulate their language in favourable developmental phases. Clinicians have expressed a need for a material that can provide an overview of a child’s language ability, prior to carrying out further language assessment. The need of such material has contributed to the need for an investigation of the validity of SCDI-III, which has formed the basis for the present study. The purpose was to validate the already standardized parent estimation form SCDI-III with established language assessments to investigate whether it can be used to identify children who are at risk for language impairment.

    Forty-one children (21 girls and 20 boys) aged 3;0 - 3;11 years, with Swedish as their mother tongue, and 41 guardians participated in the study. The grammatical abilities of the children were examined using the validation tools SIT (Språkligt Impressivt Test) and Gramba (Grammatiktest för barn) and the lexical abilities were examined using BNT (Boston Naming Test) and PPVT-III (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). The testing was performed at their respective daycare center, and the guardians filled in SCDI-III, after which the results were compared.  

    Moderate significant correlations were found between estimations in SCDI’s word production section and the children’s production on the BNT and the result of the PPVT-III, and between parents’ evaluations in the sentence construction section of the questionnaire and the test results on Gramba. No significant or strong correlations in the sentence complexity section of the SCDI-III were found on any of the four SLP assessments. In addition to these results, girls performed significantly better than boys on Gramba and the oldest children had significantly better results than the youngest on the BNT. The results of the present study suggest a need for different methods and perspectives for the assessment of children’s language abilities. SCDI-III could therefore be a complementary tool in providing a basis for discussion between practicing speech-language pathologists and guardians, but cannot be used as an assessment tool by itself. 

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sirén, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan Theory of Mind, språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner hos barn i treårsåldern2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A childs’ first five years are characterized by an extensive development of language abilities and executive functions. These are skills that have demonstrated large impact on how children develop their understanding of their own and others’ thoughts, that is, their Theory of Mind. Within contemporary research, a central question has been to investigate how these abilities correlate at different stages of age. 

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between Theory of Mind, language and executive functions in typically developed three-year-old children. A central part in this study was also to assess whether differences in performance between boys and girls occurred and also if the number of younger and/or older siblings, socioeconomic status, and adult contact did affect the children’s performance. 

    A total of 30 children with typical development participated, of whom 16 were girls and 14 were boys. Age-appropriate test materials were used to examine, Theory of Mind, grammatical ability, semantic ability, cognitive flexibility, working memory, and phonetic discrimination. The demographic information was based on a questionnaire that parents of the participating children had to answer. 

    The result of this study indicates that the three-year child's ability to manage and understand tasks that assess Theory of mind seems to covariate with both grammatical skills and cognitive flexibility. A Correlation was also found between grammatical skills and cognitive flexibility, which indicate that language ability, executive functions and ToM have a strong dependent relationship. 

    The present study confirms that all abilities are more or less integrated at different ages and the correlations indicate that certain abilities in language, ToM and executive functions are de-veloped in interaction with each other. Specifically, the executive component cognitive flexibility and the grammatical ability are important abilities for three-year children’s ToM.

  • 39.
    Henriksson, Erika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Müllerström, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Läsförmåga hos elever i årskurs 3 och 5 samt hos elever i årskurs 5 med autismspektrumtillstånd2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine reading ability in younger students with or without autism spectrum disorder. In total, 72 students participated; 30 in grade 3 (9-10 years old), 31 in grade 5 (11-12 years old) and 11 in grade 5 with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism (11-12 years old). Three texts with related literal and inference questions (Bishop & Adams, 1992) were presented through listening, silent reading or silent reading with text support during questions. The study also examined other variables in relation to the texts; word reading ability, verbal working memory, Theory of Mind and vocabulary. The methodological foundation was a study by Nyström and Söderqvist (2013). When including all participants, analysis showed that the text presentation silent reading with text support and the question type literal questions lead to higher results. Regarding text presentation in relation to question type the results on the literal questions improved with text support whilst text presentation did not affect results on the inference questions. Regarding silent reading and inference questions grade 5 performed better than grade 3. Correlations between text comprehension and other variables, mainly vocabulary, were found for grade 3 and 5. No statistically significant differences were found for students in grade 5 with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism compared to the other groups. This may be due to the group’s wide distribution and small size. Conclusions are that grade 5 has a more developed reading ability than grade 3. The results of the students with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism in grade 5 do not statistically significant differ from students in grade 3 or grade 5.

