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  • 1.
    LIU, ZHI
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Study of the Relationship between Socialization Tactics, Motives to Study and Mental Health in Chinese College Students2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    College students constitute a particular social group that carries hopes and expectations from both parents and society. However, in recent years there have been  reports about increasing problems in many universities in China: students suspension from school, skipping classes, or even committing suicide,. As social isolation, anxiety, fragility etc are possible reasons, the importance of university student’s mental health has been taken seriously more and more. University students’ socialization refers to the process in which college students grow up into independent and mature individuals by learning social and culture knowledge. From social perspective, on one hand, they still need to learn professional knowledge, on the other hand, they have to construct a good philosophy for themselves, a correct world outlook and value conception. This study mainly explores undergraduate students’ mental health in relation to socialization tactics and motives to study. That means that the focus of this survey is not on the degree of socialization, but on the tactic the students have chosen to get into the university society.

    In this study totally 120 students were examined via two questionnaires, the University Personality Inventory(UPI) introduced from Japan, and the combined Motives to Study and Socialization Tactics questionnaire from Israel. Both of them  passed homogeneity testing. The 120 students were from four universities, two  located in Hangzhou city and two in Beijing. Statistical analysis including correlation analysis, multiple regression and t-test, showed that motives to study had little to do with students’ mental health, while scholastic and collegiate socialization tactics were associated with good mental health of the students. There was no big difference in study motives and socialization tactics between the male and the female students in this study.

  • 2.
    Adedokun, Adeyemi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Application of Road Infrastructure Safety Assessment Methods at Intersections2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic safety at intersections is a particularly difficult phenomenon to study, given the fact that accidents occur randomly in time and space thereby making short-term measurement, assessment and comparison difficult. The EU directive 2008/96/EC introduced road infrastructure safety management, which offers a five layer structure for developing safer road infrastructure has been used to develop tools for accident prediction and black spot management analysis which has been applied in this work to assess the safety level of intersections in Norrköping city in Sweden. Accident data history from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and the network demand model for Norrköping city were used to model black spots and predict the expected number of accidents at intersections using PTV Visum Safety tool, after STRADA accident classification was restructured and the Swedish accident prediction model (APM) was configured and tested to work within the tool using the model from the Swedish road administration (SRA). The performance of the default (Swiss) and the Swedish APM was compared and identified locations with the high accident records, predicted accident counts and traffic volumes were audited using qualitative assessment checklist from Street-Audit tool. The results from these methods were analysed, validated and compared. This work provides recommendations on the used quantitative and qualitative methods to prevent accident occurrence at the identified locations.

  • 3.
    Carlander, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Att bygga bostäder enligt miljöbyggnadskrav: En fallstudie i området Nya Wahlbecks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and resource efficiency is an important part in moving towards a sustainable society. In the year 2013, the total energy use in Sweden was 563 TWh and approximately 26 % of the energy was used in the residential and service sector. Within the residential and service sector, nearly 60 % of the used energy is for heating (Energimyndigheten, 2015). The construction of energy efficient buildings is a central part in creating a sustainable society and Nya Wahlbecks is supposed to become a city district which will show that it is possible to increase growth, quality of life and well-being and at the same time decrease the use of non recyclable and non reusable resources.The primary purpose of this master thesis has been to generate suggestions on how to design the residential buildings in the new city district Nya Wahlbecks, which will be built in east Valla in Linköping, so they can be certified in accordance to the environmental certification system Miljöbyggnad. Besides the primary purpose an investigation on how much electricity that can be generated with photovoltaic and how much energy that can be saved by the use of solar heating panels, has also been conducted. Finally a comparison in emissions of CO2-eqvivalents between a building that just meets the criteria´s of Boverkets Byggregler (BBR) and the generated building models was done.The results which the case study has generated, clearly shows that it is possible to build the new residential buildings in Nya Wahlbecks so that they will meet the different criteria’s for grade Silver and Guld from Miljöbyggnad. The requirements from Miljöbyggnad aim to have as low energy use as possible at the same time as a good indoor climate is kept. These two factors can be contradictions to one another, as for instance low energy use can be reached by having thicker insulation, but thicker insulation often results in higher indoor temperature which can then lead to deterioration in indoor climate. The investigations of energy use and indoor climate were conducted through simulations in the building-simulation program IDA-ICE, where several optimizations were done for different parameters to finally meet the requirements from Miljöbyggnad. Simulations with solar panels for heating and generation of electricity were also conducted with IDA-ICE. The results of the study shows that nearly 60 % of the used electricity in the project building can be generated from photovoltaic panels placed on the roof of the building. About 9 % of the buildings heating energy can be produced with solar panels placed in the same way as the photovoltaic ones. When it comes to emissions of CO2-eqvivalents there would be a difference in approximately 19 tons, which is equivalent to about 30 %, if the building meets the requirements of Miljöbyggnad Silver instead of just meeting BBR´s requirements.

  • 4.
    Galiè, Nazzareno
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Barberà, Joan A
    University of Barcelona and Biomedical Research Networking Center on Respiratory Diseases, Madrid, Spain.
    Frost, Adaani E
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA.
    Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir
    University of Giessen and Marbury Lung Center, Giessen, Germany.
    Hoeper, Marius M
    Hanover Medical School and German Center of Lung Research, Hanover, Germany.
    McLaughlin, Vallerie V
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Peacock, Andrew J
    Regional Heart and Lung Center, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Simonneau, Gérald
    University Paris-Sud, Paris, France.
    Vachiery, Jean-Luc
    Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Grünig, Ekkehard
    University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Oudiz, Ronald J
    UCLA Medical Center, Torrance,USA.
    Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton
    University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    White, R James
    University of Rochester, NY, USA.
    Blair, Christiana
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Gillies, Hunter
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Miller, Karen L
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Harris, Julia H N
    GlaxoSmith Kline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Langley, Jonathan
    GlaxoSmith Kline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Rubin, Lewis J
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Initial Use of Ambrisentan plus Tadalafil in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension2015In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 373, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil on long-term outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are scarce.

    METHODS: In this event-driven, double-blind study, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:1 ratio, participants with World Health Organization functional class II or III symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not previously received treatment to receive initial combination therapy with 10 mg of ambrisentan plus 40 mg of tadalafil (combination-therapy group), 10 mg of ambrisentan plus placebo (ambrisentan-monotherapy group), or 40 mg of tadalafil plus placebo (tadalafil-monotherapy group), all administered once daily. The primary end point in a time-to-event analysis was the first event of clinical failure, which was defined as the first occurrence of a composite of death, hospitalization for worsening pulmonary arterial hypertension, disease progression, or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response.

    RESULTS: The primary analysis included 500 participants; 253 were assigned to the combination-therapy group, 126 to the ambrisentan-monotherapy group, and 121 to the tadalafil-monotherapy group. A primary end-point event occurred in 18%, 34%, and 28% of the participants in these groups, respectively, and in 31% of the pooled-monotherapy group (the two monotherapy groups combined). The hazard ratio for the primary end point in the combination-therapy group versus the pooled-monotherapy group was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.72; P<0.001). At week 24, the combination-therapy group had greater reductions from baseline in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels than did the pooled-monotherapy group (mean change, -67.2% vs. -50.4%; P<0.001), as well as a higher percentage of patients with a satisfactory clinical response (39% vs. 29%; odds ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.05 to 2.32]; P=0.03) and a greater improvement in the 6-minute walk distance (median change from baseline, 48.98 m vs. 23.80 m; P<0.001). The adverse events that occurred more frequently in the combination-therapy group than in either monotherapy group included peripheral edema, headache, nasal congestion, and anemia.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not received previous treatment, initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil resulted in a significantly lower risk of clinical-failure events than the risk with ambrisentan or tadalafil monotherapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences and GlaxoSmithKline; AMBITION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01178073.).

  • 5.
    Ruales Falconi, Alejandra
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Cultural paradigm shifts in socio-technical transitions towards sustainable cities: A case study of the transportation system of São Paulo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation is a key component of the urban realm due to its high fossil fuel consumption, GHG emissions and pollution generation (among other negative externalities) that have been aggravated by an individual motor vehicle-driven society. In order to achieve a balanced urban growth for the future, the transportation paradigm requires a complete shift that will depend upon a change on people’s behaviors and perceptions about mobility. Being the biggest, most populous city of Brazil and the western hemisphere, as well as the financial motor behind the country’s economy, São Paulo currently faces a very serious transportation problem: an extremely high car per capita ratio in conjunction with a deficient public transport network. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities exert an additional pressure to this dilemma, limiting the access to mobility and deeply embedding the car from a cultural standpoint. Given its prominence, São Paulo is the ideal city to evaluate how specific cultural and socio- spatial niches can steer a cultural paradigm shift that could ultimately trigger a socio-technical transition towards sustainability. In this case study, the role of policies, technology, and infrastructure as policymaking instruments are analyzed in the context of urban spaces in emergent nations, where political and economic structures are strong social determinants. Moreover, this study has shown how these instruments could not only produce a new set of mobility practices (or a new transportation culture) but also the creation of an equitable and thriving urban environment. 

