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  • 1.
    Gullberg, Erik
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Construction of a system for heterologous production of carbonic anhydrase from Plasmodium falciparum in Pichia pastoris2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is one of the biggest current global health problems, and with the increasing occurance of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains, there is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs. Given the important role of carbonic anhydrase in Plasmodium falciparum (PfCA), it is a potential novel drug target. Heterologous expression of malaria proteins is problematic due to the unusual codon usage of the Plasmodium genome, so to overcome this problem a synthetic PfCA gene was designed, optimized for expression in Pichia pastoris. This gene was also modified to avoid glycosylation, and cloned into the vector pPICZαA under the control of the methanol inducible promoter AOX1. To facilitate export of the protein into the growth medium, the gene was fused in-frame with the α-factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The construct was successfully integrated in the genome of P. pastoris GS115, and attempts were made to express the protein and purify it using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography.In this work, no expression of the PfCA protein could be detected, so further research should focus on optimization of expression conditions, or redesign of the expression vector.

  • 2.
    Blomfeldt, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Haverstad, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Sensorfusion av GPS och IMU för en racingtillämpning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AB is a Swedish company that develops and sells inertial sensor systems. A new product is under research which basically is an aided inertial navigation system where unwanted drift is eliminated. This can be done by integrating a GPS reciever into the system and fuse measurement data from GPS and IMU. Such a product is useful in racing, where engineers always are searching for the optimal performance and the shortest lap times. Today the only feedback the engineers and mechanics get from their work is the driver’s comments and lap times. It would be of great help if it was possible to see the behaviour of the car directly in technical terms. The focus of this master thesis is fusing a GPS receiver and an IMU using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The main task of the EKF is to estimate the errors of the intertial measurements and correct the measurements to eliminate drift in velocity and position. To verify the system, data collection was done togheter with the team G2 Racing and Tony Ring. The measurements were done in Tony’s Ferrari F430 Pista during two days at the Paul Ricard circuit in southern France. From the results possibilites to further estimate interesting entities were evaluated.

  • 3.
    Falk, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Flexibla fixturer i bearbetande maskiner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted at Linköping University and Saab Aerostructures DPS, Linköping, and focuses on the possibilities of flexible fixturing in machining applications. The thesis is part of the research project "Koofix", which is collaboration between Linköping University and a number of companies.

    The thesis is aimed towards small batch production which, for Saab Aerostructures DPS, means diverse part geometry and that parts are manufactured in very small numbers, sometimes just one piece. The result of this is that expensive dedicated fixtures are made for most parts. By introducing more flexible fixturing methods to this kind of production the cost of fixtures and tooling will be reduced, and make the production more efficient.

    New flexible fixturing methods has been presented and evaluated through the thesis, which has resulted in three different concepts. These concepts have been the result of literature screening and study of current manufacturing process at Saab Aerostructures DPS. The concepts has been evaluated according to there ability to meet Saab Aerostructures DPS needs and a final concept has been chosen. The concept that is considered being the best solution employs an adjustable frame to encompass several different part geometries. This concept allows the workpiece to be machined in a single step and the fixture can be adjusted to fit workpieces with different geometries. On other concept considered in the thesis employs electromagnet with adjustable elements and is capable of fixing more complex geometries. The concept also allows the fixture to be adjusted between different products to be machine by the CNC-machine itself. Also a concept that’s not a fixture itself but a method that allows a simpler fixture to be used has been developed. This concept uses adhesives to combine extra material to the part, which allows for less complex fixtures to be used in the machining process.

    The concepts with the adjustable frame and the electromagnet and adjustable elements are both using the machines control system to locate the detail by probing before the machining process starts. Probing is done by equipping the spindle with a touch trigger probe which measures pre-programmed contact points and calculates exact part position.

  • 4.
    Warth, Benedikt
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant protein expression was initiated by addition of an inducer molecule. It was an objective to figure out influences of excessive recombinant protein expression on the software sensor signals.

    Two of the developed algorithms calculated the biomass on-line and estimated furthermore, the specific growth rate by integration of the biomass changes with the time. The principle of the first was the application of a near infrared probe to obtain on-line readings of the optical density. The other algorithm was founded on the titration of ammonia as only available nitrogen source. The other two sensors analyzed for the specific consumption of glucose and the specific production of acetate and are predicted on an in-line HPLC system.

    The results showed that all software sensors worked as expected and are rather powerful to estimate important state parameters in real time. In some stages, restrictions may occur due to different limitation affects in the models or the physiology of the culture. However, the results were very convincing and suggested the development of further and more advanced software sensor models in the future.

  • 5.
    Furedal, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Analys, modellering och återskapande av fordonsdynamiska rörelser i tåg2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse, model and finally generate dynamic vehicular motions in a train. The objective with the analysis was to find important motions for a realistic train experience. The motions from the analysis were then weighted against possibilities for generation in a motion platform.A dynamic motion model was created to model the selected motions. The model was implemented in a simulation environment, more specifically MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation environment was used to simulate the model and to generate outputs to control a motion platform. The motions of the motion platform depended on how the modelled motions were chosen to be generated. The motion model was validated by comparison of results from the model and measured values from a real train.Generation of motions was accomplished by implementation of the model in a motion platform. A virtual test track was constructed and used to test how the implemented model controlled the motion platform. The experience of the test track in the motion platform was evaluated by persons in a cabin mounted on the motion platform.

  • 6.
    Månsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Implementering av TPU: En fallstudie om implementeringen av TPU på ABB Cewe-Control i Nyköping2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If Swedish companies are to compete with companies in low-cost countries they have to achieve a more efficient production. The purpose of Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) is to increase the company's profitability by increasing the productivity. TPM is a method that involves all employees and aims to prevent failures in order to increase the availability of existing equipment.

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the implementation process of TPM and give recommendations for the further implementation process. The conclusion and the analysis are based on a case study done at a production department at ABB Cewe-Controls facilities in Nyköping. The case study consists mainly of qualitative data from participation observations, surveys and interviews.

    Commitment of the management is a key factor in the implementation process of TPM. The management of ABB Cewe-Control need to demonstrate their commitment in order for a change to happen. The case study shows that the commitment of both employee and management must be raised if the implementation process is to be successful. To avoid unnecessary conflicts or irritation in the further implementation process it is important to clarify responsibilities and roles in the implementation of TPU.

    The case study has also shown that the training during the implementation process has not been sufficient. Proper training is needed to be able to conduct the implementation process of TPM in an effective manner. Proper training is also needed to raise the motivation of the staff.

    Business Development is ABB’s methodology for the improvement work in the company. Business Development is a well-known concept in the organisation and has a well-defined connection with the company's strategic objectives. Because of this there is no reason why the improvement work and how it has been done should change. Business Development is a good foundation for the implementation of TPM and the improvement work in the future.