  • 40.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kognitiva förmågor som förklarar utveckling av läsförståelse från första till andra klass2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Letter knowledge, word decoding and phonological awareness including RAN (rapid automatized naming) are known to predict early reading ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of reading comprehension from first to second grade. Phonological awareness holds an important role in this study; different ways to measure this ability will be discussed.  In the study, 36 second graders participated and the following abilities were measured; phonological awareness, word decoding, reading comprehension and letter knowledge. Performances in first and second grade were compared. The results showed that reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Furthermore, significant correlations between reading comprehension, word decoding and phonological awareness were observed in second grade. Word decoding and phonological awareness together explains 58 % of the variance of reading comprehension in second grade. The test Phonological processing alone explains the biggest part of the variance in reading comprehension. The tests for phonological awareness show that RAN had a significant correlation with the rime test but not with the test Phonological processing. The correlation indicates that the tests measure different aspects of phonological skills. In conclusion reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Additionally, phonological processing seems to be a strong predictor for reading comprehension in second grade. 

  • 41.
    Raoufi Masouleh, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Everyday Construction of Gender Identity in a Sex-reassigned Child Negotiating Membership Categorization: A case study of an Iranian family in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars in the field are of the opinion that the early simultaneous bilingual and bicultural exposure not only does not harm the bilinguals, but also strengthens their social and cultural foundations and keeps them from getting vulnerable to external environment (Deuchar and Quay 1999, 2000; Genesee 1989; Genesee, Nicoladis, and Paradis 1995; Holowka, Brosseau-Lapre ́, and Petitto 2002; Lanza 1992; Meisel 1989; Petitto et al. 2001). Also it has been demonstrated that bilingual children have differentiated systems to provide them with the ability to distinguish between their two input languages from the beginning of language acquisition (Petitto & Holowka, 2002). However, the driver of the children’s language preference patterns at home needs to be further explored. The present study is indeed an attempt to answer the question of why it is that some children regularly exposed to their heritage language from a very young age actually continue to actively use it, and other children involving in similar parental policy about bilingualism do not? It aims to examine the impacts of parental language strategies during the childhood on children language preference at home after they achieve the key competences in each of the two languages. The foci are parental attitudes towards the patterns of language choice and their influence on child language preference. Data are collected from two Iranian immigrant families; one has been experiencing additive bilingualism, while the other has been involved in the process of subtractive phenomenon. Some implications for parent-child closeness, heritage language and the risk of language contamination are touched on briefly.

  • 42.
    Gilander, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bodén, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spelbaserat lärande som främjar engagemang: Ett digitalt läromedel för barn med ADHD och tidsuppfattningssvårigheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with ADHD often experience difficulties with time perception which can cause them problems later in life. In order to help them in their daily life, an analog tool called “Pussla med tid” has been developed with the purpose of teaching these children the concept of time by visualizing it. What does not yet exist is a digital tool designed for the end user which is perceived as fun. This study evaluates the possibility of digitalizing the “Pussla med tid” tool and how it could be done to engage and meet the needs of the end users.

    This is a qualitative study that uses a user-centerd design (UCD) approach where the needs of the target group has been taken into careful consideration in every design decision. In order to find out needs, interviews with special educators were held. When developing the concept of the game, methods such as brainstorming, sketch books and moodboards were used to determine the interface and functions of the game. User tests were conducted in order to evaluate the level of engagement and whether it met the needs of the end users or not.

    According to the results, children with ADHD require a calm learning environment with little distractions and with an overview showing the entire process. Using this information when designing, a prototype was developed and tested by the target group. The results showed that the game was generally engaging and user friendly, but that there were a lack of satisfaction. Thislowlevelofsatisfactionwasprobablyduetothedifficulty level of the game which was perceived as low, and which did not offer the testers any challenges, which is important to create engagement. T​his study generated results that could help determine how a digital tool should be designed to engage the end user. The prototype that was developed showed both strengths and weaknesses, data which could be useful when designing similar tools with a shared purpose of being engaging. 

