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  • 1.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Automating a test strategy for a protocoldecoder tool2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within Ericsson AB, integration and verification activities is done on the network level in order to secure the functionality of the network. Protocol analysers are used to capture the traffic in the network. This results in many log files, which needs to be analysed. To do this, a protocol decoder tool called Scapy/LHC is used. Scapy/LHC is a framework that allows the users to write their own script to retrieve the data they need from the log files. The Scapy/LHC framework is incrementally developed as open source within Ericsson when there are needs for more functionality. This is often done by the users, outside normal working tasks. Because of this, there is almost no testing done to verify that old and new functionality works as expected, and there is no formal test strategy in use today.


    The goal of this master’s thesis is to evaluate test strategies that are possible to use on the Scapy/LHC framework. To make the time needed for the testing process as short as possible, the test strategy needs to be automated. Therefore, possible test automation tools shall also be evaluated.


    Two possible test strategies and two possible test automation tools are evaluated in this thesis. A test strategy, where the scripts that are written by the users are used, is then selected for implementation. The two test automation tools are also implemented. The evaluation of the implemented test strategy shows that it is possible to find defects in the Scapy/LHC framework in a time efficient way with help of the implemented test strategy and any of the implemented test automation tools.

  • 2.
    Falk, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Flexibla fixturer i bearbetande maskiner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted at Linköping University and Saab Aerostructures DPS, Linköping, and focuses on the possibilities of flexible fixturing in machining applications. The thesis is part of the research project "Koofix", which is collaboration between Linköping University and a number of companies.

    The thesis is aimed towards small batch production which, for Saab Aerostructures DPS, means diverse part geometry and that parts are manufactured in very small numbers, sometimes just one piece. The result of this is that expensive dedicated fixtures are made for most parts. By introducing more flexible fixturing methods to this kind of production the cost of fixtures and tooling will be reduced, and make the production more efficient.

    New flexible fixturing methods has been presented and evaluated through the thesis, which has resulted in three different concepts. These concepts have been the result of literature screening and study of current manufacturing process at Saab Aerostructures DPS. The concepts has been evaluated according to there ability to meet Saab Aerostructures DPS needs and a final concept has been chosen. The concept that is considered being the best solution employs an adjustable frame to encompass several different part geometries. This concept allows the workpiece to be machined in a single step and the fixture can be adjusted to fit workpieces with different geometries. On other concept considered in the thesis employs electromagnet with adjustable elements and is capable of fixing more complex geometries. The concept also allows the fixture to be adjusted between different products to be machine by the CNC-machine itself. Also a concept that’s not a fixture itself but a method that allows a simpler fixture to be used has been developed. This concept uses adhesives to combine extra material to the part, which allows for less complex fixtures to be used in the machining process.

    The concepts with the adjustable frame and the electromagnet and adjustable elements are both using the machines control system to locate the detail by probing before the machining process starts. Probing is done by equipping the spindle with a touch trigger probe which measures pre-programmed contact points and calculates exact part position.

  • 3.
    Månsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Implementering av TPU: En fallstudie om implementeringen av TPU på ABB Cewe-Control i Nyköping2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If Swedish companies are to compete with companies in low-cost countries they have to achieve a more efficient production. The purpose of Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) is to increase the company's profitability by increasing the productivity. TPM is a method that involves all employees and aims to prevent failures in order to increase the availability of existing equipment.

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the implementation process of TPM and give recommendations for the further implementation process. The conclusion and the analysis are based on a case study done at a production department at ABB Cewe-Controls facilities in Nyköping. The case study consists mainly of qualitative data from participation observations, surveys and interviews.

    Commitment of the management is a key factor in the implementation process of TPM. The management of ABB Cewe-Control need to demonstrate their commitment in order for a change to happen. The case study shows that the commitment of both employee and management must be raised if the implementation process is to be successful. To avoid unnecessary conflicts or irritation in the further implementation process it is important to clarify responsibilities and roles in the implementation of TPU.

    The case study has also shown that the training during the implementation process has not been sufficient. Proper training is needed to be able to conduct the implementation process of TPM in an effective manner. Proper training is also needed to raise the motivation of the staff.

    Business Development is ABB’s methodology for the improvement work in the company. Business Development is a well-known concept in the organisation and has a well-defined connection with the company's strategic objectives. Because of this there is no reason why the improvement work and how it has been done should change. Business Development is a good foundation for the implementation of TPM and the improvement work in the future.

  • 4.
    Niu, Bingyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Yan, Sisi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Knowledge transfer in project-based environments: The barriers of knowledge transfer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nowadays, projects become the common way of working in manycompanies. Knowledge management is important for efficient project management.Knowledge transfer in project-based environments became an attractive and importanttopic for study. Various barriers and challenges will appear during the process ofknowledge transfer in projects. Lots of authors thought the barriers of knowledgetransfer in project are negative, while others mentioned that some barriers may havepositive aspects. We called these two kinds of barriers “positive barriers” and“negative barriers” in this thesis.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to understand knowledge transfer inproject-based environments. Specifically, we aim to explain that barriers ofknowledge transfer in projects can be both negative and positive.

    Method: Due to the special time period and activity limitation, we chose case studyto gain the empirical data. When choosing the sample, we used the conveniencesampling. The sample chosen is a project team in Ericsson of Linköping. The projectmanager we interviewed has worked in Ericsson since 2004 and with his presentproject team for four years. He has already done more than fifteen projects, so he hasenough experience in projects for our study. We combined both inductive anddeductive approach strategies to analyze our thesis.

    Result: This thesis has answered the questions in the part of specified questions andreached the thesis purpose. It has explained the notion of knowledge transfer inprojects and its related barriers. It interprets how both negative and positive barriersaffect knowledge transfer. Furthermore, this thesis points out some suggestions forimproving positive barriers and reducing negative barriers.

  • 5.
    Ståhl, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strokekedjan från början till slut: En etnografisk studie om farlighet och tid i en akut vårdkedja2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    30 000 people in Sweden get a stroke every year. This leads to large personal adaptions as well as high costs for the society. The most efficient treatment, thrombolysis, must be given as soon as possible to have a good effect. At the same time it is very important to find out if the patient has any differential diagnosis that can make the treatment hazardous.

    This study investigates how the course ov events around acute stroke patients take place and important factors for the decision making. The studiy is based on ethnographic field studys on four swedish hospitals. The material is analysed with methods from joint cognitive systems and goal-oriented design. The results show that in spite of different organisation of the course  of events around acute stroke patients are the processes and direct communication most successful for effective spread of information between the processes. The neurologist on call is an important roll who, as well as the rest of the participants in the course of events, balances the decision making between efficiency and thoroughness. The combination of analysis gives results on both system- and individual levels. Possibilites for improvents are given in three categories: logistic, technological and organizational.

  • 6.
    Carlander, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Att bygga bostäder enligt miljöbyggnadskrav: En fallstudie i området Nya Wahlbecks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and resource efficiency is an important part in moving towards a sustainable society. In the year 2013, the total energy use in Sweden was 563 TWh and approximately 26 % of the energy was used in the residential and service sector. Within the residential and service sector, nearly 60 % of the used energy is for heating (Energimyndigheten, 2015). The construction of energy efficient buildings is a central part in creating a sustainable society and Nya Wahlbecks is supposed to become a city district which will show that it is possible to increase growth, quality of life and well-being and at the same time decrease the use of non recyclable and non reusable resources.The primary purpose of this master thesis has been to generate suggestions on how to design the residential buildings in the new city district Nya Wahlbecks, which will be built in east Valla in Linköping, so they can be certified in accordance to the environmental certification system Miljöbyggnad. Besides the primary purpose an investigation on how much electricity that can be generated with photovoltaic and how much energy that can be saved by the use of solar heating panels, has also been conducted. Finally a comparison in emissions of CO2-eqvivalents between a building that just meets the criteria´s of Boverkets Byggregler (BBR) and the generated building models was done.The results which the case study has generated, clearly shows that it is possible to build the new residential buildings in Nya Wahlbecks so that they will meet the different criteria’s for grade Silver and Guld from Miljöbyggnad. The requirements from Miljöbyggnad aim to have as low energy use as possible at the same time as a good indoor climate is kept. These two factors can be contradictions to one another, as for instance low energy use can be reached by having thicker insulation, but thicker insulation often results in higher indoor temperature which can then lead to deterioration in indoor climate. The investigations of energy use and indoor climate were conducted through simulations in the building-simulation program IDA-ICE, where several optimizations were done for different parameters to finally meet the requirements from Miljöbyggnad. Simulations with solar panels for heating and generation of electricity were also conducted with IDA-ICE. The results of the study shows that nearly 60 % of the used electricity in the project building can be generated from photovoltaic panels placed on the roof of the building. About 9 % of the buildings heating energy can be produced with solar panels placed in the same way as the photovoltaic ones. When it comes to emissions of CO2-eqvivalents there would be a difference in approximately 19 tons, which is equivalent to about 30 %, if the building meets the requirements of Miljöbyggnad Silver instead of just meeting BBR´s requirements.

