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  • 1.
    Feldt, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating geographic and information visualization for interactive exploration of statistical data2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fast growing quantity of statistical data with geographical reference, accessible on the Web, creates a growing demand for more powerful exploratory analysis techniques for investigation of socio-economic phenomena in association with their geographical location. Statistics Sweden provides large amounts of census data of economic, social, demographic, and other matters of interest to the governments, government departments, local authorities, businesses, and to the general public.

    The current techniques available to analyze these data sets are limited. Therefore, this diploma work was put together, with the intention of integrating methods used in geographic visualization and information visualization into a prototype tool for interactive exploration of statistical data. This report investigates the tools present today and describes the development of a new one called GeoWizard - a tailor-made easy-to-use application for Statistics Sweden's databases.

  • 2.
    Adedokun, Adeyemi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Application of Road Infrastructure Safety Assessment Methods at Intersections2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic safety at intersections is a particularly difficult phenomenon to study, given the fact that accidents occur randomly in time and space thereby making short-term measurement, assessment and comparison difficult. The EU directive 2008/96/EC introduced road infrastructure safety management, which offers a five layer structure for developing safer road infrastructure has been used to develop tools for accident prediction and black spot management analysis which has been applied in this work to assess the safety level of intersections in Norrköping city in Sweden. Accident data history from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and the network demand model for Norrköping city were used to model black spots and predict the expected number of accidents at intersections using PTV Visum Safety tool, after STRADA accident classification was restructured and the Swedish accident prediction model (APM) was configured and tested to work within the tool using the model from the Swedish road administration (SRA). The performance of the default (Swiss) and the Swedish APM was compared and identified locations with the high accident records, predicted accident counts and traffic volumes were audited using qualitative assessment checklist from Street-Audit tool. The results from these methods were analysed, validated and compared. This work provides recommendations on the used quantitative and qualitative methods to prevent accident occurrence at the identified locations.

  • 3.
    Ravanbakhsh, Samyar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elastic travel demand analysis - An application to the West link railway in Gothenburg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the regional railway system lacks the capacity at the central station in order to meet the demand for both the public and freight transportation. The West link is a railway infrastructure project that is expected to both increase train commuting and also increase the train capacity at the central station in Gothenburg. The purpose of this thesis work is to do an elastic demand analysis between car traffic and the West Link in modal shift to determine how many travelers will change mode. Also traffic simulations will be made to investigate the traffic conditions around the stations when the West link has been implemeted. The simulation results showed that nowadays there are congestions on the major highways and some of the smaller low capacity roads. In the future, congestions will become more significant if no countermeasures are implemented like the West link. In the elastic demand analysis the results were overall around 47% – 51% on a demand of between 350 000 – 400 000 trips. As a conclusion it cannot be said whether the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic or not. The reasons are that the population will increase about 100 000 inhabitants until 2030 and the West link is assumed by the region to have this amount of travelers each day. This would result in the same traffic pressure as today with congestions in certain parts. If the number of West link users will be around 200 000, as the results of this thesis shows, then the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic.

  • 4.
    Hammarström, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Network optimisation and topology control of Free Space Optics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In communication networks today, the amount of users and traffic is constantly increasing. This results in the need for upgrading the networks to handle the demand. Free space optics is a technique which is relatively cheap with high capacity compared to most systems today. On the other hand, FSO have some disadvantages with the effects on the system by, for instance, turbulence and weather. The aim of the project is to investigate the use of network optimization for designing an optimal network in terms of capacity and cost. Routing optimization is also covered in terms of singlepath and multipath routing. To mitigate the problem with turbulence affecting the system network survivability is implemented with both proactive and reactive solutions.

    The method used is to implement the system in Matlab, the system should also be tested so that it works as intended. The report covers related work as well as theory behind FSO and the chosen optimization algorithms.

    The system uses modified Bellman-Ford optimization as well as Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree. K-link-connectivity is also implemented for the network survivability and multipath algorithm.

    Results of the implementation shows that the network survivability improves the robustness of the system by changing paths for traffic which is affected by broken links. Routing done by multipath will increase the throughput and also reduce the delay for the traffic.

  • 5.
    Rauhala, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaze control for detail and overview in image exploration2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking technology has made it possible to accurately and consistently track a users gaze position on a screen. The human eyes center of focus, where it can see the most detailed information, is quite small at a given moment. The peripheral vision of humans have a much lower level of details than the center of gaze. Knowing this, it is possible to display a view that increases the level of resolution at the position of the users gaze point on the screen, while the rest of the screen keeps a lower resolution. An implementation of such a system can generate a representation of data with both detail and overview. The results indicate that even with simple gaze data processing it is possible to use gaze control to help explore details of a high resolution image. Gaze data processing often involve a compromise between stability, responsiveness and latency. A low latency, highly responsive gaze data filter would increase the risk for lens oscillation, and demand a higher concentration level from the viewer then a slower filter would. Applying a gaze data filter that allowed for smooth and stable lens movement for small saccades and responsive movements for large saccades proved successfully. With the uses of gaze control the user might be able to use a gaze aware application more efficient since gaze precedes actions. Gaze control would also reduce the need for hand motions which could provide a improved work environment for people interacting with computer.

  • 6.
    Blom, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håcansdotter, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Time and Activity Analysis of Doctors and Nurses Work Assignments2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With people’s increased life span, the demand for health care services has increased, while there is a lack of health care professionals. By increasing the health care professionals’ value-adding work assignments for patient care, they will be used more efficiently and be able to meet the demand of the health care services.

    Based on observations and time studies carried out at Vrinnevisjukhusets health care facility for stroke and rehabilitation of stroke, this thesis has provided suggestions for areas of improvement which could increase the amount of doctors’ and nurses’ value-adding work assignments. Based on the result time studies at the health care facility, a time distribution of the doctors’ and nurses’ work assignments was also established and showed that they spent their most time on administrative work (48 % for doctors and 26 % for nurses), communication (15 % for doctors and 24 % for nurses) and time with patient (15 % for doctors and 20 % for nurses).

    Based on the observations and the result of time distribution, the doctors and nurses main areas of improvement was the lack of guidelines for implementation of journal notes which made their administrative work assignments inefficient, as well as the lack of system for the stock levels of medicines, which hindered the nurses’ medication management. To address these problems the health care facility and the entire medical clinic that the facility is part of, should determine guidelines on how the journal notes should be conducted for avoidance of duplications and to also facilitate the search of information. The medical clinic should also invest in a new storage system which updates the stock levels of medicines automatically, and also makes it possible to see how much of each medicine is available in each facility and storage. The arrangement of the facilities storage is also an area that could be improved by implementing the Leans’ 5S, which would improve the doctors’ and nurses’ time distribution and increase the value-adding work assignments. By also planning and clarify when a reporting is ongoing, as well as relocate or invest in more printers and telemetry computers, the facilities doctors’ and nurses’ time distribution will be improved and also increase the amount of work assignments that is value-adding.

  • 7.
    Hedström, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a forecast model for public transport trips in smaller cities2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become more important for operators to be able to predict the future number of public transport passengers when consider to place a tender for operating public transport in a city or region, this is due to the new types of operator contracts was introduced quite recently. There are models in use today that can predict this, but they are often time consuming and complex and therefore it can be expensive to perform a forecast. Aside from this, most models in use for Sweden today are adapted for larger cities. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to propose a model that requires minimal input data with a short set up and execution time that can be used to predict a forecast for the public transport system in smaller cities without notably affecting the quality of the result. The developed model is based on a forecast model called LuTrans, which in turn is based on a common method, the four step model. The aim of the model lies within public transportation but it also consider other modes. The input data used by the model mainly consists of socio-economic data, the travel time and distance between all the zones in the network. The model also considers the cost for traveling by car or public transport. The developed model was applied to the Swedish city, Örebro, where a forecast was conducted for a future scenario. It is easily to apply the model to different cities to estimate a forecast for the public transport system. The developed model for the base scenario predicts trips for individual bus lines with an accuracy of 85 % for the city of Örebro. The developed model gave the result that the trips made by public transport in the future scenario of Örebro 2025 will increase annually by 0.94 %. The conclusion is that it is possible to develop a simple model that can be easily applied for a desired city. Although the developed model produced a plausible result for Örebro, further work such as implementation on other cities are required in order to fully evaluate the developed model.