  • 7.
    Haraldsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics.
    Combining unobtainable shortest path graphs for OSPF2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 25 points / 37,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known Dijkstra's algorithm uses weights to determine the shortest path. The focus here is instead on the opposite problem, does there exist weights for a certain set of shortest paths? OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is one of several possible protocols that determines how routers will send data in a network like the internet. Network operators would however like to have some control of how the traffic is routed, and being able to determine the weights, which would lead to the desired shortest paths to be used, would be a help in this task.The first part of this thesis is a mathematical explanation of the problem with a lot of examples to make it easier to understand. The focus here is on trying to combine several routing patterns into one, so that the result will be fewer, but more fully spanned, routing patterns, and it can e.g. be shown that there can't exist a common set of weights if two routing patterns can't be combined.The second part is a program that can be used to make several tests and changes to a set of routing patterns. It has a polynomial implementation of a function that can combine routing patterns. The examples that I used to combine routing patterns, showed that this will increase the likelihood of finding and significantly speed up the computation of a “valid cycle”.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kliniskt datainsamlingssystem med beslutsstöd - Användarutredning och gränssnitt för Sahlgrenskas akutintag2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Extra high requirements are made on all systems in health care that they are functional and usable,´something, however, that is not always the case. At Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska University´Hospital many systems are in use at the same time and it happens that much overhead is caused by having to fill in the same information in different places. In addition, data that is gathered is to a large extent saved in free text format, which means that it cannot be used in a larger context such as research, quality control or for decision support. Data is saved in the patient file only for the treatment process of the individual patient.

    A data collecting system with decision support functionality could be a first step towards reducing Emergency Admissions’ costs and patients’ waiting times by providing a structured method of data collection. It is also possible that it could contribute to safer care for patients as the system could warn the staff on occasions where there may be a risk of a patient suffering from a serious, acute illness that might be difficult to diagnose.

    An analysis has been performed at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska to distinguish possible users of a new system for collecting data with decision support. The results showed that the nurses in reception were the most suitable target group.

    A prototype of a user interface for gathering initial patient data at reception has been made at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska. This prototype has decision support functionality for ranking the most probable diagnoses as well as providing advice on suitable tests and examinations to perform. The focus has been on usability and on adapting the system to the needs of the users.

    It is highly important that future users, the staff at Emergency Admissions, continue to participate in the future further development of the data gathering system so that their needs and requirements are not overshadowed by the new technology.

  • 9.
    Reinelt, Wolfgang
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Loop Shaping of Multivariable Systems with Hard Constraints on the Control Signal2001In: Electrical engineering (Berlin. Print), ISSN 0948-7921, E-ISSN 1432-0487, Vol. 83, no 4, 169-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A general framework for the design of multivariable control systems subject to hard constraints on each control channel is developed. The design procedure is based on the ℋ∞ loop shaping and relies on the calculation of the maximum possible control amplitude for a class of reference signals, bounded in amplitude and rate. Special attention is given to adjustment of the design weights in order to meet prescribed bounds on each control signal. A simulation example, the control of the vertical dynamics of an aircraft, illustrates the suggested procedure.

  • 10.
    Eidehall, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lane Game: Lane Guidance Systems Are Now Emerging onto the Vehicle Market2005In: Traffic Technology International, ISSN 1356-9252, 40-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the difficulties in developing an automotive lane guidance system, as well as Volvo's possible solution. Lane guidance aims to keep drivers from drifting into another lane by monitoring lane markings with a vision system that alerts the driver with an audio warning, a vibration, or a small amount of steering wheel torque to keep the vehicle in the lane. The difficulties in making such systems work, however, are many: false alarms when changing lanes intentionally, curve cutting by drivers, or driver reliance on a system while they changed CDs or checked text messages. The article describes in detail how Volvo is evaluating a system that shows promise.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 12.
    Mattsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Driving and its related driving behaviour as viewed by Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control when regarding ADAS2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is a high-risk adventure and a highly complex task; yet anyone with a driver's licence might perform daily. The driving task is characterised by requiring competence and control to cope with the continuous changing risky driving environment. Driving is a complex task, some think of it as strenuous whereas others think of it as quite effortless and fun.

    The task of driving is affected by the driver's driving behaviour, which in turn is affected by the driver's personality. Since the early 1950s, researchers have been interested in how driver's driving personality affects the driver's driving behaviour and thus driving performance. Attitudes such as risk perception and trust towards driving are only a few of a myriad of personality attitudes that could affect the driving performance. Two psychological traits can be used to quantify the driver's driving behaviour in form of propensity for risk taking and trust in driving: Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control. Both traits can be used as a small step to give an explanation as to why drivers do as they do in the driving environment.

    Traffic works as it works with a steady flow of things. Sometimes the flow is disturbed and traffic-related accidents occur. One type of accidents is rear-end collision, when the driver collides with the rear part of the car in front. In order to reduce the amount of such accidents, various forms of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, ADAS, are introduced to aid drivers in their driving. There are many forms of ADAS, but they all share a common base in that they all aim to make the driver aware of the risks in her driving. The ADAS specific for rear-end collisions all aim to reduce the number of rear-end collisions that occurs annually in the traffic, which can be done by making the driver aware of the risks in her current driving performance.

  • 13.
    Pettersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synchronization of flywheel position between autonomous devices2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More computing power will be required in Scania’s future engine control units. Calculations is therefore needed to be performed on new hardware such as an FPGA. One problem that arises is synchronization of flywheelposition. This master thesis examines the opportunities existing Scania hardware has to perform synchronization of flywheel position. Different concepts for synchronization have been developed and compared with each other. One of the concepts have been implemented and made possible witha PCB-adapter. The results show that synchronization is possible within given real-time requirements. Finally, an analysis to series production has been made. It show the challenges that an FPGA will face when integrated into a future engine control unit.

  • 14.
    Ståhl, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strokekedjan från början till slut: En etnografisk studie om farlighet och tid i en akut vårdkedja2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    30 000 people in Sweden get a stroke every year. This leads to large personal adaptions as well as high costs for the society. The most efficient treatment, thrombolysis, must be given as soon as possible to have a good effect. At the same time it is very important to find out if the patient has any differential diagnosis that can make the treatment hazardous.

    This study investigates how the course ov events around acute stroke patients take place and important factors for the decision making. The studiy is based on ethnographic field studys on four swedish hospitals. The material is analysed with methods from joint cognitive systems and goal-oriented design. The results show that in spite of different organisation of the course  of events around acute stroke patients are the processes and direct communication most successful for effective spread of information between the processes. The neurologist on call is an important roll who, as well as the rest of the participants in the course of events, balances the decision making between efficiency and thoroughness. The combination of analysis gives results on both system- and individual levels. Possibilites for improvents are given in three categories: logistic, technological and organizational.

  • 15.
    Lauri, Vaher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dokumentation av möbler i Vasarummet på Rydboholm slott: Vård och preventiv konservering i en autentisk miljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a work about documentation and preventive conservation. My case study includes a number of furnishings in an environment where virtually no circumstances have changed during last 400 years. My goal was to, on the basis of observation of materials, techniques and construction, determine the possible date of origin and that with regard to previous research on climate and the effect of light and other conditions to formulate guidelines for the continued storage, without changing anything more pervasive in the physical environment. I have come to the conclusion that the different methods like the control of air movement or protection of the environment from UV-light is not unproblematic in an environment like this, but that the best strategy in the current situation are simple proven methods such as protective covering and ventilation.

  • 16.
    Antunez de Mayolo, Eduardo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Study of the Optical Properties of sp2-Hybridized Boron Nitride2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nitride-based semiconductor materials make it possible to fabricate optoelectronic devices that operate in the whole electromagnetic range, since the band gaps of these compounds can be modified by doping. Among these materials, the sp2-hybridized boron nitride has properties that make it a potential candidate for integration in devices operating in the short-wavelength limit, under harsh environment conditions, due to the strength of the B-N bond.  Nevertheless, this binary compound has been the less studied material among the nitrides, due to the lack of complete control on the growth process.