  • 7.
    Ching, Hsu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Techniques for High-Speed Digital Delta-Sigma Modulators2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this theses techniques for high-speed digital delta-sigma modulator(DDSM) structures are considered. Four techniques are applied andevaluated: unfolding, increasing the number of delay elements in theinner loop, pipelining/retiming, and optimizations provided by thesynthesis tool. Of interest is to see the speed-area-power trade-offs.For implementation, three different modulators meeting the samerequirements are implemented. Each modulator has a 16-bit input andresults in a 3-bit output. The baseline case is a second-ordermodulator, which has one delay element in its inner loop. Throughoptimization, two new structures are found: to provide two delayelements in the inner loop, a fourth-order modulator is required,while to provide three delay elements, a thirteenth-order modulator isobtained.The results show that in general it is better to unfold the modulatorthan to obtain the speed-up through optimizing the arithmeticoperators with the synthesis tool. Using correct pipelining/retimingis also crucial. Finally, for very high-speed implementation, usingthe structures with more delay elements is required. Also, in manycases these are more area and power efficient compared to usingoptimized arithmetic operators, despite their higher computationalcomplexity.

  • 8.
    Jansson, Nils-Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Winberg, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Aktiv eller inte aktiv i PPM – Får du betalt för din risk? En teoriprövande analys genom Markowitz moderna portföljteori2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish premium pension reform at the turn of the century resulted in a greater responsibility for the individual saver. The decision concerning how the premium pension should be invested now lies with the investor. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze whether it had been profitable for a saver to achieve a higher risk-adjusted return for its premium pension money contributions by making an active choice by a self-composed portfolio, rather than to allow the State to invest the capital in the Seventh AP Fund (AP7 Såfa) which is the default option.

    The analysis is based on Harry Markowitz’s established Modern Portfolio Theory by which he drew attention to how investors through diversification can reduce risk in its investment by choosing assets that are not fully correlated. By using the available data of the funds that were selectable in the Swedish Premium Pension system by the time period 2000 – 2014, we have calculated the optimized portfolios with the same risk level as the default option. Subsequently, a comparison of these optimized portfolios and the default option are made in terms of risk and return. Furthermore, three theoretical portfolios are put together over a period of ten years and are invested as these optimized portfolios and reallocated after Markowitz's recommendation to review their savings once a year.

    The analysis shows that it has been possible to achieve higher risk-adjusted returns by making an active choice of portfolio. The problem though is that it is difficult to identify these portfolios in advance. The three theoretical portfolios have all generated a lower return than the default option did during the same period.

    The result shows that the default option is not fully risk-adjusted. Nonetheless, we conclude that the default fund is a good alternative.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Generating SkePU Code from Automatically Detected Algorithmic Patterns in C Source Programs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern heterogeneous multi-core architectures containing one or multiple GPU de- vices require expert knowledge in order to be fully utilized through parallelization by the programmer. Software written for one hardware setup might not easily be portable to work as efficiently on a differing architecture. Automatic parallelization of sequential C code to make efficient use of such architecture in an extensible man- ner would facilitate the porting of legacy code and provide a non-expert programmer with a tool granting access to modern hardware architectures.

    We present an early prototype of such an extensible tool-chain and attempt to apply it on domain-specific C source code. It is based on a generic tool for hierarchical pattern matching in C source codes, where the user can define own patterns and recognition rules, and a code generation back-end. We show how it, combined with existing libraries, can be used to automatically port sequential legacy code to different multicore architectures, such as multicore CPUs and GPUs. Our tool is an attempt to do this and yields valid parallelized code, but fails to reach speedup for most implemented patterns. The tool is applied on one test case, a legacy ODE implementation in C, with similar results. A reason for slowdown is discussed in the concluding section.

  • 10.
    Holm, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Energy-Efficient Mobile Communication with Cached Signal Maps2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data communication over cellular networks is expensive for the mobile device in terms of energy, especially when the received signal strength (RSS) is low. The mobile device needs to amplify its transmission power to compensate for noise leading to an increased energy consumption. This thesis focuses on developing a RSS map for the third generation cellular technology (3G) which can be stored locally at the mobile device, and can be used for avoiding expensive communication in low RSS areas.

    The proposed signal map is created by crowdsourced information collected from several mobile devices. An application is used to collect data in the mobile device of the user and the application periodically sends the information back to the server which computes the total signal map.

    The signal map is composed of three levels of information: RSS information, data rate tests and estimated energy levels. The energy level categorizes the energy consumption of an area into "High", "Medium" or "Low" based on the RSS, data rate test information and an energy model developed from physical power measurements. The coarse categorization provides an estimation of the energy consumption at each location. It is evaluated by collecting data traces on a smartphone at different locations and comparing the measured energy consumption at each location to the energy level categories of the map.

    The RSS prediction is preliminarily evaluated by collecting new data along a path and comparing how well it correlates to the signal map. The evaluation in this thesis shows that with the current collected data there are not enough observations in the map to properly estimate the RSS. However, we believe that with more observations a more accurate evaluation could be done.

  • 11.
    Finzel, Kati
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Martin Pendas, Angel
    University of Oviedo, Spain.
    Francisco, Evelio
    University of Oviedo, Spain.
    Efficient algorithms for Hirshfeld-I charges2015In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 143, no 8, 084115- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new viewpoint on iterative Hirshfeld charges is presented, whereby the atomic populations obtained from such a scheme are interpreted as such populations which reproduce themselves. This viewpoint yields a self-consistent requirement for the Hirshfeld-I populations rather than being understood as the result of an iterative procedure. Based on this self-consistent requirement, much faster algorithms for Hirshfeld-I charges have been developed. In addition, new atomic reference densities for the Hirshfeld-I procedure are presented. The proposed reference densities are N-representable, display proper atomic shell structure and can be computed for any charged species.

  • 12.
    Eneroth, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Controller Design Enabling Automated and Fuel-Efficient Driving Strategies for Heavy Duty Vehicles in Urban Environments2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The automative industry drives the development towards more autonomous vehicles, this because of both safety and energy conservation reasons. This thesis focuses on solutions to lower the fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles, which is more and more requested. Both due to increasing fuel costs and to greater environmental awareness. Through extensive simulations with a vehicle model, developed at and provided by Scania CV AB, different driving strategies are evaluated and analysed. This determined how to achieve a low fuel consumption when driving heavy vehicle in an urban environment. The simulations shows that the fuel consumption can be lowered by coasting the vehicle when deceleration and thus minimize the use of the brakes. One should also when possible, select a higher gear to lower the fuel consumption due to engine friction. These strategies are used to develop a controller which lowers the fuel consumption without increasing the trip time for the vehicle. The controller is able to alter the velocity of the vehicle within a reference window which results in both a lower fuel consumption and a shorter trip time for the driving cycle used.

