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  • 1.
    Hakim, Ali
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Characterization of Hard Metal Surfaces after Various Surface Process Treatments2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how material surfaces are affected by various surface treatments and how this relates to the adhesion of the coating. The materials that were studied were WC-Co and Cermets and the surface treatments used were polishing, grinding with coarser and finer abrasive grains, and finally wet blasting and dry blasting. Focus was on deformations and residual stresses in the surface, surface roughness and cracks. The test methods used for examining the samples included surface roughness measurements, residual stress measurements, adhesion tests using Rockwell indentation and SEM images of the surface and the cross section.

    The results concluded that polishing gives very good adhesion. Additionally, the adhesion for ground surfaces was good for WC-Co but very poor for Cermets. Furthermore, it was observed that finer abrasive grains did not result in better adhesion. In fact, the coarser grains gave slightly better results. Finally, it was concluded that wet blasting has a clear advantage over dry blasting and results in much better adhesion, especially for the Cermets. The results for the WC-Co were a bit inconsistent and so further research is required.

  • 2.
    Musimiire, Angela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Chakhnashvili, Maka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Product Adaptation to Different Markets through Technology Innovation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Markets are getting increasingly complex, competitive and changing. A firm’s ability to respond to environmental challenges is a significant factor for its survival and success. To establish itself in the market, a company needs to adjust the product in a way that meets the expectations and required quality of the target market in other words, make relevant product adaptations. Many aspects of product adaptation have been discussed in the literature ranging from small changes in the product such as specification or design to modifying a company’s market strategy depending on which stage the product is in its life cycle. Technology innovation can enable a firm keep the market share and retain customers especially in a mature and technology driven industry where the market is saturated and consumers diffuse to competitors who easily copy the product. However, the role of technology innovation to adapt a product in the growth stage to mature markets is missing from the present literature. This present thesis will investigate the role of technology innovation in product adaptation and the factors to consider thereof the Swedish high tech company Saab will be used as the case study.

    Methodology: Research method for the present thesis includes the qualitative approach with the case study design. For the purposes of this thesis the Swedish high-tech company Saab will be studied to explore the practices of adapting product (field hospital) to different markets.

    Completion and results: Result of the study showed that there are similarities and differences between what literature provides and Saab does to adapt a product in markets. Analyzing the theory and practice recommendations for Saab were concluded. Suggestions drown for Saab can be useful for other high technology companies as well.

  • 3.
    Tenselius, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Medförsäkring: Särskilt om det försäkrade intressets betydelse vid medförsäkring2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige och övriga Norden används i försäkringsrättsliga sammanhang begreppet ”försäkrat intresse”, ett begrepp som enkelt beskrivs som en definition av vad det är vi försäkrar. Ett intresse är även ett krav för att över huvud taget kunna erhålla försäkrings- skydd. Det föreligger dock många oklarheter och delade meningar avseende begreppets innebörd. Det är i nuläget även oklart vilken betydelse intressebegreppet har inom försäkringsrätten till följd av att begreppet inte används i lagtext lika mycket i försäkringsavtalslagen (2005:104) (FAL) som i lag (1927:77) om försäkringsavtal (GFAL). Intressebegreppets betydelse bli än mer intressant när den ställs i relation till ett annat försäkringsrättsligt spörsmål, nämligen medförsäkring. Avseende med- försäkring föreligger oklarheter avseende vem som egentligen kan anses som medförsäkrad. Detta skapar oklarheter som innebär att tredje man som visserligen kan ha ett försäkringsbart intresse inte anses som medförsäkrad, vilket i sin tur resulterar i stor osäkerhet.

    Denna uppsats syftar till att bringa klarhet i och utreda ovanstående problematik och oklarheter. I denna uppsats utreds vad intressebegreppet innebär med dagens rättsläge och vem samt vilka intressen som är försäkrade. Vidare används intressebegreppet för att utreda vad det innebär att vara medförsäkrad och om det finns situationer där tredje man kan anses vara medförsäkrad utan att det uttryckligen framgår av lag, försäkrings- villkor eller avtal, endast genom att ha ett starkt försäkringsbart intresse. Den sistnämnda utredningen innehåller även en entreprenadförsäkringsdel, i vilken det utreds om en beställare som inte är byggherre, kan vara medförsäkrad p.g.a. sitt intresse i entreprenaden, även om denne inte enligt AB 04 träffas av entreprenörens försäkringsplikt. Uppsatsen innehåller en utredning baserad på relevant försäkringsrättslig lagstiftning med tillhörande förarbeten både från Sverige, Norge och Danmark, försäkringsvillkor från Länsförsäkringar samt relevant rättspraxis. Avseende rättspraxis diskuteras vissa rent försäkringsrättsliga fall, bl.a. det mycket kritiserade NJA 2001 s. 711 (Securitasfallet), och några rättsfall inriktade på entreprenad, bl.a. HovR T 2537-11 (LF Skaraborg mot Skanska). 

  • 4.
    Polivka, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Break-up fees vid offentliga uppköpserbjudanden på aktiemarknaden?: – Särskilt mot bakgrund av målbolagsstyrelsens skyldighet att beakta aktieägarnas intresse2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett offentligt uppköpserbjudande innebär att ett aktiebolag, budgivaren, lämnar ett erbjudande ställt på generella villkor till aktieägarna i ett annat aktiebolag, målbolaget, i syfte att förvärva aktierna i det sistnämnda bolaget. Offentliga uppköpserbjudanden är vanligt förekommande på den svenska värdepappersmarknaden och eftersom transaktioner av detta slag är väldigt komplexa är det av stor vikt att förtroendet för marknaden upprätthålls under sådana förfaranden. 

    En viktig faktor för att upprätthålla förtroendet för aktiemarknaden på ett effektivt sätt är att självreglering föreligger. För Sveriges del utgörs självregleringen av-seende offentliga uppköpserbjudaden av de s.k. Takeover-reglerna (TO-reglerna). Den senaste revideringen av TO-reglerna skedde den 1 februari år 2015 och med-förde ett förbud mot s.k. budrelaterade arrangemang, även kallat break-up fees. Break-up fees är ett avtal som ingås mellan budgivare och målbolag i syfte att målbolaget ska vara skyldigt att utge en ersättning till budgivaren ifall förvärvet inte fullföljs.

    Break-up fees skapades under 1980-talet i USA och används flitigt än i dag på den amerikanska aktiemarknaden i syfte att främst åstadkomma en ”försäkringsfunktion” för budgivaren vid takeovers. För budgivaren är offentliga uppköpserbjudanden nämligen ofta förenade med stora kostnader till följd av omfattande förberedelser. Genom denna ”försäkring” uppnås en kostnadstäckningsfunktion och minskar således den ekonomiska risken som är förenad med takeovers.

    Den senaste revideringen har sin grund i de ändringar som tidigare hade skett i den brittiska motsvarigheten till TO-reglerna. I Storbritannien ansågs det vara nödvändigt att införa ett förbud mot break-up fees eftersom denna typ av avtal ansågs begränsa målbolaget vid takeover-förfaranden. Break-up fees ansågs således resultera i en otillbörlig fördel för budgivaren. Liknande resonemang anfördes under arbetet med de svenska reglerna vilket resulterade i ett svenskt förbud mot break-up fees. Förbudet är emellertid inte absolut utan Aktiemarknadsnämnden (AMN) har möjlighet att lämna dispens från förbudet. 

    Även om break-up fees är vanligt förekommande i USA har avtal av detta slag endast förekommit i mycket ringa omfattning i Sverige. Till följd av detta väcker förbudet mot break-up fees en stor osäkerhet beträffande de konsekvenser som förbudet kommer resultera i och huruvida förbudet borde ha införts i svensk rätt.

    Den amerikanska forskningen visar att break-up fees resulterar bl.a. i att målbolag försätts i en god förhandlingsposition, uppnår riskminimering till följd av ovannämnda kostnadstäckning, skapar förtroende för aktiemarknaden i allmänhet och transaktionen i synnerhet. Forskningen visar även att fler takeovers fullföljs ifall en break-up fee har ingåtts mellan parterna. 

    I detta arbete förs resonemang beträffande anledningen till att de svenska TO-reglerna har följt utvecklingen av de motsvarande brittiska reglerna och således införandet av förbud mot break-up fees. Det diskuteras även huruvida målbolagsstyrelsen är förhindrad att p.g.a. det aktuella förbudet fullgöra sina skyldigheter enligt gällande rätt. Vidare diskuteras hur aktieägarskyddet vid offentliga uppköpserbjudanden är uppbyggt i svensk rätt mot bakgrund av brittisk och amerikansk rätt samt huruvida förbudet mot break-up fees kan anses resultera i att målbolagsstyrelsens roll försvagas och aktieägarskyddet försvagas. Därtill kommer att en de lege ferenda-diskussion förs vari fenomenet break-up fees jämförs med gällande rätt rörande försvarsåtgärder. I syfte att belysa de konsekvenser som förbudet kan medföra problematiseras även förbudet mot break-up fees mot bakgrund av bestämmelsen avseende insiderbrott och break-up fees praktiska funktioner i olika rättssystem.

    Undertecknad kommer i detta arbete fram till att förbudet mot break-up fees torde bl.a. resultera i att budgivare och målbolag kommer hädanefter att söka sig till att uppnå andra deal protection-avtal. Vidare torde förbudet varken resultera i att målbolagets roll stärks eller i ett ökat skydd för målbolagets aktieägare. Därtill anses förbudet resultera i en maktobalans mellan AMN och målbolagsstyrelsen, vilket är negativ ur ett företagsekonomiskt perspektiv. Mot bakgrund av detta och ett antal andra skäl kommer undertecknad fram till slutsatsen att ett förbud mot break-up fees borde ej ha införts i svensk rätt.  