  • 43.
    Kitsiou, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Children of a lesser school: An interdisciplinary study on disability in the Greek educational reality2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT What is the situation for disabled children in the Greek educational system today, in the aftermath of the deep-seated socio-economic crisis? The present study is going to give an insight in children disability and how this is handled by the Greek educational system. To specify and illustrate the need for a qualitative perspective, it is necessary to take into consideration not only the exact numbers of disabled students and schools existing for them, along with the usefulness and functionality of their facilities, but also different qualitative aspects and intersecting parameters determining the attitude towards those children, such as gender, sexuality, age and bodily ability; all of them contributing to a specific collective mind-set that has arisen from a nexus of economical, educational, European and local structures, and their upheaval. This is such a study, providing a limited, but qualitative picture of the situation from an intersectional Gender Studies perspective onto legislative documents, the experiences of a few current educational practitioners (herein interviewed), and onto the state of the art of existing research on the topic which is mostly quantitative and statistics-based.  The over-arching question, guiding this investigation, is how the educational rights and well-fare of children with special educational needs, are practiced, cared for and discussed in the present Greek educational system with regard to intersectional gender concerns of inclusion and/or integration. This study hopes thus to provide an interdisciplinary snap-shot of the educational situation for disabled children in a disabled societal context.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aktiva pojkar och passiva flickor: Genus i barnlitteratur2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min kandidatuppsats är att undersöka hur föreställningar om kön kommer till uttryck i barnlitteratur och på vilka sätt barnböckerna förhåller sig till traditionella normer och värderingar gällande kön och könsroller.

    Med utgångspunkt i fem populära barnböcker undersöks följande frågeställningar:

    • Vilka roller tar personerna i boken och hur förhåller sig dessa roller till traditionella föreställningar om vad som är kvinnligt respektive manligt?
    • Vad gör personerna i boken som kan tolkas som stereotypt respektive normbrytande?
    • Vilka identiteter har personerna i boken, hur ser de ut, vad har de för kläder, leksaker och färger runt sig?

    Avslutningsvis kommer jag också att jämföra barnböckerna och diskutera likheter, skillnader, övergripande mönster, samt diskutera möjliga förklaringar till varför det ser ut som det gör.

  • 45.
    Gauthier Westergård, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Barnets rätt att komma till tals i familjebehandling. Familjebehandlarnas röster om Barnkonventionens artikel 12 i praktiken.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the article 12 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child to be heard is applied in family treatment by making a pilot study. Family practitioners within the municipal outpatients care had to answer how they did involve the children, the manner in which children were heard and if there were times when children should not be participate in family treatment. To get answers to these questions a semi-structured survey was made. The selected theory was systems theory.  The study also included the Convention of the Rights of the Child, family treatment and BBIC. The results showed that family practitioners used various methods to get children to be heard. There was a lot of flexibility around these practices making children involved and creating the opportunity to get children to talk. There were times when children should not participate in family therapy for example when parents had their own difficulties and when it was a predominantly adult problem.

  • 46.
    Bransell, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pappors reflektioner om hur, över tid pågående, konflikter med mamman drabbar barnet.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of fathers, who have participated in a combined therapy/self-help group, of young children to appreciate the effects of prolonged conflicts in the family on the children, e.g. their ability as fathers to assume the children's perspective on the matter.

    Ten fathers no longer living with the mothers, with whom they still had unresolved issues, participated in individual interviews concerning different questions that might be of importance to children exposed to family conflict. The interviews were based on two fictitious cases describing the situation of children whose parents are in dispute over custody. All of the participating fathers emphasized how difficult it was to keep the welfare of the child in focus, while having an ongoing conflict with the mother. They also expressed problems in judging what practical daily life measures would be best for the child during the conflict. Moreover, they raised the issue of not being able to focus on parenting, putting all their energy into managing their ex-partner instead. Hence, focusing on managing a conflict occurred at the expense of the relationship to their children. The participants also expressed how the fathers in the fictitious cases, and in their own situation, should be concerned with not intensifying an already difficult situation for the children as long as they don’t understand the children's perspectives.

    It can be concluded that the participants obtained an increased awareness of the importance of being more sensitive to the needs of their own children due to the support from the group treatment. They could see parenting as a lifelong task with responsibilities on them even when the relationship with mother had ended.

  • 47.
    Aspén-Franzén, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av insatsen föräldrakoordinator.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting Coordination is a child-focused alternative dispute resolution approach practiced in Sweden since 2009. In this interview study separated parents experience of being supported in their parental cooperation by a parenting coordinator have been examined. Interviews have been conducted with seven parents who have had a Parenting Coordinator for at least six months. All participating parents have had several years of experience in an intractable conflict with the other parent, and has previously tried other forms of dispute solving measures. The results show that most parents have experienced that the method has been helpful when it comes to improving co-parenting skills, reducing conflict and improving the well-being of their children. The interviewed parents state that it has been most helpful to get support in structuring the communication with the other parent. Some say that having access to more information regarding common children improves parenting as well as the parent-child relationship. Not having to sit together in shared dialogue, getting help to make written agreements and the Parenting Coordinator having a clear child-focus in meetings are also addressed as helpful. Parents describe that in order to achieve said results it is important that the parenting-coordinator can remain neutral in the conflict.