  • 8.
    Bostedt, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bitcoin & valutakonkurrens: En jämförande nyttoanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the fulfillment of utility in the currency Bitcoin in relation to the Swedish krona in general andthe macroeconomic consequences of such fulfillment of utility in particular. The paper starts with the assumption thatthe utility generated by money is deduced from its qualities, mainly the quality in storage of value and the currency´spossibilities of generating low transaction costs. The investigation finds that there are possibilities that Bitcoin maygenerate a higher utility for its users than the Swedish krona under some circumstances. This mainly from Bitcoinsqualities in storage of value due to its predetermined change in money supply and in times when the Swedish krona´smonetary base is expanded by monetary policy and its subsequent inflation. In such periods when monetary expansionis undergoing in the Swedish krona, the investigation finds that the expected higher utility in Bitcoin in relation to theSwedish krona may cause a change of individuals incentives for currency, away from the Swedish krona and towardsBitcoin, if the profit gained from such change for an individual is great enough. From this, the central analysis ofBitcoins consequences on macroeconomic level follows. If there is an opportunity to change currency, which causesutility profits for individuals, there is also risk that the stimulus in monetary policy fails. This due to the decrease ofpurchasing power in the Swedish krona due to the lower demand of the currency in question subsequent to its loss init’s quality of storage of value. The analysis finds that depending on which theoretical perspective that is used, systemicrisks stemming from Bitcoin usage can be found in an analysis made with the Keynesian perspective. This while theopposite, that the systemic risks are introduced in the economy with the Swedish krona, is the result of an analysis madewith the Austrian theory of business cycle. Even with the systemic risks identified in the Keynesian analysis, reformsare suggested so that Bitcoin is able to co-exist with Keynesian monetary institutions to be able to take care of the utilitygained on the microeconomic, individual level that may result from Bitcoins usage as means of trade.

  • 9.
    Modig, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utrikeshandel och arbetskraftens sammansättning: En ekonometrisk analys av Sveriges tillverkningsindustrier år 1995 – 20052015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how Sweden’s foreign trade has affected thecomposition of the country’s workforce. International trade is growing constantly; thereforethere is a need to understand the importance and consequences of this. According to tradetheory, international trade will lead to specialisation of the production of goods and servicestowards areas where comparative advantages are prominent. In Sweden’s case, this meansspecialisation in capital-intensive production, which should increase the demand for skilledlabour.An econometric study of the Swedish manufacturing industry for the years 1995 – 2005 is thebasis for the study. Data is structured as panel data where the share of imported inputs is usedas a proxy for the impact of foreign trade on the composition of the workforce. Thecomposition consists of skilled and non-skilled labour.Results of this study demonstrate that foreign trade has affected the composition of theworkforce in the manufacturing industry, as the demand for skilled labour has increasedduring the time period.

  • 10.
    Sonda, Claudiu-Nicolae
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The Security Dilemma of the Wider Black Sea Region: With a Focus on Russia, the United States of America, and Romania2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this paper revolves around the security environment of the wider Black Sea region, with a focus on three protagonist states, and an alliance: Russia, the United States of America, Romania, and NATO. This work comes as a response to the normative demand of avoiding an inter-state conflict in this part of the world, an area already characterized by deep mistrust, frozen conflicts, separatist movements, transnational organized crime, terrorism, and great-power struggle between holders of nuclear capabilities. The objective of this paper is explanatory, namely to help pinpoint the root causes of potential conflict between regional players. By pursuing a Defensive Realist approach, it is suggested that perception of insecurity lies at the heart of the negative dynamics. It is the inter-state security dilemma that could have the ultimate effect of transforming tensions into a spiral of conflict, unless such dilemma is mitigated through its regulators. Therefore, ‘by alleviating the security dilemma, conflict in the wider Black Sea region can be avoided’. The testing of this hypothesis constitutes the contents of this paper. The conclusion of the thesis confirms the expected results, namely that there is a security dilemma operating in the wider Black Sea Region, and that the regulators have the ability to influence its escalation, yet particular specifications are to be observed.

  • 11.
    Back, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johannisson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ransoneringar på policy- och individnivå i hälso- och sjukvården - Ett beteendeekonomiskt experiment: Health Care Rationing at Policy and Bedside Level - A behavioral economic experiment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scarce health care resources fail to supply the increasing demand. In order to allocate the economic resources as efficiently as possibly the capacity to ration, to deny patients health care, is essential. Rationing decisions can be considered as moral dilemmas where the decision maker is required to choose between two conflicting ethical principles. However, the conditions under which policymakers and physicians make decisions are different. Many policies are not applicable at the bedside level since they are based on a group perspective and tend to ignore a patient's individual needs.Aim: The aim of this study is to conduct a behavioural economic experiment and examine how the context of the decision-maker influences the outcome of their decision in health care rationing situations.Method: Medical students and students from other graduate programmes receive a questionnaire where they each make decisions in rationing scenarios where utilitarian and deontological principles are in conflict. Each survey is framed as a decision presented in one of two decision-making contexts, policy or bedside level. At policy level, the subjects assume the perspective of a head of department and make decisions regarding a patient based upon a group statistic. At bedside level, the subjects take the perspective of a physician and make decisions regarding an identified patient.Results: Subjects are more utilitarian and ration to a higher degree at policy level than at bedside level. The difference in the rate of utilitarian answers at policy level in comparison to bedside level is largest for medical students and in life saving scenarios. Students from other graduate programmes, however, are more likely to ration at policy level. In life enhancing scenarios, the effect of the decision-making context differs and the rate of utilitarian responses is in some cases lower at policy level than at the individual level.Conclusion: This study shows that decisions at the policy and the bedside level are not necessarily the same, even though the available information of the treatments and costs remains unchanged. This result encourages further studies on the impact of the decision-making context on rationing decisions in health care.

  • 12.
    Adelsköld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Review of general demand responsive transport in Sörmland county2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sörmlands län består till stor del av landsbygd där en kostnadseffektiv kollektivtrafik är svår att uppnå eftersom resandeunderlaget och därmed även efterfrågan normalt är låg. I dessa områden finns dock potential att uppnå en hållbar kollektivtrafik med hjälp av anropsstyrda trafikformer. I detta projekt utreddes dels en övergång av turer i landsbygdslinjetrafiken till allmän anropsstyrd trafik och dels en samordning av den allmänna och särskilda anropsstyrda kollektivtrafiken. En generell metod för val mellan fast linjetrafik och anropsstyrd linjelagd trafik utvecklades, vilken bestod av enkla tumregler för utvärdering av turer med regelbundet låg efterfrågan i landsbygdslinjetrafiken. Samordningen bestod av att utreda effekterna av att kompletteringsresor planerades och utfördes med samma fordon som den särskilda anropsstyrda kollektivtrafiken. Då kompletteringstrafiken får en högre kostnadseffektivitet genom samordning med den särskilda kollektivtrafiken kan denna användas som en flexibel ersättning där turutbudet i landsbygdslinjetrafiken behöver minska. En kostnadseffektivisering av landsbygdslinjetrafiken där turutbudet anpassas bättre till efterfrågan tillåter därmed en satsning av resurser till kompletteringstrafiken. Detta för att i enlighet med kollektivtrafikmyndighetens mål skapa en attraktiv kollektivtrafik för hållbar tillväxt och utveckling i Sörmlands län.

  • 13.
    Dong, Yao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sadegh Aminian, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Routing in Terrestrial Free Space Optical Ad-Hoc Networks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared wavelengths to broadcast high speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of terrestrial FSO channel mainly depends on the local atmospheric conditions. Ad hoc networks offer cost-effective solutions for communications in areas where infrastructure is unavailable, e.g., intelligent transport system, disaster recovery and battlefield scenarios. Traditional ad hoc networks operate in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, where the available bandwidth faces the challenge of rapidly increasing demands. FSO is an attractive alternative for RF in ad-hoc networks because of its high bandwidth and interference-free operation. This thesis investigates the influencing factors for routing traffic from given s-d pair while satisfying certain Quality of Services in terrestrial FSO ad hoc mesh networks under the effect of stochastic atmospheric turbulence. It starts with a comprehensive review of FSO technology, including the history, application, advantages and limitations. Subsequently the principle of operation, the building blocks and safety of FSO communication systems are discussed. The physics of atmosphere is taken into account to investigate how propagation of optical signals is affected in terrestrial FSO links. A propagation model is developed to grade the performance and reliability of the FSO ad hoc links in the network. Based on that model and the K-th shortest path algorithm, the performance of the path with highest reliability, the path with a second highest possible reliability and an independent path with no common links shared with the former two paths, were compared according to the simulation scenarios in node-dense area and node-sparse area. Matlab simulation shows that the short/long range dependent transmission delay are positively proportional to number of hops of the paths. Lower path reliability only dominate the cause of severe delay when traffic flow approaches near its upper link capacity in node-sparse area. In order to route traffic from given s-d pairs with satisfying certain Quality of Services, the path with highest reliability may not be the best choices since they may hold more hops which will degrade the QoS. Meanwhile, in case of exponential traffic congestion, it is recommended that both traffic demand and traffic flow propagating through the links should be pressed below a value close to the effective capacity, where the nonlinearity of the transmission delay curve starts to obviously aggravate.