  • 5.
    Aria, Erfan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of automated vehicle effects on driver’s behavior and traffic performance2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) offer the possibility of helping drivers to fulfill their driving tasks. Automated vehicles are capable of communicating with surrounding vehicles (V2V) and infrastructure (V2I) in order to collect and provide essential information about driving environment. Studies have proved that automated vehicles have a potential to decrease traffic congestion on road networks by reducing the time headway, enhancing the traffic capacity and improving the safety margins in car following. Furthermore, vehicle movement and driver’s behavior of conventional vehicles will be affected by the presence of automated vehicles in traffic networks. Despite different encouraging factors, automated driving raises some concerns such as possible loss of situation awareness, overreliance on automation and degrading driving skills in absence of practice. Moreover, coping with complex scenarios, such as merging at ramps and overtaking, in terms of interaction between automated vehicles and conventional vehicles need more research. This thesis work aims to investigate the effects of automated vehicles on driver’s behavior and traffic performance. A broad literature review in the area of driving simulators and psychological studies was performed to examine the automated vehicle effects on driver’s behavior. Findings from the literature survey, which has been served as setup values in the simulation study of the current work, reveal that the conventional vehicles, which are driving close to the platoon of automated vehicles with short time headway, tend to reduce their time headway and spend more time under their critical time headway. Additionally, driving highly automated vehicles is tedious in a long run, reduce situation awareness and can intensify driver drowsiness, exclusively in light traffic. In order to investigate the influences of automated vehicles on traffic performance, a microscopic simulation case study consisting of different penetration rates of automated vehicles (0, 50 and 100 percentages) was conducted in VISSIM software. The scenario network is a three-lane autobahn segment of 2.9 kilometers including an off-ramp, on-ramp and a roundabout with some surrounding urban roads. Outputs of the microscopic simulation in this study reveal that the positive effects of automated vehicles on roads are especially highlighted when the network is crowded (e.g. peak hours). This can definitely count as a constructive point for the future of road networks with higher demands. In details, average density of autobahn segment remarkably decreased by 8.09% during p.m. peak hours in scenario with automated vehicles. Besides, Smoother traffic flow with less queue in the weaving segment was observed. Result of the scenario with 50% share of automated vehicles moreover shows a feasible interaction between conventional vehicles and automated vehicles. Meaningful outputs of this case study, based on the input data from literature review, demonstrate the capability of VISSIM software to simulate the presence of automated vehicles in great extent, not only as an automated vehicle scenario but also a share of them, in traffic network. The validity of the output values nonetheless needs future research work on urban and rural roads with different traffic conditions.

  • 6.
    Rundqvist, Mikael (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Staten som förebild?: om planer, insatser och utfall i 17 myndigheters arbete med etnisk mångfald2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The “State as a Role Model” report (Staten som förebild?) deals with the observance of the federal politicians’ regulatory instructions and ethnic diversity work in government authorities. The general idea is that the integration policy be taken seriously, both through giving concrete substance to the objective, of the state serving as a model, when it comes to ethnic diversity, and through examining adherence to this objective. The report focuses on planning, initiatives and outcomes. Working on the basis of the regulations set out by Swedish parliament and Government, the action plans of 17 federal authorities are examines with respect to ethnic diversity, the 17 authorities are asked about their work with diversity, and the outcome in their personnel numbers are mapped. The relationships between planning, initiatives and outcomes are considered, as are the regulatory instructions.

    Of the 17 authorities selected, 15 have drawn up action plans for promoting ethnic diversity. Generally speaking, most of these programs are weak from a content perspective, and the authorities’ diversity work is in need of holistic thinking. Methods for incorporating the integration policy into current day-to-day activities need to be developed.

    One overall impression gained from the interviews with the authorities is that internal work to increase and better utilize the diversity found in Swedish society is perceived as fairly new, and as yet both given relatively little reflection and rather shaky. All of the authorities interviewed need to further develop their diversity work, some more than others.

    When it comes to the outcome in personnel numbers, the percentage of foreign-born individuals working at the 17 authorities is in general considerably lower than the corresponding figure for foreign-born workers otherwise employed in the nation. The fact that foreign-born individuals are generally under-represented in federal administration is reflected in their also being under-represented in different occupations at the 17 authorities, especially with respect to management positions.

    One important observation is that, at most of the authorities surveyed in the study, there was a decline in the total number of employees between the years of 1997 and 2001, although this has not affected foreign-born employees, as is otherwise often the case. The need to hire new people at the 17 authorities during this period, as a whole, has been small. This means that any substantial changes in the composition of personnel through new recruitment have not been possible during the initial years of the integration policy.

    When focus is directed to the local and regional levels, and to the more concrete day-to-day work of the authorities, it becomes clear that an authority’s diversity work is characterized by the nature of its activities. Indepth study on the local and regional levels also shows the importance of organizing the work, as well as the importance of diversity for externally-oriented activities, and that diversity can be perceived as somewhat of a sensitive, new or unfamiliar issue. The closer analyses also show that organizations can follow independent strategies in relation to their plans for ethnic diversity.

    Even if no strong connections can be demonstrated between planning, initiatives and outcomes in the analysis in this report, the Swedish Integration Board feels it is too early to rule out the federal stipulation that authorities use special action plans in their work to promote ethnic diversity. One must remember that the integration policy is a new policy that involves long-range development processes, not all of which are subject to immediate impact. Before the policy is abandoned, the directives on diversity should be implemented in full. One way to make the policy more clear may be to write more specific demands into the directives and budget appropriations to the authorities.

  • 7.
    Berner, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Björkrot, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Grip, Didrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jonsson, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Kozma, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wikblad, Ludwig
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wikström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Österlund, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Festiketten: Developement of an E-commerce Web Application for custom designed bottle labels2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report examines how an online store for custom designed bottle labels can be developed as a web application, and aims to contribute to the existing research on web design. The development is based on the vision” to provide custom labels through an online store which puts the icing on the cake for your special occasion”, with persons in the age 25-40 who are planning a wedding or another large event as target group. The technical methods which can be used are presented in the report and what impact they had on the competitive aspects of the online store. Design strategies for building user trust are discussed among others, as essential parts of e-commerce according to the presented theory. Furthermore, the report presents more concrete technical methods for increasing the competitiveness such as faster loading times and search engine optimization. Especially loading times plays a central role for the success of a web application according to the related theory. The methods which has been used and why, considering the collected theory, are presented in the report. The conclusions of the report states that an online store successfully can be developed using an agile methodology such as Scrum and that it can take benefits from being implemented as a single page application. Developing a design tool for custom bottle labels proved to be a difficult balancing act between customization and simplicity. 

  • 8.
    Holm, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Energy-Efficient Mobile Communication with Cached Signal Maps2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data communication over cellular networks is expensive for the mobile device in terms of energy, especially when the received signal strength (RSS) is low. The mobile device needs to amplify its transmission power to compensate for noise leading to an increased energy consumption. This thesis focuses on developing a RSS map for the third generation cellular technology (3G) which can be stored locally at the mobile device, and can be used for avoiding expensive communication in low RSS areas.

    The proposed signal map is created by crowdsourced information collected from several mobile devices. An application is used to collect data in the mobile device of the user and the application periodically sends the information back to the server which computes the total signal map.

    The signal map is composed of three levels of information: RSS information, data rate tests and estimated energy levels. The energy level categorizes the energy consumption of an area into "High", "Medium" or "Low" based on the RSS, data rate test information and an energy model developed from physical power measurements. The coarse categorization provides an estimation of the energy consumption at each location. It is evaluated by collecting data traces on a smartphone at different locations and comparing the measured energy consumption at each location to the energy level categories of the map.

    The RSS prediction is preliminarily evaluated by collecting new data along a path and comparing how well it correlates to the signal map. The evaluation in this thesis shows that with the current collected data there are not enough observations in the map to properly estimate the RSS. However, we believe that with more observations a more accurate evaluation could be done.

  • 9.
    Hogla, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Kvinnliga tv-spelshjältar: En kritisk diskursanalys av hur kvinnliga protagonister skildras i tv-spel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how female protagonists in video games are portrayed. The material analysed consist of two game series of ten games each, which means a total empirical material of 20 games. The game series chosen for analysis are Metroid with its protagonist Samus Aran and Tomb Raider with Lara Croft as its protagonist. These game franchises were chosen because they have the bestselling video game heroines.

    The method used for this study has been a critical discourse analysis and the results show both a validated and contradicted result. The theories and the result from the analysis can confirm that female video game characters and especially protagonists are visually portrayed in an objectified sexualised manner. The contradiction is shown in the descriptions of the two female leads where they are both depicted as strong, confident and independent women in their fields of expertise.

  • 10.
    Jarting, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Persson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Organizational Effects of Using SaaS Systems in SMEs2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The cloud" has been a hot subject the last couple of years, and has been considered especially attractive to SMEs due to making it possible for whole information systems to be fully managed by the vendor. This can unburden the customer organization regarding for example large investment costs, hardware and software maintenance, while also adding flexibility and scalability.

    There are three types of service models: infrastructure, platform and software, which dictate what the customer and vendor manages. In Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), which is the focus of this study, a third part manages both the applications and hardware and the users access these resources through the Internet. However, with the usage of SaaS comes several issues for companies to handle and make use of, for example security and mobility.

    This master thesis' aim is to present organizational effects of SaaS usage in SME user companies, by studying customer organizations post implementation. A qualitative comparative study was conducted where we held semi-structured interviews with SME users mainly at their own offices. In total six interviews were conducted at five different companies. At least two years usage experience was a criteria we set to ensure we could retrieve enough data from the companies.