  • 13.
    Aevan, Nadjib Danial
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    MDO Framework for Design of Human PoweredPropellers using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis showcases the challenges, downsides and advantages to building a MultiDisciplinary Optimization (MDO) framework to automate the generation of an efficientpropeller design built for lightly loaded operation, more specifically for humanpowered aircrafts. Two years ago, a human powered aircraft project was initiatedat Linköping University. With the help of several courses, various students performedconceptional design, calculated and finally manufactured a propeller bymeans of various materials and manufacturing techniques. The performance ofthe current propeller is utilized for benchmarking and comparing results obtainedby the MDO process.The developed MDO framework is constructed as a modeFRONITER project wereseveral Computer Aided Engineering softwares (CAE) such as MATLAB, CATIAand XFOIL are connected to perform multiple consequent optimization subprocesses.The user is presented with several design constraints such as blade quantity,required input power, segment-wise airfoil thickness, desired lift coefficientetc. Also, 6 global search optimization algorithms are investigated to determinethe one which generate most efficient result according to several set standards.The optimization process is thereafter initialized by identifying the most efficientchord distribution with a help of an initial blade cross-section which has been previouslyused in other human powered propellers, the findings are thereafter usedto determine the flow conditions at different propeller stations. Two different aerodynamicoptimized shapes are generated with the help of consecutively performedsubprocesses. The optimized propeller requires 7.5 W less input power to generatenearly equivalent thrust as the original propeller with a total efficiency exceedingthe 90 % mark (90.25 %). Moreover, the MDO framework include an automationprocess to generate a CAD design of the optimized propeller. The generatedCAD file illustrates a individual surface blade decrease of 12.5 % compared tothe original design, the lightweight design and lower input power yield an overallpropulsion system which is less tedious to operate.

  • 14.
    Pettersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stengård, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Impact of Augmented Reality Support in Warehouse Trucks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis analyzes how augmented reality (AR) can be used as assistance for a warehouse truck driver in order to make the driver more safe and efficient. The working environment is observed in an everyday warehouse and solutions are developed for situations based on observations. The AR solutions for the situations will be developed and evaluated. The software will be made for a pair of android see-through AR-glasses. Based on user tests and internal evaluation, the solutions will be evaluated for usage in the industry today or in the future.

  • 15.
    Wang, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    GUI test automation for Qt application2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GUI test automation is a popular and interesting subject in the testing industry. Many companies plan to start test automation projects in order to implement efficient, less expensive software testing. However, there are challenges for the testing team who lack experience performing GUI tests automation. Many GUI test automation projects have ended in failure due to mistakes made during the early stages of the project.

    The major work of this thesis is to find a solution to the challenges of establishing new test automation projects and determine an appropriate method to build GUI tests automation. Due to the particularity of GUI tests automation, keyword driven test approach is introduced in this thesis. The advantages and disadvantages are shown by undertaking comparison with the Record and replay testing method and the data driven testing method. The research also includes a feasibility study of GUI tests automation. The analysis report points out which kinds of test projects should be automated and which kinds should not be automated.

    Test automation tool selection is a critical step for an test automation project. This thesis shows the correct procedure for selecting a testing tool and explains the strategies of testing tool selection. It also summaries the mistakes made during the tool selection process. Several classical types of testing tools which support Qt software testing are compared and evaluated. Based on the in-depth analysis and comparison of testing tools, the thesis explains how the different tools fit with the different test projects.

    The implementation procedure of a test automation is demonstrated in this thesis. The procedure includes test case design and testing framework implementation. The test script is created based on the structure of a keyword driven test framework. The thesis also discusses several interesting topics related to GUI tests automation for future research.

  • 16.
    Rauhala, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaze control for detail and overview in image exploration2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking technology has made it possible to accurately and consistently track a users gaze position on a screen. The human eyes center of focus, where it can see the most detailed information, is quite small at a given moment. The peripheral vision of humans have a much lower level of details than the center of gaze. Knowing this, it is possible to display a view that increases the level of resolution at the position of the users gaze point on the screen, while the rest of the screen keeps a lower resolution. An implementation of such a system can generate a representation of data with both detail and overview. The results indicate that even with simple gaze data processing it is possible to use gaze control to help explore details of a high resolution image. Gaze data processing often involve a compromise between stability, responsiveness and latency. A low latency, highly responsive gaze data filter would increase the risk for lens oscillation, and demand a higher concentration level from the viewer then a slower filter would. Applying a gaze data filter that allowed for smooth and stable lens movement for small saccades and responsive movements for large saccades proved successfully. With the uses of gaze control the user might be able to use a gaze aware application more efficient since gaze precedes actions. Gaze control would also reduce the need for hand motions which could provide a improved work environment for people interacting with computer.

  • 17.
    Flaaten, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficient polygon reduction in Maya2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the number of vertices in a mesh is a problem that if solved correctly can save the user a lot of time in the entire process of handling the model. Most of the solutions today are focused on reducing the mesh in one big step by running a separate application. The goal of this implementation is to bring the reduction application into the users workspace as a plugin. Many of the modellers in the various computer graphics industries use Autodesk Maya the plugins intention is to create a efficient tool which also give the modellers as much freedom as possible without the need to ever leave Mayas workspace. During the process the possible issues and solutions of creating this tool in Maya will also examined to help introduce the process of creating a tool for Maya. This plugin has the potential to improve on the existing reduction tool in Maya by giving the user more options and a more exact solution.

  • 18.
    Eklöw, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknaden för gymnasial utbildning och dess problematik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When friskolereformen in Sweden was introduced in 1992, the market for secondary education became a competitive market. With new opportunities for schools to pursue secondary education business, the Swedish government hoped that students' preferences could be better met and that the use of resources would be more efficient. Questions answered in this paper is what characterizes the market, which strategies secondary schools uses, effects of asymmetric information and the factors that affect the degree of variation, and what the optimal degree of variation might be.The market for secondary education is mapped based on the SCP-model to get an overview of the market and its characteristics. Salop circle will be applied and detailed discussion about asymmetric information, variety and strategies on the secondary market will be made.In summary, it is noted that the market is characterized by monopolistic competition where it is difficult to predict the secondary schools' incentives. Furthermore, the market is characterized by being fully subsidized in the form of skolpeng with the reason that the positive impact of education on society. The strategies used in the market are marketing, acquisitions, grade inflation, complimentary products and research and development. As there is a lack of information on the market means that students do not make informative choices, which means that it becomes more difficult for individuals to achieve their full potential. Furthermore, the lack of information barriers to entry in the market and the opportunities to compete with quality weakens. The factors that affect the variation in the market were found to be individual preferences, the substitution tendencies, competition and economies of scale.

  • 19.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis and implementation of the Smooth Discrete Element Method in AgX2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We encounter granular materials on a daily basis. We walk up a gravel path or we eat our breakfast cereals. When handling granular materials on an industrial scale it is important to do so efficiently, to avoid unnecessary energy losses, wear and tear. To help designing efficient tools for handling these materials engineers uses numerical simulations.

    This project investigates the difference between the two main approaches to simulation of granular materials, the Smooth- and Non-smooth Discrete Element Methods by implementing the Smooth method into AgX dynamics were the Non-smooth method already is implemented, and then setup and execute a range of experiments to investigate their differences.

    The investigation shows both advantages and weaknesses for both methods. The result of simulations with smooth discrete element method are more consistent than with the nonsmooth discrete element method with respect to choice of time step and other parameters that can be chosen for the simulation. Smooth discrete element method have problems when it comes to extreme situations.

    The relative simulation time for system as large as treated by this project (more than1000) can not be shown to depend on the size of the system.