  • 6.
    Rodgers, Naomi Alice
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “House and Techno Broke Them Barriers Down”: Exploring Exclusion through Diversity in Berlin’s Electronic Dance Music Nightclubs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Berlin is heralded worldwide as being a city that is open, innovative and diverse: a true multicultural metropolis. Music plays a central role in the city’s claim to this title. Go to any one of Berlin’s many notorious alternative nightclubs and you will hear techno, house and electronic dance music blasting out to hoards of enthusiastic partygoers. Many of these clubs and their participants claim that these parties represent diversity, acceptance, equality and tolerance: Spaces within which social divisions are suspended, difference is overcome and people are united. This ubiquitous discursive assertion is referred to in this thesis as a “diversity discourse”. This “diversity discourse” will be deconstructed and situated within a wider political context, with a specific focus on perceptions of race, ethnicity, sexuality and gender. Engaging with theories of intersectionality, post-colonial theory (looking specifically at Jasbir Puar’s important work on homonationalism) and employing qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews and autoethnographic inquiry, it will be argued that the “diversity discourse” works as a mask to conceal a reality of social segregation. Far from being sites of equality and diversity, it will be suggested that access to these nightclubs is premised on the possession of societal privilege. That being said, it will also be argued that research into EDM nightclub participation refrain from viewing these clubs within a binary framework of “good” or “bad”; Rather, they should be seen as complex sites of ambivalence, within which multiple identities are acted out and explored. The project contributes to the current body of work within the (post-) discipline of intersectional gender studies, arguing for the need for theorisations in the field to encompass notions of intersecting privilege and disadvantage.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultstrand Klint, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A smart poster? Visual design of marketing material for an exhibition of the concept Smart City2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Företaget HiQ i Norrköping vill skapa en bättre värld genom att förenkla och förbättra människors liv med hjälp av teknik. Konceptet Smart City handlar om utmaningar inom områden som energi, miljö och trafik som Norrköping kommun kommer att ställas inför i framtiden. HiQ anordnar i maj 2015 ett hackathon där studenter under några timmar ska komma fram till olika Smart City-lösningar. Dessa idéer kommer sedan presenteras i en utställning på Visualiseringscenter i Norrköping. För att dra besökare till utställningen krävs det att utställningen marknadsförs mot en intresserad och relevant målgrupp. Marknadsföringen till utställningen ska verka för att övertyga målgruppen att gå på utställningen. En affisch togs därför fram efter teorier och utvärderades sedan under sex kvalitativa intervjuer. Därefter transkriberades de insamlade data och analyserades med hjälp av meningskoncentrering.Studien syftar till att undersöka hur en affisch bör utformas visuellt för att locka målgruppen, Medieteknikstudenter vid Linköpings universitet, till utställningen. För att locka målgruppen till utställningen bör affischen innehålla fler visuella element i form av bilder, det vill säga illustrationer eller fotografier som är kopplade till konceptet och utställningen. Den textbaserade informationen bör tydligare förklara vad det är utställningen handlar om. Affischen bör utformas mer utmärkande om den ska bli ihågkommen. För att affischen som utformades i denna studie ska generera det förväntade intrycket krävs en del justeringar.

  • 8.
    Hedström, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a forecast model for public transport trips in smaller cities2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become more important for operators to be able to predict the future number of public transport passengers when consider to place a tender for operating public transport in a city or region, this is due to the new types of operator contracts was introduced quite recently. There are models in use today that can predict this, but they are often time consuming and complex and therefore it can be expensive to perform a forecast. Aside from this, most models in use for Sweden today are adapted for larger cities. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to propose a model that requires minimal input data with a short set up and execution time that can be used to predict a forecast for the public transport system in smaller cities without notably affecting the quality of the result. The developed model is based on a forecast model called LuTrans, which in turn is based on a common method, the four step model. The aim of the model lies within public transportation but it also consider other modes. The input data used by the model mainly consists of socio-economic data, the travel time and distance between all the zones in the network. The model also considers the cost for traveling by car or public transport. The developed model was applied to the Swedish city, Örebro, where a forecast was conducted for a future scenario. It is easily to apply the model to different cities to estimate a forecast for the public transport system. The developed model for the base scenario predicts trips for individual bus lines with an accuracy of 85 % for the city of Örebro. The developed model gave the result that the trips made by public transport in the future scenario of Örebro 2025 will increase annually by 0.94 %. The conclusion is that it is possible to develop a simple model that can be easily applied for a desired city. Although the developed model produced a plausible result for Örebro, further work such as implementation on other cities are required in order to fully evaluate the developed model.

  • 9.
    Collryd, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindau, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Benägenheten att ge pengar till tiggande EU-migranter jämfört med etablerade välgörenhetsorganisationer: En empirisk forskningsstudie utförd i Linköpings stad2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the number of homeless EU migrants has increased substantially in Sweden, and almost half of them lack an income whereas many others live by begging. Nowadays, individuals in addition to decide whether to give money to established charities also have to decide whether to give money to begging EU migrants. Based on the assumption that asymmetric information and institutional factors exists, which can affect each type of willingness to donate to charity, it is interesting to investigate whether there are differences in propensity to give money to begging EU migrants compared to established charities.The purpose of the research study is to examine individual’s propensity to give money to begging EU migrants compared to established charities. Furthermore, the aim is also to identify and analyze various individual characteristics that conceivably affect individuals' donation to each type of charity. To answer the purpose of the research study primary data is collected in Linkoping city by a questionnaire and the material is analyzed with econometric models.The results of the study indicate that individuals generally are less likely to give money to begging EU migrants compared with established charities. Variables that affect individuals' willingness to give money to begging EU migrants are gender, age, descent, knowledge of begging EU migrants living situation and attitude towards banning begging. Compared to this, factors that affect the willingness to donate to established charities are age, education, descent, married and social factors.

  • 10.
    Mc Glinn, Sarah
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performing the Jersey: Subjectivity, Identity, and Change within the Scottish Football Culture2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before the days of cable television it was almost impossible to watch Scottish Football in Sweden. As such, my father would listen to all important Celtic games on the radio. He would go into his bedroom, close the door and listen intently to the crackling, yet passionate voices which tried vigorously to transmit scenes of green grass, screaming crowds, twenty-two men, and a ball, to all the people who lacked the good fortune of being at the stadium. I remember one occasion especially well: it was a Saturday in May, 1998; I was twelve years old and stood in the hall. As I peered through my parents bedroom door, I caught my father kissing the radio as it announced Celtic’s winning goal; the goal which stopped their opponents, Rangers, from winning ten Scottish leagues in a row. He was crying, laughing and yelling, all at once. And after the game had finished, he came down stairs, and we celebrated by putting on our favourite Celtic CD. Dancing, while singing classic Celtic songs, we revelled in ‘our’ victory.

    The memory of this day is dear to me, along with many other recollections I have of amazing afternoons which were spent singing (and sometimes crying), first with my father and, later also with his friends. Because when cable TV finally did come to my hometown Malmö in 1999, we formed a network. We joined forces with other people, (though mainly white, heterosexual men of working-class backgrounds), who, like us, loved Celtic, and thus wanted to watch them as often as they could. And together we sang the same songs which my father and I had danced to on that aforementioned day: the 9th of May 1998. In fact, he and I still sing many of those songs on a weekly basis, as do hundreds of thousands of other fans.

    Yet, some of these songs, as well as others performed by various Scottish clubs, have become increasingly criticised, and in some cases banned, for containing discriminatory, or bigoted ideas and language; an example of this critical shift can be gauged by e.g. the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Bill, which was passed by the Scottish Parliament on the 14th of December, 2011, and enacted on the 1st of March of the following year. The bill introduces new legislation which criminalizes offensive or threatening behaviour “likely to incite public disorder at certain football matches, and [which] provides for a criminal offence concerning the sending of communications which contain threats of serious violence or which contain threats intended to incite religious hatred” (The Scottish Parliament, 2011; My italics). This law is quite unique for a number of reasons. First, because it is specific to Scotland. Secondly, because it is a national law introduced to tackle the problem of mainly one city: Glasgow, and its famous rivalry between Celtic and Rangers, known as the ‘Old Firm’. Obviously bigoted rivalries exist all over Scotland - all over the world for that matter - but the ‘Old Firm’ is considered one of the most exaggerated rivalries in Europe. What is more, the law was passed soon after the 2011 Scottish cup final, in which two players were sent off, 13 players were given yellow cards, and Celtic’s manager, Neil Lennon pushed Rangers’ assistant manager Ally McCoist. The BBC reports that “Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond held a summit in Edinburgh with representatives from Celtic, Rangers, Scottish football authorities and Strathclyde Police to discuss ways to combat disorder associated with the fixture between Glasgow's main two rival clubs” (BBC, 2011). Scotland’s justice secretary, Kenny MacAskill, claims that “the majority of Scots - 91% - support tougher action to tackle the problem [of sectarianism1]” (STV, 2013). However, the law has been met with resistance from different groups of football fans, who argue that the laws infringe on free expression.