  • 14.
    Seybold, Christoph
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calibration of fundamental diagrams for travel time predictions based on the cell transmission model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic increases constantly and the negative consequences in the form of traffic jams can be realized especially in urban areas. In order to provide real time traffic information to road users and traffic managers, accurate computer models gain relevance. A software called Mobile Millennium Stockholm (MMS) was developed to estimate and predict travel times and has been implemented on a 7km test stretch in the north of Stockholm. The core of the software is the cell transmission model (CTM) which is a macroscopic traffic flow model based on aggregated speed observations. This thesis focuses on different calibration techniques of the so called fundamental diagram as an important input factor to the CTM. The diagrams illustrate the mathematical function which defines the relation between traffic flow, density and speed. The calibration is performed in different scenarios based on the least square (LS) and total least square (TLS) error minimization. Furthermore, sources, representing the traffic demand, and sinks, representing the surrounding of the modeled network, are implemented as dynamic parameters to model the change in traffic behavior throughout the day. Split ratios, as a representation of the drivers‘ route choice in the CTM are estimated and implemented as well. For the framework of this work, the MMS software is run in a pure prediction mode. The CTM is based on the source, sink, split and fundamental diagram parameters only and run forward in time. For each fundamental diagram calibration scenario an independent model run is performed. The evaluation of the scenarios is based on the output of the model. The results are compared to existing Bluetooth travel time measurements for the test stretch, which are used as ground truth observations, and a mean average percentage error (MAPE) is calculated. This leads to a most reasonable technique for the fundamental diagram calibration – the total least square error minimization.

  • 15.
    Bol, Simona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ceric, Ajla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bitcoin - ett hållbart betalningsmedel?: En transaktionskostnadsanalys av Bitcoin som betalningsmedel jämfört med traditionella betalningsmedel2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish central bank has had a currency monopoly since 1897, which has meant that they since then have had exclusive right to issue money. Technological advances and the increasing use of the Internet has led to an evolvement of virtual communities and in some cases these communities created their own currency. Bitcoin is the worlds first fully decentralized currency. In the beginning the currency was based on technological curiosity to a handful of hobbyists. In recent years demand for bitcoins has increased, which has led to a dramatic price increase.Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to identify and analyze the transaction costs that may arise when Bitcoin is used as means of payment, and to compare these costs with the transaction costs associated with the use of traditional means of payment.

    Completion: The study was conducted through a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches as well as a processing of the transaction cost theory in the context of new institutional theory. The empirical material consists of three parts in which the study begins with a literature review for the reader to get a glimpse of what Bitcoin is and how the currency works. The qualitative approach is in the form of semi-structured interviews and finally the study's quantitative approach is presented in the form of a questionnaire to survey the use of bitcoin.Conclusion: The study shows that Bitcoins transaction costs are higher than conventional means of payments when account is taken to the fact that the currency is dependent on the current financial structure. The user furthermore disclaims the safety net that traditional means of payments offer. For Bitcoin to become an established means of payment it requires that the basic functions of money are fulfilled which the study shows is inadequate.

  • 16.
    Schmidt, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Güettler, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Meda poteken i centrum: En analys av den fysiska lokaliseringen av apotek efter omregleringen samt ett statligt bidrags troliga påverkan på lokaliseringen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market took place 1 July 2009. The number of pharmacies has since then grown from about 900 to more than 1300. It is of interest to investigate where these pharmacies have been located. This investigation is part of the purpose of this paper, along with an analysis of a subsidy’s (glesbygdsbidraget), likely effect of the location on pharmacies in thinly populated areas.

    Two thirds of all the new pharmacies have opened in areas with a high accessibility. Only a few pharmacies have opened in places where it previously where none. No pharmacies have located in areas with low or very low accessibility. The fact that pharmacies mostly open in more densely populated areas is in line with the location theory described by Hotelling.

    Pharmacies in areas with low accessibility may have positive externalities. Because of these positive externalities, a deal was made between the government and the pharmacy companies not to close 110 listed pharmacies. This deal ended 2013 and no new deal has been made. Instead, a subsidy was created that only pharmacies in thinly populated areas could apply for. 37 pharmacies have applied for the subsidy but the decision of what amount each pharmacy will receive has not yet been made. Based on the Norwegian pharmacy market and its subsidy we discuss that future pharmacies will continue to establish in densely populated areas.

    The pharmacies in thinly populated areas will maintain their demand for the subsidy in the future. The pharmacy market can be described as an oligopoly. Due to this oligopoly a game theory situation may occur where no pharmacy company wants to be the first to close in thinly populated areas because of the bad reputation that can follow such change. This game theory, together with the subsidy, creates incentives that may preserve the pharmacies in thinly populated areas.

  • 17.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Analys av 25-hydroxyvitamin D i primärvården2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The interest of vitamin D has increased in the last years. That is because there is so many possible positive effects of vitamin D and also because many individuals has vitamin D deficiency. Modern man spends much time indoors which leads to lower levels of vitamin D. People who have emigrated from a sunny climate to a Nordic climate often gets a deficiency due to a more pigmented skin which requires a larger amount of UVB to get an adequate synthesis of vitamin D.

    Aim: The aim with this study is to compare and evaluate how similar the instrument mini VIDAS measures 25(OH)D total against the current existing method cobas e 602. A discussion about if 25(OH)D total has a place in primary health care is included in the study.

    Method: The comparison was based on 39 samples. The samples was analyzed on cobas e 602 and mini VIDAS. A precision test was performed. External controls from DEQAS was also included in the study. The results have been presented with simple linear regression analysis, mean value, SD and CV.

    Results: The comparison between cobas e 602 and mini VIDAS gave a coefficient of determination of 81,34 %. mini VIDAS was closest to the external controls target values.

    Conclusion: There is no obvious conclusions about if mini VIDAS fulfills the requirement to be introduced to primary health care. The coefficient of determination of 81,34 % should be at least 95 %. However is mini VIDAS closer to the external controls target values then cobas e 602. There is factors that implies that 25(OH)D total has a place in primary health care with regards to demand, use and because many individuals has vitamin D deficiency. The instrument is also user-friendly to a primary health care laboratory.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Helmerson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vilken kontroll spelar roll?: En förklarande studie om den interna revisionens påverkan för den externa revisionen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The internal auditor is assumed to have a greater insight in the firm than the external auditor. Agency theory tells us that the internal auditor maximizes his own utility, which questions his independence. The current research is divided into two perspectives where the internal audit and the cost of the external audit has a positive or a negative relationship. The prevailing trend of increased internal audit and control together with the new context created in the 21th century with introduced regulations motivates and actualizes this study.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to explain how the internal audit impacts the cost of the external audit in swedish listed firms.

    Method

    This study has a quantitative research strategy and a deductive research approach. Data from swedish listed firms has been collected through studies of documents and analyzed with a linear regression. Operationalization has been made in accordance with previous research and the presence of internal audit has been measured with a dummy variable.

    Conclusion

    The result of this study shows that the presence of internal audit has a strongly significant positive relationship with the cost of the external audit. The study finds that firms with internal audit increase their audit costs, but that underlying reasons might be demand for greater control. Previous research confirms the argument and that demand for greater control leads to greater investments in both internal and external audit. The result of this study implies that internal audit is used by management to signal trust to the shareholders.

  • 19.
    Ewert, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Liv i den övergivna trädgården?: Tro och sekularisering i Sverige, speglad mot dominerande teorier om sekulariseringsprocesser2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis summarizes contemporary theories on secularization processes in the Western world, and compares these with the example of Sweden, which by many scholars is considered to be the most secularized country in the Western world.

    I do this by dividing the most influential theorists in five different groups. In each group I explain how the theorists formulate and motivate their positions. These groups are:

    1) The secularization paradigm, where secularization always accompanies modernization. (Therorists: Steve Bruce and Peter Berger (in the 1960s)

    2) The paradigm basically accepted, but revised to depend on existential security, rather than modernisation as such. (Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart)

    3) Religion returned in the public sphere. (José Casanova)

    4) The paradigm completely revised. (Peter Berger (after 1990), David Martin, Charles Taylor)

    5) The post-secular society. (Jürgen Habermas, plus others)

    After this theoretical overview I compile empirical studies on the Swedish example, mainly using the scholars Eva Hamberg and Magnus Hagevi. Apart from these, I mainly use material from Sverigeräkningen – a study of all church attendances in Sweden at one weekend in 1999; plus recurrent studies from the SOM Institute at Gothenburg University as well as from World Values Survey.

    This essay concludes that there is good reason to think that the secularization paradigm is in need of revising. However, there still seems to be some truth in all these theoretical models, essentially because they do not necessarily contradict each other, as much as they deal with the issue from slightly different perspectives.