  • 20.
    Haile, Henok Debessai
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Sweden: A study of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in several municipalities of the Östergötland County2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Agency (SEPA) proposed a national target to increase the rate of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in 2013. Reusing phosphorus from wastewater sludge by spreading it on arable lands raises the risk of contamination and substance deposition in soils. In addition to quantifying the targeted rate of recycling, the proposal has also introduced new thresholds that limit the concentrations of undesired substances in wastewater sludge. This thesis assesses the potential challenges and opportunities in implementing the proposed measure in the Swedish municipality settings. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been gathered from three selected mid-sized Swedish municipalities in the Östergötland County and other data sources. The analytical framework of the thesis is based on the Systems Framework for Phosphorus Recovery and Reuse. Several discrepancies between the national goal to increase phosphorus recycling and local circumstances that affect local decision-making have been identified in this thesis. Reducing the flow of undesired substances into the wastewater stream raises goal conflict and is an enormous challenge which requires regulating the way chemicals are consumed in society. From the policy perspective, the national environmental objectives framework is ambiguous with regards to how local decisions should be directed in line with the national goals. The proposed measure should hierarchically be unequivocal and its implementation needs to be coordinated across all geographical scales. The thesis also highlights that there are significant local opportunities for addressing other sustainability goals through phosphorus recycling measures. Sweden’s commitment to creating a resource-efficient phosphorus cycle affirms that the key for a sustainable phosphorus management is the transformation of path-dependent social and technical systems.

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Olofsson, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Tidseffektivitet vid ljumskbråcksoperationer: - Jämförelse mellan privat- och offentlig vårdgivare2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Inguinal hernia surgery is one of the most common surgeries within general surgery, with approximately 20 000 surgeries per year in Sweden. There are three places in Östergötland County where inguinal hernias are executed within outpatient surgery; at Aleris Specialistvård in Motala (ASM), Närsjukvården in Finspång (NiF) and at Medicinskt Centrum in Linköping (MCL).

    There is a theory that private health care providers are more time-efficient than public health care providers. The private health care providers are considered to perform more operations over a given time though no studies has been done on time efficiency.

    This study was performed to detect if there is a difference in time in the various steps during the surgery between the clinics, what causes these differences and if the patients differ.

     

    Methods:

    The study includes 70 patients distributed on three outpatient surgery clinics; ASM, MCL and NiF. The inguinal hernia operations were divided into shorter steps measured with a digital watch.  Furthermore, data were noted about the patients’ age, ASA-score, BMI and who were present in the operating room. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. The software used was SPSS version 22.

     

    Results:

    The study found no significant difference in BMI, ASA-score and age between the health care providers (p > 0,05). However, regarding the time efficiency, there were significant differences between the clinics.

     

    Conclusions:

    The study concludes that there are big differences in time, within the various steps in the inguinal hernia surgeries, between the clinics. The private health care providers were always faster than the public health care provider. Since no earlier studies have been made in this area, it would be interesting to see if there are similar differences in other types of surgeries.

  • 22.
    Öqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergfelt, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nudge; en knuff i rätt riktning?: Ett beteendeekonomiskt experiment om svenskars attityder till nudge2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral interventions – so-called nudge – aim to get individuals to make decisions that are beneficial for the individual as well as for the society by making subtle changes in the decision context. Policymakers worldwide use nudge as an additional policy tool. However, nudging has been criticized for its questionable ethical principles and to date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. When should nudges be deemed as acceptable and when are they perceived as restrictive of an individual’s freedom of choice? Should all nudges be perceived as equal or do attitudes depend on specific characteristics of the nudge-intervention?The objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges with regard to i) acceptance and ii) restrictive on an individual’s freedom of choice. In particular, the study examines attitudes towards pro-self nudges (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social nudges (i.e. focusing on social welfare) as well as nudge of three degrees of intrusiveness (categorization of level of intrusiveness on the individual’s autonomy). In addition, we explore how individual differences in worldview affect attitudes towards nudge. A general population sample in Sweden (n=677) were presented with nudge-scenarios concerning three policy contexts; energy saving, smoking and retirement, in which they responded to questions regarding attitudes. To explore preferences towards pro-self and pro-social nudge, we used a contrastive vignette technique. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition were included.The result show that all nudge-scenarios have majority support (for acceptance). However, a quarter of the nudge-scenarios were perceived as restrictive of an individual’s freedom of choice. Differences regarding attitudes towards pro-self and pro-social nudge cannot be ensured statistically. For degree of intrusiveness we found that a higher degree of intrusiveness reduces the level of acceptance for the nudge-scenarios. As for restrictive on an individual’s freedom of choice, we found the remarkable result that a medium degree of intrusiveness is perceived as less intrusive than a high degree of intrusiveness. Furthermore, we found that individuals with an individualistic worldview tend to be less accepting towards nudge-scenarios.In conclusion, our results indicate that there is no general accepted formula for how a nudge should be designed. Highlighting this is a fundamental aspect both for broadening the theory of nudge as a policy tool as well as to implement efficient nudges in the future.

  • 23.
    Öhlin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Multi-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms on FPGAs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a way of performing multi dimensional FFT in a continuousflow environment by calculating the FFT of each dimension separately ina pipeline. The result is a three dimensional pipelined FFT implemented on aStratix III FPGA. It can calculate the three dimensional FFT of a data set containing2563 samples with a word size of 32 bits. The biggest challenge and themain part of the work are the data permutations in between the one dimensionalFFT modules, this part of the design make use of an external DDR2 SDRAMas well as on-chip BRAM to store and permute data between the modules. Theevaluations show that the design is hardware efficient and the latency is relativelylow and determined to be 84.2 ms.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Efficient Simulation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a framework wherein one can simulate the Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm on a regular computer within polynomial time, and with linear memory consumption. Under certain reasonable assumptions the simulation solves the problem with a bounded error of probability with only one function evaluation, which is comparable with the efficiency of the quantum algorithm. The provided framework lies within a slight extension of the toy model purposed by Robert W. Spekkens Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007), and consists of transformations that are reminiscent of transformations in quantum mechanics.

  • 25.
    Bruce, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timeefficiency of constructionwork in a developing country2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To work time efficient, structured and to not waste time are important factors at a construction work. Time is money and the more time a job takes the more money it costs. In theory, there are several factors that affect the efficiency at a construction site. Some of these factors are structural and schedules, work preparation, planning, method improvement and to identify targets. Most of these factors are used in construction work in Sweden, but the construction is not as developed in a developing country and they often work day by day. A country that has problems with efficiency in the workplace is the poor country Philippines in Asia.

    During a volunteer work trip to the Philippines was the deficiencies and timing problems during construction observed. Volunteer work took place in a small village called Los Amigos outside the town of Davao. The work was to build and renovate homes and the area around the buildings for wheelchair people who can’t afford their own homes. Besides the volunteer work was a construction site that was observed during the trip. The construction site is made up of a basketball court.

    This study aims to observe the construction work in the Philippines to identify problems with building work and efficiency in the workplace. Through observations and an interview with a supervisor in the village of Los Amigos have the different time problems been reflected and discussed. Based on the theoretical frameworks and taking into account the culture of the country have improvement proposals been worked out.

    The report ends with two sections that describe how to work more time-efficient, structured and avoid time losses. One section deals with the construction work on volunteer work and the other for a work on the basketball court built in the same area. The workplaces are of completely different character and various improvement proposals have thus been drawn up.

  • 26.
    Gärdshagen, Eleonor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Josefsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mapping the inhouse pallets for a more efficient handling2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detta examensarbete är en fallstudie på ett företag som är verksamt inom transportbranschen. Företaget upplever idag problem med internpallar som försvinner från deras terminal i Stockholm. Genom att effektivisera hanteringen av internpallarna tros svinnet kunna minska. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga hur hanteringen av internpallar fungerar idag för att undersöka om det finns förbättringsmöjligheter. Med hjälp av kartläggningen har flertalet problem kopplade till hanteringen kunnat identifieras. En riskanalysmatris användes för att rangordna problemen och därigenom tydliggöra i vilken ordning problemen borde åtgärdas. Dessa problem ligger till grund för de rekommendationer som författarna presenterar i rapporten.

  • 27.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Efficient Software Integration Process for the automotive industry with Jenkins2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an overlook of the software process for a car has been made. Two design choices have been proposed to enhance the scalability and improve the time it takes to build a software application. In these design choices, Jenkins has been used as a tool to make the implementations possible and to distribute work over different computers. Measurements show that distributing the workload on multiple computers would improve the utilization and reduce the time for building software.