    To fulfill the aim of the study we set out to find common issues affecting SMEs using SaaS systems. Through a pre-study, including literature studies and customer interviews, we determined which of the common issues that could be considered most relevant. Factors taken into consideration was how SaaS specific an issue was and how relevant it is in the post implementation phase, and how much data we were able to retrieve regarding an issue through the interviews. The relevant issues were: price model, vendor relation, frequent updates, mobility and integration. Further, five hypotheses were derived, one for each relevant issue regarding the organizational effects of SaaS usage.

    An analytical model was constructed mainly based on DeLone and McLean's (1992; 2003) original and updated Information System Success Model. The model helped in deriving organizational effects of usage from the different relevant issues. By using the analytical model with interview and literature study material we came up with the findings of this report, as described below.

    The possible price models enables companies to be more flexible with their IT portfolio. Also, it was concluded that the costs of SaaS are based upon usage, which could make it harder to estimate, especially if the usage varies. But it can also be a strength enabling customers to scale their usage as needed.

    In general, the vendor relation between a customer and vendor was not too complex, however with one exception. Our main discovery was that certain factors of SaaS usage affect the degree of experienced vendor lock-in differently. These include the nature of the pricing model, contract binding times and data ownership rights. Further, the level of trust and lock-in level could also affect the customer intention to change system.

    Frequent updates, which are managed by the vendor, reduce time and effort in regards to maintenance performed by customers. However, sometimes the updates could also cause problems when the customer had own configurations.

    The mobility offered by SaaS systems extends organizations ability to work. This includes increased geographical freedom for mainly employees of an organization.

    We found that integration is much more of a general issue for information systems. But in SaaS connection of services are possible and can thus enable further value than each service can on its own. However, integration also causes increased lock-in and system management.

  • 11.
    Högdahl, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conditional steepest descent directions over Cartesian product sets: With application to the Frank-Wolfe method2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We derive a technique for scaling the search directions of feasible direction methods when applied to optimization problems over Cartesian product sets. It is proved that when the scaling is included in a convergent feasible direction method, also the new method will be convergent. The scaling technique is applied to the Frank-Wolfe method, the partanized Frank-Wolfe method and a heuristic Frank-Wolfe method. The performance of  these algorithms with and without scaling is evaluated on the stochastic transportation problem. It is found that the scaling technique has the ability to improve the performance of some methods. In particular we observed a huge improvement in the performance of the partanized Frank-Wolfe method, especially when the scaling is used together with an exact line search and when the number of sets in the Cartesian product is large.

  • 12. Klompstra, Leonie
    et al.
    Jaarsma, TinyStrömberg, Anna
    Playing exergames by heart failure patients.2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Regular daily exercise is recognized as important in patients with heart failure (HF), but adherence to exercise recommendations is low. It is important to search for alternative approaches to motivate patients with HF to be more active. The use of exergames (games to improve physical exercise) might be an encouragement for HF patients, especially for people who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of exercise, such as going to the gym or take a walk outside. The aim of this study is to assess the self-reported time playing on the Wii exergame platform when patients get access to the Wii at home for 12 weeks and the factors related to the time playing.

    Methods: As part of a feasibility study, the Wii was installed in the home of HF patients for a period of 12 weeks and patients were instructed to exergame 20 minutes a day (e.g. virtual bowling or tennis). Patients completed a diary which contained questions about the amount of minutes exergaming, heart failure symptoms and perceived exertion. At baseline and 12 weeks the physical capacity was assessed by 6minute walking test. We compared patients who played more than the median amount of minutes on the Wii with patients who played less than the median time.

    Results:  Thirty-two HF patients (age 64 ± 14, 10 female) were included. The mean time exergaming was 28 (±13) minutes a day (median of 27 minutes). Two patients stopped exergaming during the study. Men played more minutes a day on the Wii (31 minutes) than women (20 minutes), (t =2.243, p <.033) which could not be explained by age. Both male and female patients decreased in time exergaming, comparing the first 6 weeks access to the Wii with the last 6 weeks, but no differences were found in the amount of minutes decrease in exergaming (-5±9) between man and women. Patients who played more than the median time were significant lower educated, had a lower NYHA class and had more often grandchildren than patients who exergamed less than the median time.  No association could be found between the groups in exercise capacity, motivation, self-efficacy, symptoms experience, perceived exertion with time exergaming.

    Conclusion: Patients with HF played a considerable time active games on the Wii during 12 months of access to the Wii. Although women exergamed less than men, they did not decrease more in playing then men during the study. Patients who increased more than the median amount of minutes exergaming had a lower educational level, lower NYHA class, and more patients had grandchildren than patients who exergamed less. Access to exergames seem to be a promising to keep HF patients motivated to be active and to provide social facilitation with grandchildren. 

  • 13. Klompstra, Leonie
    et al.
    Jaarsma, TinyStrömberg, Anna
    Gender differences in participation motives for exercise and exergaming in heart failure patients.2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Regular daily exercise is recognized as important in patients with heart failure (HF). The use of exergames (games to improve physical exercise) might be an encouragement for HF patients, especially for people who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of exercise. It is known that participation motives are important factors in able to become more physical active. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in participation motives before access to an exergame computer and the exercise motives after access to an exergame computer at home.

    Methods: The Wii was installed in the home of HF patients for a period of 12 weeks and patients were instructed to exergame 20 minutes a day (e.g. virtual bowling or tennis). Patients completed a questionnaire on baseline and 12 weeks which included the exercise motivation index (EMI), which measured participation motives. The EMI consists of 15 statements; each statement is followed by a five-point verbal rating from 0 (not important) to 4 (extremely important). Chi-square test was performed to look in gender in participation motives of the EMI and the ESE. P-values<.05 was considered significant.

    Results:  Thirty-two HF patients (age 64 ± 14, 10 female) were included. The exercise motives which scored important or extremely important on baseline were: ‘I want to be in better shape so that my clothes sit better’, ‘I want the ageing process to slow down and feel younger’, ‘Exercise increases my overall well-being’ and ‘I want to be healthier and live longer’. After 12 weeks access to the Nintendo Wii only the participation motive: ‘I want to be healthier and perhaps life longer’ scored important or extremely inportant. Gender differences were found in participation motives at baseline. Female patients significant agreed more on 6 participation motives compared to men: I want to be in better shape so my clothes fit better (3 vs 1), I am proud of myself when I exercise regularly (3 vs 1), I want to look good (2 vs. 1), I want to be as active as my family and my friends (2 vs 1), I feel successful when I am on better shape (3 vs 1) and I want to feel less physical vulnerable (3 vs 1). At 12 weeks there were fewer differences in participation motives. Difference were found where women agreed more on 2 participation motives than men: I want to be as active as my family and my friends (2 vs 1) and People who are in good shape will be admired, I want to be admired too (2 vs 1).

    Conclusion: This study shows gender differences in the participation motives in becoming physical active and exergaming. Women have more participation motives than men. After 12 weeks access to the Nintendo Wii we found less difference in the participation motives between men and women. Gender differences in participation motives in exergaming were due to social facilitation and I want to be admired, where women agreed more than men. 

  • 14.
    Mc Glinn, Sarah
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performing the Jersey: Subjectivity, Identity, and Change within the Scottish Football Culture2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before the days of cable television it was almost impossible to watch Scottish Football in Sweden. As such, my father would listen to all important Celtic games on the radio. He would go into his bedroom, close the door and listen intently to the crackling, yet passionate voices which tried vigorously to transmit scenes of green grass, screaming crowds, twenty-two men, and a ball, to all the people who lacked the good fortune of being at the stadium. I remember one occasion especially well: it was a Saturday in May, 1998; I was twelve years old and stood in the hall. As I peered through my parents bedroom door, I caught my father kissing the radio as it announced Celtic’s winning goal; the goal which stopped their opponents, Rangers, from winning ten Scottish leagues in a row. He was crying, laughing and yelling, all at once. And after the game had finished, he came down stairs, and we celebrated by putting on our favourite Celtic CD. Dancing, while singing classic Celtic songs, we revelled in ‘our’ victory.

    The memory of this day is dear to me, along with many other recollections I have of amazing afternoons which were spent singing (and sometimes crying), first with my father and, later also with his friends. Because when cable TV finally did come to my hometown Malmö in 1999, we formed a network. We joined forces with other people, (though mainly white, heterosexual men of working-class backgrounds), who, like us, loved Celtic, and thus wanted to watch them as often as they could. And together we sang the same songs which my father and I had danced to on that aforementioned day: the 9th of May 1998. In fact, he and I still sing many of those songs on a weekly basis, as do hundreds of thousands of other fans.

    Yet, some of these songs, as well as others performed by various Scottish clubs, have become increasingly criticised, and in some cases banned, for containing discriminatory, or bigoted ideas and language; an example of this critical shift can be gauged by e.g. the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Bill, which was passed by the Scottish Parliament on the 14th of December, 2011, and enacted on the 1st of March of the following year. The bill introduces new legislation which criminalizes offensive or threatening behaviour “likely to incite public disorder at certain football matches, and [which] provides for a criminal offence concerning the sending of communications which contain threats of serious violence or which contain threats intended to incite religious hatred” (The Scottish Parliament, 2011; My italics). This law is quite unique for a number of reasons. First, because it is specific to Scotland. Secondly, because it is a national law introduced to tackle the problem of mainly one city: Glasgow, and its famous rivalry between Celtic and Rangers, known as the ‘Old Firm’. Obviously bigoted rivalries exist all over Scotland - all over the world for that matter - but the ‘Old Firm’ is considered one of the most exaggerated rivalries in Europe. What is more, the law was passed soon after the 2011 Scottish cup final, in which two players were sent off, 13 players were given yellow cards, and Celtic’s manager, Neil Lennon pushed Rangers’ assistant manager Ally McCoist. The BBC reports that “Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond held a summit in Edinburgh with representatives from Celtic, Rangers, Scottish football authorities and Strathclyde Police to discuss ways to combat disorder associated with the fixture between Glasgow's main two rival clubs” (BBC, 2011). Scotland’s justice secretary, Kenny MacAskill, claims that “the majority of Scots - 91% - support tougher action to tackle the problem [of sectarianism1]” (STV, 2013). However, the law has been met with resistance from different groups of football fans, who argue that the laws infringe on free expression.