    The empirical studies of Sweden indicate that our country is indeed highly secularized. The reasons for this may be found partly in all of the theoretical models used in this essay. It is also argued that there may be good explanatory power in the market model, where secularization comes not only due to lack in demand, but also to a weakened supply of religion.

  • 20.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Real time highway traffic prediction based on dynamic demand modeling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic problems caused by congestion are increasing in cities all over the world. As a traffic management tool traffic predictions can be used in order to make prevention actions against traffic congestion. There is one software for traffic state estimations called Mobile Millennium Stockholm (MMS) that are a part of a project for estimate real-time traffic information.In this thesis a framework for running traffic predictions in the MMS software have been implemented and tested on a stretch north of Stockholm. The thesis is focusing on the implementation and evaluation of traffic prediction by running a cell transmission model (CTM) forward in time.This method gives reliable predictions for a prediction horizon of up to 5 minutes. In order to improve the results for traffic predictions, a framework for dynamic inputs of demand and sink capacity has been implemented in the MMS system. The third part of the master thesis presents a model which adjusts the split ratios in a macroscopic traffic model based on driver behavior during congestion.

  • 21.
    Lemoine, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fredin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How Does Ego Depletion Affect Moral Judgments and Pro-social Decisions?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today’s societal changes, including high rate of change and increasing information flows, are increasing the demand on the individual mental capacity. It becomes increasingly difficult to analytically process all the different dilemmas and everyday decisions as individuals have a limited mental capacity available to make these decisions. Thus, it has been suggested that ego-depleted relies more heavily on intuition, which is less burdensome, when making decision. However little is known about to what extent intuitive decisions differ from analytic. Are ego-depleted individuals more or less likely to maximize outcome in moral dilemmas involving conflicting values? Do ego depleted individuals become more or less willing to cooperate? Do ego depleted individuals become more or less altruistic? Is our intuition more or less in accordance with Homo Economicus?AIM: Starting from a Dual Process perspective on decision-making the aim of this study is to examine how ego depletion affects moral judgment and pro-social decisions.METHOD: A laboratory experiment involving 115 subjects, using real monetary incentives, was conducted among students at Linköping University. Subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Everything was identical across treatments except for the initial ego-depletion manipulation. Using a standard paradigm for ego-depletion subjects in treatment 1 were put under high cognitive load while subjects in treatment two were put under low cognitive load. Subjects faced 16 questions divided into four different decision tasks: Moral dilemmas, Public Goods game, two types of Dictator Game where the type of sacrifice subjects could make in order to contribute money to charity was varied.RESULTS: Subjects in the high cognitive load treatment made fewer consequentialists moral judgments compared to other subjects (p = 0.075). The effect is especially strong when looking only at high-conflict dilemmas such as Crying Baby. No difference between treatments was found for the public goods games. In the dictator game involving monetary sacrifice subjects donated less money to charity when put under high cognitive load. However the finding was not significant (p = 0.292). No difference was found in the dictator game involving effort as personal sacrifice since almost everyone chooses to donate to charity.CONCLUSION: According to The Dual Process perspective this essay shows that intuitive thinking does not evidently lead to that they makes decision that more or less is in accordance with Homo Economicus. The connection between ego depletion and pro-social decisions is more complex. Further research needs to investigate which different mental shortcuts that individuals uses in various types of pro-social decisions and why intuitive and analytical decision-making differ between different decisions. Further research within the area can identify potential mechanisms and policies that can support individuals’ capacity to make decisions in accordance with their own and society’s preferences.

  • 22. Ullah, Sami
    Carbon Capture and Storage: Major uncertainties prevailing in theFutureGen project2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an old technology matrix with new concept to mitigate climate change while utilizing fossil fuels by advancing the technology. The various level of advancement in technology has been successfully demonstrated in some part of the world. However the technology has inherent uncertainty of not having commercial CCS plant. Efforts to make CCS commercially viable unfold uncertainties in numerous aspects of CCS technology. Beside the uncertainties in technology many barriers restrain CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology. However the growing energy demand and urgent need to mitigate climate change through emission reduction favours CSS as transition to clean energy production. FutureGen 2.0 is the only large commercial scale CCS project, initiated in 2003 to test the commercial viability of the technology and to meet the U.S energy demands besides emission reductions target. The project resurrection in 2010 as FutureGen 2.0 after FutureGen termination in 2008 provides an opportunity to understand and analyse numerous uncertainties. However through document analysis only major three uncertainties i.e. policy and regulatory, economic and financial and public acceptance uncertainties are identified and analysed. The interlinkages between these uncertainties are also analysed. The study results show that above uncertainties constrained the project engendering new uncertainties i.e. timeframe uncertainties. This study also provides an insight about the sustainability implication of CCS by evaluating economic, environmental and social impact of CCS technology. It is still early to term the CCS as Sustainable technological innovation however for many years CCS would upset and restrain investment in other clean energy technologies like Renewable technology system. This study gives an input in sustainability of CCS and technological assessment study. This study is helpful in managing uncertainties and planning new CCS projects. 

  • 23.
    Haglund, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systematisk bedömning av våtmarksväxter som substrat för biogasproduktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two environmental problems today are the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and eutrophication.  Therefore, two challenges are reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fluxes of nutrients. Another challenge is to secure the energy supply in a world where energy demand is increasing. New renewable energy sources need to be developed both to secure the energy supply, but also to reduce the use of fossil energy. A renewable energy source is biogas that can be used for electricity, heating and as vehicle fuel. It is predicted that substrate for biogas production will be a limitation in the future, therefore, new substrate need to be evaluated. Wetland plants are an alternative substrate for biogas production and evaluated in this study.  Wetlands and it is plants are interesting to study because they can reduce the concentration of nutrients and therefore help to reduce the problem of eutrophication.  The study was performed within a project at Biogas Research Center and was a literature study with the study of a case. The method used has been developed in the project and is a Multi Criteria Assessment (MCA), which means that there are several different areas being studied. Areas taking into account the biological, economic, chemical, environmental and technological aspects. In order to structure the data, a matrix consisting of the different key areas was used. To clarify the opportunities and obstacles a semi-qualitative assessment was done for each key area. The case studied was a wetland in an agricultural landscape. The wetland is 5 ha and was constructed a few years ago to work as nitrogen and phosphorous trap. There is no vegetation in the wetland because it is relatively new. The plants that were studied during the study was therefore plants that are potential to grow in the wetland in the future. The studied plants were reed, reed canary grass and cattail. In the wetland it is possible to regulate the water and thereby drain the water to facilitate harvesting.   The results showed that the technology available today for the harvesting and chopping needs to be developed because it does not meet the required standards. There are various techniques for digestion, but since the dry matter is high for the plants dry fermentation is preferable, or a two-stage system in which the first step is dry digestion. A wetland provides a relatively small amount of biomass and therefore it is better to co-digest the plants on a farm biogas plant.  Wetland plants are not approved substrates for certification of bio fertilizer, which can be an obstacle. The bio fertilizer also has a low value because the plants contain low levels of nutrients.Wetlands reduce the amount of nutrients and harvest of wetland plants contributes to the retention of phosphorus increases. Wetlands emit methane and nitrous oxide that affect global warming.Today, there is no economic viability of harvesting wetlands. A system in which compensation is obtained for the environmental benefit that harvest provides is an option to increase profitability.

  • 24.
    Wikberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jerlström Hultqvist, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of the S&OP process at Seco Tools AB: Aligned with today´s supply chain planning processes 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Companies strive to produce as close to customer demand as possible to reduce the cost, inventories, etc. One process that deals with this issue of balancing demand and supply is Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP). Seco Tools is a company with their head-office located in Fagersta, Sweden, which is experiencing high inventory levels and a need of cutting cost. The ongoing project Supply Chain Planning at Seco Tools resulted in the implementation of a new software which enables them to improve demand, inventory, and supply planning. As a result of the improved planning ability, a new S&OP process is developed and in need for improvement.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the current S&OP process from the Supply Chain Planning project and to suggest future improvements for Seco Tools AB.

    Research objectives:

    1. Study and describe the current S&OP process at Seco Tools.

    2. Analyse and identify differences in Seco Tools’ S&OP process compared to the literature and a benchmark company.

    3. Perform deeper analyses within financial integration and the use of KPIs in Seco Tools´ S&OP process.

    4. Suggest future improvements to Seco Tools regarding their S&OP process based on the identified differences from research objective 2 and the deeper analysis from research objective 3.