    This thesis is focused on the study of the optical properties of sp2-hybridized boron nitride grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, at the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, at Linköping University, Sweden. The samples received for this study were grown on c-plane aluminum nitride as the buffer layer, which in turn was grown by nitridation on c- plane oriented sapphire, as the substrate material. The first objective of the research presented in this thesis was the development of a suitable ellipsometry model in a spectral region ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet zones of the electromagnetic spectrum, with the aim of obtaining in the process optical properties such as the index of refraction, the energy of the fundamental electronic interband transition, the frequencies for the optical vibrational modes of the crystal lattice, as well as their broadenings, and the numerical values of the dielectric constants; and on the other hand, structural parameters such as the layers thicknesses, and examine the possibility of the presence of roughness or porosity on the boron nitride layer, which may affect the optical properties, by incorporating their effects into the model. The determination of these parameters, and their relation with the growth process, is important for the future adequate design of heterostructure-based devices that incorporate this material. In particular, emphasis has been put on the modeling of the polar lattice resonance contributions, with the TO- LO model, by using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry as the characterization technique to study the phonon behavior, in the aforementioned spectral region, of the boron nitride. On the other hand, spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible-ultraviolet spectral range was used to study the behavior of the material, by combining a Cauchy model, including an Urbach tail for the absorption edge, and a Lorentz oscillator in order to account for the absorption in the material in the UV zone. This first step on the research project was carried out at Linköping University. 

    The second objective in the research project was to carry out additional studies on the samples received, in order to complement the information provided by the ellipsometry model and to improve the model itself, provided that it was possible. The characterization techniques used were X-ray diffraction, which made it possible to confirm that in fact boron nitride was present in the samples studied, and made it possible to verify the crystalline quality of the aforementioned samples, and in turn relate it to the quality of the ellipsometry spectra previously obtained; the Raman spectroscopy made it possible to further verify and compare the crystalline qualities of the samples received, as well as to obtain the frequency for the Raman active B-N stretching vibration in the basal plane, and to compare this value with that corresponding to the bulk sp2-boron nitride; scanning electron microscopy made it possible to observe the rough surface morphologies of the samples and thus relate them to some of the conclusions derived from the ellipsometry model; and finally cathodoluminescence measurements carried out at low temperature (4 K) allowed to obtain a broad band emission, on all the samples studied, which could be related to native defects inside the boron nitride layers, i.e., boron vacancies. Nevertheless, no trace of a free carrier recombination was observed. Considering that the hexagonal-boron nitride is nowadays considered to be a direct band gap semiconductor, it may be indirectly concluded, in principle, that the dominant phase present in the samples studied was the rhombohedral polytype. Moreover, it can be tentatively concluded that the lack of an observable interband recombination may be due to the indirect band gap nature of the rhombohedral phase of the boron nitride. Spectroscopic ellipsometry does not give a definite answer regarding this issue either, because the samples analyzed were crystalline by nature, thus not being possible to use mathematical expressions for the dielectric function models that incorporate the band gap value as a fitting parameter. Therefore, the nature of the band gap emission in the rhombohedral phase of the boron nitride is still an open research question. On the other hand, luminescent emissions originating from radiative excitonic recombinations were not observed in the cathodoluminescence spectra. This second step of the project was carried out at the Leroy Eyring Center for Solid State Science at Arizona State University.  

  • 17.
    Neggers, Sebastian J C M M
    et al.
    Department of Endocrinology Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands et al .
    Pronin, Vyacheslav
    1Department of Endocrinology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Balcere, Inga
    Department of Endocrinology, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia.
    Lee, Moon-Kyu
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Rozhinskaya, Liudmila
    Department of Neuroendocrinology and Bone Diseases, National Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Bronstein, Marcello D
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Gadelha, Mônica R
    Endocrine Section, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Maisonobe, Pascal
    Boulogne-Billancourt, Ipsen, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
    Sert, Caroline
    Boulogne-Billancourt, Ipsen, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
    van der Lely, Aart Jan
    Department of Endocrinology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg at extended dosing intervals in patients with acromegaly biochemically controlled with octreotide LAR: the LEAD study2015In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 173, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate extended dosing intervals (EDIs) with lanreotide Autogel 120 mg in patients with acromegaly previously biochemically controlled with octreotide LAR 10 or 20 mg.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with acromegaly had received octreotide LAR 10 or 20 mg/4 weeks for ≥ 6 months and had normal IGF1 levels. Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg was administered every 6 weeks for 24 weeks (phase 1); depending on week-24 IGF1 levels, treatment was then administered every 4, 6 or 8 weeks for a further 24 weeks (phase 2). Hormone levels, patient-reported outcomes and adverse events were assessed.

    PRIMARY ENDPOINT: proportion of patients on 6- or 8-week EDIs with normal IGF1 levels at week 48 (study end).

    RESULTS: 107/124 patients completed the study (15 withdrew from phase 1 and two from phase 2). Of 124 patients enrolled, 77.4% were allocated to 6- or 8-week EDIs in phase 2 and 75.8% (95% CI: 68.3-83.3) had normal IGF1 levels at week 48 with the EDI (primary analysis). A total of 88.7% (83.1-94.3) had normal IGF1 levels after 24 weeks with 6-weekly dosing. GH levels were ≤ 2.5 μg/l in > 90% of patients after 24 and 48 weeks. Patient preferences for lanreotide Autogel 120 mg every 4, 6 or 8 weeks over octreotide LAR every 4 weeks were high.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acromegaly achieving biochemical control with octreotide LAR 10 or 20 mg/4 weeks are possible candidates for lanreotide Autogel 120 mg EDIs. EDIs are effective and well received among such patients.

  • 18.
    Pavski, Johann Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Handover Optimization in GSM2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In telecommunications in general and in GSM in particular, the handover is a feature that guarantees a smooth transition of a call from one base station - that is for the purpose of this project an antenna - to another. In the recent ten years, the amount of data traffic through mobile telecommunications has doubled annually, putting an enormous strain on the network and forcing operators to upgrade with more and more base stations and new features. Although 3G and 4G are responsible for data traffic in most countries, GSM still provides more than 80% of the coverage for mobile devices around the world. Due to the increase in data traffic, 3G and 4G need to use more and more frequencies at the expense of GSM. An optimization of the GSM network is thus vital. In this project, we research two methods to automatically choose the parameters of interest (PoI) that govern the handover feature in each cell which is, roughly speaking, the area of coverage of one antenna. In one of these methods, the choice of cell- and cell-to-cell-specific parameters has its origins in control theory while the other method is based on mathematical optimization. In the mathematical sense, our goal is to optimize the quality of service over PoIs. Extensive simulations have been run using these PoIs in order to evaluate if and how the two different methods can effectively be used in reality. Several useful insights have been gained that will provide the basis for future work. The optimization approach in particular has proved to deliver good results within the limitations of the simulated environment used for testing.

  • 19.
    Eneroth, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Controller Design Enabling Automated and Fuel-Efficient Driving Strategies for Heavy Duty Vehicles in Urban Environments2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The automative industry drives the development towards more autonomous vehicles, this because of both safety and energy conservation reasons. This thesis focuses on solutions to lower the fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles, which is more and more requested. Both due to increasing fuel costs and to greater environmental awareness. Through extensive simulations with a vehicle model, developed at and provided by Scania CV AB, different driving strategies are evaluated and analysed. This determined how to achieve a low fuel consumption when driving heavy vehicle in an urban environment. The simulations shows that the fuel consumption can be lowered by coasting the vehicle when deceleration and thus minimize the use of the brakes. One should also when possible, select a higher gear to lower the fuel consumption due to engine friction. These strategies are used to develop a controller which lowers the fuel consumption without increasing the trip time for the vehicle. The controller is able to alter the velocity of the vehicle within a reference window which results in both a lower fuel consumption and a shorter trip time for the driving cycle used.