  • 11.
    Linder, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cost-benefit analysis of joint distribution in city2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effektivare transporter i stadskärnorna är något som citylogistik har som huvudsyfte då det är många godstransporter inne i städerna som bidrar till trängsel. Ett förslag för förbättrad citylogistik är att flera distribuerande företag skickar sitt gods till en omlastningscentral där godset sorteras och lastas om innan leverans in till city. Genom att flera företag använder sig av en omlastningscentral minskar behovet av fordon då fyllnadsgraden, som ofta är låg vid transport inne i city, ökar vid samlastning av varor och fordonsbehovet minskar. Syftet är att utföra en kostnads- och nyttoanalys, cost-benefit analysis, detta för att kunna undersöka vilka effekter det finns av att införa samdistribution av varor inne i city men även att föra en diskussion kring vad denna typ av distribution kan leda till för de medverkande företagen och dess logistikkedja. Det kommer även en diskussion kring hur kostnads- och nyttoanalys kan användas för att fungera i andra städer, då stor del av data till detta arbete kommer från tidigare rapporter om samdistribution i Linköping city. I en kostnads- och nyttoanalys vägs kostnaderna och nyttorna mot varandra för att på så sätt se vilken av dessa som väger tyngst. Om nyttorna väger tyngre än kostnaderna så kommer projektet som är tänkt att genomföras att gynna samhället och det är då av intresse för de flesta parter att genomföra förändringen eller projektet. Rapporten ger en tydlig bild av vilka de stora kostnaderna samt nyttorna är med att genomföra samdistribution i city och vad detta kan leda till längre bak i logistikkedjan för de distribuerande företagen.

  • 12.
    Holgerson, Line
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Exploring the role of multi-functional solutions when planning for climate change: A case study of stormwater management in a Swedish city2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing stormwater sustainably in the face of extreme weather events has increasingly been recognized as a strategy for climate adaptation in the urban planning context. Sustainable stormwater management intends to reduce urban vulnerability while ensuring the overall sustainability and robustness of future cities. To add to the emerging research field of green infrastructure, the objective of the study is to explore the role of multi-functional solutions as a climate change response in urban planning and development. This study has been driven by an inductive research process and draws on empirical data collection through workshops and interviews with City Hall officials in Motala City. The study concludes that despite the lack of preventative planning to anticipate climate change, city renewal and urban development of Motala City presented a window of opportunity to implement potential multi-functional stormwater solutions in the urban environment through urban planning. Further, increased focus on internal and external collaboration through the process of envisioning the future of the city have enabled new forms of governance and facilitated arenas for public acceptance and an integrative planning-approach. Lastly, discourses on attractiveness enabled greenery to be viewed from a social, economic and environmental perspective, supporting multi-functional stormwater solutions as a strategy for climate adaptation and urban sustainability.

  • 13.
    Gullaksen, Li
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bogmark, Linn
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    UTANFÖR ÄR DET NYA INNANFÖR: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om Norrköpings kulturaktörer och hur de verkar inom stadens kulturfält2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study about the city of Norrköpings culture producing scene and it’s participants. We focus on their establishment and the strategies and power structures in the field, but also on the dynamics of competition and collaboration. The study is based on eight semi-structured interviews with selected cultural producers and administrators in Norrköping, and the analysis is inspired by Pierre Bourdieus theory and notions of cultural fields and capital theories. In the conclusion we can see that the city is perceived as having a positive attitude towards culture and that it is a good place for participants to operate. They are also having an optimistic view of the growth of cultural production because they believe in collaboration instead of a competition. We live in a networking society were the participants thinks that networking is the key to success. But there are also a problematic for operating in the field today because of a dilemma of how the resource should be distributed and how they are used.

  • 14.
    van Popering, Ruben
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jain Vegetarian Laws in the City of Palitana: Indefensible Legal Enforcement or Praiseworthy Progressive Moralism?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Palitana, India, has become the first region known to legally install de facto meat bans, essentially making Palitana a vegetarian city by law. These legal steps seem to be the direct result of social pressure put on local legislators in the form of a mass hunger strike performed by local Jain monks. This thesis is aimed at discussing the background of this case, its connections to a broader general discussion of moral and ethical vegetarianism, and arguments in favor of and against the legal installment of a meat ban in the Palitana case. It is concluded that although the meat ban is ideologically and theoretically speaking ethically justifiable and defensible it is in practice, at least in its current form, not ethically desirable.

  • 15.
    Horton, Paul
    Department of Gender Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Note passing and gendered discipline in Vietnamese schools2015In: British Journal of Sociology of Education, ISSN 0142-5692, E-ISSN 1465-3346, Vol. 36, no 4, 526-541 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While researchers agree that note passing is predominantly an activity engaged in by girls, there has been relatively little consideration of why this is the case. In this article, I argue that gendered expectations about the appropriate characters of boys and girls in Vietnam are incorporated into the disciplinary framework of schools, and that note passing provides the means for girls to adjust to the gendered disciplinary techniques to which they are subjected. The article is based on extended ethnographic fieldwork conducted within two ninth-grade classes at two lower secondary schools in the northern Vietnamese port city of Haiphong.

  • 16.
    Roin, Asa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Faroe Isl, Denmark.
    The multifaceted notion of home: Exploring the meaning of home among elderly people living in the Faroe Islands2015In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 39, 22-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing in place or staying home for as long as possible has long been the policy ideal regarding life in old age in most Western countries. The notion of home, however, is often used as an unquestioned concept that does not reflect the diversity of living conditions among older people. This paper draws upon data from a qualitative study conducted in the Fame Islands, an archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, during the winter and spring of 2013. It explores how older people living in different small island communities and one urban area within the same national context construct the meaning of home. The findings supported the assumption that older people want to stay at home for as long as possible, but home as a concept was found to have different meanings for different older people, depending on where they lived, their personal and family history, their social connections and environmental conditions. Differences in the meaning of home for older people living in small remote communities and those living in the city were noticeable. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Hildebrand, Cisilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörtin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between Emme and Visum with respect to public transport assignment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic traffic simulations are widely used in the world in order to provide assistance in the traffic infrastructure development as well as for the strategic traffic planning. When studying a large traffic network macroscopic traffic simulation can be used to model current and future traffic situations. The two most common software used for traffic simulation in Sweden today are Emme and Visum, developed by INRO respective PTV.

    The aim of the thesis is to perform a comparison between the software Emme and Visum with respect to the assignment of public transport, in other words how passengers choose their routes on the existing public transport lines. However, in order to make a complete software comparison the run-time, analysis capabilities, multi-modality, capacity to model various behavioural phenomena like crowding, fares etc. this will not be done in this comparison. It is of interest to study the differences between the two software algorithms and why they might occur because the Swedish Transport Administration uses Emme and the Traffic Administration in Stockholm uses Visum when planning public transport. The comparison will include the resulting volumes on transit lines, travel times, flow through specific nodes, number of boarding, auxiliary volumes and number of transits. The goal of this work is to answer the following objective: What are the differences with modelling a public transport network in Emme and in Visum, based on that the passengers only have information about the travel times and the line frequency, and why does the differences occur?

    In order to evaluate how the algorithms work in a larger network, Nacka municipality (in Stockholm) and the new metro route between Nacka Forum and Kungsträdgården have been used. The motivation for choosing this area and case is due to that it is interesting to see what differences could occur between the programs when there is a major change in the traffic network.

    The network of Nacka, and parts of Stockholm City, has been developed from an existing road network of Sweden and then restricted by "cutting out" the area of interest and then removing all public transportation lines outside the selected area. The OD-matrix was also limited and in order not to loose the correct flow of travellers portal zones was used to collect and retain volumes.

    To find out why the differences occur the headway-based algorithms in each software were studied carefully. An example of a small and simple network (consisting of only a start and end node) has been used to demonstrate and show how the algorithms work and why volumes split differently on the existing transit lines in Emme and Visum. The limited network of Nacka shows how the different software may produce different results in a larger public transport network.

    The results show that there are differences between the program algorithms but the significance varies depending on which output is being studied and the size of the network. The Visum algorithm results in more total boardings, i.e. more passengers have an optimal strategy including a transit. The algorithms are very similar in both software programs, since they include more or less parts of the optimal strategy. The parameters used are taken more or less into consideration in Emme and Visum. For example Visum will first of all focus on the shortest total travel time and then consider the other lines with respect to the maximum waiting time. Emme however, first focuses on the shortest travel time and then considers the total travel time for other lines with half the waiting time instead of the maximum wait time. This results in that less transit lines will be attractive in Emme compared to Visum. The thesis concludes that varying the parameters for public transport in each software algorithm one can obtain similar results, which implies that it is most important to choose the best parameter values and not to choose the "best" software when simulating a traffic network.

  • 18.
    Klapuh, Alen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, William
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Attitydundersökning av Arconas arbete med bygglogistik2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kostnaden för att bygga hus stiger mer än kostnaden för vanliga konsumtionsprodukter vilket leder till allt dyrare hus. En anledning till detta är att byggprocessen inte hänger med i utvecklingen och att äldre metoder fortfarande används. För att få ett effektivare byggande behöver metoderna därför utvecklas eller nya metoder behöver träda fram, ett exempel på en ny metod är tredjepartslogistik som fler och fler byggföretag använder sig av.

    I denna rapport får du läsa om företaget Arcona AB (Arcona) som samarbetar med logistikföretaget Servistik och som vill undersöka hur arbetarnas attityd är till logistikkonceptet som Arcona använder sig av. Ett projekt, Bryggmästaren, är undersökt i det här arbetet och det är en ombyggnation från kontor till hotell i Stockholm city.

    Anledningen till att Arcona hade intresse av en attitydundersökning av deras koncept var för att de vill få fram information till möjliga förbättringar, för att se om företaget är på rätt spår med konceptet och för att se hur redan gjorda förändringar har påverkat arbetet på byggarbetsplatsen.