  • 28.
    Savvidis, Charalampos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Geng, Zeyang
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Onboard Impedance Diagnostics Method of Li-ion Traction Batteries using Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and economic reasons have lead automotive companies towards the direction of EVs and HEVs. Stricter emission legislations along with the consumer needs for more cost-efficient and environmental friendly vehicles have increased immensely the amount of hybrid and electric vehicles available in the market. It is essential though for Li-ion batteries, the main propulsion force of EVs and HEVs, to be able to read the battery characteristics in a high accuracy manner, predict life expectancy and behaviour and act accordingly. The following thesis constitutes a concept study of a battery diagnostics method. The method is based on the notion of a pseudo-random binary signal used as the current input and from its voltage response, the impedance is used for the estimation of parameters such as the state of charge and more. The feasibility of the PRBS method at a battery cell has been examined through various tests, both in an experimental manner at the lab but also in a simulation manner. The method is compared for validation against the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method which is being used as a reference. For both the experimental and the simulation examinations, the PRBS method has been validated and proven to work. No matter the change in the parameters of the system, the method behaves in a similar manner as in the reference EIS method.

    The level of detail in the research and the performed experiments is what makes the significance of the results of high importance. The method in all ways has been proven to work in the concept study and based on the findings, if implemented on an EV’s or HEV’s electric drive line and the same functionality is observed, be used as a diagnostics method of the battery of the vehicle.

  • 29.
    Donnerin, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Mouwafi, Adham
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Kommuner i interorganisatorisk samverkan: Att säkert och effektivt styra informationssäkerhetsarbete2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan mellan kommuner är något som varit en aktuell fråga för svenska myndigheter under en längre tid. Mer specifikt har en tydlig ökning identifierats sedan kommunallagen trädde i kraft 1991 och samverkansformen visade sig möta reella politiska behov på ett positivt sätt. Samtidigt har offentliga organisationer de senaste 15 åren gått från att förespråka skyddandet av information till att bli mer öppna och utbyta information över organisatoriska gränser.

    Denna kvalitativa fallstudie undersöker informationssäkerhet i en interorganisatorisk samverkan mellan svenska kommuner. Teorier som behandlas i uppsatsen är informationssäkerhet, information security governance och samverkan.

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka utmaningarna med styrning av informationssäkerhetsarbete i en interorganisatorisk samverkan mellan svenska kommuner. Vi ämnar således bidra till forskningen genom att dels förfina befintliga teorier kring de separata ämnesområdena men även utveckla teori där dessa ämnen möts. Vi syftar även till att bidra till praktiken genom att generera värdefull kunskap för de studerade organisationerna men även generalisera resultatet för liknande organisationer.

    Resultatet visar att vi identifierat ett antal centrala utmaningar där vissa är svårare att hantera än andra. En central utmaning är att det politiska självstyret är tydligt uttalat vilket sätter begräsningar för vad som är möjligt att realisera gemensamt. Vi kan även konstatera att resurser och prioriteringar påverkas av detta. Vi har presenterat ett antal förslag på behov som kan beaktas, både internt i kommunerna men även gemensamt över kommunala gränser. De rekommendationer vi har till kommunerna är att ta ett steg tillbaka gällande samverkan, detta då de ligger på så pass olika nivåer och kan få svårt att skapa en gemensam grund. Kommunerna bör även fokusera på den interna verksamheten och öka säkerhetsmedvetandet för att bli mer redo för att ingå i en samverkan. Uppfylls detta kan de börja fokusera på att anta principer och andra gemensamma aktiviteter som till exempel utbildningar. Detta gör att informationssäkerhetsarbetet går från att vara reaktivt till att bli mer proaktivt. Detta är något som vi anser att både offentliga- och privata organisationer borde sträva mot men även forskare borde ta hänsyn till. 

  • 30.
    Nord, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hjärt-lungräddningsutbildning i årskurs 7. Instruktörsledd eller filmbaserad, vilken pedagogisk metod är effektivast?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare students’ practical CPR skills and attitude to perform bystander CPR after instructor-led versus DVD-based training.

    Method:  Data was collected through a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. CPR skills were assessed of 80 seventh grade students during a three minutes practical test, directly after training and at three months follow up by using a PC Skill Reporting System. For CPR skills a total score, 12-48 points, was calculated.  A hypothesis is that there is no difference between training methods regarding students' total score, which means that the DVD-based method is more efficient when performed with the whole class. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted immediately after the training to investigate students' motivation to make a life-saving effort.

    Result: There were no significant differences between the instructor-led or the DVD-based group regarding CPR skills, a total score of 33 points versus 34 points directly after training and 31 points versus 30 points at three months, respectively.Most students felt spontaneously that they had enough knowledge to make a life-saving effort, but the follow-up questions showed that the majority of the responders, felt worry and fear of lack of sufficient knowledge, to harm the victim or to make mistakes in a life-saving situation. Some students described that feedback after the practical test, helped to strengthen the student's self-esteem, which can be difficult to find time for when training in large groups.One possible conclusion is that the DVD-based method is more efficient in number of participants trained, but with support of the socio-cultural theory, it should in future trainings aside more time for joint learning, valorization of issues and deposition of time for individual and collective reflection.

  • 31.
    Backlund, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörensson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valuta och internationellt bistånd: Svenska biståndsorganisationers hantering av valutaköp och valutarisk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are active in most parts of the world and are consequently exposed to foreign exchange risk. The organizations manage aid funds in both common and uncommon types of currency when they in different ways finance local cooperation partners. The amount of previous research how aid organizations handle the management of currency trade and foreign exchange risk is limited and this study aims to examine the area further.

    Aim: The study aims to analyse the complex of problems regarding exposure to foreign exchange risk for both Swedish NGOs and their cooperation partners, to do so on the basis of foreign exchange risk theory and best practice. The aim is in such a way to discuss general strategies for currency trade and foreign exchange risk management for Swedish NGOs.

    Completion: The qualitative approach consists of nine interviews that have been designed in accordance with theory and previous research. A picture of the organizational processes and needs of Swedish NGOs regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management was given by five interviews with NGOs. Information concerning how foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management is utilized in practice and how experts in the field perceive current management of NGOs was gathered from four interviews with actors within foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management. The empirical data is analysed on the basis of the theoretical framework and previous research.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the complex of problems regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management are not as straightforward as at first glance. It also indicates that foreign exchange risk management differs between for-profit businesses and non-profit organizations. It appears that NGOs currently transfer all foreign exchange risk exposure to its counterpart through contracts. The investigation and implementation of foreign exchange risk management is not possible for NGOs with a large ratio of restricted funds. Finally a number of strategies have been developed for a more cost-effective currency trade. 

  • 32.
    Mahbouba, Raid
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nonlinear mixed effects models for longitudinal DATA2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of this master thesis are to explore the effectiveness of nonlinear mixed effects model for longitudinal data. Mixed effect models allow to investigate the nature of relationship between the time-varying covariates and the response while also capturing the variations of subjects. I investigate the robustness of the longitudinal models by building up the complexity of the models starting from multiple linear models and ending up with additive nonlinear mixed models. I use a dataset where firms’ leverage are explained by four explanatory variables in addition to a grouping factor that is the firm factor. The models are compared using comparison statistics such as AIC, BIC and by a visual inspection of residuals. Likelihood ratio test has been used in some nested models only. The models are estimated by maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood estimation. The most efficient model is the nonlinear mixed effects model which has lowest AIC and BIC. The multiple linear regression model failed to explain the relation and produced unrealistic statistics

  • 33.
    Gustavsson, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mlivic, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Medelstora företags inköpsarbete och affärsrelation med en större leverantör2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Purchasing has been more acknowledged during the last couple of years.Higher demands from customers have led to companies seeingadvantages with close business relationships. However, medium-sizedenterprises have influences from both big and small enterprises and it istherefore hard to know what starting position they have in businessrelationships. The literature review shows that research is lacking foronly medium-sized enterprise’s buying process. Therefore it isinteresting to study purchasing in medium-sized enterprises with focuson their business relationship with a larger supplier, to be able to see howboth parties perceive the business relationship and if medium-sizedenterprises can be classified in the same definition.