  • 15.
    Krantz, Karl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cross-Platform Post-Mortem Analysis in a Distributed Continuous Integration System2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to improve the cross-platform reliability of software components tested on distributed CI systems. More specifically, it is centered on extracting crash information from cross-platform crashes. Crash information was generated and parsed on Mac, Linux and Windows. The crash information proved to be valuable for developers in their day-to-day job, especially the raw crash information. However, the graph visualizations that were created out of this information proved to be less than satisfactory for developers.

  • 16.
    Hiran, Vaishali Rahul
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Usability evaluation of IPsec configuring components2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The security protocol IPsec is used in the LTE network to achieve a securecommunication from prying eyes. However, the use of IPsec is optional bythe LTE standard. Whether or not to use the IPsec thus becomes a securitydecision that each operator has to make after having considered applicablerisks and anticipated costs. It is also important to consider the OperationalExpenditure (OPEX) for deploying, operating, and maintaining the IPsecinstallation. One important factor that can aect OPEX is usability. Forthis reason understanding the usability properties of a system can help toidentify improvements that can reduce OPEX.This study mainly focused on investigating the challenges and also investigateswhether poor usability was a contributing factor for deploymentchallenges of IPsec in the LTE infrastructure. Additionally, this study alsofocused on prerequisite knowledge for an individual in order to ensure thecorrect deployment of IPsec in the LTE network.Cognitive Walkthrough and Heuristic Evaluation usability methods wereused in this study. By using these methods, several usability issues related toIPsec conguring components like documentation, the MO structure, anda used tool were identied. It was also identied that each componenthad rooms for improvements, especially for documentation which can signicantly aid in the deployment of IPsec. Moreover, in order to smoothlydeploy IPsec in the LTE network, it is important to have beforehand knowledgeof conguring components used to deploy IPsec.

  • 17.
    Tanhua, Inkeri
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Equality Work in Finnish Ministries2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge about the equality work in public sector organisations. Especially, my aim is to bring light into everyday experiences of doing equality work. This is achieved through interviewing equality workers in Finnish ministries. The study draws also on my personal experiences as an equality consultant. The main question I ask is: Which issues influence the content of equality work? According to feminist research, promoting equality is always a political process, which includes conflicting interests. These conflicting interests are, however, not visible in official descriptions of equality work. For example, ministries’ equality policies mostly hide the various interests under vague definitions and beautiful structures. Despite the invisibility of the tensions in written documents, equality workers describe the negotiative nature of equality work by providing examples of equality negotiations in their organisations. In my analysis I conclude that equality workers are aware of their organisations’ capacities to change and, in their work, they adapt to these limitations by choosing their strategies to do equality work accordingly. The content of equality work reflects the strategies, which are carefully chosen based on the knowledge about the organisation. I argue that this process of choosing equality strategies by equality workers is one of the overlooked factors shaping equality work in organisations.

  • 18.
    Kronstrand, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmqvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overlay Network2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, optical fiber is widely used in several areas, especially in communication networking. The main reason is that optical fiber has low attenuation and high bandwidth. However, the switching functionality is performed in the electrical domain (inside the router), thus we have transmission delays in the network lanes. In this study we explore the possibility of developing a hardware “plug-in” that can be connected in parallel with routers of the network enabling the router with “plug-in” to let it bypass time-critical traffic. We researched different switching techniques for optical fibers and realized it would be an expensive endeavor to create one for a large number of wavelength/connections, thus, we scaled it down to prove the concept “plug-in” where we use fiber optical switches and Mux/Demuxes for our design.

    With our chosen optical components, we were able to bypass the routers (layer 3 switches) in our test environment and switch between different users to chose which one has the direct link. The conclusion can be drawn that it is possible to create such a “plug-in” which could be used by ISPs, to provide a faster lane to consumers with less modification of existing networks.

  • 19.
    Ekholm, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Betydelsen av återskapade våtmarkers ålder, area och fiskförekomst för simfåglar: En biologistudie ur ett lärarperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Restored wetlands are of great importance for biodiversity, and especially important for endangered waterfowl. In order to increase knowledge about how factors such as wetlands area, age, and fish occurrence affect waterfowl in restored wetlands four wetlands in Tinnerö nature reserve, Linköping municipality, were studied. Of special interest was the horned grebe (Podiceps auritus). The number of horned grebes in the studied wetlands had seen a positive development during the wetlands first years. Between 2009 and 2011, the number of horned grebes in the area declined. The numbers were stabilized in 2011, after the establishment of Ekängsdalsgångens wetlands. The conclusion is that newly created, fish-free wetlands provide good conditions for endangered species such as the horned grebe. In addition to this the study also examined the didactic opportunities, based on the curriculum for biology, which excursions offers.

  • 20.
    Drugge, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Svensson, Elizabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Biståndets framgång i Ghana: En jämförande fallstudie av Hungerprojektet och ActionAids biståndsarbete i Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the world today there are 842 million people hungry, which corresponds to the population of the US, Japan and Europe combined. The reason for their hunger is not lack of food, according to the UN, there are enough resources in the world for everyone to be satisfied. The majority of the hungry live in developing countries; in rural or slum areas and its mainly women and children.1 In order to among other things, to correct this untenable situation the Millennium Development Goals were created. Foreign aid would solve the victim's problems, but few issues are so controversial as foreign aid. Where does the money go? Do they make any difference to the individuals? What distinguishes a functioning foreign aid?

    The aim is to try to locate the factors leading to a successful assistance. This has been developed through a qualitative comparative case study. The selected organizations has been compered to the established theories in the field, these are mostly based on William Easterly and Jeffrey Sachs. The work focuses on ActionAid and The Hunger Project's work in Ghana with emphasis on implementation.

    One of the conclusions we have made in this paper is that there need to be good communication between the organizations and the local population. If those who live in the community do not recognize the problems or if the solution is not designed to fit the local conditions, then it will not be a long-term change. It is also important that all groups in the society are involved in the work process and especially the marginalized groups that usually consist of women and children. This work can be seen as a first step to locating aid organizations' success factors, but also illustrates common problems with foreign aid. 

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parameter Estimation for a Vehicle Longitudinal Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    System modelling has an important role in vehicle development cycles. Hardware field tests are often replaced by simulations, especially during the preliminary design stages. Although system modelling is a time consuming task, significant amount of the overall development time and resources can be reduced if an accurate model is available.

    In order to develop a good simulation model, a sound method for parameterising the model is desired. A favourable parameter identification not only provides an accurate model, but also requires less resources both time-wise and monetarily.

    In this thesis, a model for the longitudinal dynamics of a passenger vehicle is presented. Unknown parameters in the model are estimated and the model is validated with measurements obtained experimentally. It is anticipated that the model will be used in a dynamometer, where the longitudinal forces on the vehicle are simulated and the corresponding torques are exerted on the driving wheels.

  • 22.
    Seybold, Christoph
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calibration of fundamental diagrams for travel time predictions based on the cell transmission model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic increases constantly and the negative consequences in the form of traffic jams can be realized especially in urban areas. In order to provide real time traffic information to road users and traffic managers, accurate computer models gain relevance. A software called Mobile Millennium Stockholm (MMS) was developed to estimate and predict travel times and has been implemented on a 7km test stretch in the north of Stockholm. The core of the software is the cell transmission model (CTM) which is a macroscopic traffic flow model based on aggregated speed observations. This thesis focuses on different calibration techniques of the so called fundamental diagram as an important input factor to the CTM. The diagrams illustrate the mathematical function which defines the relation between traffic flow, density and speed. The calibration is performed in different scenarios based on the least square (LS) and total least square (TLS) error minimization. Furthermore, sources, representing the traffic demand, and sinks, representing the surrounding of the modeled network, are implemented as dynamic parameters to model the change in traffic behavior throughout the day. Split ratios, as a representation of the drivers‘ route choice in the CTM are estimated and implemented as well. For the framework of this work, the MMS software is run in a pure prediction mode. The CTM is based on the source, sink, split and fundamental diagram parameters only and run forward in time. For each fundamental diagram calibration scenario an independent model run is performed. The evaluation of the scenarios is based on the output of the model. The results are compared to existing Bluetooth travel time measurements for the test stretch, which are used as ground truth observations, and a mean average percentage error (MAPE) is calculated. This leads to a most reasonable technique for the fundamental diagram calibration – the total least square error minimization.

  • 23.
    Gustavsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Predictability of Speculative Bubbles: An examination of the log-periodic power law model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we examine the ability of the log-periodic power law model to accurately predict the end of speculative bubbles on financial markets through modeling of asset price dynamics on a selection of historical bubbles. The methods we use are based on a nonlinear least squares estimation which yields predictions of when the bubble will change regime.We find evidence which support the occurrence of LPPL-patterns leading up to the change in regime; asset prices during bubble periods seem to oscillate around a faster-than-exponential growth. In most cases the estimation yields accurate predictions, although we conclude that the predictions are quite dependent on at which point in time the prediction is conducted. We also find that the end of a speculative bubble seems to be influenced by both endogenous speculative growth and exogenous factors. For this reason we propose a new way of interpreting the predictions of the model, where the end dates should be interpreted as the start of a time period where the asset prices are especially sensitive to exogenous events. We propose that negative news during this time period results in a regime shift of the bubble. This study is the first to address both the possibilities and the limitations of the LPPL-model, and should therefore be considered as a contribution to the academia.