    Logistikkonceptet kan sammanfattas enligt följande. Lagbasarna på byggarbetsplatsen beställer material från olika grossister. Det beställda materialet levereras till Servistiks lager och tas emot, inspekteras och lagras. När materialet behövs på byggarbetsplatsen gör lagbasarna avrop till Servistiks lager som i sin tur packar ihop ordern och levererar det till byggarbetsplatsen. Väl framme lastar Servistiks personal av material och distribuerar runt det på byggarbetsplatsen. Leveranstiden från att avropet har gjorts till det att materialet är på plats på bygget är 3 dagar.

    Studien har baserats på intervjuer som har gjorts med Arconas egen personal och med underentreprenörer som har arbetat för Arcona på projektet Bryggmästaren. Åtta stycken intervjuer har gjorts på Arconas platskontor på Bryggmästaren varav en var via telefon. De intervjuade var platschefer, projektchefer, produktionsledare, projektingenjörer, lagbas och underentreprenör.

    Samtliga av respondenterna är positivt inställda till logistikkonceptet som Arcona driver i samarbete med Servistik. De tycker att det är en bra idé och att det låter bra i teorin men de menar också på att ifall det ska fungera så behövs det en viss utveckling eller förändring av konceptet för att det även ska gå att tillämpas i praktiken på ett framgångsrikt sätt. Ett antal förbättringsförslag som dyker upp är:

    • Leveranstiden från lagret behöver minskas för att göra konceptet lite mer flexibelt.
    • Materialkunskapen hos Servistiks personal behöver förbättras så att de har mer koll på vad som exakt kommer in till deras lager.
    • Internetsidan för lagret som visar materialstatus på lagret måste förenklas så att allt ska gå smidigare.
  • 19.
    Andersson, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björs, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal communication of a brand - A comparative study within the municipality of Norrköping2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Norrköping is a large organization with lots of different areas of expertise. To make sure that the values are the same throughout the organization is a heavy task but important if you want the brand to be communicated in the right way in all instances of the organization. An internal review of the employees opinions takes place every other year with the last one taking place in 2013. The results from the review made the municipality of Norrköping realise that they needed to increase their internal work with brand knowledge. The municipality of Norrköping took action and created a platform of communications called Let´s Create Norrköping. The problem they stand before now is that they're not sure if the employees have interpreted the information the correct way regarding the brand. This case study aims to investigate how the brand Norrköping is communicated throughout the plattform Let´s Create Norrköping and how the employees perceives the brand of the municipality of Norrköping.

    To answer the cause of the report a data collection has been made with interviews divided into two parts. The first part consists of an interview with Tina Vennerholm, brand developer at the communications department of the municipality of Norrköping. The main objective of this interviews was to conclude the main objectives of the platform Let´s Create Norrköping. The second part was conducted with five employees within the organization of the municipality of Norrköping. It was conducted to conclude their point of view of the platform Let´s Create Norrköping. Conclusions that can be drawn from the study include that the employees lack the presence of the representatives of the municipality of Norrköping at their working places. The employees have a positive opinion regarding the platform Let´s Create Norrköping although they have not received any internal information regarding the plattform. The reason to their positive opinions ought to be that they have been affected by external marketing regarding the plattform. This leads to the employees having a hard time with implementing the message of the platform in their work.

    Recommendations given to the municipality of Norrköping is to be visible at the various working places, to show the worker which people who are responsible for the communication at their workplace. to give the employees a personal connection to the source of the information that is given which makes it easier for the worker to accept and implement the information.

    The employees all have positive connections to the city of Norrköping. That is why the conductors of this study recommend that the municipality of Norrköping should make a connection to the city with the work that is made by the employees on all the different areas in the organization. This is to engage and motivate the employees and make them see and understand the connection between the city and the organization and the part that they play in it.

  • 20.
    Nylund-Gustafson, Mona
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tid för uteskola?: Utomhuspedagogisk verksamhet i den grundläggande utbildningen i åk 1-6 i den åboländska i den åboländska skärgårdsstaden Pargas2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på vilka verksamheter som ingår i utomhusundervisningen i åk 1-6 i skolorna i Pargas, vilka möjligheter och vilka hinder lärarna upplever samt hur eleverna upplever utomhusundervisningen. Undersökningen riktar sig till samtliga klasslärare i Pargas stad. Utgående från att allt fler rapporter visar på barns och ungdomars stillasittande, försämrade hälsa och stressymptom behöver vi medvetet fundera på hur vi kan förändra skolans arbetsmetoder för att befrämja välmående och hälsa. Uppsatsen strävar till att ringa in vad utomhuspedagogik innebär, att ge en liten bakgrund samt redogöra för några, främst nordiska forskares syn på utomhusundervisning. Studien innefattar en lärarenkät, några lärarintervjuer samt belyser elevernas åsikter med hjälp av en elevenkät. Eftersom kopplingen till läroplanen är viktig för att berättiga utomhusundervisning i skolan berörs också den i uppsatsen. Resultatet visar att många lärare upplever tidsbrist och stress p.g.a. utökade uppgifter i skolan, men de flesta är ändå positiva till att undervisa utomhus. De flesta elever är också positivt inställda till undervisning utomhus.

  • 21.
    Akhter Feroz, Raisin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Sustainable Urban Development: A Study on Slum Population of Kota, India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban centres are becoming more vulnerable to climate change because of the rapid urbanization and the inequality of urban development. This study assesses the urban vulnerability in an integrated approach focusing the slum people as the targeted group. The slum people are severely exposed to climate risks in terms of city‟s overall development. The negative indications of the indicators of person‟s vulnerability represent their high sensitivity to the adverse impact of climate change. The determinants of adaptive capacity also confirm that the slum people are more vulnerable to climate change with having lower adaptive capacity; though, the city is possessing high development indexes. In this context, an institutional structure is developed to build multi-level urban climate governance with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders based on the case study and literature review to integrate the vulnerable group in development planning for climate change adaptation.

  • 22.
    Gunnarsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actionplanering och Samarbete (APAC) mellan multipla AI-agenter2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers an implementation of an artificial intelligence (AI) system for cooperation between multiple AI-agents. It was done as a part of a master thesis in Media Technology and a master thesis in Computer Engineering at Linköping University, campus Norrköping. The aim of the project was to explore modern techniques in AI and also develop a platform where this AI is implemented for the upcoming educational purposes. The idea is that students can use the system as a base to extend, learn and implement their own AI algorithms. Based on a literature study in AI systems the decision was made to base APAC on the GOAP system, a scalable planning architecture designed for real-time control of autonomous character behavior in games. The result of the thesis is a virtual world, made in Unity3D and C#, where the system is being used by virtual agents to build a city.

  • 23.
    Grahn Hedlund, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tunedal, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hur ser barns yttranden ut?: Yttrandetyper, bisatser och yttrandelängd hos svenska 3- och 4-åringar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s utterances have been studied in different languages; however, only a few studies refer to Swedish. The aim of the present study is to describe utterance types, subordinate clauses and utterance length for a group of three and four year old Swedish children without known functional impairments.

    The study included 29 children, 17 girls and 12 boys, in a larger city in the south-east of Sweden. The children, all native Swedish speakers, were aged 3;0 to 4;11. Sound recordings were made during a playing session with one of the authors in the children’s day care centers.The utterances were divided into the categories elliptical responses, incomplete and partly unintelligible utterances, imitative utterances and independent utterances. Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) was calculated for the 50 first independent utterances. Subordinate clauses were classified and counted and placement of the sentence adverb was studied.

    Elliptical responses were frequently used. Incomplete or partly unintelligible utterances were relatively common, but imitative utterances were rare. Subordinate clauses were used by 23 of the 29 children. Relative subordinate clauses were the most common type, and were used across the age range. Most of the children placed the sentence adverbial correctly. The children had utterances ranging from one to 23 words, and the most common utterance length was four words. The MLU ranged from 2.36 to 7.04. Frequent use of subordinate clauses resulted in a higher MLU. The older children used subordinate clauses more frequently and had a lower percentage of elliptical responses. The MLU had a tendency to increase with age.

    The great variety in the results shown in the present study, can be explained by the fact that children aged three and four are in a process of developing their language. Children with a more frequent use of subordinate clauses had higher MLU values, suggesting a relation between language complexity and MLU. The results show that MLU is a reliable measure of children’s language level in the ages three and four years.