    Aim

    The aim with this study is to gain a greater insight of purchasing inmedium-sized enterprises, with a focus on their business relationshipwith a larger supplier. The study aims to gain a bigger insight of how acustomer and its supplier perceive and manage the business relationship.

    Methodology

    The study has a qualitative approach and is built on a case-study withinterviews from one supplier and three customers, to gain a biggerinsight of purchasing and to be able to see how each party perceive thebusiness relationship.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study show that medium-sized enterprises work a lot tomake purchasing more efficient and they all believe that purchasing is avalue adding function. Therefore they should not be classified in thesame definition as small-sized enterprises. One of the most importantcomponents in a business relationship is trust and power should not beused.

  • 34.
    Haglund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wåhlberg, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge transfer between projects: Exploring the receiver’s perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How to facilitate the knowledge transfer between projects is a field that has obtained a lot of attention in research. Despite this wide attention, many organizations still experience difficulties to efficiently transfer knowledge between their projects and thus the problems still remain, which appears contradictory. Previous research has had a tendency to assume that all knowledge can be articulated and codified, which has resulted in that solutions to these problems often have been directed towards the side in the transfer that creates the supply of knowledge. However, limited research has taken the receiver of the knowledge into consideration when analyzing these difficulties, who is considered to be equally influential to motivate a transfer.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of the challenges concerning the knowledge transfer from past to future projects, by exploring the importance of incorporating the receiver’s perspective in the analysis of knowledge transfer practices.

    Methodology: This study has applied a qualitative research methodology where the empirical data has been obtained through an interview-study with nine onsite interviews in two different firms, ABB and SIEMENS. Furthermore, documents were studied in order to compliment and increase the understanding of the information provided in the interviews.

    Conclusions: By incorporating the receiver in the analysis we can conclude that the practices applied are not efficient in actually transferring the complete knowledge. Herewith, socialization becomes vital as a complement to these practices in order to also transfer the ‘hidden’ explicit knowledge as well as tacit knowledge that the receiver is in need of. The findings thus demonstrate the importance of taking the nature of knowledge into account when investigating the challenges with current knowledge transfer practices.

  • 35.
    Rozic, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Taxén, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Incentives for knowledge sharing in project based organizations: A case study at Sectra AB2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous research in the area of knowledge management shows that projectbased organizations often struggle with their employees resistance to shareknowledge with colleagues for reasons of self-interest. Other research show thatimplementing incentives to stimulate knowledge sharing behaviors has beenproven efficient. However, the fact that no previous research has touched uponthe topic in the context of project based organizations, motivated us to immerseourselves in the area.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to map how incentives stimulate knowledgesharing in project based organizations.

    Method

    A qualitative single-case study performed with semi-structured interviews on thedepartment of medical systems at project based Sectra AB.

    Conclusion

    The study highlights the value of combining incentives with clan control formotivating knowledge sharing in project based organizations. It indicates thatproject based organizations with help from incentives can stimulate knowledgesharing behaviors, both directly and indirectly.

  • 36.
    Sami, Abdul Wahab
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Area Efficient ADC for Low Frequency Application2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Analog to digital converters (ADCs) are the fundamental building blocks in communication

    systems. The need to design ADCs, which are area and/or power efficient, has been common.

    Various ADC architectures, constrained by resolution capabilities, can be used for this purpose.

    The cyclic algorithmic architecture of ADC with moderate number of bits comes out to be

    probably best choice for the minimum area implementation. In this thesis a cyclic ADC is

    designed using CMOS 65 nm technology. The ADC high-level model is thoroughly explored and

    its functional blocks are modelled to attain the best possible performance. In particular, the

    nonlinearities which affect the cyclic/algorithmic converter are discussed. This ADC has been

    designed for built-in-self-testing (BiST) on a chip. It is only functional during the testing phase,

    so power dissipation is not a constraint while designing it. As it is supposed to be integrated as

    an extra circuitry on a chip, its area really matters.

    The ADC is designed as 10-bit fully differential switch-capacitor (SC) circuit using 65nm

    CMOS process with 1.2V power supply. A two stage Operational Transconductance Amplifier

    (OTA) is used in this design to provide sufficient voltage gain. The first stage is a telescopic

    OTA whereas the second is a common source amplifier. The bottom plate sampling is used to

    minimize the charge injection effect which is present in the switches.

  • 37.
    Thalén, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manpower planning for airline pilots: A tabu search approach2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The airline industry faces some of the largest and most complicated optimization problems among all industries today. A large part of their costs iscrew costs and large savings can be made by efficient manpower planning. The research focus has been on the later steps in the planning process such as crew scheduling. The focus of this thesis is on the largely unexplored research area of staffing and transition planning for pilots. For the important question of which pilot should receive training to which position no solution strategy with optimization has, before this thesis, been presented. One reason for this might be that many complicated regulations concern this question, making an easily solved model impossible. I have developed a tabu search based algorithm with encouraging results. The algorithm was tested on data from Scandinavian Airlines. Compared to a reference algorithm based on commercial mixed integer programming software, the tabu search algorithm finds similar solutions about 30 times faster. I show how tabu search can be tailored to a specific complicated problem, and the results are good enough to not only be of theoretical interest but also of direct practical interest for use in the airline industry.

  • 38.
    Nezhadali, Vaheed
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Multi-objective optimization of Industrial robots2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robots are the most widely manufactured and utilized type of robots in industries. Improving the design process of industrial robots would lead to further developments in robotics industries. Consequently, other dependant industries would be benefited. Therefore, there is an effort to make the design process more and more efficient and reliable. The design of industrial robots requires studies in various fields. Engineering softwares are the tools which facilitate and accelerate the robot design processes such as dynamic simulation, structural analysis, optimization, control and so forth. Therefore, designing a framework to automate the robot design process such that different tools interact automatically would be beneficial. In this thesis, the goal is to investigate the feasibility of integrating tools from different domains such as geometry modeling, dynamic simulation, finite element analysis and optimization in order to obtain an industrial robot design and optimization framework. Meanwhile, Meta modeling is used to replace the time consuming design steps. In the optimization step, various optimization algorithms are compared based on their performance and the best suited algorithm is selected. As a result, it is shown that the objectives are achievable in a sense that finite element analysis can be efficiently integrated with the other tools and the results can be optimized during the design process. A holistic framework which can be used for design of robots with several degrees of freedom is introduced at the end.

  • 39.
    Moritz, Matilda S. M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Verbruggen, Sanne E. L.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Post, Mark J.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Alternatives for large-scale production of cultured beef: A review2015In: JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE AGRICULTURE, ISSN 2095-3119, Vol. 14, no 2, 208-216 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultured beef is a method where stem cells from skeletal muscle of cows are cultured in vitro to gain edible muscle tissue. For large-scale production of cultured beef, the culture technique needs to become more efficient than todays 2-dimensional (2D) standard technique that was used to make the first cultured hamburger. Options for efficient large-scale production of stem cells are to culture cells on microcarriers, either in suspension or in a packed bed bioreactor, or to culture aggregated cells in suspension. We discuss the pros and cons of these systems as well as the possibilities to use the systems for tissue culture. Either of the production systems needs to be optimized to achieve an efficient production of cultured beef. It is anticipated that the optimization of large-scale cell culture as performed for other stem cells can be translated into successful protocols for bovine satellite cells resulting in resource and cost efficient cultured beef.