  • 24.
    Hagström, Oliver
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thorn, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pizza till din dörr: - En konkurrensrättslig studie om marknadsavgränsning av den relevanta marknaden för onlinetjänster, särskilt onlinebeställning av mat2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen undersöks marknadsavgränsningen vid onlinetjänster vilket är ett ämne som uppmärksammats nyligen i ett avgörande från Marknadsdomstolen där inblandade parter var OnlinePizza och Pizza24, som båda är verksamma inom onlinebeställning av mat. Yrkandet kunde inte bifallas på grund av bristande bevisning från den yrkande parten. Författarna har diskuterat hur utfallet av domen kunde blivit om tillräcklig bevisning hade lagts fram.Med stöd av svensk och europeisk rätt samt relevant praxis diskuterar författarna framförallt angående begränsningen av den relevanta produktmarknaden vid onlinetjänster, särskilt för matbeställningar.Det går inte att dra slutsatser angående den relevanta produktmarknaden för onlinetjänster eftersom tjänsterna till en väldigt stor grad skiljer sig från varandra generellt i syfte och användning. Författarna har undersökt tjänsten onlinebeställning av mat och kommit fram till att den relevanta produktmarknaden bygger på tre grundpelare. Även om onlinetjänster oftast betraktas som geografiskt obegränsade spelar dock den geografiska marknaden roll vid fastställandet av den relevanta marknaden för olika onlinetjänster.

  • 25.
    Kota Rajasekhar, Rakesh
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parallel Hardware for Sampling Based Nonlinear Filters in FPGAs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Particle filters are a class of sequential Monte-Carlo methods which are used commonly when estimating various unknowns of the time-varying signals presented in real time, especially when dealing with nonlinearity and non-Gaussianity in BOT applications. This thesis work is designed to perform one such estimate involving tracking a person using the road information available from an IR surveillance video. In this thesis, a parallel custom hardware is implemented in Altera cyclone IV E FPGA device utilizing SIRF type of particle filter. This implementation has accounted how the algorithmic aspects of this sampling based filter relate to possibilities and constraints in a hardware implementation. Using 100MHz clock frequency, the synthesised hardware design can process almost 50 Mparticles/s. Thus, this implementation has resulted in tracking the target, which is defined by a 5-dimensional state variable, using the noisy measurements available from the sensor.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Isak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Melki
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Body Coupled Communication: Ändring av prototypkort2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication using the human body as a transmission medium, the capacitive coupling between the skin and sensor, has been an active research area for PAN (Personal Area Network) since Thomas Guthrie Zimmerman introduced the technique in 1995. The reason for this is to examine the benefits and uses of a communication method that does not emit RF signals and thus reduce the risk of unauthorized interception.

    This report describes a thesis that examines the possibility of elimination of USB to UART converter on Microchip BodyCom through software USB-stack and combine this with Body Coupled Communication functionality in a single microcontroller. Furthermore, studies on if the application code in Body Coupled Communication transmitters can be modified to extend functionality.

    It was given in the conditions that microcontrollers from Microchip should be used, furthermore, low price and low power consumption were important, especially for the transmitter. The method for achieving this has been the use of Microchip BodyCom development kit with USB Microchip low pin count development kit and Microchip USB firmware framework.

    The result was that the USB- to UART-converter could be integrated with Microchip BodyCom, using software USB-stack and a modified program code for BodyCom in a single microcontroller.

    Only your imagination sets the limits for Body Coupled Communication can be used for. For example, it would be possible to exchange electronic business cards by a handshake or open a locked door only by using the handle.

  • 27.
    Elwin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att lita på andras blodgåva: Åsikter om att homosexuella män i praktiken nekas donera blod2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor Thesis investigates the perceptions nurses and homosexual men, respectively, have concerning the rules for blood donation, focusing on the fact that homosexual men in practice aren't able to donate blood. The study was conducted using qualitative interviews.

    The results emphasise that my informants classify blood and people differently, where both foreign and Swedish blood are rated on potential risk of infection. Nurses and homosexual men also handle the various rules differently, the nurses placing greater focus on protecting receivers of blood. At the same time nurses, like the homosexual men, find the rules discriminatory and based on the prejudice that homosexual men have a riskier lifestyle than others relating to infection. In reality, there can be no certainty in knowing if someone is honest when answering the health declaration which is meant to help the blood bank weed out unsuitable donors.

    The issue of blood donation by homosexual men can be approached from different angles and is therefore a complex topic without an easy solution, especially since current testing cannot detect the HIV virus immediately after transmission. In contrast, my informants emphasise that everyone should be judged on individual behaviour instead of collectively; for example, homosexual men in monogamous relationships should also be able to donate blood.

  • 28.
    Eklund Rimsten, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Det ger sig självt om man är en bra terapeut". En intervjustudie av hemuppgifter i familjeterapi.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The homework is an important part of both Functional Family Therapy (FFT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). The goal of this essay has been to determine if, and in what way, homework is used in the context of family therapy, that is the frame of FFT. One hypothesis at the beginning of this work was that the interactional home assignments have started to be replaced by the behavior oriented ones that are a part of DBT.

    The individuals participating in the study are all working in a psychiatric outpatient clinic (BUP) in Uppsala. They are all using either Functional Family Therapy (n=3) or Dialectical Behavior Therapy (n=2) as treatment methods.

    The purpose of the study has been to try to understand more of the homework as a therapeutic instrument, especially the relational homework that family therapists are expected to work out on the basis of a manual that is provided within FFT. Two methods have been used to examine this: a survey and focus group interview.

    The results show a relatively large width when it comes to the therapists view on and practice of homework, though the general pattern indicates that they work out both relational as well as behavior oriented assignments in their practical work. However, there is a need and a wish of the family therapists to gain more clarity on how to determine and give a family a relational oriented homework. The conclusion of this essay is that a clarification like that is not possible, unless you go to the bottom with and define what the relational function is and how to use it in what within Functional Family Therapy is called the Relational Assessment Phase.

  • 29.
    Ericson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rationell småskalig tillverkning av trämöbler: -vad har det lilla snickeriet att vinna på samarbete med möbelkomponentindustrin?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have expanded our experiences of handcrafting furniture into larger scale furniture making. With us we’ve had thoughts of our own future occupation and the possibilities to combine small and large scale cabinet making. In getting to know parts of the Swedish industrial manufacturing offurniture components, we’ve wanted to extend our network of contacts as well as increase our knowledge of their equipment and work methods.We have chosen to use a product that we designed for the task, thus limiting our area. Our idea has been to compare the manufacturing of parts for this product in a small workshop and small scale industry. We have divided the production into various techniques and for each of these we’ve sought out specialized manufacturers, to be listed and for us to visit and learn from.We believe our study shows that there are good opportunities for the small wood workshop to add to its success by both learning from and cooperating with the small scale wood industries. The modus operandi and the machines we have seen during our visits to industries, would in many cases be possible to use in the small workshop. Techniques that have been especially exciting for us to highlight include efficient turning of straight components, turning of irregular shapes in copy milling machines as well asthe development of steam bending through compression. What we firstly believe to be most profitable for the small woodworking shop to purchase from small industries are different types of turned or copy-milled components alongside the advanced processing that can be easily done in a CNC machine. In the process we also learned that there are many factors, in some cases difficult to clearly acknowledge, that affect which path is feasible and appropriate to take.

  • 30.
    Blomqvist, Suzanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Med förenade krafter: Arbetsmöten i human servicesektorn2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In any organization people recurrently meet to exchange information, and to make decisions on how to organize their work in order to fulfil their tasks. Different kinds of work meetings take place in all sectors of working life, also in what is known as the human service sector.

    The aim if this study was to investigate what research on work meetings in human service sector highlights as important influencing factors on how work is performed during meetings. The study is based on research performed on authentic work groups only.

    To make it possible to meet different the needs of the clients most work groups in human service sector are Multiprofessional ones. To be able to make use of the professional diversity in the work group during work meetings on important influencing factor is how influence is distributed between group members, influence over how discussions are held and how decisions are made. The influence of group members seems to be effected by what status an individual holds in the group, level of education and by how much someone talks during the meeting. The influence of a group member is also influenced by the size of the group, and by what method is used in the group to solve differences of opinion.

    Another important influencing factors that is highlighted in literature is the nature of communication during group meetings, especially concerning the possibility to integrate different perspectives and to have a shared vocabulary when discussing clients.

    If the meeting is or is not conducted by a systematic structure to guide discussion and decision-making is another important influencing factor. The influence of well- known group phenomena such as power of the majority, the value of minority dissent, group polarization, and the group think syndrome is also given attention in research literature. Attention is also given to the effects of emotional, subconscious needs of group members on the work performed during work meetings.

    To enhance performance during work meetings in the human service sector one might consider giving attention to the above-described aspects of work meetings. Influence more equally distributed between group members might be accomplished by using a systematic structure guiding discussion and decision-making. Small size groups and a collaborative way to solve differences of opinion might also contribute to an equal distribution of influence during work meetings.

    To facilitate communication during work meetings one might consider using consulteecentered consultation to help the work group reflect on how language is used during meetings.  To reflect on how work is performed during work meetings might also enable a work group to become aware of how emotional, subconscious needs might influence what is accomplished. Innehållsförteckning

  • 31.
    Berg, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Det roterande chefskapet i Åtvidabergs kommun: En studie av samspelet mellan kommunchefer och politiker ur ett maktperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to shed light on the interplay between leaders and politicians at Åtvidabergs municipality, where they have a system of rotating leadership which consists of a group of five leaders where one at the time holds the position of the formal leader at two months intervals. The essay is based on qualitative interviews with both municipality leaders and politicians working in Åtvidaberg. We implement a perspective of power when we analyze our informants statements, especially by relating those to Dennis H. Wrongs forms of power.