    Method:

    The planning report set the framework for the carrying through of the thesis. A literature study regarding S&OP and a case study performed at Seco Tools regarding their S&OP have been done in parallel. Seco Tools’ S&OP process has been studied and described with the help of interviews, observations, and internal documents. Analysis was made where Seco Tools S&OP was compared to the theoretical S&OP and the S&OP at AstraZeneca. The analysis led to recommendations to Seco Tools regarding improvements in their S&OP process.

    Conclusions:

    Two opportunities for improvement were highlighted during the analysis of Seco Tools S&OP. They were financial integration and the use of cross-functional KPIs covering all the departments that were suggested to be involved in S&OP at Seco Tools. Seco Tools should integrate their finance in the process to compare S&OP against the business plan, and the company’s strategy should be well understood by the participants in S&OP. The knowledge of the company’s strategy together with the right authorities in the process will improve the decision making in Seco Tools’ S&OP. Seco Tools also need to implement an S&OP scorecard with KPIs that covers all departments in the company and the strategy as well. This helps to further develop cross-functionality and to early on make root cause analysis of identified problems. Cross-functionality and KPIs are believed to be general recommendations that all companies can use as well, not only something that Seco Tools can take advantage of. A template for an S&OP scorecard especially for Seco Tools has been made. It contains 16 cross-functional KPIs covering all steps and departments involved in S&OP at Seco Tools.

  • 25.
    Askarieh, Sona
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cohesion and Comprehensibility in Swedish-English Machine Translated Texts2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Access to various texts in different languages causes an increasing demand for fast, multi-purpose, and cheap translators. Pervasive internet use intensifies the necessity for intelligent and cheap translators, since traditional translation methods are excessively slow to translate different texts. During the past years, scientists carried out much research in order to add human and artificial intelligence into the old machine translation systems and the idea of developing a machine translation system came into existence during the days of World War (Kohenn, 2010). The new invention was useful in order to help the human translators and many other people who need to translate different types of texts according to their needs. The new translation systems are useful in meeting people’s needs. Since the machine translation systems vary according to the quality of the systems outputs, their performance should be evaluated from the linguistic point of view in order to reach a fair judgment about the quality of the systems outputs. To achieve this goal, two various Swedish texts were translated by two different machine translation systems in the thesis. The translated texts were evaluated to examine the extent to which errors affect the comprehensibility of the translations. The performances of the systems were evaluated using three approaches. Firstly, most common linguistically errors, which appear in the machine translation systems outputs, were analyzed (e.g. word alignment of the translated texts). Secondly, the influence of different types of errors on the cohesion chains were evaluated. Finally, the effect of the errors on the comprehensibility of the translations were investigated.

    Numerical results showed that some types of errors have more effects on the comprehensibility of the systems’ outputs. The obtained data illustrated that the subjects’ comprehension of the translated texts depend on the type of error, but not frequency. The analyzing depicted which translation system had best performance.

  • 26.
    Forsberg, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation av offline-läge i mobila applikationen GreatRate2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Även om de flesta av oss i dagsläget vet att våra mobila enheter kan tappa sina nätverksanslutningar lite då och då har det mer eller mindre blivit en självklarhet att i alla lägen ändå kunna använda våra favoritapplikationer som vanligt. Denna rapport syftade till att hitta en lösning på problemet med nätverksberoende applikationer genom att implementera ett offline-läge som kringgick detta beroende i GreatRate, en iOS-applikation för kundundersökningar i butik. Med hjälp av en databas för att mellanlagra data under tillfällen då en duglig nätverksanslutning inte fanns tillgänglig samt synkronisering av nämnda data när anslutningen åter blivit funktionell förväntades problemet kringgås. Resultatet blev som väntat en applikation som gav användaren en förhöjd användarupplevelse helt oberoende av nätverksanslutningens status. Några av slutsatserna som drogs var dock att flera olika lösningar finns för detta problem och att problemet högst troligt har olika utseenden för olika applikationer.

  • 27.
    Rajna, Botond
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobility analysis with mobile phone data2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis evaluates mobility based on mobile phone positions. The aim is to develop and assess different methods for travel demand estimation based on CDR data. Besides this estimation location data in cellular data is explained in more detail and a previous work based on mobile phone data and travel demand estimation is reviewed. The different methods of travel time estimation include both static and dynamic estimation. The static travel demand estimation evaluates movements in the city based on predefined time periods, whereas the dynamic estimations are based on different definitions of a trip. A trip can be defined as movements between important places, or just simply count a trip between each position, or a filtering of active states to create more accurate origin-destination matrices. The second part of the thesis includes evaluation of travel time based on CDR data before the final conclusions are drawn. The main finding of the thesis is that it is possible to assess mobility in a city based on CDR data, even if there are no validation data available.

  • 28.
    Munisamy, Manokar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Template-Based Java Code Generator for OpenModelica and MetaModelica2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current OpenModelica Complier (OMC) translates Modelica models into executable Ccodethrough several stages. The Code Generator is the final stage of the compiler whichgenerates target C-code from the optimized sorted equations. Recently, the Code Generator inOMC has been rewritten using the OpenModelica text template language. This gives a moreconcise and easier to understand code generator. Modeling and simulation is becomingincreasingly used in several application areas. There is demand for the OpenModelicaComplier (OMC) to generate code in languages like C#, CSharp, XML, JAVA and so on. Inthis thesis work, we implement a Java code generator to translate the internal equation-basedmodels in OpenModelica and its extension MetaModelica into a Java code representation. Tocreate the Java code generator we used the OpenModelica text template language, also calledSusan. This work is an important step on the way to finalize a full version of a Java CodeGenerator for the OpenModelica Complier (OMC).

  • 29.
    Skoglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solar landfills: A study of the concept in a Swedish setting2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing global energy demand, which today is mainly supplied by energy sources with a fossil origin, is a severe threat to the environment and to the security of supply. In order to handle these problems, renewable energy sources are promoted globally as well as nationally in Sweden. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the most mature and commercial renewable energy technologies and could play a vital role in phasing out fossil energy sources. In the emerging, promising concept of solar landfills, PV systems are installed on closed landfill sites in order to combine renewable electricity production with resource efficient use of land. In this study the legal, technical and financial aspects concerning a solar landfill project in a Swedish setting were investigated. Additionally, the potential of the concept on a regional level in Sweden was analysed. The methodology used in the study featured literature research, interviews, and a feasibility assessment of a solar landfill project on Visby landfill.

    Regarding the legal aspects linked to a solar landfill project, an inconsistency between Swedish municipalities concerning the need of a building permit for a ground mounted PV system was revealed in the study. While some municipalities demand a building permit, others do not. Additionally, the fact that a closed landfill usually is classified as an environmentally hazardous activity doesn’t result in any need for additional permissions for a PV system installation on a closed landfill. Therefore, such legal aspects are not likely to hinder a solar landfill project to any great extent.

    Considering the technical aspects, the choice of mounting system must be done carefully because of the special conditions which exist on a landfill site; such as ground penetration restrictions and risks of settlement. While a ballasted mounting system can avoid ground penetration, a driven pile mounting system generally features a lighter construction. Furthermore, a fixed tilt mounting system is preferred over a sun tracking mounting system due to the extra weight and sensitivity to settlement which comes with the latter choice. Regarding the choice of PV modules, thin film modules generally feature a lower weight and can therefore be advantageous in comparison with crystalline silicon modules. In the case of Visby landfill, where penetration was preferred to be avoided but where the risk of settlement was considered low, the PV system which was deemed most suitable for the site featured a ballasted fixed tilt mounting system with crystalline silicon PV modules.

    Considering the financial aspects, the study emphasises the importance of using the produced electricity to offset consumed electricity in order to enable a sound investment. This can be done by a wise choice of owning and financing structure where the produced electricity offsets consumed electricity for a large consumer, e.g. an industry or a grocery store, or for a number of residences in a community solar. The economic feasibility also heavily depends on the projects’ possibility to use policy incentives and tax exemptions. The feasibility assessment of Visby landfill showed that the most economically feasible investment was possible by founding a community solar which offsets the members’ consumed electricity. Such an investment would feature a 10 year payback time and an internal rate of return of 8.3 %.

    Finally, the potential of the solar landfill concept on a regional level was identified as significant. In a scenario where the PV system suggested for Visby landfill in the feasibility assessment is installed on all the suitable landfill sites on Gotland, the island has the possibility to produce 22 GWh of electricity from solar landfills, thereby meeting the regional energy goal set for 2020.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulation and evaluation of an articulated forklift truck2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demand on forklift trucks performance and efficiency is high. The productivity is important but also the experience while handling the forklift. The handling has to be simple and genuine to make the driver feel confident and safe. To achieve high performance steering in articulated trucks, a hydraulic power system is often used.Simulation software are a powerful tool in development processes. The program gives the industry a possibility to develop, analyze and evaluate constructions and models more efficient.The purpose of this master thesis is to identify and increase the knowledge about the main challenges in the hydraulic steering system in an articulated forklift. The hydraulic system has been modelled in the simulation software Hopsan and validated against data from measurements performed on the forklift. The different challenges have been identified based on tests and the simulation results. For a deeper understanding of the system a literature study, mainly about the key components, has been done during the master thesis. A number of suggestions for improvement have been developed with focus on increasing the steering performance. The concepts and ideas have been evaluated and tested in the simulation model.The project resulted in a validated simulation model of the articulation and a number of suggested improvements on the hydraulic steering system.