  • 20.
    Kantzon, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    PFC-design for frequency converter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with power factor correction for three-phase systems. A boost-buck topology was described, modeled and then simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system provides a power factor over 99% over the tested power output range. Moreover, the harmonic injection concept was introduced which reduces the total harmonic distortion to 8.72% at full output power. A prototype system was also built using an FPGA for the control system. The prototype did not provide the performance seen in simulation but showed that the method is valid and does provide a higher power factor when used.

  • 21.
    Hammarström, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Network optimisation and topology control of Free Space Optics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In communication networks today, the amount of users and traffic is constantly increasing. This results in the need for upgrading the networks to handle the demand. Free space optics is a technique which is relatively cheap with high capacity compared to most systems today. On the other hand, FSO have some disadvantages with the effects on the system by, for instance, turbulence and weather. The aim of the project is to investigate the use of network optimization for designing an optimal network in terms of capacity and cost. Routing optimization is also covered in terms of singlepath and multipath routing. To mitigate the problem with turbulence affecting the system network survivability is implemented with both proactive and reactive solutions.

    The method used is to implement the system in Matlab, the system should also be tested so that it works as intended. The report covers related work as well as theory behind FSO and the chosen optimization algorithms.

    The system uses modified Bellman-Ford optimization as well as Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree. K-link-connectivity is also implemented for the network survivability and multipath algorithm.

    Results of the implementation shows that the network survivability improves the robustness of the system by changing paths for traffic which is affected by broken links. Routing done by multipath will increase the throughput and also reduce the delay for the traffic.

  • 22.
    Asklöf, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Slöjan: om "av-slöjning": – En uppsats om unga, obeslöjade, svensk-muslimska kvinnors syn på slöjan och slöjdebatten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents four not-/unveiled Swedish Muslim women's perceptions and experiences regarding the headscarf, the choice not to wear a headscarf, and the dominant understanding of the headscarf in Swedish society. Drawing on narratives of these women, this study aims to examine what it is that lies behind the choice not to wear the veil. Qualitative semi-structured interview was used as method for the collection of empirical data, and empirically guided thematic approach to the analysis of it. Moreover, set out from theoretical concepts of identity, classification, symbols, norms and social control, the obtained data is discussed.

    The participants in this study explains that they have never felt forced to wear the veil. They are of the opinion that one does not have to wear a headscarf in order to identify oneself as Muslim women. Islam, or ones level of religiosity, is not connected with a headscarf, rather, ones relationship as a Muslim is between that person and God. Moreover, the result indicates that the informants born in countries categorized as Muslim countries have been more affected by the Swedish secular society and its norms than those born in countries not categorized as Muslim countries. Nevertheless, they all fear potential rejection, negative sanctions and aggressions of society, causing them to stand by the decision not to wear a veil.            

  • 23.
    Malmström, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Design and Implementation of NFC-based gym mobile app2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the technical and economic viability of introducing a Near Field Communication (NFC) client system in a gym environment. The system aims to aid the customers with logging their workout, retrieving information regarding exercises as well as enhancing the attendance control for both staff and customers. To identify what information to be presented, the most important quality factors and what functionalities are most desired, an exploratory case study was conducted. The study showed that there is a discrepancy between the desire to log ones workout and actually doing it. Most people want to keep track of how they workout, but despite the wide variety of workout applications on the market, they choose not to use them. The main concern expressed was that the logging needs to be fast and easy, indicating that the existing apps do not fulfill the ease of use desired. The system presented in this report is coupled to the gym where NFC tags pair an exercise to its corresponding logger and information in the application. The ability for the gym to track its customers’ workout habits is a rare feature that provides several economic benefits such as targeted advertisement, better maintenance control and new customer services analyzing their workout. For the system to be effective the customers need to use the system and log their workout, therefore it needs to be supported by the major mobile platforms. To accommodate this a hybrid platform approach using PhoneGap was used. This approach allows for development in one language that translates into native embedded web applications. At the time of writing Apple’s latest models do include the hardware for NFC communication. However, it is not possible to develop a custom NFC application for iPhone yet. By adopting the hybrid approach there is no need to create a whole new app when they do release the rights to do so. In conclusion, the technical viability of the NFC based system comes with the tradeoffs of dealing with the lack of standards of a new technology and being early on the market with a new feature. This calls for some custom solutions, since each platform adopts their own way of NFC implementation, but is manageable. The economic aspects are tied to the use of the system where the ease of use is the key factor for the customers. The end user tests indicate that NFC provides that small advantage over traditional workout applications needed to make logging attractive.

  • 24.
    Sobron, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design and Testing of a Flight Control System for Unstable Subscale Aircraft2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this thesis was to study, implement, and test low-cost electronic flight control systems (FCS) in remotely piloted subscale research aircraft with relaxed static longitudinal stability. Even though this implementation was carried out in small, simplified test-bed aircraft, it was designed with the aim of being installed later in more complex demonstrator aircraft such as the Generic Future Fighter concept demonstrator project. The recent boom of the unmanned aircraft market has led to the appearance of numerous electronic FCS designed for small-scale vehicles and even hobbyist-type model aircraft. Therefore, the purpose was not to develop a new FCS from scratch, but rather to take advantage of the available technology and to examine the performance of different commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) low-cost systems in statically unstable aircraft models. Two different systems were integrated, calibrated and tested: a simple, gyroscope-based, single-axis controller, and an advanced flight controller with a complete suite of sensors, including a specifically manufactured angle-of-attack transducer. A flight testing methodology and appropriate flight-test data analysis tools were also developed. The satisfactory results are discussed for different flight control laws, and the controller tuning procedure is described. On the other hand, the different test-bed aircraft were analysed from a theoretical point of view by using common aircraft-design methods and conventional preliminary-design tools. The theoretical models were integrated into a flight dynamics simulator, which was compared with flight-test data obtaining a reasonable qualitative correlation. Possible FCS modifications are discussed and some future implementations are proposed, such as the integration of the angle-of-attack in the control laws.