  • 32.
    Nordström, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahl, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skadestånd vid konkurrensrättsliga överträdelser: Särskilt angående det kommande EU-direkt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att diskutera vilka effekter det kommande direktivet kan komma att få för konsumenters och företags rätt till skadestånd vid konkurrensrättsliga överträdelser. Författarna har även till syfte att diskutera varför skadeståndsregeln i 3 kap. 25 § KL inte används i så stor utsträckning. Följaktligen blir uppsatsen ämnad för parter, så som näringslivsorganisationer, konsumentorganisationer, domstolsväsendet samt akademien som vill undersöka studiet av konkurrensrättsliga överträdelser och som vill veta vad det nya direktivet kan ha för konsekvenser avseende skadestånd. Läsare ska kunna urskilja vilka möjligheter konsumenter och företag har till upprättelse genom det nya direktivet. Läsare av denna uppsats blir i realiteten jurister vid byråer, domstolar samt myndigheter. Eftersom förslaget till direktivs effekter ska diskuteras blir uppsatsen även ämnad för lagstiftaren.

  • 33.
    Lemoine, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fredin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How Does Ego Depletion Affect Moral Judgments and Pro-social Decisions?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today’s societal changes, including high rate of change and increasing information flows, are increasing the demand on the individual mental capacity. It becomes increasingly difficult to analytically process all the different dilemmas and everyday decisions as individuals have a limited mental capacity available to make these decisions. Thus, it has been suggested that ego-depleted relies more heavily on intuition, which is less burdensome, when making decision. However little is known about to what extent intuitive decisions differ from analytic. Are ego-depleted individuals more or less likely to maximize outcome in moral dilemmas involving conflicting values? Do ego depleted individuals become more or less willing to cooperate? Do ego depleted individuals become more or less altruistic? Is our intuition more or less in accordance with Homo Economicus?AIM: Starting from a Dual Process perspective on decision-making the aim of this study is to examine how ego depletion affects moral judgment and pro-social decisions.METHOD: A laboratory experiment involving 115 subjects, using real monetary incentives, was conducted among students at Linköping University. Subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Everything was identical across treatments except for the initial ego-depletion manipulation. Using a standard paradigm for ego-depletion subjects in treatment 1 were put under high cognitive load while subjects in treatment two were put under low cognitive load. Subjects faced 16 questions divided into four different decision tasks: Moral dilemmas, Public Goods game, two types of Dictator Game where the type of sacrifice subjects could make in order to contribute money to charity was varied.RESULTS: Subjects in the high cognitive load treatment made fewer consequentialists moral judgments compared to other subjects (p = 0.075). The effect is especially strong when looking only at high-conflict dilemmas such as Crying Baby. No difference between treatments was found for the public goods games. In the dictator game involving monetary sacrifice subjects donated less money to charity when put under high cognitive load. However the finding was not significant (p = 0.292). No difference was found in the dictator game involving effort as personal sacrifice since almost everyone chooses to donate to charity.CONCLUSION: According to The Dual Process perspective this essay shows that intuitive thinking does not evidently lead to that they makes decision that more or less is in accordance with Homo Economicus. The connection between ego depletion and pro-social decisions is more complex. Further research needs to investigate which different mental shortcuts that individuals uses in various types of pro-social decisions and why intuitive and analytical decision-making differ between different decisions. Further research within the area can identify potential mechanisms and policies that can support individuals’ capacity to make decisions in accordance with their own and society’s preferences.

  • 34.
    Blake Elmvall, Alma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Botic, Jenna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    EU:s befogenhet att ingå bilaterala avtal med icke unionsmedlemmar: Särskilt avseende avtal med Schweiz2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att diskutera om EU kan, vid ingående av bilaterala avtal med icke unions medlemmar, förbise sina grundläggande principer. Situationen i Schweiz tydliggör problematiken och genom att applicera frågeställningen på det aktuella problemet eftersträvas ett djupare resonemang. Syftet med uppsatsen är även att föra en diskussion kring den framtida relationen mellan EU och Schweiz.

    De frågeställningar som ska utredas för att uppnå syftet med uppsatsen är således; kan EU agera i strid med en av de fundamentala värdegrunderna som EU-samarbetet bygger på, den fria rörligheten, i avtalsrelationer med tredje länder? Vilken intresseavvägning står EU inför angående den gällande situationen i Schweiz, och vilket är det mest troliga framtida handlingsalternativet för EU?

  • 35.
    Enberg, David
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Short Time Dead Reckoning for Navigation of an Autonomous Vehicle2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) together with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) is today a common integration method to obtain a positioning solution for autonomous systems. Both GNSS and INS have benefits and weaknesses where the best parts from both systems can be combined with a Kalman filter. Because of this complementary nature, it is of interest to look at the robustness of the positioning solution when the Global Navigation Satellite System is temporarily not available. The aim of the thesis has been to investigate different vehicle models and to evaluate their short-time performance using a Dead Reckoning approach. The goal has been to develop a system for a Heavy Duty Vehicle (HDV) and to find out for which time interval a specific model can stay within a certain range when the GNSS is lost. A GNSS outage could for example happen when driving on a highway and passing signs, bridges and especially when driving inside tunnels. Also, for a solution to become commercially interesting, it must be cheap. Therefore, is it common to use so called Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) sensors which are of low-cost but suffer from biases, scale factors and temperature dependencies which must be compensated for. The results from the tests show that some models are able to estimate the position with good precision during short time GNSS outages whereas other models do not deliver the required accuracy. The main conclusion is that care should be taken when choosing the vehicle model so that it fits its usage area and the complexity needed to describe its motion. There are also lots of parameters to look at when investigating the best solution, where modeling of the low-cost sensors is one of them.

  • 36.
    Almquist, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almquist, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A study on Android games: 3G energy consumption, CPU-utilization and system calls2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of mobile games has increased drastically during the recent years andmany people use them as their main source of entertainment. Mobile gamescommunicate with other devices over the network which consumes a lot of energy,especially when connected to cellular networks (e.g., 3G). This high energy expensecan feel unjustified to the player since always-on network connectivity is not requiredin order to play most games.Furthermore, the number of malware-infected applications in offical applicationstores has increased significantly in the recent years. These malware-infectedapplications can gain unrestricted access and control of users phones which can be athreat to security. Information about the behaviour characteristics of games can beused to develop or improve systems for detecting malware applications.In this thesis, 20 popular Android games are analysed with a focus on the datacommunication, CPU utilization and system call behaviour. The main subject of thedata communication study is the 3G communication energy consumed by games. Thesystem call study aims at quantifying the number and type of calls used by games.This may be useful in a further study of harmful behaviour by apps.The profiling results presented in this report show that the communication energyvaries drastically among games. Games with a very similar gameplay can consumevery different amounts of energy which indicates that there is room for improvementsin many of the games. Ad-free games consume significantly less energy than gamesthat use in-app advertisements. The results show that improving the advertisementfetching policy could reduce the energy consumption of these games. The majority ofthe games can be played without network connectivity and therefore thecommunication energy consumed could be completely avoided. The thesis alsoshows that games use a wide variety of system calls and that many of the system callsare common among the games.

  • 37.
    Gråd, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Riis, Sonny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Att dela eller inte dela?: Vad som möjliggör respektive förhindrar produktdelningssystem2014Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Product sharing systems is recently starting to become a more common phenomenon. Carpools exist in more than 40 Swedish towns and both Stockholm and Gothenburg have established bicycle sharing systems. Other products for which sharing systems have been established throughout Sweden are clothing and tools. From the point of view of the consumer, product sharing systems is a form of consumption which can be placed somewhere in between renting and privately owning a product, where the consumers usually pay a membership fee or a monthly fee to have access to the products whenever they need them. The concept is relatively new, and there are many products for which product sharing systems do not exist. As a consequence, previous research in the area is scarce, with the exception of car pools. However, some research discussing product sharing systems in general exists, such as the research by Lamberton & Rose and Mont. In this thesis, previous research is further developed by analyzing what enables and hinders product sharing systems, and for what type of products these systems are suitable. A mix between a quantitative and a qualitative method is used, as both interviews with owners of sharing systems and a questionnaire survey with potential consumers are carried out. To analyze the concept, institutional and behavioral economic theory is used as well as traditional microeconomics. Both the interviews and the survey indicate that the general knowledge of product sharing systems is low and that it is hard in general for companies to reach out to new users. For the consumers, one of the biggest problems is the perceived risk of not having access to the products when they are needed. Another conclusion is that products for which variety is desired, such as clothing and books, that are used frequently, are especially suitable for product sharing systems.

  • 38.
    Kemperyd, Emmeline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mideklint, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modifying Lean Production for Implementation in Production of Digital, Customized Products2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To evaluate how lean production should be modified to be suitable for implementation in the production of digital, customized products and how the first phase of this implementation can be conducted.

    Research Questions

    RQ1: What constitutes waste when producing digital, customized products, and to what extent can the waste be eliminated?

    RQ2: Which lean concepts and tools are suitable to apply in the production of digital, customized products?

    RQ3: What steps are necessary for initial implementation of lean production for production of digital, customized products, and how should they be prioritized?

    Methodology

    The empirical findings are the result of a single case study focused around in-depth analysis and understanding of concepts and relationships. The data is collected through interviews work shops and observations during a period of three months.

    Conclusions

    RQ1: The types of waste are; Waiting, Transportation, Over processing or incorrect processing, Excess inventory, Unnecessary efforts, Defects and Unused employee creativity. Waste are further classified as removable, non-removable and in some instances necessary.