  • 31.
    Talltjärn, Linus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eksmo, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av en webbaserad donationstjänst för företag  som involverar medarbetarna i processen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, employees at large companies have started to demand that their employer should work more for good causes. The money the company wants to donate to charity is distributed mostly through a vote to decide where the money will be remitted. The purpose of this design case is to develop a design concept for a web-based donation service that involves all employees at a company. Furthermore, the authors of this study intends to explore how the motivation for employees of a company can be affected by participation in this service. In this design case, the service function, quality and concept was tested and evaluated. The testing phase consisted of a user test in which a number of participants tested a prototype of the service. The design process that was used in this design case is target design which is described by Goodwin (2009). For three days, user testing of the service and interviews with six individuals were conducted. The conclusions drawn in this study was that the process of giving needs to be trusted by the user, and there is a clear indication that the service would increase the motivation to work for it´s users.

  • 32.
    Hellblom-Björn, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Håkansson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Den outforskade parten i ett leasingavtal: En studie om hur leasegivare påverkas ifall en ny redovisningsstandard förleasing införs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title The unexplored part of a lease – A study on how lessors will be affected if a new accounting standard for leases is adopted

    Authors Fredrik Hellblom-Björn och Daniel Håkansson

    Supervisor Rolf Rundfelt

    Introduction The IASB has for a long time discussed the need for a new accounting standard for leases. The proposed standards havemet a lot of criticism, since many find they don’t enhance the accounting. In spite of the criticism of lessor accounting,very few studies have been conducted on lessors.

    Aim The purpose of this study is to explore how lessors will beaffected if a new accounting standard for leases is adopted.

    Method The inductive approach of the study means that the gathered empirical material forms the basis for the made conclusions.The design of the study is a small-N study, which means that a small number of interviews have been conducted. The interviews were held with accounting experts, lessors and afinancial analyst.

    Conclusion The study shows that a new accounting standard for leases will affect lessors in several ways. A consequence of increased mandatory disclosure and a more complex accounting will affect the lessors costs negatively. The costs will primarily increase through higher administrative burden and implementation costs. The lessors also risk being affected negatively by a decreased demand for leasing as financing solution as a consequence of more complex lessee accounting.

  • 33.
    Kalldin, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lamination of Organic Solar Modules2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the Worlds energy demand is increasing we need more of our energy to be generated from resources that affect the climate as little as possible. Solar power could be the solution if there were solar panels with a less energy demanding production than the established silicon based solar modules.

    Printable organic solar cells will enable a cheap production process, thus they are mainly made out of polymers in solution. However, to be able to decrease the total cost of the solar modules the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) for the transparent electrode needs to be replaced by a less expensive material. If the cheap, high conductive and transparent polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) could replace ITO the cost of organic solar modules would significantly decrease.

    For PEDOT:PSS to be able to replace ITO there are requirements that have to be met. The transparent electrode needs to be apart from transparent, highly conductive, have a low contact resistance to the other materials in the organic solar cell and be printable.

    In this study it has been shown that the PEDOT:PSS film with Zonyl and Diethylene Glycol (DEG) as an secondary dopant, is capable of laminating to thin films made out of PEDOT:PSS, metal or a polymer fullerene blend. The contact resistances between two PEDOT:PSS films and PEDOT:PSS film and a metal film proved to be low. When laminating to a metal film an interlayer of Silver Nano Wires (AgNW) was needed to achieve a low contact resistance.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wandfelt, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of maintenance system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an optimization of the allocation of maintenance resources for Air Navigation Service (ANS) equipment of which LFV is responsible for the maintenance. The purpose the authors have worked after is to research ways of minimizing travelling time linked to maintenance visits for ANS equipment, this report includes the suggestions where the maintenance facilities should be placed in order to minimize the total travelling time. The report describes the problem background and presents the customer, LFV. It includes a chapter on some of the theories used for facility location and routing, and also presents methods for reducing the total travelling time used for maintenance visits annually. The authors have worked with a given set of airports in Sweden. Information about the general work with maintenance as well as the annual demand of maintenance, including the frequency of visits, for each airport included in this project was received by Pär Oberger, the task expert and contact at LFV for this report. A model for facility location based on the p-median model have been created and used when solving the problem, it was written in AMPL and solved with the CPLEX solver. The model was modified with two additional constraints regulating the minimum annual working time and the maximum distance for one-way travelling. The authors deems that a solution with five facilities is better since the benefit of additional facilities, in term of lower total distance, do not compensate for the assumed cost of establishing them.

  • 35.
    Hansson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Junemo, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The optimal aircraft type for the Swedish domestic market2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have made an analysis of the Swedish domestic market, and concluded different limiting and enabling factors that are important to examine when creating an aircraft specification for an aircraft suitable for use on this market. The authors focus on three different parts that are considered important to be included in the specification; aircraft size, aircraft dimensions and aircraft performance. Aircraft size has been established through the use of a model and by a literature study, while aircraft performance and dimensions have been established primarily through market studies. The Swedish domestic market is today primarily built up by regional airlines and the large actor Scandinavian airlines; this has also been the situation historically. The regional airlines operates on a point-to-point basis while Scandinavian airlines operates on a hub-and-spoke-network. The aircraft size has been found to depend on a number of different factors. Passenger demand and competition are the most important while type of operations and environmental impact also plays a large role. To create stronger competition towards other airlines and other forms of transportation, the flight frequency has been deemed a key factor. Studies show that airlines rather face rising demands by increasing the frequency than by increasing the aircraft size. Aircraft dimensions and aircraft performance are mainly restricted by airport constraints such as runway length, airport fire-fighting category and pavement strength. An aircraft specification has been developed, and the importance of flight frequency and airport constraints found on the Swedish market have been taken into consideration. The large variations in demand, and also the variations in type of operations in the Swedish domestic market have made it impossible to create a single aircraft type, however, by creating three different size versions of the aircraft it will be adapted to the different demands that have been found on the market.

  • 36.
    Gavanas, Anna
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society.
    Elderly care puzzles inStockholm; strategies on formal and informal markets.2013In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 3, no 2, 57-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • In “ageing Europe”, there have been widespread developments aimed at the privatisation of elderly care. In tandem, the demand for private domestic services is expanding all over Europe, and elderly citizens are a major part of this demand. Simultaneously, migrant women are increasingly considered the solution to the labour force deficit in the wake of the “care crisis”. This article explores the dual privatisation process in the context of New Public Management reforms and glocalisation in Stockholm/Sweden: namely, what are the consequences to providers and consumers in the elderly care sector and domestic services? In particular, the article highlights the purchase of informal services among the elderly as a part of the “elderly care puzzle”.
  • 37.
    Claug, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Web Design for Multiple Platforms in Microsoft SharePoint 20132013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As mobile devices become more common when surfing the web there is an increasing demand of making web sites adjusted to other devices than computers. One common platform on the web is Microsoft SharePoint. In this report I look into one method of how to develop web sites that work on multiple devices in Microsoft SharePoint. I will be looking into different techniques as separate web sites compared to responsive web design. By exploring the approach of mobile first I try to find a working solution of techniques. I also look into another method that is suggested in a book and look into how Bootstrap could be used in the process.

    I will also look into content to identify what content need to be adjusted between different devices. I find that navigation is an important part of a web site and look into different methods of handling navigation on mobile devices.

    By analyzing different techniques and looking into what content is going to be adjusted a solution is proposed where the navigation is adjusted in a responsive design. The design is converted into a SharePoint masterpage and then fixed using stylesheets and JavaScript. The solution works on a web site with a complex site structure since it focuses on how to adjust the navigation.