  • 25.
    Lindblom, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nord, Sigrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Domstolskontroll av standardavtal2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I vår uppsats ska vi behandla standardavtal och vilken inverkan s.k. dold domstolskontroll har på dem. Standardavtal är ett vanligt förekommande avtal som svenska konsumenter och näringsidkare ingår dagligen. Standardavtal skiljer sig från andra avtal på så sätt att de innehåller standardiserade, förtryckta villkor som oftast är utvecklade av endast en part i avtalsförhållandet. De förtryckta villkoren har ett minimalt förhandlingsutrymme, oftast inget alls, vilket innebär att part som vill ingå ett standardavtal är tvungen att acceptera avtalet sådant som det är. I och med att en part, genom standardavtal, förlorar sitt förhandlingsutrymme menar vi att en gemensam partsvilja i dess typiska bemärkelse inte längre finns. Detta gör i sin tur att standardavtal som blir föremål för tvist hos domstol inte kan behandlas som vanliga avtal med tolkningens utgångspunkt ur den gemensamma partsviljan. I sådana fall får domstolen utgå från andra tolkningsprinciper. Bland dem finns företeelsen dold domstolskontroll. Dold domstolskontroll är ett relativt okänt begrepp vilket vi i uppsatsen har definierat som en metod för att styra avtal med, vilken också brukar innefatta att domstolen använder principer som är otypiska i sammanhanget. Den dolda kontrollen har fått stark kritik, bland annat i proposition 1975/75:81 till förslag om förändring i 36 § avtalslagen, som en icke önskvärd metod. Den benämndes som en krystad tolkningsmetod för att möta allmänhetens önskemål. Vi anser att problemet med dold domstolskontroll applicerad på standardavtal är att brukarna av dessa avtal har svårt att utläsa ur domskälen vad som är önskvärt och mindre önskvärt vid stiftandet av avtalen, och att de därför inte heller har möjlighet att i framtiden stifta bättre avtal som gynnar båda parter. Praxis från dold kontroll är otydlig ur prejudicerande synpunkt. Vi diskuterar vidare andra möjligheter att komma till rätta med detta otydliga område genom att analysera vad en eventuell standardavtalslag hade fått för inverkan. Vår slutsats är att en standardavtalslag hade blivit för snäv och att den alltså inte hade kunnat lösa problemet med dold kontroll.

  • 26.
    Hallmén, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Map-Aided GPS Tracking in Urban Areas: Application to Runner Tracking in Sprint Orienteering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The GPS tracking in sprint orienteering is often a poor supplement to the viewer experience during events taking place in urban areas because of multipath effects. Since the GPS tracking of runners is an important means to making the sport more spectator friendly, it is of interest to make it more accurate.

    In this thesis project, the information provided by the map of a competition is fused with the GPS tracker position measurements and punch time data in a particle filter to create estimates of the runner trajectories. The map is used to create constraints and to predict motion of runners, as well as to create a model of the GPS reliability depending on map position.

    A simple observation model is implemented, using the map to decide if a GPS measurement is reliable or not depending on the distance to the closest building. A rather complex motion model is developed to predict the runner motion within the constraints given by the map.

    The results show that given certain conditions the improvements are vast compared to the traditional GPS tracking. The estimates are bound to possible routes, and they are often very good given that alternative route choices are easily separable. It is however principally difficult to generally improve the tracking using this method. Better measurements or observation models are needed in order to receive a fully satisfying tracking.

  • 27.
    Rauhala, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaze control for detail and overview in image exploration2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking technology has made it possible to accurately and consistently track a users gaze position on a screen. The human eyes center of focus, where it can see the most detailed information, is quite small at a given moment. The peripheral vision of humans have a much lower level of details than the center of gaze. Knowing this, it is possible to display a view that increases the level of resolution at the position of the users gaze point on the screen, while the rest of the screen keeps a lower resolution. An implementation of such a system can generate a representation of data with both detail and overview. The results indicate that even with simple gaze data processing it is possible to use gaze control to help explore details of a high resolution image. Gaze data processing often involve a compromise between stability, responsiveness and latency. A low latency, highly responsive gaze data filter would increase the risk for lens oscillation, and demand a higher concentration level from the viewer then a slower filter would. Applying a gaze data filter that allowed for smooth and stable lens movement for small saccades and responsive movements for large saccades proved successfully. With the uses of gaze control the user might be able to use a gaze aware application more efficient since gaze precedes actions. Gaze control would also reduce the need for hand motions which could provide a improved work environment for people interacting with computer.

  • 28.
    Ardeshiri, Tohid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Orguner, Umut
    Özkan, Emre
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Gaussian Mixture Reduction Using Reverse Kullback-Leibler DivergenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minskar handel den ekonomiska ojämlikheten i utvecklingsländer?: En studie över tidigare europeiska kolonier med kust2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of trade on the society are a common subject of debate, both in the research field of economics and in the political debate. The lack of consensus poses a risk in political decision-making. New trade agreements are being implemented while the role of developing countries is growing on the global market. Hence, there is an increasing importance of examining the actual impacts of trade. This study, therefore, analyses the impact of trade on the economic inequality in developing countries. This study hypothesizes that trade decreases inequality, which is in accordance with classical economic theory. Using a panel data regression on 41 countries over 23 years, this study examines how Gini index interacts as the dependent variable with trade flow and seven control variables. The countries studied are mainly limited to former European colonies with coastal lines to reduce the risk of heterogeneity within the sample. This study finds that trade reduces inequality, although the result should be interpreted with care due to statistically insignificant effects. This study also finds that presence of corruption is of importance when the relationship between trade and inequality is examined.

  • 30.
    Petersson Lantz, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvarsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creating access control maps and defining a security policy for a healthcare communication system2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report handles the creation of an access control map and the dening of asecurity policy for a healthcare communication system. An access control mapis a graphical way to describe the access controls of the subjects and objects ina system. We use a three step method to produce a graphical overview of theparts in the system, the interactions between them and the permissions of thesubjects. Regarding the security policy we create a read up and read down policylike the so called Ring policy, but adapt a write sideways approach. We alsoapply a mandatory access control which has a centralized authority that denesthe permissions of the subjects. Attribute restrictions is also included to thesecurity levels, to set an under limit for reading permissions.

  • 31.
    Tideman, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Control System for Active Camouflage2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation of a control system for an active camouflage system based on thermal elements and LED technology.

  • 32.
    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The right of free movement: A story of securitisation and control in the UK or the story of Ion Popescu2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently in Britain there has been an on-going discussion on the right of European citizens to move to, work and reside freely in any European Union member-state. British politicians and media, stepping on the significant number of Eastern Europeans who moved to the United Kingdom, articulated a securitising discourse representing them as ‘benefit tourists’ and criminals who threaten the integrity of the welfare system and social cohesion. However, this is only part of the securitisation story. This paper argues that the securitisation of mobile European citizens and, consequently of the right of free movement itself, is used as governmentality in order to allow in the country only those who are needed and keep the rest out, and at the same time to raise support for a renegotiation of the relationship between Britain and the European Union. It will be demonstrated that the securitisation process takes place through policies and everyday practices on the one hand, and through the securitising discourse articulated by politicians and media on the other. Moreover, the possibility of securitisation having a long-lasting effect by creating a security rationale in which all future policies would be embedded is assessed.

  • 33.
    Rapp, Joel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University.
    Turesson, Jonatan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University.
    Hydrostatic transmission in wind turbines: Development of test platform2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis project is a part of a larger project with the goal of develop-ing a drivetrain, utilizing a hydrostatic transmission, for horizontal axis mid-sizewind turbines. Some of the benefits from using a hydrostatic transmission are thata variable speed operation is possible without the use of a frequency converter,the generator may be placed on the ground and thus reduce weight in the nacelleand also using hydraulic components can increase lifetime and robustness of thesystem. The thesis work is a part of the second step towards this goal, whichcontains constructing a test platform of the concept.

    The test platform is being built at the Laboratory of Hydraulic and PneumaticSystems (LASHIP) in Florianópolis, Brazil, where also the master thesis projecthas been conducted. Two companies are involved in the construction of the plat-form, Parker Hannifin and Reivax. Parker Hannifin is a multinational diversifiedmanufacturer of motion and control technologies and systems. Reivax developtechnologies for control systems and automation applied in Hydroelectric, Ther-moelectric and Nuclear power plants.