  • 24.
    Rajna, Botond
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobility analysis with mobile phone data2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis evaluates mobility based on mobile phone positions. The aim is to develop and assess different methods for travel demand estimation based on CDR data. Besides this estimation location data in cellular data is explained in more detail and a previous work based on mobile phone data and travel demand estimation is reviewed. The different methods of travel time estimation include both static and dynamic estimation. The static travel demand estimation evaluates movements in the city based on predefined time periods, whereas the dynamic estimations are based on different definitions of a trip. A trip can be defined as movements between important places, or just simply count a trip between each position, or a filtering of active states to create more accurate origin-destination matrices. The second part of the thesis includes evaluation of travel time based on CDR data before the final conclusions are drawn. The main finding of the thesis is that it is possible to assess mobility in a city based on CDR data, even if there are no validation data available.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling waste material is still one of the most common methods to take care of waste in a big part of the world. Gaborone, the capital of Botswana located in the southern part of Africa is no different in this way. The major part of all waste is landfilled in Gaborone and there is only a minor part of all collected material that is recycled. One solution that earlier studies suggest is to build a transfer and recycling station in the city of Gaborone that can contribute to a more sustainable waste management. This study aims to identify the major waste streams of recyclable waste and also the major stakeholders that are active in this area through an exploratory study involving interviews, a workshop and a survey. The result of this thesis can hopefully assist in the preparations for such a transfer station. The conclusions of this study are many and contains of both hard facts and also loose ends that can contribute to pursue further studies. The first important result is that all the waste collection companies transports everything they collects to a landfill and it is only recycling organizations that are working with collection and recycling in Gaborone. These recycling organizations are a few but smaller compared to the waste collection companies in collected amounts of material. Besides these collection organizations, Gaborone City Council, the local municipality works with collection of household waste and the collaboration between these three groups that operates in the same environment is very poor. All the interviewed stakeholders showed a positive interest in the transfer and recycling station but there is only a small part of the commercial business in Gaborone that believes in a more serious waste management than landfilling. Despite that one major shopping mall actually sort out recyclables and saves 30% in waste management costs thanks to that. Another issue is the prevailing cultural contradictions that is obvious among the organizations in Gaborone. The last two bigger issues is the tremendously dull political bureaucracy that is appearing in Botswana and also that voices are raised that corruption is great beneath the surface.

  • 26.
    Gagnesjö, Sara
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Countryside Perspective of Queer: - queering the city/countryside divide2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes with a countryside perspective to queer research by highlighting the countryside as a context where queer lives are lived. In the thesis I problematize the city/countryside divide with a view of the concept of queer as dependent on space and time.  The empirical materials are generated through a workshop on queerness, gathering people living within a countryside context; the materials consist of a discussion and written responses to questions on queerness and the city/countryside binary. Theoretically and methodologically, the thesis is inspired by the notion of agential realism (Barad 2007) and situated knowledge, (Haraway 1988); the use of creative writing, inspired by Richardson (1994 and 2000), has also been central to the development of the thesis. The analysis is carried out within themes focusing on conditions for queerness within city/countryside experienced by people situated in the countryside. The analysis shows how space, time, contexts and intersections are entangled and queering the city/countryside divide.

  • 27.
    Farhadi, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norin, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parkering i Norrköping: Processen att skapa ett mobilt användargränssnitt för att underlätta reseplanering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a series of prestigeous events such as the Bråvalla Music Festival and the European premiere of Harry Potter: The Exhibition, Norrköping will, during the summer of 2014, attract many tourists. As a visitor, it may be difficult to locate appropriate parking spots in situations like these. Norrköpings Municipality currently has a map on their website with an overview of parking spots in the central areas of the city. This map, however, is only suited for viewing on big screens. To search for the map on a mobile device, find an appropriate parking and then correctly navigate to its location may serve difficult for a user who is new to the town or pressed for time.

    The purpose of this study is to create a user-friendly interface design for a mobile application that aims to facilitate the parking process for drivers who live in, or are visiting, Norrköping. The study uses a sequential mixed method approach and the design process is based on a goal-directed and user-centered design. Surveys, interviews and usability testing have been employed to collect research in order to create an interface that meets the needs of the user.

    The study resulted in the creation of an interface for a parking application that can be used for planning purposes as well as navigation. Choices for design and interactivity are based on the users' goals and preferences. The study concludes that a stressful situation requires information to be clear, easily understood and call for minimum effort from the user's side. Redundant information should be removed and the steps it takes to obtain information should be reduced.

    Different users have different attitudes towards the use of mobile applications for planning and parking. The majority of interviewees would in a similar situation rely on a Google search for information. From this we can conclude that the easiest solution would be for Norrköping's Municipality to create a mobile website with information about parking in the city. However, in order to reach a broader target group and to incorporate certain complex functions and features, the creation of an application becomes necessary.

  • 28.
    Carlegrim, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    GIS analysis of walking and bicycle paths in the new city quarters of Östra Saltängen, Norrköping2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Norrköpings kommun håller just nu på med ett stadsomvandlingsprojekt i Östra Saltängen. I dag bedrivs industri- och hamnverksamhet i området, vilka påverkas av de nya planerna och planerar flytten av sin verksamhet parallellt. Examensarbetets syfte var att planera och utforma GC-nätet för det nya området genom en GIS-modell, samt att analysera genhetskvoten från och till bostads- och målpunkter. GIS-modellen upprättades i programmet MapInfo Professional 12.0 där tilläggsprogrammet RouteFinder lades till för att utföra nätverksanalysen. Resultatet från nätverksanalysen användes sedan för att beräkna genhetkvoten. Fyra olika GC-nät togs fram för att analyseras i RouteFinder. Detta för att se vad nätens olika utformning hade för betydelse för genheten. JA bestod av ett GC-nät utifrån Norrköpings kommuns planskiss. UA1 bestod av ett GC-nät med normal maskvidd, UA2 av ett GC-nät med tät maskvidd och UA3 av ett GC-nät med dubbel diagonal. Därefter utfördes en tidsanalys och en diskussion kring broplacering. Till tiden från punkt A till B lades även en tidsrelaterad korsningsfördröjning på för att göra resultatet mera verklighetsbaserat. Diskussionen kring broplaceringen utfördes som en förbättringsåtgärd då en samverkan mellan broplacering och rutter med dålig genhetskvot upptäcktes. Resultatet av de olika analyserna är att en kombination av UA2 och UA3 är det bästa GC-nätet, med avseende på genhet- och tidsaspekten. Med avseende på broarna, bör Skeppsbron ersätta Hamnbron och ”GC-bro 2” byggas.

  • 29.
    Zandén, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av solceller och vindkraft2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the evaluations that have been made of the three different solar cell types (polycrystalline, monocrystalline and thin film) and the various models from Sino Sun, PPAM and Schüco the conclusion is that the most expensive solar cell, is not always the best. The differences between Sino Sun and PPAM are so small and along with the price off the last mentioned solar cell which means that Sino Sun’s solar cells are the best choice of solar cell technology that Egen El AB has to offer.

    The different wind power alternatives on Kullen in the city of Katrineholm come in many shapes and method of fabrication. The results have shown that ETC is not a great wind power solution but Svarta Sara, one av Egen El AB’s flagship, is according to the output power effectiveness.

  • 30.
    Omar, Omar Jaber
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An On-Chip Memory for Testing of High-Speed Mixed-Signal Circuits2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-signal processing systems especially data converters can be reliably tested at high frequencies using on-chip testing schemes based on memory. In this thesis, an on-chip testing strategy based on shift registers/memory (2 k bits) has been proposed for digital-to-analog converters (DACs) operating at 5 GHz. The proposed design uses word length of 8 bits in order to test DAC at high speed of 5 GHz. The proposed testing strategy has been designed in standard 65 nm CMOS technology with additional requirement of 1-V supply. This design has been implemented using Cadence IC design environment.

    The additional advantage of the proposed testing strategy is that it requires lower number of I/O pins and avoids the large number of high speed I/O pads. It therefore also solves the problem of the bandwidth limitation that is associated with I/O transmission paths. The design of the on-chip tester based on memory contains no analog block and is implemented entirely in digital domain. In the proposed design, low frequency of 1 MHz has been used outside the chip to load the data into the memory during the write mode. During the read mode, the frequency of 625 MHz is used to read the data from the memory. A multiplexing system is used to reuse the stored data during read mode to test the intended functionality and performance. In order to convert the parallel data into serial data at high frequency at the memory output, serializer has been used. By using the frequencies of 1.25 GHz and 2.5 GHz, the serializer speeds up the data from the lower frequency of 625 MHz to the highest frequency of 5 GHz in order to test DAC at 5 GHz.

  • 31.
    Reim, Erich
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and visualization of historical traffic data collected on the Stockholm highway system2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The congestion due to traffic is a worldwide occurrence in major cities, where also the biggest part of the human population lives. To be able to control and oversee the ongoing traffic development in cities, traffic operators use different methods to observe the current trend. This is done by collecting data from stationary sensors to mobile sensors like floating car data. The data collected from stationary sensors is stored in a central database. This historical traffic data is used for analysis of traffic behavior along the main roadway network in Stockholm. Areas which are highly congested can be located as well as areas where traffic flows without problems. This thesis deals with methods to analyze and visualize the traffic behavior based on historical traffic data, measured in the city of Stockholm. Therefore a toolbox is implemented which is used to figure out bottlenecks and typical speed and flow patterns along the Stockholm highway system. Based on the typical speed and flow patterns, it is possible to calculate areas that are affected of congestion and also to determine whether congestion appears due to an incident or a bottleneck.

  • 32.
    Yung, Tamara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traffic Modelling Using Parabolic Differential Equations2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need of a working infrastructure in a city also requires an understanding of how the traffic flows. It is known that increasing number of drivers prolong the travel time and has an environmental effect in larger cities. It also makes it more difficult for commuters and delivery firms to estimate their travel time. To estimate the traffic flow the traffic department can arrange cameras along popular roads and redirect the traffic, but this is a costly method and difficult to implement. Another approach is to apply theories from physics wave theory and mathematics to model the traffic flow; in this way it is less costly and possible to predict the traffic flow as well. This report studies the application of wave theory and expresses the traffic flow as a modified linear differential equation. First is an analytical solution derived to find a feasible solution. Then a numerical approach is done with Taylor expansions and Crank-Nicolson’s method. All is performed in Matlab and compared against measured values of speed and flow retrieved from Swedish traffic department over a 24 hours traffic day. The analysis is performed on a highway stretch outside Stockholm with no entries, exits or curves. By dividing the interval of the highway into shorter equal distances the modified linear traffic model is expressed in a system of equations. The comparison between actual values and calculated values of the traffic density is done with a nominal average difference. The results reveal that the numbers of intervals don’t improve the average difference. As for the small constant that is applied to make the linear model stable is higher than initially considered.