  • 38.
    Marzetta, Thomas L.
    et al.
    Bell Labs, Alcatel‐Lucent, NJ, USA .
    Caire, Giuseppe
    Politecn Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Debbah, Merouane
    Institute Eurecom, Sophia Antipolis, Italy.
    Chih-Lin, I
    China Mobile Research Institute, Beijing, China .
    Mohammed, Saif K.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. IIT Delhi, India .
    Special issue on Massive MIMO2013In: Journal of Communications and Networks, ISSN 1229-2370, Vol. 15, no 4, 333-337 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for wireless communications is projected to grow by more than a factor of forty or more over the next five years. A potential technology for meeting this demand is Massive MIMO (also called Large-Scale Antenna Systems, Large-Scale MIMO, ARGOS, Full-Dimension MIMO, or Hyper-MIMO), a form of multiuser multipleantenna wireless which promises orders-of-magnitude improvements in spectral-efficiency over 4G technology, and accompanying improvements in radiated energy-efficiency. The distinguishing feature of Massive MIMO is that a large number of service-antennas ?? possibly hundreds or even thousands ?? work for a significantly smaller number of active autonomous terminals. Upsetting the traditional parity between service antennas and terminals in this manner is a game-changer: The simplest multiplexing precoding and decoding algorithms can be nearly optimal, expensive ultra-linear forty-Watt power amplifiers are replaced by many low-power units, and the favorable action of the law of large numbers can greatly facilitate power-control and resource-allocation.

  • 39.
    Ragavan, Rengarajan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reconfigurable FSM for Ultra-Low Power Wireless Sensor Network Nodes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) play an important role in today’s monitoring and controlsystems like environmental monitoring, military surveillance, industrial sensing and control, smarthome systems and tracking systems. As the application of WSN grows by leaps and bounds, there is anincreasing demand in placing a larger number of sensors and controllers to meet the requirements. Theincreased number of sensors necessitates flexibility in the functioning of nodes. Nodes in wirelesssensor networks should be capable of being dynamically reconfigured to perform various tasks is theneed of the hour.In order to achieve flexibility in node functionality, it is common to adopt reconfigurablearchitecture for WSN nodes. FPGA-based architectures are popular reconfigurable architectures bywhich WSN nodes can be programmed to take up different roles across time. Area and power are themajor overheads in FPGA based architectures, where interconnect consumes more power and area thanlogic cells. The contemporary WSN standard requires longer battery life and micro size nodes for easyplacement and maintenance-free operation for years together.Three solutions have been studied and evaluated to approach this problem: 1) Homogenousembedded FPGA platform, 2) Power gated reconfigurable finite state machines and 3) Pass transistorlogic (PTL) based reconfigurable finite state machines. Embedded FPGA is a CMOS 65nm customdeveloped small homogenous FPGA which holds the functionality of the WSN nodes and it will bedynamically reconfigured from time to time to change the functionality of the node. In Power gatedreconfigurable FSM architecture, the functionality of the node is expressed in the form of finite statemachines, which will be implemented in a LUT based power gated design. In PTL based reconfigurablefinite state machine architecture, the finite state machines are completely realized using PTL basedcustom designed sets of library components. Low power configuration memory is used to dynamicallyreconfigure the design with various FSMs at different times.

  • 40.
    Kramer, Denise
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    simulation based evaluation of public transport stop designs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to plans of reconstructing the local public transport stop in front of the railway station in Norrköping, southern Sweden, a simulation model was created to compare the current stop design with an alternative design. The micro simulation model was created with the simulation software Aimsun and includes scenarios based on the current traffic situation as well as future scenarios including assumptions for the future demand growth. While creating the alternative design, which provides a second lane for overtaking, several limitations in Aimsun were recognized and modifications were required to create simulation behaviour as close to reality as possible. Due to the software limitations the simulation results for the alternative design showed slightly higher results and made it difficult to make explicit comparisons of the output values. Nevertheless the output data indicated that both design layouts include remaining capacity of the public transport stop.

  • 41.
    Li, Qian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correlation between Simulation and Measurement of Microwave Resonator Power Handling2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern mobile wireless communication, Base Stations (BS) are the most important equipment to build up the mobile network. One of the key elements in BS is the RF filter, which plays a key role to secure the coverage and reliability of the BS. Especially, at Transmitter (Tx) side, the filter must have a high capability to handle the power sent from Power Amplifier (PA) to antenna in any circumstances to ensure the coverage demand. Otherwise, the breakdown will be encountered, setting the power flow in the BS system in an abnormal manner that, finally can lead to the shut down of BS or destroy the system permanently. In this project, three methods using two simulation tools to predict the power handling capability of the RF/microwave resonator which is the elementary component in the BS’s filter are proposed. Power handling tests of selected configurations corresponding to the simulations are implemented as well. In the next stage, the results from the prediction and measurement are compared. Finally, the conclusions of correlation between the prediction and measurement of microwave resonator power handling will be derived.

  • 42.
    Katsamagka, Argyro
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Developing Place Attachment to the Natural Surroundings of the School: The Role of Outdoor Education2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Place is highly connected with outdoor education; it is defined by the location of the learning process and it designates both practically and theoretically ways to foster to students a strong bond with natural places. Place attachment refers to this bond or, in other words, the love relationship, one can develop with a place. This research tries to investigate if there is a causal relationship between outdoor education and development of place attachment. A quasi-experimental design research was conducted to 31 teenagers, 12-13 years old. A questionnaire, for measuring the level of place attachment to the natural surroundings of their school, was distributed at two different timelines. Four different dimensions of place attachment were measured; place identity, place dependence, social bonding and nature bonding. The experimental group participated in the program “Attachment to my Local Natural Landscape”, which was developed especially for this study and promoted direct connection with the land, through outdoor activities. The control group received no intervention. The results demonstrated that the program influenced only the female participants of the experimental group. No significant differences were indicated between the two groups after the implementation of the program. The small sample and the short length program implemented were important limitations of this study, which demand further future research to extract more clear results.

  • 43.
    Axén, Linus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fyhrlund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisionens kostnadsutveckling: En jämförande studie mellan publika bolag och kommuner i Sverige2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The audit fee depends mainly on the relationship between demand and supply. Former studies have found multiple underlying independent variables that affect the audit fee in listed companies and municipalities. The need of a comparative study to analyze the differences in audit fees over time between the two has previously been pointed out.

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to compare and explain the development of audit fees in listed companies and municipalities over time.

    Method The study’s deductive method means that previous research and existing theories have been the foundation from which hypothesis have been derived. A longitudinal study has been performed to measure changes and development over time. Quantitative data has been collected as secondary data.

    Conclusion This study indicates that multiple underlying independent variables explains the audit fees over time. The size of the company, risk and non-audit fees have a significant positive relation with the audit fee. In municipalities the audit fee relates to size, tax base, results and number of mandates.  During the period between 2005 and 2011 the audit fees for listed companies decreased with 0.5 %, whereas the audit fees for municipalities increased with 12.8 %. The difference can largely be explained by differing purposes of the audit and effect of global factors. 

  • 44.
    Follin, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flerkriterium parametrering av säkerhetslager -teoretisk och praktisk modell2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To better and more easily manage the distribution- and production plans at Bic centralized inventory management software was installed in 2001. One of its input parameters is the security stock level. The existing way of calculating the security stock level is basic and demands a lot of time and work since it is principally done by hand.

    General theories linked to safety stock calculations is examined and put into relation to the particular case of Bic. The actual model is expanded with parameters influencing the safety stock level but none existing in the earlier model. For instance is studied how variability in lead time, biases between actual forecast and demand and the A,B,C-classification of the  products can have influence on the safety stock level.

    Many products have no, or poor information on which the calculations can be based on. A system with different default values is proposed to solve this matter. Another problem is the dependence between co packaged- and factory products in the same inventory. To diminish the uncertainty in demand the theory of postponement is used and a stock transfer is possible between final products and their component products depending on their bill of materials.

    The proposed model takes form as a series of Macros in excels, automatically gathering information from existing data files. In the final application where the stock calculations are done the user is given freedom to choose or influence on many of the input parameters before running the program.

  • 45.
    Bernhardsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    OD-matrix calibration for a microsimulation modell - a Paramics implementation in Gothenburg2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) has recently started to use the simulation tool Paramics for traffic planning. An important input to simulation models are travel demand data in the form of OD-matrices. At present OD-matrices are obtained from SAMPERS, which is a software for traffic predictions, but these data has shown to differ a lot from existing traffic counts. If modeled flows differ less from traffic counts the simulation results are trustworthier.

    A project that has been carried out is to build a model of the area around E6 and Rv45 north/north east of Gothenburg. The model will be used to simulate incidents and to test different traffic control scenarios in the area.

    The aim of this master thesis was to present an approach for OD-matrix calibration wit Paramics Estimator including tools for handling data used as input. The tools for handling data used as input have been implemented as programs written in Visual Basic. The most important function of the programs is to divide travel demand data and link flow observations into shorter periods and to write these data into files with the correct format. The implemented approach has further been used to calibrate OD-matrices for the Gothenburg model with Paramics Estimator.

    A comparison between a simulation of the calibrated OD-matrices and the original has been carried out to evaluate the result of the calibration for the Gothenburg model. The results suggest that it is possible to increase the match between measured and simulated flows by using the implemented approach.