  • 48.
    Sydling, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Omsorg som spelar roll.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av hur förskollärare uppfattar omsorgens roll i det dagliga arbetet med de yngsta förskolebarnen.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim is to generate insights into preschool teachers' perceptions of the care role in the daily work with the youngest children in preschool. Based on a phenomenographic research approach has seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers operate in a toddler department. In the study described earlier research on the phenomenon of care and its role in nursery and various researchers' perceptions of its importance for the youngest children . The informants' statements are compiled based on a phenomenographic analysis where six descriptive categories emerged , in the categories contained a wide variety of perceptions of care significance. These six categories of description leads to the study sample space , in the study's results . This result emerges preschool teachers ' conceptions of care as both an important factor for the youngest children's well-being , but also as a basis for their learning in early childhood context.

  • 49.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Executive functions and Planning in everyday life: Assistive Technologies for Cognition and their lack of support for children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactive Disorder2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of how Assistive Technologies for Cognition (ATC) serve their purpose in providing support for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (AD/HD) is limited and it is not clear how to best support the cognitive functions in order to help the individual increase task performance in everyday life. This thesis sought to scrutinise how families with at least one child diagnosed with AD/HD incorporate ATCs in their daily life in order to cope with appurtenant difficulties. An online survey, answered by 92 caregivers for children with AD/HD, attended to the cognitive abilities in need of support, the usage of ATCs, and how ATCs supported the executive functions in everyday planning. The results reveal that children encounter difficulty in dealing with cognitive ability, executive functioning and causal inference when it comes to planning in everyday life situations, which relates to lower levels of independence. Executive functioning and causal inference is negatively correlated to number of symptoms of AD/HD. The ATC is not satisfactorily supporting the cognitive functions, which results in another person by default being the one who sets up the ATC, and the child merely follows the instruction. The results has been processed into a table containing concepts which is suggested to be considered both when developing, as well as evaluating, ATCs for children with AD/HD. 

  • 50.
    Franciscus, Margaret
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Nucci, Anita
    Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Bradley, Brenda
    Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Suomalainen, Heli
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Greenberg, Ellen
    Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Laforte, Diane
    Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Kleemola, Paivi
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytinen, Mila
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salonen, Marja
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martin, Mary Jean
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ONT, Canada.
    Catte, Daniel
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Catteau, Jacki
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Recruitment and retention of participants for an international type 1 diabetes prevention trial: a coordinators' perspective.2014In: Clinical Trials, ISSN 1740-7745, E-ISSN 1740-7753, Vol. 11, no 2, 150-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Trial to Reduce Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is the first multicenter international type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trial to be undertaken. A unique feature of TRIGR has been recruitment of eligible pregnant women and enrollment of newborns for long-term follow-up assessments.

    PURPOSE: Our purpose is to summarize the recruitment and retention strategies used to conduct TRIGR from the perspective of the study coordinators.

    METHODS: TRIGR was designed to test whether weaning to formula containing hydrolyzed versus intact cow's milk protein would be efficacious in decreasing risk for development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D among infants identified to be at increased risk for T1D based on their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile and family history. Multiple strategies tailored to local issues were required to enroll and follow the target number of infants.

    RESULTS: This study was conducted in the United States, Canada, Australia, and 12 countries in Europe. Of the 5606 mothers registered worldwide, 5000 of their infants were randomized. Of these, 2159 were HLA eligible and enrolled in the 8-month intervention and 10-year follow-up phases of this study. The TRIGR study met the accrual goal after 4.7 years of recruitment, 2.7 years longer than projected initially. Challenges included difficulty in finding fathers with T1D, a higher than expected rate of premature delivery among T1D mothers, and implementation of new privacy regulations mid-trial. The majority of participants were recruited from primary care antenatal clinics located near the study centers and from a general hospital or pediatric center that was affiliated with a TRIGR Study center. Internet and magazine advertisements were found to be useful for recruitment of families. Alternative follow-up strategies are offered to families who wish to reduce or discontinue participation.

    LIMITATIONS: Our experience is limited to a single international multicenter trial.

    CONCLUSIONS: TRIGR coordinators played key roles in the recruitment and intervention periods and continue to be instrumental in retaining families and children during the 10-year follow-up period for each child.

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