  • 33.
    Johansen, Torbjörn
    Volvo Technology Corporation.
    Topology optimization of vehicle structuresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for structural topology optimization of beams with flexible joints is presented. For vehicle structures the result of topology optimization is often resulting in a frame structure consisting of beams and joints connecting the beams. The problem at hand is to find the topology, i.e. how beams and joints are connected, in the best way and as lightweight as possible for the requirements on the st ructure. For vehicles the properties of the joints are important for the total stiffness response and for the construction of the joints. An application problem of a low floor city bus is presented and the result of the optimization is discussed. By using topology optimization a good structural concept is found for further analysis and construction.

  • 34.
    Aban, Kevin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göst, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of transports with pharmaceuticals on Arlanda airport2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten syftar till att kartlägga och analysera dagens transportflöde av läkemedel på fraktområdet Cargo City på Arlanda. Cargo Center och APH Logistics är två fraktagenter som har sin verksamhet på Cargo City. Observera att Cargo City och Cargo Center inte har samma innebörd. Cargo Center och APH Logistics erbjuder genom nära samarbete transport och hantering av temperaturkänsligt gods, som till exempel läkemedel. Läkemedel är värdefullt gods som kräver särskild skötsel vid transport, hantering och förvaring. Det ställer stränga krav på samtliga aktörer i försörjningskedjan. Genom studiebesök och intervjuer har författarna kartlagt det befintliga flödet av läkemedel. SACT, ett åkeri och dotterbolag till Cargo Center, utför transporten av godset till Cargo City med nerkylda lastbilar. APH Logistics omlastningsterminal på Cargo City är temperaturkontrollerad, vilket innebär att läkemedelsgodset förvaras och lastats i flygcontainrar där. Det färdiglastade godset forslas sedan vidare till Cargo Centers terminal. Där sker vikt- och volymkontroll av godset, det registreras i olika datasystem och slutligen märks det med etiketter, så som flygfraktsedeln. Mycket av godset som hanteras på Arlanda körs med lastbil till andra flygplatser och destinationer runt om i Europa istället för att flygfraktas direkt från flygplatsen. Dessutom hanteras och förvaras inte allt läkemedelsgods under temperaturkontrollerade former. En totalkostnadsanalys har gjorts för att jämföra olika transportflödesscenarion. Dessutom har författarna identifierat den kundservice Cargo Center och APH Logistics bör erbjuda kunden. Den bygger på kvalitativa resonemang. Resultatet av rapporten är författarnas rekommendation till företagen av hur de bör gå tillväga i framtiden. Den ger både kortsiktiga och långsiktiga tips.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Växelväljare i stadsbuss2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gear selector presently used has a large build-in depth which causes trouble at integration in dashboard and the light bulbs for indication light has short life length. The development of distributed systems has opened the possibility for Scania to use a gear selector of their own and therefore it’s in Scanias interest to examine the option.

    The concept presented in this degree thesis is a very compact unit, the build-in depth is only a fourth of the gear selector used presently. The pushbuttons are rubber which are illuminated from underneath. For indication indication- and backlight OSRAMs HYPER T66 is used.

    This is a package containing three, from each other independent, LEDs. A microcontroller, Microchip PIC18F248, reads the pushbuttons, communicates with the gearbox’s control unit (via CAN, protocol SAE-J1939) and drives the LEDs. With a gear selector that uses CAN-technology and LED’s instead of light bulbs and rubber pushbuttons in place of common switches a unit without need of maintenance is received. Furthermore, the Scania brand increases because the gear selector’s performance can be shaped due to the needs and simultaneously improve functionality. Quality control is another important advantage. The design allows little build-in depth which is of great importance since the present gear selector can’t be placed where desired due to its large depth.

    One problem with the CAN-systems protocol, SAE-J1939l, is that only D, N and R are supported. This means that Scania should wait until the protocol is ready if it’s necessary with more gears than D, N and R.

  • 36.
    Fried, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallgren, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av webbsida med användargränssnittmetoder2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Restaurant Knäppingen – Stadsmuseets Café & Kök (the City Museum restaurant) in Norrköping was in need of marketing in form of a website. The purpose of this project was to create a website according to Usability Engineering methodology. Usability involves that a system is suited to the purpose, efficient and satisfactory. Besides the requirements of the company who provided the assignment, we were given much space to create the first design of the website. The developing of the website continued on the basis of the users’ needs and opinions. The needs and opinions of the users were obtained through iterations of tests and evaluations on several prototypes. To complement the tests, several heuristics evaluations were conducted. After completion of the project we have been able to establish the fact that the website fulfills the requirements of the company and our expectations. We also discuss to what extent the usability goals and users’ needs are met.

  • 37.
    Rydin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Underhållsplan för gång- och cykelvägar i Söderköping2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with how I have conducted a study concerning a maintenance plan for pedestrian and bicycle paths in Söderköping. When, where and how will the maintenance be made and to what costs, are factors that must be taking into consideration. In addition, the report demonstrates how one can examine and define damages and defects for pedestrian and bicycle paths. To illustrate the proposed costs associated with this project contacts with Skanska Anläggning and employees at Söderköpings kommun has been made. This report also includes how information was entered into a GIS-based computer program.

    The result shows that with a feasible budget and a maintenance plan as guidance, Söderköpings kommun can improve their worn pedestrian and bicycle paths. In the end, this plan will result in a high-quality standard around the city.

  • 38.
    Mohsin, Taif
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of a predriver for an EDMOS-based Class-D power amplifier2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the potential of implementing a predriver for class-D power amplifier for WLAN in 65 nm CMOS technology. In total, eight different predrivers have been created using Cadence Virtuoso CAD tools. All designs have been tested using Agilent's Advance Design System (ADS) and simulated using the ADS-Cadence dynamic link. Furthermore, a comparison between the eight designs and the reference design has been done. The examined parameters were output power (Pout), efficiency, and effective area consumption.

    The simulation results show that most of the proposed designs obtain higher output power, higher efficiency, and lower effective area than the reference design. For the reference design, output power of 34.2 dBm, efficiency of 20.8 %, and effective area of 63952 um2 were obtained. For design No.1, the effective area was 31511um2, which was almost half of the area occupied by the reference design. For design No.3, the efficiency was 71.2 %, which was almost 3 and half times higher than the efficiency of the reference design. Furthermore, all designs, except design NO.7, gave more or less the same output power (around 34.4 dBm).

  • 39.
    Sultan, Zahid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Agenda 21 As A Tool For Implementing An Improved Traffic Environment And Safety For Developing Countries, A Case Study of Faisalabad, Pakistan2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agenda 21 deals with the sustainability and sustainable transportation strategies are those that can meet the basic mobility needs of all and be sustained into the foreseeable future without destruction of our resource base. In the developing countries transportation is one of the main growing crisis. This crisis is the product of multiple forces, including the rapid pace of urbanisation and a mismatch between the supply of transportation infrastructure, services, and technologies and the mobility needs of the majority of the people, whose incomes are very low. Transportation development policies and investments in most developing countries are focused on encouraging motorization and are indifferent or hostile to low-cost, informal, nonmotorised transportation modes, despite the vital role they play in mobility for lower-income groups.

    My main focus in this study is Asian developing countries, one country – Pakistan – is selected as an example and 3rd largest city in Pakistan named Faisalabad is selected for detailed study. Transportation scenario and problems in this city are closely observed and studied which lead to interesting findings and facts. These include congestion index, loss in working hours, average speed, expenses and commuter satisfaction. Sustainable transportation and environmental problems are also studied for the City of Faisalabad, and recommendations made to improve them. It is finally inferred that there is an urgent need for comprehensive transportation planning, managing Kachi Abadies population, curbing private vehicle use and effectively facilitating the public transportation in the City of Faisalabad.

    Keywords: Sustainable Transportation; Agenda 21; Traffic Safety; Environmental Problem; Developing Countries; Transportation Problems in Faisalabad, Pakistan; Indicators of sustainability;

  • 40.
    Lång, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transport- och Trafikeffekter av Samdistribution i Linköping city2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Along with the growth of cities and towns around the world, our focus on enviromental problems increases, and so do the demands on a functional distribution system for all kinds of goods. One way of meeting these demands is to coordinate the distribution of goods, a method that has been tested and evaluated in different national as well as international projects. In the national project SAMLIC (coordinated distribution of goods in Linköping City), similar aspects have been discussed, but with the focus being on creating an economically and logistically efficient distribution system for all parts involved. The effects of such a focus are particulary positive since improved enviroment as well as improved service are acheived.

    One important aspect of the SAMLIC-project, is that the initative was taken by the industry in the year 2000. It was motivated by the realization that the great amount of transport in and out of the centre of Linköping resulted in crowding, which proved very costly. The reason for crowding was that the numbers of loading zones were too few in relation to the number of distributors and companies in the City. These problems increased as the City expanded and it was inevitable that something had to be done in order to improve the situation.