    The project was performed during the period of February to August 2015 andgoverns dimensioning and selection of hydraulic components for the test platform,development of simulation model in AMESim, evaluation of control strategies andalso a dynamic analysis of the system.

    Dimensioning the platform resulted in a drivetrain with an output power of28 kW. Standard hydraulic components with high efficiencies where selected fromParker’s product portfolio. These components were then modeled in AMESimwhere simulations of the whole system could be performed. Control strategieswere tested and results showed that the best performance is reached when usinga regulator that is able to compensate for pressure changes in the system. Re-sults also indicated that the hydrostatic transmission can perform very well as areplacement of frequency converters, in terms of stable frequency output of a vari-able wind turbine. The dynamic analysis showed that the parameter that sets themain characteristics of the system is the aerodynamic rotor with its large inertia.

  • 34.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natureculture Origined: An intersectional feminist study of notions of the natural, the healthy and the Palaeolithic past in the popular science imaginary of biomechanics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Situated in a time of advanced technoscience and new materialist feminist humanities/social sciences, this thesis explores how popular science renditions of biomechanics contribute to transforming imaginaries about “the natural” and “healthy”. It does so by zooming in on biomechanical scientist Katy Bowman’s pervasive and life-style commitment-requiring teaching. Her books and online material conceptualise and connect a bodily dependency on adequate physical load environments to an imagined natural health of our Palaeolithic ancestors. Drawing on several postconventional fields gathered under the banner of feminist posthumanisms and posthumanities (Braidotti 2013; Åsberg 2014), this thesis demonstrates how gendered and otherwise intersectionally interpreted fantasies intra-act with Bowman’s specific bodily practices, constructing a natural with both limiting and liberating consequences. Notions of the natural in popularised biomechanics are here explored foremost with a focus on the formative categories of gender and class. More explicitly, the thesis shows how Bowman’s teaching, on the one hand, links well with theorisings of corporeal, environmental and material feminist scholars, such as Elizabeth Grosz’s (1994) and Stacy Alaimo’s (2010) notions of environed corporeality and trans-corporeality. On the other hand, though, Bowman’s popularised biomechanics simultaneously reinforces a troublesome nature-culture divide and neo-liberal discourses on health as choice. However, while downplaying sociocultural and economical factors, and underpinning essentialist notions of motherhood, Bowman’s popular science also destabilises masculine understandings of the natural as tough; acknowledges material, individual and collective agency; and, offers effective techniques for managing various health conditions – all in ways that may well be interpreted and practiced within feminist registers. Based on this example from Bowman’s popular science, the author argues that contemporary Western understandings of the natural are influenced by a longing for self-commitment, control and connectedness.

  • 35.
    Fernlund, Eva
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Lund University, Sweden.
    Schlegel, Todd T.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Platonov, Pyotr G.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Liuba, Petru
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Peripheral microvascular function is altered in young individuals at risk for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and correlates with myocardial diastolic function2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 308, no 11, H1351-H1358 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Based on previous reports of functional abnormalities in not only coronary but also peripheral vessels in adults with HCM, we aimed to assess both peripheral vascular and myocardial diastolic function in young individuals with an early stage of HCM and in individuals at risk for HCM. Children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age: 12 yr) with a family history of HCM who either had (HCM group; n = 36) or did not have (HCM-risk group; n = 30) echocardiography-documented left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as well as healthy matched controls (n = 85) and healthy young athletes (n = 12) were included in the study. All underwent assessment with 12-lead electrocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and laser Doppler with transdermal iontophoresis of ACh and sodium nitroprusside. LV thickness and mass were increased in HCM and athlete groups compared with control and HCM-risk groups. The mitral E-to-e ratio, measured via tissue Doppler, was increased in HCM (P less than 0.0001) and HCM-risk (P less than 0.01) groups compared with control and athlete groups, as were microvascular responses to ACh (HCM group: P less than 0.045 and HCM- risk group: P less than 0.02). Responses to ACh correlated with the E-to-e ratio (r = 0.5, P = 0.001). Microvascular responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in all groups (P = 0.2). HCM-causing mutations or its familial history are associated with changes in cardiac diastolic function and peripheral microvascular function even before the onset of myocardial hypertrophy. Tissue Doppler can be used to differentiate HCM from physiological LV hypertrophy in young athletes.

  • 36.
    Ekström, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using Shared Priorities to Support Training of Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Crews2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nuclear power plant control room crews have training sessions in full scope simulators every year. These sessions are designed to prepare operators to cope with incidents and accidents. The aim is to develop operators’ knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to operate the nuclear power plant in a safe manner. Training sessions is an opportunity to practice and develop the crews’ teamwork, decision processes and working strategies.

    The purpose of this study was to explore if and how the instrument Shared Priorities can support training of nuclear power plant control room crews. Shared Priorities is an instrument to measure teams’ shared awareness of a situation and has in earlier studies been used in military and student teams. During the simulator re-training period of control room crews, 14 crews used the instrument Shared Priorities in one or two of their training scenarios. The instrument consists of two steps. Firstly, crew members generate and prioritise a list of five items they think are most important for the crew to cope with in the scenarios current situation. They also rank another crew member’s list. Secondly, the crews and instructors perform a focus group discussion based on the generated lists.

    Results from questionnaires, focus group discussions and an interview with instructors showed that operators and instructors believe that Shared Priorities can support their training in several ways. Crews see meetings and other disseminations of information as an essential part of maintaining shared understanding of different situations. They believe the instrument may help crews reflect upon and develop their meeting procedures. Operators and instructors also believe that by using the instrument it can help crews to increase their understanding of having a shared situation understanding and shared vision. However the procedure when using Shared Priorities has to be modified in order to be able to support crews’ training in an optimal way.

  • 37.
    Danielsson Piazze, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abelsson, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riskhantering och styrningsaspekter vid tidsrelaterade orderförändringar i företag som levererar till projekt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Uncertainty and risk are often present during construction projects, which can create problems for several parties involved in the process. This could amount to an order change in terms of delivery time. When it is of importance to satisfy the needs of the client concerning correct delivery time, the delay in a construction project can mean that the supplier of the project has to delay its products to achieve customer satisfaction. This draws attention towards the organizations internal behavior and flexibility among its employees to manage the risks that occurs. To make employees act in a way that is in the organizations best interest, management control systems can be used. By applying risk management on companies that deliver to a construction project, uncertainty can be acknowledged and described as well as highlight the difficulties this can create for employees.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe and partly chart uncertainty in regard of delivery time, and the management of it concerning customer specific deliveries with special attention to the interaction between different departments.

    Methodology: By using a qualitative method the study wants to, with the help of a multiple case study, compare how two companies manage uncertainty that occurs during customer specific deliveries. This was carried out by interviewing departments concerned with time related order changes at both companies.

    Conclusion: The study concludes that companies delivering to projects are exposed to predictable uncertainty and can handle this by either focus on following established rules or customer satisfaction. Following rules means that there is a predetermined answer on how to handle the uncertainty within the company. Customer satisfaction, on the other hand, means that results control and making the employees feel motivated is in focus. This means that risk management and management control systems are working together to manage uncertainty.