    One purpose with the programs for handling input data was to make it possible to use them for other similar cases. This purpose has been achieved partly. It is possible to divide ODmatrices and link flow observations into shorter periods chosen by the user and to write these data to files with the correct format. Some of the functions are however only implemented for the periods that have been used for the Gothenburg model.

  • 46.
    Hultgren, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Making renewable electricity a reality: Policies and challenges when transforming Germany´s electricity system2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Germany is to undertake a speedy phase-out of nuclear energy and at the same time move into the age of renewable energy. The policy basis for the transformation of the electricity system is the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). The aim of this report is to investigate the transformation of the German electricity system: popularly called the Energiewende. The report will introduce and analyze the Renewable Energy Sources Act as a policy instrument, and how the electricity grid needs to be developed in order to handle the increasing shares of electricity from renewable sources. The history, main regulations, and the success of the EEG will be investigated. Furthermore, the ways in which the EEG needs to be revised will be given attention. The imperfections of today’s electricity grid when implementing a dominating share of renewable electricity, and ways in which Information and Communication Technology can be used in solving those imperfections will be analyzed. The basis for this thesis is a literature study. Since this is a current topic changing frequently, up-to-date research is used as the main reference. The EEG is based on a feed-in tariff system. The main concern when implementing a dominating share of renewable electricity is the fluctuation over time. It is difficult to know how much power will be produced and when. The future challenge of the electricity grid is to keep meeting demand and supply in a secure way. To succeed with the transformation, the EEG not only needs to be revised but a solution to the system stability is also necessary. The EEG is considered a successful policy instrument but what it is missing today is incentives for balancing demand and supply, energy efficiency, and technology innovation. In order to deal with fluctuating sources, the main focus when upgrading the grid should be to improve the forecasting issues. The success of making RES a significant part in electricity generation could become strong proof for the global community that an electricity system based on renewable energy sources is possible.

  • 47.
    Fors, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fredholm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effektivare transporter med samdistribution2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growing cities are increasing the demand for well functioning goods carrying traffic together with the other traffic. The number of zones for unloading goods in the centre of Linköping is small compared to the number of delivery addresses and the number of goods distributors.

    The attendant phenomena are congestion and costs of congestion. Therefore the local network for freight forwarders in Linköping has taken the initiative to the SAMLIC project. SAMLIC stands for Coordinated Retail Distribution in Linköping City. The aim of SAMLIC is to create an economically and logistically efficient system for goods distribution that is persistent and friendly to the environment. The participants in the project are the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, the network for freight forwarders in Linköping city, the association for cooperation in the city of Linköping, the working team for inner-city transports, Swedish Biogas and Linköping University.

    The aim of this report is to elaborate a proposal to a functional system for coordinated retail distribution in the centre of Linköping both in the short- and long-term perspectives. Focus is put on analysis of efficiency and potential with coordinated distribution concerning terminal handling, vehicle utilisation and unloading at the consignees.

    A trial project with coordinated distribution called PILOT has been carried out during the spring of 2004. The aim of the trial project was to give good quantitative information of possible benefits with coordinated distribution that can be used for further estimations of the potential of a larger system. From the gathered information analyses will be done to see if the vehicle load factor has increased and if the vehicle movements have decreased.

    The PILOT that was carried out included only general cargo and three freight forwarders. A summation of the amount of goods during the trial project does not give a complete image of the total amount of goods that is delivered to the centre of Linköping. Therefore a complementary investigation has been carried out with the main purpose to estimate the magnitude of the total volume of goods. The report also discusses methods for calculation of the number of vehicle movements in coordinated and ordinary distribution respectively and methods for calculation of vehicle load factor.

    The calculations show that the total time for deliveries with coordinated distribution is reduced with 14 % compared to if the same amount of goods would be distributed the conventional way. As a result of coordinated distribution, every fourth vehicle involved in the deliveries can be excluded from city traffic and used for other assignments, due to the fact that the load factor expressed as the number of kilograms per pallet space has increased with approximately 50 %. A reduced number of vehicle movements have the effect of decreasing pollution, disturbing noise, less accidents and less congestion.

    Economic profitability is important to accomplish for a successful system with a joint venture in coordinated distribution. No matter which form the coordinated distribution takes, the savings for the freight forwarders must be of such a dimension that they find it profitable to join instead of delivering the goods by themselves.

  • 48.
    Friberg, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En studie för att minska energianvändningen vid Outokumpu Nordic Brass2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy has been used throughout our entire history but it was due to the industrialization that the demand for energy sharply increased. After some time, the rising energy prizes produced an interest to reduce the energy consumption and when the electrical market was deregulated in the middle of 1990: s this became another economical incitement to address these issues. The aim of this degree project was to investigate how to make energy more efficient as a concept, to see what methods that can be used and how these issues are put into work in reality.

    Making energy more efficient means trying to optimize the use of the supplied energy hence the importance to survey how it is being used. If an entire building is being investigated, it can be surveyed by its total energy consumption, but when the investigation is more limited measurements and tests can be used on specific equipment. It is also important to realize that the access to relevant information is a necessity if these methods are to be a success.

    The result of this degree project is a compilation of the different parts that should be included in an investigation for making energy more efficient and a report on how some of these methods are used. The methods were tested in a processing industry to see if the energy consumption could be reduced by replacing some of the engines and changing the operation of some pumps. The results showed no possibilities to make profit by replacing the engines but there were great gains to be made by changing the operation of some pumps.

  • 49.
    Söder, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effektivisering av avropsrutiner för minskad kapitalbindning.2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Statoil Logistik is a subsidiary of Statoil Detaljhandel AB and is responsible for procurement, stock management and distribution of car, leisure and consumption to the 1 500 Statoil gas stations. Today they are approximately handling 7 000 order rows every day and they have a capital turnover rate of 5 every year. Statoil Logistik also manage their own custom and ADR papers as well as Statoils internal leaflets. Statoils Logistik’s warehouse is also used by Air Liquide, Swedish Film Industry and Kemetyl. The warehouse in Flen is about 15 000 m 2.

    This master degree thesis have enlightened Statoil’s warehouse managing system’s, named Albin, functions by documenting used programming code against the older documentation used today. During this job a few differences has been discovered. The one most critical was an error with a variable used by Albin in the calculations of demand forecast for seasonal products. For the product Glykol the difference before and after the error was corrected more than 24 000 units, this during a month where the demand was 20 000 units. The forecast error was halved.

    The second part of this thesis is focused to modify the safety stock calculations used by Albin for the seasonal products. The problem, that was discovered in the thesis first part, meant that the size of the safety stock was restricted to 100 % of the calculated months forecast. Some of Statoil Logistik’s products have a variation of 1000 % between high and low season. A more flexible system was needed to calculate the size of the safety stock. The results of this part presented in this thesis are two proposals each based on the fundamental safety stock formulae SERV1.

    The first proposal, recommended to Statoil to be implemented, uses seasonal indexes and seasonal constants. By letting Albin calculate weather a product is in high or low season at the time of the calculation, the size of the safety stock is adjusted according to season. This is done by multiplying SERV1 with a seasonal constant.

    The second proposal uses an alternative way of using the standard deviation used by SERV1. The standard deviation is here differentiated depending on the products seasonal changes. At low season one standard deviation is calculated while another one is used and calculated for the high season where the demand is greater.

  • 50.
    Persson, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effektivare orderhantering och hantering av materialflöde2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within Östgöta Städ business, there are not many studies on the management of inventories, internal material flows or internal orders. Östgöta Städ AB is one of the main contractors in the sector of private service. They have their headquarters in Norrköping, and this thesis is limited to the Norrköping Department.

    The purpose of the thesis is to identify flows of information and materials and to examine the potential use of inventory management. There are requests to find ratio to be able to make follow-ups on different materials and find ways to forecast material the use of simpler, more effective in the future.

    Identification of material and information flow has been collect through interviews of relevant personnel. There were four customers in consultation with Östgöta Städ to make a case study. The analysis shows that the selected cases the study had different conditions in cleaning the environment and that it gave different results in the need of material and floor mops. ABC classification of materials gave different results when the calculations were made by picking from the main stock to the front stock and then the calculations were made on total value of each customer. It shows the need for double ABC-classification where there is business critical materials to consider. Stock turnover rate shows that there is a need for a review of the main bearings where there is material that has bad turnover.

    The results of the assessments which are made show that the forecast moving average or exponential smoothing can be used as the forecast method for Östgöta Städ materials. This is because the customer has the case study was made on the stable demand patterns. The analysis also shows that there needs to be done forecast follow-up to review the data and forecasting methods.

    Östgöta Städ has today the possibility of having the data available to stock control its material and thus reduce the internal order management.

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