    Participants of the SAMLIC-project are the network for conveyors within Linköping City, “Svensk Biogas”, the working-team Inner City Transports, The Group for City-Cooperation, the University of Linköping and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), which since spring 2003 is pursuing the project. A PILOT-project was undertaken during spring 2004 within the framework of the SAMLIC-project. The purpose of the PILOTproject was to gather data forming a foundation for the design of an economically and logistically efficent system of distribution. The purpose of the present study was to establish what effects different changes of the present distribution system would give rise to on transport and traffic. Thus, the effects of codistribution on transport were studied by means of statistical modelling, while the traffic simulation program CONTRAM was used to investigate the effects of codistribution on traffic, a program not yet used in this context, to our knowledge.

    The results of the statistical modelling showed that codistribution may reduce the total driving-time by 14 % in average. The statistics also indicated that the average weekly time reduction may be approximately 26 %. The results further reveal that codistribution would reduce the number of stops, which would result in an increased number of custumors per stop.

    The average reduction of the number of stops per week was estimated to approximatly 30 %. The results of the traffic simulations were analyzed by comparing ordinary distribution procedures with distribution according to PILOT- or SAMLIC- distribution and revealed that codistribution as compared to ordinary distribution resulted in positive as well as negative changes of traffic flow. In some parts of the road the flow increased while in other places it decreased. The important point, however, is that the reduction of truck-flow occurred primarily in the most central parts of the City, whichled to a reduction of exhaustemissions.

    This study suggests that different effects on traffic may be induced by codistribution and reveals in which areas these effects would be likely to occur. In terms of the effect of codistribution on queueing, speed differences and time consumption, this study failed to establish any difference between the two distribution procedures compared. This may be due to a lack of a sufficiently sofisticated analyzing technique. It may, however, be possible to produce a more detailed analysis of possible differences between the distribution procedures by using a micro-simulaion tool. Still, the results of the present study suggest that codistribution would improve the present transport situation in several ways.

    The SAMLIC-project is an ongoing project which at present is at a stage when decisions are to be made about matters such as responsibility assignment, criteria of specification, insurance matters and the allocation of different benefits. Not until these and similar further problems are solved will it be possible to initiate a long term system of codistribution.

  • 41.
    Fors, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fredholm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effektivare transporter med samdistribution2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growing cities are increasing the demand for well functioning goods carrying traffic together with the other traffic. The number of zones for unloading goods in the centre of Linköping is small compared to the number of delivery addresses and the number of goods distributors.

    The attendant phenomena are congestion and costs of congestion. Therefore the local network for freight forwarders in Linköping has taken the initiative to the SAMLIC project. SAMLIC stands for Coordinated Retail Distribution in Linköping City. The aim of SAMLIC is to create an economically and logistically efficient system for goods distribution that is persistent and friendly to the environment. The participants in the project are the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, the network for freight forwarders in Linköping city, the association for cooperation in the city of Linköping, the working team for inner-city transports, Swedish Biogas and Linköping University.

    The aim of this report is to elaborate a proposal to a functional system for coordinated retail distribution in the centre of Linköping both in the short- and long-term perspectives. Focus is put on analysis of efficiency and potential with coordinated distribution concerning terminal handling, vehicle utilisation and unloading at the consignees.

    A trial project with coordinated distribution called PILOT has been carried out during the spring of 2004. The aim of the trial project was to give good quantitative information of possible benefits with coordinated distribution that can be used for further estimations of the potential of a larger system. From the gathered information analyses will be done to see if the vehicle load factor has increased and if the vehicle movements have decreased.

    The PILOT that was carried out included only general cargo and three freight forwarders. A summation of the amount of goods during the trial project does not give a complete image of the total amount of goods that is delivered to the centre of Linköping. Therefore a complementary investigation has been carried out with the main purpose to estimate the magnitude of the total volume of goods. The report also discusses methods for calculation of the number of vehicle movements in coordinated and ordinary distribution respectively and methods for calculation of vehicle load factor.

    The calculations show that the total time for deliveries with coordinated distribution is reduced with 14 % compared to if the same amount of goods would be distributed the conventional way. As a result of coordinated distribution, every fourth vehicle involved in the deliveries can be excluded from city traffic and used for other assignments, due to the fact that the load factor expressed as the number of kilograms per pallet space has increased with approximately 50 %. A reduced number of vehicle movements have the effect of decreasing pollution, disturbing noise, less accidents and less congestion.

    Economic profitability is important to accomplish for a successful system with a joint venture in coordinated distribution. No matter which form the coordinated distribution takes, the savings for the freight forwarders must be of such a dimension that they find it profitable to join instead of delivering the goods by themselves.

  • 42.
    Sadri, Sahar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring business models for export of environmental technology: Cases from Linkoping city, Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present time, climate and energy issues are important subjects in the international market and environmental technology is a rapidly growing concept. Many companies in Sweden have developed much in-house knowledge in environmental technology. Therefore, they have great opportunity to export. In the sustainability perspective, export has not only benefits in the economic aspect, but also advantages for the environment. Development of appropriate business models is necessary for supporting environmental technology export.In this research an attempt was made to explore business model elements and offerings for export of environmental technology. The relevant theories in environmental technology characteristics, customization, product service systems and business models were used.The case studies included a Swedish municipality-owned company, its subsidiaries and a Swedish private company which was active in export. Empirical data were collected by conducting of interviews. The results reflect the business models and offerings of the studied cases. The analysis of cases provided findings for environmental technologies characteristics which have effect on export business models.Furthermore, six categories for making distinction among different elements of business models in literature were defined in this study. By analysis of the cases a new category which entailed new elements was added as the seventh category. The mentioned categories are useful in business model formulating for export of environmental technology.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Toni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kan Arlandas koldioxidtak klaras genom effektivare utnyttjande av järnväg2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The initiative to make this report emerged at a course in transportation economics and environmental issues held by lecturer Arne Karyd. We became interested in Stockholm – Arlanda airport, owned by the government through the Swedish Civil Aviation Administration (LFV), and the relation between its environmental restrictions and the railway connection to Stockholm city. The constraining environmental ceiling is the one for carbon dioxide imposed by the Environmental Court. Present forecasts indicate that Arlanda will manage to stay below the maximum limit only until around the year 2009 without being forced to restrain the number of aircraft movements.

    Surface transport emissions are included in the “bubble” limiting total emissions. The emission ceiling includes aircraft LTO-cycles (landing to take-off and associated taxiing), passenger and employee ground transportation, engine testing, heating, cargo and fuel transport and internal traffic. The focus and objective of this master thesis is to examine whether Arlanda would be able to meet its environmental demands by using the zeroemitting railway connection more efficiently, thus reducing car and bus transport. The aim is to calculate the emission-reducing effects of a higher rail share in surface transport and, if these should prove significant, to estimate how many more years Arlanda may stay below the maximum limit. This issue is highly topical as in 2004, Arlanda filed an appeal for relaxation of the ceiling with the Environmental Court while LFV let an opportunity to take control of the monopoly train operator slip. The results in this thesis indicate the existence of other solutions than lifting the ceiling.

    From its inauguration in late 1999, the railway to Arlanda has not been used in an optimized fashion. The main reason is that the Swedish government traded the right to utilize the railway to a group of private contractors, forming the A-Train AB, against a (surprisingly low) contribution to the investment cost. This build-transfer-operate project was the first major infrastructure project in Sweden where private capital helped financing, and has not seen many successors. The end result is a situation where the train operator A-Train AB exerts monopoly rights to a railway it does not own, applies fares far above those found at similar rail services and charges other train operators a considerable fee for every passenger they leave or pick up at Arlanda. Consequently, railway utilization falls very far short of the original forecasts. A crucial point in this thesis is that the critical views put forward are not in any way aimed at A-Train or any other train operator. The operators are all subject to conditions created by the myopic policy applied before construction started.

    Our approach has been to study a large amount of literature to learn about the background of the infrastructure project, why the environmental demands were imposed in the first place and what they mean. Other topics have been railway capacity analysis methods and a survey of external forecasts and suggested actions. The thesis also includes a survey of various forecasts of air and ground travel. A huge difference is found between forecasts from the early 1990’s and the actual outcome. The gap, explained mainly by the very high train fares, indicates the socio-economic cost to society of the BTO solution (Build, Trasfer, Operate).

    Analyses and calculations of different scenarios created from the literature survey constitute the main part of this master thesis. In the scenarios we assume that action is taken to entice more passengers to use rail transport; the actual content of these actions is beyond our scope. Then calculations are made to determine the level of carbon dioxide emissions in each scenario. The baseline in the scenarios is the year 2003, the latest year with available emission data. Scenarios are applied to years 2008, 2020 and 2030, beyond which there are no passenger forecasts available. Tests have been done to find out which year the different scenarios break the carbon dioxide limit.

    In the first scenario, measures have been applied to make Arlanda Express operate at 100 % of its seating (not total) capacity and as a result, the parallel bus service cannot compete and leaves the route. This is the conclusion made by the National Rail Administration in its 1990 forecast, when the rail service was expected to be maintained by the government in a socio-economic and environmentally optimized fashion. Still, in this scenario the ceiling will be passed around year 2009, despite fully loaded trains. In the second scenario, the bus service maintains its line but relocates its Stockholm terminal to the east, where a sufficient market still can be found. Arlanda Express is still fully booked. This makes it possible to keep the carbon dioxide level below the ceiling until year 2013.