    Keywords: uncertainty, risk management, management control system, time related order changes, delivery

  • 38.
    Lönnerud, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effekter av kalkning på fosforhalten i en kalkrik sjö – ett mesokosmexperiment i Tåkern2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major current environmental issues is eutrophication of aquatic environments. Measures to reduce eutrophication of lakes and streams are of high priority in Sweden. There are several negative implications of eutrophication such as lowered water quality, reduced biodiversity and loss of recreational values. These negative effects can be correlated to high phosphorus concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of reducing the amount of available phosphorus during spring using liming in Lake Tåkern in southern Sweden. The study was conducted in April of 2015 in five mesocosms, three were treated with a mixture of limestone powder (CaCO3) and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) to pH and two were untreated (controls). The aim of the liming was to precipitate calcite, to which phosphorus adsorbs. The variables used to document effects of liming include particulate phosphorus (PP), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and complementary water chemistry. In addition to this experiment, samples of TP from a previous mesokosm experiment in July 2014 were analysed for comparison. Results showed no significant effects of liming on either PP, TP or SRP. The lack of effects from liming was most likely a result of low concentration of SRP in Lake Tåkern. Conclusions from this study were that liming at one occasion is not suitable for control of phosphorus concentration, the low observed concentrations of SRP over a longer period also indicates that repeated liming’s would not affect phosphorus concentration in Lake Tåkern.

  • 39.
    Rosenvik, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Study of the Time Triggered Ethernet Dataflow2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years Ethernet has cought the attention of the real-time community. the main reason for this is that it has a high data troughput, 10Mbit/s and higher, and good EMI characteristics. As a protocol that might be used in real-time anvironments such as control systems for cars etc, it seems to fulfil the rquirements. TTEthernet is a TDMA extention to normal Ethnernet, designed to meet the hard deadlines required by real-time networks. This thesis describes how TTEthernet handles frames and the mathematical formulas to calculate shuffle delay of frames in such a network. Open problems related to TTEthernet are also discussed.

  • 40.
    Lundgren, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Using Homographies for Vehicle Motion Estimation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis describes a way to represent vehicles when tracking them through an image sequence. Vehicles are described with a state containing their position, velocity, size, etc.. The thesis highlights the properties of homographies due to their suitability for estimation of projective transformations. The idea is to approximatively represent vehicles with planes based on feature points found on the vehicles. The purpose with this approach is to estimate the displacement of a vehicle by estimating the transformation of these planes. Thus, when avehicle is observed from behind, one plane approximates features found on the back and one plane approximates features found on the side, if the side of the vehicle is visible. The projective transformations of the planes are obtained by measuring the displacement of feature points.

    The approach presented in this thesis builds on the prerequisites that a camera placed on a vehicle provides an image of its field of view. It does not cover how to find vehicles in an image and thus it requires that the patch which contains the vehicle is provided.

    Even though this thesis covers large parts of image processing functionalities, the focus is on how to represent vehicles and how to design an appropriate filter for improving estimates of vehicle displacement. Due to noisy features points, approximation of planes, and estimated homographies, the obtained measurements are likely to be noisy. This requires a filter that can handle corrupt measurements and still use those that are not.

    An unscented Kalman filter, UKF, is utilized in this implementation. The UKF is an approximate solution to nonlinear filtering problems and is here used to update the vehicle’s states by using measurements obtained from homographies. The choice of the unscented Kalman filter was made because of its ease of implementation and its potentially good performance.

    The result is not a finished implementation for tracking of vehicles, but rather a first attempt for this approach. The result is not better than the existing approach, which might depend on one or several factors such as poorly estimated homographies, unreliable feature points and bad performance of the UKF.

  • 41.
    Jaxne, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Control system for automated industry applied with LEGO Mindstorms2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa ett examensarbete på kandidatnivå inom elektronik. Arbetet har syftat till att skapa en modell av en automatiserad industri i en liten skala. Modellen skulle vara enkel att använda för att visualisera hur automatisering fungerar i praktiken och hur ett styrsystem byggs. För att få ett bra genomförande och en verklighetstrogen modell studerades exempel från industrin och metoder för att optimera. Eftersom enkelhet var viktigt byggdes styrsystemet från grunden för att få full kontroll över systemet. En modell byggdes med LEGO® Mindstorms® som mekanisk grund och två robotar programmerades i C# att hantera ett orderflöde. Orderflödet styrdes från ett webbaserat användargränssnitt och kommunikationen hanterades genom en databas.

  • 42.
    Fonseka, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ny, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur kan incitament hantera interorganisatoriska osäkerheter i en leverantörsrelation?: En fallstudie av AstraZeneca2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: After a literature review we discovered that research about supplierrelationships exists, but that the connection between incentives, interorganizational controlssystems and uncertainties is absent. To study this connection is therefore in our interestbecause it contributes to academic research in the field of interorganizational controlsystems. This is because incentives bring a new perspective to the connection betweeninterorganizational control systems and uncertainties.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe which interorganizational uncertaintiesa buyer experiences within a supplier relationship and how the uncertainties affect thesupplier relationship. The purpose of the study is also to describe how a buyer can handleinterorganizational uncertainties with incentives.

    Completion: A comparative analysis of the supplier relationships to Arcadia, Nexus andValhalla was achieved by combining a theoretical uncertainty model and qualitativeinterviews.

    Conclusions: The study confirms that there are four different types of uncertainties in asupplier relationship, which are task uncertainty, task interdependency, environmentaluncertainties and relational stability. The effect of the uncertainties in a relationship isderived in a theoretical uncertainty model and is also empirically confirmed. The studyfurthermore identifies incentives that handle uncertainties the buyer experiences in asupplier relationship.

  • 43.
    Bodin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stenholm, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling & Control of a 3DOF Helicopter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this report is the development of a mathematical model and a control system for a three degrees of freedom (3DOF) helicopter rig. This 3DOF-system offers a good simplification of a real world tandem helicopter for evaluating performanceof different automatic control principles.

    A mathematical model of the system is developed using free-body diagrams. This mathematical model is then linearized and a controller is developed by decoupling the system. Due to model imperfections external disturbances and similar effects integral action is added as well as feed-forward compensation to reduce nonlinear effects.

    After the controller has been decoupled the two different controllers are tuned. The Linear-Quadratic Regulator, described in section 3.6, is used for selectingstate-feedback gains. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of the system an Extended Kalman Filter is developed to estimate unmeasurable states.

    The model and controller is then implemented on the actual rig and evaluated. The results displayed that the elevation controller had good performance. The travel controller also showed good performance but not as good as the elevation controller.

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop a controller for the 3DOF helicopter system. The results clearly show that an LQR-controller is able to successfully control a system like this with decent performance characteristics despite the highly nonlinear system.

  • 44.
    KNUTFELT, MARKUS
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Charging Cost Optimization of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The future success of chargeable vehicles will, among other factors, depend on their charging costs and their ability to charge with minimal disturbances to the national, local and household electrical grid. To be able to minimize costs and schedule charging sessions, there has to be knowledge of how the charging power varies with time. This is called charging profile. A number of charging profiles for a Volvo V60 plug‑in hybrid electric vehicle have been recorded. For charging currents above 10 A they prove to be more complex than are assumed in most current research papers.

     

    The charging profiles are used together with historical electricity prices to calculate charging costs for 2013 and 2014. Charging is assumed to take place during the night, between 18:00 and 07:00, with the battery being totally depleted at 18:00. By using a timer to have the charging start at 01:00, instead of immediately at 18:00, annual charging costs are reduced by approximately 7 to 8%. By using dynamic programming to optimize the charging sessions, annual charging costs are reduced by approximately 10 to 11%. An interesting issue regarding dynamic programming was identified, namely when using a limited set of predetermined discrete control signals, interpolation returns unrealizable cost-to-go values. This occurs specifically for instances crossing the zero cost-to-go area boundary.