    RQ2: Unsuitable concepts: Value stream mapping (varying level of unsuitability), Kaikaku, Just in time, Stopping the

     line (without modifications) and Physical visual controls. Redundant concept: Pull. Especially suitable concepts: 5 Why, Decentralized responsibility, Digital visual controls and Isolating variation. Suitable concepts: Elimination of waste, Root cause analysis, Genchi genbutsu, Kaizen events, Flow, Stopping the line (with modifications) and Standardization.

    RQ3: Step I: Aligning the production strategy and process with the organization’s strategy and goals. Step II: Standardization.

  • 39.
    Wikberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jerlström Hultqvist, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of the S&OP process at Seco Tools AB: Aligned with today´s supply chain planning processes 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Companies strive to produce as close to customer demand as possible to reduce the cost, inventories, etc. One process that deals with this issue of balancing demand and supply is Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP). Seco Tools is a company with their head-office located in Fagersta, Sweden, which is experiencing high inventory levels and a need of cutting cost. The ongoing project Supply Chain Planning at Seco Tools resulted in the implementation of a new software which enables them to improve demand, inventory, and supply planning. As a result of the improved planning ability, a new S&OP process is developed and in need for improvement.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the current S&OP process from the Supply Chain Planning project and to suggest future improvements for Seco Tools AB.

    Research objectives:

    1. Study and describe the current S&OP process at Seco Tools.

    2. Analyse and identify differences in Seco Tools’ S&OP process compared to the literature and a benchmark company.

    3. Perform deeper analyses within financial integration and the use of KPIs in Seco Tools´ S&OP process.

    4. Suggest future improvements to Seco Tools regarding their S&OP process based on the identified differences from research objective 2 and the deeper analysis from research objective 3.

    Method:

    The planning report set the framework for the carrying through of the thesis. A literature study regarding S&OP and a case study performed at Seco Tools regarding their S&OP have been done in parallel. Seco Tools’ S&OP process has been studied and described with the help of interviews, observations, and internal documents. Analysis was made where Seco Tools S&OP was compared to the theoretical S&OP and the S&OP at AstraZeneca. The analysis led to recommendations to Seco Tools regarding improvements in their S&OP process.

    Conclusions:

    Two opportunities for improvement were highlighted during the analysis of Seco Tools S&OP. They were financial integration and the use of cross-functional KPIs covering all the departments that were suggested to be involved in S&OP at Seco Tools. Seco Tools should integrate their finance in the process to compare S&OP against the business plan, and the company’s strategy should be well understood by the participants in S&OP. The knowledge of the company’s strategy together with the right authorities in the process will improve the decision making in Seco Tools’ S&OP. Seco Tools also need to implement an S&OP scorecard with KPIs that covers all departments in the company and the strategy as well. This helps to further develop cross-functionality and to early on make root cause analysis of identified problems. Cross-functionality and KPIs are believed to be general recommendations that all companies can use as well, not only something that Seco Tools can take advantage of. A template for an S&OP scorecard especially for Seco Tools has been made. It contains 16 cross-functional KPIs covering all steps and departments involved in S&OP at Seco Tools.

  • 40.
    Dahlström, Angelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosdahl, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Väsentlighetsbedömningens påverkan av klientens branschtillhörighet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The lack of guidance on materiality assessments leaves a large space for the auditors’ professional judgment in assessing materiality. The auditor must use professional judgments on materiality assessments, especially with regard to the clients’ industry affiliation, giving rise to inconsistent materiality assessments.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explain how the auditors’ materiality judgments are influenced by the clients’ industry affiliation.

    Method: The study uses a positivistic approach and uses a combined approach of both qualitative and quantitative methodology. The study used pre- and post interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data was collected via SurveyMonkey and handled and analyzed in SPSS.

    Result and conclusion: The auditors professional judgment used in materiality assessments give rise to differences in materiality assessments. The differences may be partly explained by the clients’ industry affiliation as there are no specific guidelines that cover materiality assessments specifically for clients with different industry affiliations. The result of this study showed that the auditors do not put an equal amount of importance on the same components of the assessment in regards to the clients’ industry affiliation. The study concludes that the assessment will be influenced by the clients’ industry affiliation since the auditor does not place as much importance on the same components of the materiality assessment in the surveyed industries.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study aims to provide insight to explain how the assessments will be influenced by the clients’ industry affiliation. Previous studies have not examined the variables in the factor industry that affect materiality assessment as this study has taken into account.

  • 41.
    Paneva, Ivelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gruber, Jacqueline
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The process of knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions: A single-case study of a Swedish manufacturing organization2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mergers and acquisitions (hereinafter referred to as M&As) are increasing in their importance and they have become a commonly applied strategic option for organizations. A major reason for an acquisition is often the objective of gaining new knowledge from the acquired company and then transferring that knowledge among other parts within the acquiring organization. Furthermore, the explicit and tacit nature of knowledge is essential for the transfer of knowledge during M&As. Also, the process of knowledge transfer is dynamic and complex and thus, numerous challenges can arise along the way. As proved by the literature individuals are the key factors, which constrain the transfer of knowledge in M&As.

    Aim: Despite the extensive existing literature in the area of knowledge transfer, it provides a rather static view and thus, less is known about the dynamic process nature of knowledge transfer in M&As. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative research is to gain deeper understanding of how the process of knowledge transfer evolves over time and how employees constrain it within the acquiring organization during the post-acquisition phase in a merger and acquisition (hereinafter referred to as M&A). In addition, the redefined models in this thesis provide a foundation for future research.

    Methodology: This thesis is based on a qualitative single-case study method, which builds upon empirical data of an anonymous Swedish international organization (hereinafter referred to as Globex) operating in the manufacturing sector. Theoretical constructs are applied in order to form a generalization. First-hand information is primarily used for this thesis, which was collected in the form of in-depth interviews with the employees of Globex. In order to present the analysed data in a more understandable and visible manner, tables and graphs were applied. Furthermore, our research method is based on the iterative grounded theory, which deals with organizational process research. Thus, we were able to analyse the dynamics in the knowledge transfer process despite its high level of complexity. Due to this complicated essence of the knowledge transfer process, we were unable to explore it entirely and could not acquire all necessary information. However, we still contribute with novelty to the academic society, as previous research explores the static view of knowledge transfer and our research relies on its dynamics.

    Results: The process of knowledge transfer and how it evolves is illustrated with the necessary phases for its accomplishment. The first model, which demonstrates the dynamic nature of the knowledge transfer process during M&As, is presented. In order to positively influence the transfer of knowledge, enablers should be applied. The second model highlights the importance of planning the process of knowledge transfer within the post-acquisition phase during M&As. Lastly, constraints from the employees’ side can influence the transfer of knowledge. The importance to consider enablers and constraints during the knowledge transfer is also emphasised.

    Theoretical implications: We urge that more research should accentuate on the process nature of the knowledge transfer and should further explore its dynamics and complexity especially in the context of organizational changes, such as M&As.

    Managerial implications: Managers should understand the evolving nature of the knowledge transfer process and strengthen their focus on the planning phase of knowledge transfer in order to minimize the issues during the post-acquisition phase.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Conceptual Female Hygiene Product: Developed from Needs and Prerequisites in an Agricultural East African Context2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menstruation is a large problem for females in development countries today. Studies have shown that around 40 percent of menstruating girls have been absent from school due to their menstruation. One of the challenges that need to be solved is the absence of female hygiene products amongst women, especially in low income and developing countries due to the cost of commercial products. In countries where the national economy is unstable or poorly comes a problem with importing products, it would be better if they could produce their own products so that the national economy is supported. Small factories and production sites that produce female hygiene products have started to form in some areas. This shows that it is possible to produce in the context where the product is going to be sold. One of the advantages of this system is from the environmental perspective, many of the local production sites use environmentally friendly materials and some products are up to 95 percent bio-degradable. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a concept for a sustainable female hygiene product that women in developing countries can afford to buy, this so that social effects can be enabled due to the security that a functioning protection can bring. To be able to do so a field study in Uganda has been conducted. During the study users and local producers were interviewed to find out what demands and prerequisites there are to create a female hygiene product that can be produced and used locally. The field study gave a deeper understanding and knowledge about both the subject as whole and the technical aspects to take into consideration when developing a female hygiene product. The study confirmed that female hygiene products, or rather the lack of them, are a big problem that needs to be solved quickly. It also revealed that the possibilities for producing in the context existed but was not developed enough. Through an analysis of the empirical findings as well as theories about, for example, material and production, six concepts were developed. The concepts and already existing products were evaluated and correlated to requirements collected in the field study. One concept was chosen for further development from this evaluation. This concept consists of a disposable napkin that is fastened by putting it in holders sewn in the panty. The panty can be bought as a product with existing holders or the holders can be sewn into the users own panties. The final concept has taken both technical aspects and social effects into account. Lists of requirements on material for the concept as well as the production of it are also included in the work. A prototype of the concept has been sewn and tested. The final concept in this work is not a finished product and needs further developing before being released as a product. More work need to be done on specifying the production and specific materials to implement the concept. For further developing, it is also important to have in mind in what context the product would be used due to the different possibilities and demands that the setting gives.

  • 43.
    Holm, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making or breaking personnel with documentation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to support a standardized and uniform documentation one can use different types of aids such as influencing attitudes, provide training and customize tools for documentation. This study looks at documentation in elderly care from the personnel’s perspective and seeks to better understand their view of and experience with documentation in relation to the aids described above. By holding semi-structured interviews with 12 people working with elderly care qualitative data were obtained and later analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). A range of different thoughts and attitudes towards documentation were found, some that could facilitate documentation, but also some that could hinder a good documentation practice. Also different insecurities were found such as lack of experience/knowledge about documentation, technology or language. Colleagues are a great resource for helping and educating personnel but it might be hard for them to explain some things they do if they aren’t aware of how they do it. It might also take time to readjust to new procedures such as a common information structure, especially for the experienced workers that have formed routines for how to do things. Contextual factors are important and the documentation systems have the ability to make or break the users.