    Scenarios 1 and 2 are based on increased train utilization. In the third scenario, increased track utilization is introduced in the form of a planned commuter train from Uppsala to Upplands Väsby via Arlanda. The commuter train from Stockholm Central station to Märsta adjusts its schedule to enable easy transfer at Upplands Väsby. This will highly increase train travel and with the assumptions made in this scenario, the ceiling will not be reached before year 2019. The forth scenario introduces high-capacity trains on the rail services of Scenario 3. A 1- 2 year grace is attained.

    However, the number of aircraft movements at Arlanda is restricted to 372,000 and the airport has not applied for a relaxation of this restriction. According to the current forecast, movements will exceed the restriction in the year 2017. Assuming that Arlanda cannot evade this restriction, our scenarios 3 and 4 would enable the airport to stay below the emission ceiling indefinitely.

  • 44.
    Lindebäck, Carl-Otto
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En studie i höghusbyggande2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development in the world and in the Swedish cities are going towards building greater heights. Linköping is no exception, as PEAB at the moment is building the city highest office building called Tornet. With its 19 floors it will arise approximately 65 meters above ground. That’s no height in worldly sense, but in Sweden it’s the 21 highest building in the country. The building is placed nearby the city centre and will accommodate office and company hotels to one of Linköping’s real-estate concerns. PEAB’s experience in construction of high-rise building is limited, therefore I have agreed with the company to examine what risks but also possibilities that is linked to high constructions. In my study I have focused on the parameters that is important to build even higher in the future. The report describes what complications and critical moments that can accurse when you are building skyscrapers. It also defines motive power for high-rise building and its positive effects and possibilities.

    I have reached the conclusion that the aggravating conditions of building high is a greater load on the foundation and on the whole construction. As you’re adding floors the dead load is increasing linear as a fact of the vertical and horizontal load. Fire safety and the protection of workers is also aggravating conditions as you’re building higher in compare to low-rise buildings. Most critical is the evacuation of people and the fire safety during the construction time.

    I have found that there are three forces to build a high-rise construction: Economy, Environment and Landmarks. A skyscraper is a resource to sell your city thru the brand and the publicity it brings and therefore it is an economic force. Extreme buildings signals go-ahead spirit and modernism that cities wants to associate with to attract business, investments and tourists. Often there’s no other alternative than a high-rise building as the city is compact and the sites are expensive. High-rise buildings are gathering people in larger buildings, concentrating the habitation and reduces travel need and the travel time. This explains the force environment as people are living closer to their work, they daily duties and can easier walk or bicycle. When you build by changeling architecture, you give your city a landmark and puts the city on the map which is the last of the three forces.

  • 45.
    Khan, Muhammad Awais
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isolating and quantifying factors affectingbody and paint business for Volvo Cars2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on identifying the degree of contribution of the most important factors affecting Body and Paint business of Volvo Car Corporation in Sweden. It is clear that Body and Paint business for VCCS directly depends on the number of registered accidents. Our major purpose is to determine the factors which have direct or indirect effect on reduction in the number of accidents in Sweden and to analyze in which degree they may affect the business. During the interviews with senior staff members, we discover that particularly city safety cars are mentioned by most of the specialists. Other important factors highlighted were mileage, weather, company car/ private car and age of a car.

     

    City Safety is a technology designed to help the driver mitigate, and in certain situations avoid, collisions at low speed by automatically bracking the vehicle. The estimated claim rate frequency i.e. claims per contract rate was 50% lower for city safety equipped; then other warranty cars models without system. The study also analysis the effect of rain, mean temperature and snow on Volvo Body part sales in Stockholm Sweden. Temperature snow impacted road accidents significantly. Snow was shown to be the leading variable, as the number of accidents increases sharply with increased snowfall. Temperature is the second important variable in the list i.e. as the temperature decreases by 1ͦC the sales of body and paint business in Stockholm increases by 1.6%.

     

    Time variable such as weekday, month, and year also plays significant role in this model. During Fridays 51% high accidents are expected then accidents occurred on Sundays.

  • 46.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cost effectiveness of sterilization logistics Västernorrland County Council2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the current global financial recession public health care in Sweden is receiving less subsidies from the Government. These circumstances call for logistic improvements in order to slash health care costs and retain high quality service. This thesis is commisioned by Västernorrland County Council and comprises the sterilization logistics at the three county hospitals. The focal point of the thesis is the flow of material and information between the sterilization department (supplier) and the operating department (internal customer). There are currently one sterilzation department at each of the three hospitals with responsibilities to sterilize and deliver operating instruments to their customers. The operating departments are the largest customers in terms of revenue and quantity.

    To decribe the present situation of the flow of material and infomartion an account of the business has been conducted and analyzed with logistics methods. Furthermore, the commisioner expressed a desire of investigating prevailing conditions for implementing pull based production into the organisation and consequences of having external transports between hospitals (if a production facility was to be shut down). Moreover, conditions for implenting lean principles into the organisation have been surveyed.

    When analyzing the flow of material and information some problem areas have been identified. The current break down of responsibility for the product flow between supplier and customer may cause multiple unnecessary control check points, whereas alloting one of the departments with responsibility of the majority of the flow might be more favourable for overall performance. Furthermore, capital occupied in stock are high and so is the ratio of resterilization of unused products.

    The results of the external transports study was ambigous as the facility costs for the Örnsköldsvik and Sollefteå sterilization departments were similar. Therefore, further work is needed to establish what functions are required at the hospital where production might be shut down. However, transports in favour of local production show great potential for decreasing overall costs.

    This study also show that conditions for implementation of lean principles within sterilization activities in Västernorrland City Council are not optimal. However, present push based production is causing high stock levels. Any changes in ways of production must be designed to accompany safety guidelines enforced by the operating department.

  • 47.
    Thörnow, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effekter av urbanisering på grönalgen trädgröna i Linköpings stad med omnejd.: Biologiundervisning i närmiljön2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization has for a long time been a threat to our biodiversity. Epiphytic organisms such as lichens have been negative affected by traffic pollution and the new urban environment surrounding their old habitat (van Her 2001). Another epiphytic organism is the green algae Desmococcus olivaceus. Unlike lichens the green algae is favoured by polluted areas. The aim of this study was to investigate if time in urban environments affected the cover of the green algae on old oaks. 91 oaks were investigated in urban and rural environments in and around Linköping city, Sweden. Data were collected on cover from green algae, lichens and mosses and analysed with regard to the time in urban environment. There were no correlation between time in urban environments and the cover of the green algae, however, the presence of green algae on an oak increased by the time in urban environment. The results also indicated that green algae were distributed on the northwest side of the trunk, whereas lichens were distributed on the northeast side. This could be due to competition between the epiphytic groups. The study also contains findings of four exercises of outdoor education in the field of ecology for high school students.

  • 48.
    Fortell, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calculation of Zero Dynamics for Affine MIMO-Systems using the Ritt Algorithm1995In: Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems Design, 1995, 364-369 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the problem of calculating the zero dynamics by using the Ritt algorithm of differential algebra. A result is given which shows how the Ritt algorithm captures the structure of the zero dynamics for affine polynomial MIMO systems when the system has a vector relative degree. We also discuss how the algorithm can be used when the system is not polynomial or it has no vector relative degree.

  • 49.
    Forsell, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business plan for Kroken 9 and 112010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transformation of old industrial buildings have for some time been a work in progress in the inner city of Norrköping. Street between the Campus past Skvallertorget down to the neighborhood Knäppingsborg has undergone major changes. The change is made with care in order to preserve the old, authentic character while providing attractive, functional and thematic desirability and accommodation in the area.

    The report aims to develop a business plan for the properties of the neighborhood Kroken 9 and 11. The properties are located between Garvaregatan and Motala Ström and have a convenient, attractive location. They are old industrial buildings with extensive refurbishment and renovation needs, and they have largely been vacant for some years.

    The business plan will lead to proposals for, and allocation of appropriate business directions, assessment of rental income, operating costs, production costs and an expected payback period for investment. This, in turn, against how easy it is to rent out for each of its business.

    The proposals I have developed includes public areas, and a room for E.ON. Restaurant School is included in all proposals, but may be located in different parts of the property depends on the proposal. The proposals contain in addition to the above activities of different combinations of hotels, nursing home, apartments of offices.

    The report shows that hotels or nursing home, combined with the tenant is considered the most long-lasting, durable, economical solution. This by nursing home and hotels account for stable, easy to rent out in a long-term and high rental income while the tenant through the sale brings a direct economic benefit.

  • 50.
    Fransson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ett stort evenemang - En liten stad: Synen på Vätternrundan genom fem representanter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vätternrundan is an annual sporting event that takes place in the Swedish town Motala since 1966. It is one of the world largest recreational bicycle rides and attracts over 20 000 participants each year. This study focuses on event effects and how an event can be of value within the principles of place marketing. Within this study five representatives were interviewed with semi-structured interviews.

    The results show that the representatives describe Vätternrundan as a positive event which mostly generates positive effects for the city itself and for the people living and working there. The effects consist of the events ability to create awareness of the place, the possibility to extend the tourism season and several social effects like solidarity and interaction.

    The result also shows that Vätternrundan is a well-known brand and because of this it can be used as an advantage in place marketing. The event also provides the place with an activity and a reason to travel there. The combination of the long sporting history in Motala and the sporting event Vätternrundan also provide Motala with a chance to differentiate themselves in relation to other places where sport is a unique part of the city. 

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