     

    It is concluded that the mentioned savings are realizable, via implementing timers or optimization algorithms into consumer charging stations. Finally, by using these decentralized charging planning tools and seen from a power usage perspective, at least 30% of the Swedish vehicle fleet could be chargeable and powered by the electrical grid.

  • 45.
    Vibeck, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synchronization of a Multi Camera System2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a synchronized multi camera system it is imperative that the synchronization error between the different cameras is as close to zero as possible and the jitter of the presumed frame rate is as small as possible. It is even more important when these systems are used in an autonomous vehicle trying to sense its surroundings. We would never hand over the control to a autonomous vehicle if we couldn't trust the data it is using for moving around.

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a synchronization setup for a multi camera system using state of the art RayTrix digital cameras that will be used in the iQMatic project involving autonomous heavy duty vehicles. The iQMatic project is a collaboration between several Swedish industrial partners and universities. There was also software development for the multi camera system involved. Different synchronization techniques were implemented and then analysed against the system requirements. The two techniques were hardware trigger i.e. external trigger using a microcontroller, and software trigger using the API from the digital cameras.

    Experiments were conducted by testing the different trigger modes with the developed multi camera software. The conclusions show that the hardware trigger is preferable in this particular system by showing more stability and better statistics against the system requirements than the software trigger. But the thesis also show that additional experiments are needed for a more accurate analysis.

  • 46.
    Hallqvist, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Faster Locking Differential Through Active Brake-Control2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a vehicle with wheels aligned in pairs turn, the wheel traveling around the outside of the curve has to roll farther than the wheel on the inside. This means that some sort of device must must be used to allow the drive wheels to rotate at different speeds to prevent wear on the tires. This is usually a mechanical device where the input rotation controls the sum of the two output rotations, this is known as a differential. This solution however has some shortcomings, the biggest one is that the total amount of force that can be transferred between the tires and the road surface is limited by the tire with the least traction. In slippery conditions this can be a big problem since it only takes one wheel to lose traction in order to prevent the vehicle from accelerating. In this thesis a locking differential is used to overcome this shortcoming, this gives the driver the option to lock the shafts of the driving wheels together. This is done by pushing two cogwheels, one attached to each shaft, together. The aim of this thesis is to shorten the lock- and unlock-time of the locking differential by aligning the cogwheels using the service brakes and available sensors. The results were evaluated by implementing the software in a truck and doing test runs on Scanias test track. These tests showed that the system greatly improved both lock- and unlock-times but at cost of lower driver comfort. With additional work with some fine tuning of the system, the overall performance could probably be increased even more.

  • 47.
    Jidegren, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gupta, Tushar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quality control of a diagnostic tool through qualitative and quantitative measurement assessment of field testing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method to qualitatively and quantitatively measure and assess the field testing of a diagnostic tool by identifying the parameters that are relevant to assess a field test. The study is conducted at Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden, a world leading manufacturer of trucks, buses and industrial and marine engines, where a method to assess the field test of their diagnostic currently does not exist.

    The study follows a deductive approach while taking a positivistic and hermeneutic perspective. The relevant theories and literature such as quality development and software testing are described to give a better understanding of the study. The study is conducted in four main steps- description of present situation, situation analysis, development of the assessment approach or framework and evaluation of the framework.

    The empirical information gathered from numerous interviews and meetings is presented in the description of present situation along with the various data sources available. The collected data from different databases is analysed where hypotheses are formulated based on the different influencing parameters for field testing. The correlations between the parameters are then calculated and analysed to verify the hypothesis as True or False. The ECU updates are also analysed to show that the ECU updates performed during field testing is a good representation of the actual usage after release.

    The framework to assess the field test is then developed using the available data and analysis made. A holistic view is taken to include the processes before and after the field test in the framework. The framework is in the form of an Excel workbook where data is either copied from databases or manually entered and relevant graphs describing the field test are generated automatically. The time period to be displayed on the graphs can be selected manually. This gives a good base to take decisions about how a field test has gone and whether or not the software is ready for release. Based on the correlation of the different parameters, a table with different key values of how much field test usage that should be conducted based on the number of implemented change requests are presented. Thus the result is that the most important attributes to consider for a field test are the amount of implemented changes where each field test usage occasion increases the chance of finding potential faults in the software of the diagnostic tool.

    An unrestricted framework is also described using data that may be available, but currently difficult to utilise effectively. Thus the recommended future work is represented by this framework which describes what information that can be obtained from different data sources and how they can be used to get a detailed understanding of what exactly has been used during field testing as well as after the software has been released.

    The framework is assessed in the last step and its uses along with limitations are described.  The difficulty in describing the success of software testing is also discussed to give a good context to the framework and understand its utility.

  • 48.
    Häger, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation of Medium-Power Voltage Inverters2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Power inverters, used to convert DC power to AC, are often used in e.g. solar power applications. However, they tend to be impractically large and expensive; as such, power miniaturization is an active research area. In this thesis, several classes of modern power inverters are evaluated and compared with regards to size, efficiency and output quality in order to identify areas of potential improvement. Methods for estimation of THD, power losses and input ripple are created and verified against a simulation of a five-level neutral-point-clamped inverter with SPWM control. Finally, this design is implemented physically and is found to achieve 94.5% efficiency and 7% THD under low voltage laboratory conditions, while remaining smaller than an average textbook.

  • 49.
    Kyhlbäck, Måns
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kling, Josefin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klimatanpassningen i Sverige, Finland och Holland: Styrningens uppbyggnad, problem och möjligheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to manage anticipated effects from future climate change, adaptation is needed. Which implies protecting society against risks and take advantage of possible new opportunities. Different countries, are using different methods to steer adaptation, which generally can be described the top-down and bottom-up approaches. However, there are different problems and opportunities with those arrangements. For example, control through top-down is often weak in implementation at local level, while on the other hand local actors in the bottom-up system often lacks resources to carry out implementation. In this literature- and document study, we examine current research and policy document with the support of the Environmental Governance theory, in order to clarify the structure, effectiveness, problems and opportunities of this steering approaches for the implementation of adaptation. The countries Sweden, Finland and Netherlands, were selected as case countries since they have chosen different approaches and have relatively developed climate adaptation systems. The results show, among other things, that a combined model in which both control methods are used is the best model to guide adaptation. There are also differences, top-down tend to lack clear guidelines from the national level, despite the national plans, while the bottom-up system often is affected by lack of financial resources, instruments and information resources. But those arrangements also have similarities, such as problems with the inclusion of private actors in the implementation of adaptation.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parameter Estimation for a Vehicle Longitudinal Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    System modelling has an important role in vehicle development cycles. Hardware field tests are often replaced by simulations, especially during the preliminary design stages. Although system modelling is a time consuming task, significant amount of the overall development time and resources can be reduced if an accurate model is available.

    In order to develop a good simulation model, a sound method for parameterising the model is desired. A favourable parameter identification not only provides an accurate model, but also requires less resources both time-wise and monetarily.

    In this thesis, a model for the longitudinal dynamics of a passenger vehicle is presented. Unknown parameters in the model are estimated and the model is validated with measurements obtained experimentally. It is anticipated that the model will be used in a dynamometer, where the longitudinal forces on the vehicle are simulated and the corresponding torques are exerted on the driving wheels.

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