  • 44.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En finansiell rådgivares ansvar för lämnade råd: särskilt om bedömningen av vad som utgör vårdslös finansiell rådgivning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rådgivning förekommer på många olika marknader och i lika många olika former. Med rollen som rådgivare kommer ett ansvar, ett ansvar som är till för att skydda den som är mottagare av rådet. Rådgivning på de finansiella marknaderna, avseende finansiell rådgivning och investeringsrådgivning, är med god anledning föremål för en omfattande reglering på grund av det skyddsintresse kunden anses ha.

    Regleringen är uppbyggd både genom stadgande av skyldigheter i lag och i föreskrifter som kompletteras genom självreglering av marknadens aktörer. Eftersom de finansiella marknaderna är föremål för ständig förändring och utveckling används begrepp som god rådgivningssed för att säkerställa att lagstiftningen följer den takt som utvecklingen på marknaden går i. För att bedöma om en rådgivare har brutit mot de skyldigheter han eller hon har att efterleva kan vägledning inte endast hämtas ur lag, utan det blir till stor del relevant vad god rådgivningssed visar.

    Vad som i varje given situation är att bedöma som vårdslöst låter sig inte lätt göras. Istället blir det en fråga om en bedömning grundad på olika faktorer givet de skyldigheter som finns stadgade och vad som vid var tid utgör god rådgivningssed. Avgörande blir hur faktorerna samspelar med varandra. En brist i lämplighetsbedömningen kan vara mindre allvarlig vid en investering i ett mindre komplicerad finansiellt instrument men det i sin tur visar sig först när hänsyn tagits till kundens kunskap och erfarenhet av instrumentet.

    Bakgrunden till att utreda om vårdslös rådgivning har förekommit föranleds i regel alltid av att anspråk på ersättning. En kund som blivit utsatt för vårdslös finansiell rådgivning kan förvänta sig en ersättning som motsvarar det negativa kontraktsintresset.

  • 45.
    Ivarsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skolvalet: en investering i framtiden?: En narrativ studie om föräldrars resonemang kring grundskolevalet ur ett Bourdieu-inspirerat perspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to increase our understanding about parents reasoning about the elementary school choice by studying which factors parents perceive as important during the decision making process and also by giving meaning to Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of capital through the parents perspective. The empirical material comes from seven BNIM-interviews made with parents, which has been analyzed according to the thematic field analysis.

    The results show that the parents are not especially concerned about making an active school choice. Stability, closeness, friends, rumors, development and adaptability to the reality are the factors that are perceived as the most important in the decision making process. The school choice has a limited meaning as an investment in social capital, from Bourdieu’s perspective. The cultural capital has a somewhat more prominent meaning for the school choice, but the parents’ seems to mainly use the school choice as a reproduction strategy.

  • 46.
    Krstic, Simona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Littorin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Iconicity and Learnability of Blissymbols: A Study of the Interpretations of Blissymbols by Kenyan Children with diverse Language Backgrounds2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been few studies conducted on how children from other than Western populations perceive and learn different graphic symbol sets or systems, especially on how children from poverty contexts learn graphic alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) symbols. Multicultural research is necessary in order to advance and to ensure the quality of the service of AAC for culturally and linguistically diverse AAC users. In the present study the authors strive to describe the learnability of the Blissymbol system in a non-western culture using a semiotic theoretical framework. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the iconicity and learnability of the Blissymbol system for Kenyan children with two different language backgrounds, Swahili and English. This was done in an attempt to investigate potential cultural and linguistic influences of the interpretation and learnability of the Blissymbol. The design and test material was adopted from a previous study (Jennische & Zetterlund, 2012). In the present study, 127 typically developed children in the age six to seven in class one or two in primary school, both from private and public schools, participated. The children had never before encountered Bliss. The children were asked to interpret single Bliss-words and compound Bliss-words, first spontaneously through giving free proposals and then after being given an instructive explanation. The test results were analyzed on a group level and compared between the different groups (age, class and language background). The results show that there was a significant improvement between the pretest and the posttest for all children in the different groups. This indicates that the Blissymbols used in this study had a generally low transparency but a generally high translucency. The results also indicate a generally high learnability and that the children were aided by the instructive explanation. Furthermore, there were significant differences between the different groups, where the children from class two performed better than children from class one and where the English-speaking children performed better than the Swahili-speaking children overall. Age was not significant. The results also indicate that there were differences in how the children interpreted the symbols, but that there were similarities within the specific groups. Further, this indicates that the symbols were interpreted in a similar way by children that belonged to the same age, language and socioeconomic background.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vad kommer en treåring ihåg?: En studie om svenska barns arbetsminne och fonologi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies regarding phonological skills related to working memory in young children. There is also a lack of tests of working memory for children in the younger ages. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the relationship between visual working memory, phonological working memory and the ability to manage phonological representations, in three-year-olds. This was done by collecting comparison data of threeyear- old children’s results on the newly developed tablet-test ”KUBEN” (Cognitive development in young children), which measures the abilities visual and phonological working memory and phonological discrimination. In addition test for phonological production, also tested with tablet, and nonword repetition were used. A total of 91 Swedish three-year-old children with typical development participated in the study.

    For especially visual working memory, there was a lack of material with which to compare, but the result showed that children performed as expected regarding all tested abilities. The abilities improved with increasing age. On the contrary, neither gender nor experience of using tablets, affected the results of the children’s performance. The result of this study further describes relations between the tested abilities. There were correlations between all the abilities in this study that measures phonological representations (phonological discrimination, nonword repetition and phonological production). However, these phonological abilities did not correlate with the test of phonological working memory, which is a less expected finding. A possible explanation may be that it is difficult to test phonological working memory separately in children as young as three years old. Neither was there a correlation between tests of phonological and visual working memory, which indicates that two different abilities of working memory were tested. This confirms the faction within research arguing that visual and phonological working memory are separated abilities, already in young children.

  • 48.
    Mujnovic, Haris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ën studie angående SSAB och VMI: Ett beslutsunderlag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SSAB is a Swedish producer of steel founded in 1978. In recent years, the company has suffered from reduced margins and been experiencing financial losses. As a result of this, SSAB is trying to increase its competitiveness by offering value added services to its customers. Therefore, SSAB is interested in learning whether VMI is such a service.

    The purpose of this study is to produce a decision support to SSAB regarding whether the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers, how this collaboration should be designed and what cost changes will occur. The purpose has been divided into three areas. The areas are whether the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers, how the VMI collaboration should be designed and what cost changes will occur. Following three main questions have been produced to answer the areas:

    1. Do the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers?
    2. How should SSAB’s VMI offer be designed?
    3. How does the VMI collaboration affect the costs?

    The authors have collected empiricist by interviews and surveys. Three customers have been studied in the empirical data collection who, according to SSAB, are representative for other direct and consignment stock customers. The collected data and the literature studies have enabled the authors to analyze and to do calculations, which have led to conclusions that answer the main questions. These conclusions are summarized in the table below.

    Question 1: Do the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers?

    Conclusion 1: The study has concluded that the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist in the studied cases.

    Question 2: How should SSAB’s VMI offer be designed?

    Conclusion 2: SSAB should be responsible for all aspects of the VMI collaboration, except for forecasting and stock-picking in the VMI stock. SSAB’s and the customers’ business systems should be connected by EDI and SSAB should own the products in the VMI stock. The customer is invoiced when the products leave the stock and a Closed End Agreement should be in place.

    Question 3: How does the VMI collaboration affect the costs?

    Conclusion 3: The stock holding costs will especially increase when direct customers become VMI customers. Furthermore, the study indicates that the stock holding costs will decrease in cases of consignment stock customers becoming VMI customers. Other costs that are affected by a VMI collaboration can be neglected.

  • 49.
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Accounting for non-linear effects in fatigue crack propagation simulations using FRANC3D2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis methods to account for non-linear effects in fatigue crack propagation simulations using FRANC3D are evaluated. FRANC3D is a crack growth software that supports automated crack growth in the FE mesh using the power of an external FE code.

    Introductorily, a theoretical base in fracture mechanics, especially regarding crack propagation models is established. Furthermore, the functionality of FRANC3D is shown for several different applications.

    As a benchmark for the investigated methods the associated results are compared to data from laboratory tests. The conditions in the test are closely modeled, but with relevant simplifications. The cyclic life-times are calculated using Paris’ law incorporating the stress intensity factors computed by FRANC3D and with material parameters derived from a different set of experiments than those simulated. When comparing the calculated cyclic life-time with the test data it can be seen that the pure linear elastic simulation, for this particular test set-up, gives nearly as good results as the investigated approaches that account for non-linear effects. 

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stolt, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Avveckling ur chefens perspektiv: En kvalitativ studie om chefens agerande och upplevelser i en avvecklingsprocess.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High demands are put on managers when employees underperform. It is the managers’ responsibility to address these problems and start a termination process. Based on qualitative interviews with managers, this study aims to create an understanding of managers’ behaviour and experiences in termination processes, and how they are affected by their own actions.

     

    The termination process is a tough and an exposed situation for the managers, characterized by a lot of empathy for the employee, especially in the beginning and the end of the process. They feel a sense of exposure, and as a whole they experience this process as very demanding and though. In the beginning of the process the managers have doubts of their decision to terminate their employee, but as they start preparing for the termination they adapt to a more rational management role and thus feel less sympathy for the employee. In this role they feel more secure and less pressured during the process. The conclusion of the study argues that there is a link between how the managers act in termination processes and how they experience it. Furthermore meaning that they can influence their experience, through their actions. By understanding this, and adapt earlier to a more rational managing role the manager can reduce the feelings of exposure throughout the process.

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