  • 40.
    Ericson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rationell småskalig tillverkning av trämöbler: -vad har det lilla snickeriet att vinna på samarbete med möbelkomponentindustrin?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have expanded our experiences of handcrafting furniture into larger scale furniture making. With us we’ve had thoughts of our own future occupation and the possibilities to combine small and large scale cabinet making. In getting to know parts of the Swedish industrial manufacturing offurniture components, we’ve wanted to extend our network of contacts as well as increase our knowledge of their equipment and work methods.We have chosen to use a product that we designed for the task, thus limiting our area. Our idea has been to compare the manufacturing of parts for this product in a small workshop and small scale industry. We have divided the production into various techniques and for each of these we’ve sought out specialized manufacturers, to be listed and for us to visit and learn from.We believe our study shows that there are good opportunities for the small wood workshop to add to its success by both learning from and cooperating with the small scale wood industries. The modus operandi and the machines we have seen during our visits to industries, would in many cases be possible to use in the small workshop. Techniques that have been especially exciting for us to highlight include efficient turning of straight components, turning of irregular shapes in copy milling machines as well asthe development of steam bending through compression. What we firstly believe to be most profitable for the small woodworking shop to purchase from small industries are different types of turned or copy-milled components alongside the advanced processing that can be easily done in a CNC machine. In the process we also learned that there are many factors, in some cases difficult to clearly acknowledge, that affect which path is feasible and appropriate to take.

  • 41.
    Noren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Per-face parameterization for Texture Mapping of Geometry in Real-Time2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the mesh colors method for per-face parameterization for texture-mapping of geometry, implemented in the game engine Frostbite 3, for the purpose of evaluating the method compared to traditional texture-mapping in a real-time application. Traditional UV-mapping often causes discontinuities which commonly results in visible seams in the end results. If any change is done to the vertex positions or the topology a remapping of the UV-map has to be done. Mesh colors aims to avoid these problems by skipping the transformation to 2D space as in UV-mapping, and associating color samples directly with the geometry of a mesh. The implementation was done in Frostbite 3 in C++ and HLSL shader code, and rendered with the DirectX graphics API. The results show that mesh colors is a viable alternative in a real-time renderer. Though not as fast as regular UV-mapped textures due to lack of hardware accelerated filtering operations, mesh colors is a realistic alternative for special cases where regular texture-mapping would be cumbersome to work with or produce sub-par results. Possible areas of future research are efficient data structures suitable to handle data insertion dynamically, compression of mesh colors data, and mesh colors in the context of mesh LOD generation.

  • 42.
    Karlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A GPU-based framework for efficient image processing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis tries to answer how to design a framework for image processing on the GPU, supporting the common environments OpenGL GLSL, OpenCL and CUDA. An generalized view of GPU image processing is presented. The framework is called gpuip and is implemented in C++ but also wrapped with Python-bindings. The framework is cross-platform and works for Windows, Mac OSX and Unix operating systems. The thesis also involves the work of creating two executable programs that uses the gpuip-framework. One of the programs has a graphical user interface and the other program is command-line only. Both programs are developed in Python. Performance tests are created to compare the GPU environments against a single core CPU implementation. All the GPU implementations in the gpuip-framework are significantly faster than the CPU when executing the presented test-cases. On average, the framework is two magnitudes faster than the single core CPU.

  • 43.
    Sand, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic Visualization of Space Weather Simulation Data2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is part of the Open Space project, a collaboration between Linköping University, NASA and the American Museum of Natural History. The long-term goal of Open Space is a multi-purpose, open-source scientific visualization software. The thesis covers the research and implementation of a pipeline for preparing and rendering volumetric data. The developed pipeline consists of three stages: A data formatting stage which takes data from various sources and prepares it for the rest of the pipeline, a pre-processing stage which builds a tree structure of of the raw data, and finally an interactive rendering stage which draws a volume using ray-casting. The pipeline is a fully working proof-of-concept for future development of Open Space, and can be used as-is to render space weather data using a combination of suitable data structures and an efficient data transfer pipeline. Many concepts and ideas from this work can be utilized in the larger-scale software project.

  • 44.
    Tiger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Activity Learning and Recognition in a Stream Processing Framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to recognize and predict common activities, performed by objects and observed by sensors, is an important and challenging problem related both to artificial intelligence and robotics.In this thesis, the general problem of dynamic adaptive situation awareness is considered and we argue for the need for an on-line bottom-up approach.A candidate for a bottom layer is proposed, which we consider to be capable of future extensions that can bring us closer towards the goal.We present a novel approach to adaptive activity learning, where a mapping between raw data and primitive activity concepts are learned and continuously improved on-line and unsupervised. The approach takes streams of observations of objects as input and learns a probabilistic representation of both the observed spatio-temporal activities and their causal relations. The dynamics of the activities are modeled using sparse Gaussian processes and their causal relations using probabilistic graphs.The learned model supports both estimating the most likely activity and predicting the most likely future (and past) activities. Methods and ideas from a wide range of previous work are combined to provide a uniform and efficient way to handle a variety of common problems related to learning, classifying and predicting activities.The framework is evaluated both by learning activities in a simulated traffic monitoring application and by learning the flight patterns of an internally developed autonomous quadcopter system. The conclusion is that our framework is capable of learning the observed activities in real-time with good accuracy.We see this work as a step towards unsupervised learning of activities for robotic systems to adapt to new circumstances autonomously and to learn new activities on the fly that can be detected and predicted immediately.

  • 45.
    Hirani, Shyam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Black-Litterman Asset Allocation Model: An Empirical Comparison to the Classical Mean-Variance Framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the scope of this thesis, the Black-Litterman Asset Allocation Model (as presented in He & Litterman, 1999) is compared to the classical mean-variance framework by simulating past performance of portfolios constructed by both models using identical input data. A quantitative investment strategy which favours stocks with high dividend yield rates is used to generate private views about the expected excess returns for a fraction of the stocks included in the sample. By comparing the ex-post risk-return characteristics of the portfolios and performing ample sensitivity analysis with respect to the numerical values assigned to the input variables, we evaluate the two models’ suitability for different categories of portfolio managers. As a neutral benchmark towards which both portfolios can be measured, a third market-capitalization-weighted portfolio is constructed from the same investment universe. The empirical data used for the purpose of our simulations consists of total return indices for 23 of the 30 stocks included in the OMXS30 index as of the 21st of February 2014 and stretches between January of 2003 and December of 2013.

     

    The results of our simulations show that the Black-Litterman portfolio has delivered risk-adjusted return which is superior not only to that of its market-capitalization-weighted counterpart but also to that of the classical mean-variance portfolio. This result holds true for four out of five simulated strengths of the investment strategy under the assumption of zero transaction costs, a rebalancing frequency of 20 trading days, an estimated risk aversion parameter of 2.5 and a five per cent uncertainty associated with the CAPM prior. Sensitivity analysis performed by examining how the results are affected by variations in these input variables has also shown notable differences in the sensitivity of the results obtained from the two models. While the performance of the Black-Litterman portfolio does undergo material changes as the inputs are varied, these changes are nowhere near as profound as those exhibited by the classical mean-variance portfolio.

     

    In the light of our empirical results, we also conclude that there are mainly two aspects which the portfolio manager ought to consider before committing to one model rather than the other. Firstly, the nature behind the views generated by the investment strategy needs to be taken into account. For the implementation of views which are of an α-driven character, the dynamics of the Black-Litterman model may not be as appropriate as for views which are believed to also influence the expected return on other securities. Secondly, the soundness of using market-capitalization weights as a benchmark towards which the final solution will gravitate needs to be assessed. Managers who strive to achieve performance which is fundamentally uncorrelated to that of the market index may want to either reconsider the benchmark weights or opt for an alternative model.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Redesign av reduktionsutrustning i asselvalsverk inom stålindustri: Ett examensarbete utfört på konstruktionsbyrån BEKAB mot stålindustriföretaget Ovako2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in seamless steel tubes with large outside diameters in relation to thin wall thickness has increased along with the strength improvements in various steel grades. This makes it possible to produce lighter, cheaper and more material-efficient steel products with the same or greater strength as before.

    These new development directions bring changes and challenges in one of the company Ovako's production lines in Tube Mill 5 Hofors, which they need to cooperate with the design agency BEKAB to evaluate and develop.

    In Ovako's production line in Tube Mill 5 there is a part of an assel mill called "förreducerare". Ovako sees a lot of interest in evaluating and developing this part of the assel mill in order to better adapt to the new development directions. A well-known challenge of the existing reduction equipment is that it was initially developed to reduce a quality issue with the tube products called funnel formation. The project therefore immerses itself into the funnel formation in order to better understand the foundations of the current design of the reduction equipment and to then implement a redesign of the reduction equipment.

    A situation analysis of the current reduction equipment reveals a number of different production issues with their accompanying quality issues in the tube products. The project thus chooses to focus on the production issues that would have the greatest impact on the reduction equipment if they were resolved. This results in a new product concept of the reduction equipment in the form of a visual 3D-CAD-model with associated strength calculations and material optimization.

    The study covers topics such as design, engineering, product development, material strength calculations and material optimization.

  • 47.
    Szalai-Krausz, Vivien
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Rule of Law Framework of the European Union: A Council of Europe approach: co-operation as the pre-condition of efficiency2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the new Rule of Law Framework (RoLF) of the European Union (EU) from the Council of Europe’s (CoE) perspective. The European Commission was called for to provide an effective solution to the recent fundamental rights breaches in the EU member states. As a result, the EU’s rule of law initiative was started to prevent and protect member states from such breaches. Several actors were involved in the initiative: the EU included NGOs and international organisations in the process which culminated in the RoLF. The aim of the thesis is to explore the RoLF’s efficiency in the light of the fear for duplication by the CoE. The CoE being the benchmark for human rights, democracy and rule of law in Europe, have such mechanisms in place that are working and respected across Europe. The EU member states are also the member states of the CoE, so they are already bound by their obligations to the CoE conventions, mechanisms and standards. This is why the CoE observes closely the EU’s progress on fundamental rights protection. It followed and participated in the negotiation process of the rule of law initiative closely and expressed its support. Based on this process, on the existing competencies of the CoE, under the egis of co-operation this thesis aims to determine whether the RoLF is an efficient instrument in the European realm of fundamental rights protection. 

  • 48.
    Nilsek, Emmie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Networks2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a comparison between a basic shortest path routing policy of the Destination-Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) protocol and two power-aware policy variations of it. In the two modified versions, the routes are selected based on the energy available on the nodes and not only the shortest path distance to the destination. Simulations are conducted for a given situation of nodes and the energy efficiency of the three aforementioned policies are evaluated for example scenarios.

    First, a brief overview of the theory behind the study is presented. It consists of an description of ad hoc networking, DSDV, and our energy-aware modifications to DSDV.

    After the fundamental theory, the method is presented. It consists of a description of how the simulated scenarios relates to a real-world scenario and the simplifications made in the model. We present an overview of the model used for simulation and the operation of the program. This section ends with an explanation of the three simulated policies: shortest path, simple weighted and doubled weighted.

    When the theory behind the thesis are completed, the simulations are conducted. The results are examined and a summary of their meaning is discussed. It is explained how the assumptions effect the reliability of the study and an estimation of the accuracy of the results are presented.

    We find that the power-aware policy variations (simple weighted and double weighted) both achieve better network lifetime than the basic shortest path policy, at the cost of slightly longer per-packet paths. These results are encouraging and show that very simple modifications to DSDV can achieve significant gains in the network lifetime, helping users get the most out of their networks. Future investigation could try to optimize these gains.

  • 49.
    Prosén, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Byström, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    På spaning efter integration: En studie om integration mellan marknadsfunktioner och logistikfunktioner inom svenska detaljhandelsföretag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous studies highlight the importance of integration between the marketing function and logistics function since it leads to several bene- fits for an organization. For example, an organization can in a more efficient way meet customers’ expectations regarding product availability and delivery service when the functions are integrated. It only exists limited studies on how integration between marketing functions and logistics functions appear in practice. An empirical gap in knowledge regarding integration between marketing functions and logistics functions in Swedish retail companies was detected. This knowledge gap has been the basis for this study.

    Aim

    This study aims to analyze whether or not the marketing functions and the logistics functions within Swedish retail companies are integrated, and in that case, to analyze how they are integrated.

    Execution

    To achieve the aim of this study, interviews were conducted with employyees of the marketing function and the logistics function within three Swedish retail companies. These companies were Cervera, Glitter and KappAhl. Observations were made in two of each company's stores to examine the availability of current campaign products. During the observations interviews were conducted with the stores manager. Finally, interviews were made with industry participants to investigate their experience of integration between marketing functions and logistics functions within the retail industry.

    Conclusion

    This study indicates that market functions and logistics functions within Swedish retail companies can be considered integrated to some extent but it also indicates that the integration can be improved. The functions are primarily integrated by exchanging documents, sharing resources, having a desire to achieve goals together and by sharing a vision and having a common planning. During periods with product campaigns it is important with an effective integration of the two functions since they need to share information. In Swedish retail companies the integration between the functions is affected by the organizational culture, organizational structure, communication, information systems and the physical placement of the functions.

  • 50.
    Skoglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solar landfills: A study of the concept in a Swedish setting2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing global energy demand, which today is mainly supplied by energy sources with a fossil origin, is a severe threat to the environment and to the security of supply. In order to handle these problems, renewable energy sources are promoted globally as well as nationally in Sweden. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the most mature and commercial renewable energy technologies and could play a vital role in phasing out fossil energy sources. In the emerging, promising concept of solar landfills, PV systems are installed on closed landfill sites in order to combine renewable electricity production with resource efficient use of land. In this study the legal, technical and financial aspects concerning a solar landfill project in a Swedish setting were investigated. Additionally, the potential of the concept on a regional level in Sweden was analysed. The methodology used in the study featured literature research, interviews, and a feasibility assessment of a solar landfill project on Visby landfill.

    Regarding the legal aspects linked to a solar landfill project, an inconsistency between Swedish municipalities concerning the need of a building permit for a ground mounted PV system was revealed in the study. While some municipalities demand a building permit, others do not. Additionally, the fact that a closed landfill usually is classified as an environmentally hazardous activity doesn’t result in any need for additional permissions for a PV system installation on a closed landfill. Therefore, such legal aspects are not likely to hinder a solar landfill project to any great extent.

    Considering the technical aspects, the choice of mounting system must be done carefully because of the special conditions which exist on a landfill site; such as ground penetration restrictions and risks of settlement. While a ballasted mounting system can avoid ground penetration, a driven pile mounting system generally features a lighter construction. Furthermore, a fixed tilt mounting system is preferred over a sun tracking mounting system due to the extra weight and sensitivity to settlement which comes with the latter choice. Regarding the choice of PV modules, thin film modules generally feature a lower weight and can therefore be advantageous in comparison with crystalline silicon modules. In the case of Visby landfill, where penetration was preferred to be avoided but where the risk of settlement was considered low, the PV system which was deemed most suitable for the site featured a ballasted fixed tilt mounting system with crystalline silicon PV modules.

    Considering the financial aspects, the study emphasises the importance of using the produced electricity to offset consumed electricity in order to enable a sound investment. This can be done by a wise choice of owning and financing structure where the produced electricity offsets consumed electricity for a large consumer, e.g. an industry or a grocery store, or for a number of residences in a community solar. The economic feasibility also heavily depends on the projects’ possibility to use policy incentives and tax exemptions. The feasibility assessment of Visby landfill showed that the most economically feasible investment was possible by founding a community solar which offsets the members’ consumed electricity. Such an investment would feature a 10 year payback time and an internal rate of return of 8.3 %.

    Finally, the potential of the solar landfill concept on a regional level was identified as significant. In a scenario where the PV system suggested for Visby landfill in the feasibility assessment is installed on all the suitable landfill sites on Gotland, the island has the possibility to produce 22 GWh of electricity from solar landfills, thereby meeting the regional energy goal set for 2020.

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