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  • 1.
    Karhu, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3-D Positioning in Large Warehouses using Radio-frequency identification2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In large warehouses, there are a lot of articles that needs do be kept track of. As the number of articles grows larger, the administrative complexity increases. Thus, a solution that automatically keeps track of the position of each article in real-time is of interest. That is, if an item in the warehouse is moved, no manual administration should be needed to know the new position of the item.

    Radio detection and ranging (RADAR) is a ranging technique that doesn’t need to communicate with an object to find the distance to it, instead signals are sent and when they are reflected off the object and returned to the sender, the distance to the object may be calculated. However, you cannot tell two equally shaped objects apart purely based on RADAR techniques. There are many other techniques for ranging, sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) is another example, but they all lack the possibility of detecting the identity of the object.

    So, in order to find a specific item’s position, some kind of  communication with the item is necessary. Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a neat technology with which this is possible. An RFID reader can send radio signals out in the air, and objects that are in the vicinity of the reader and are tagged with an RFID tag can receive that signal and respond with it’s unique identification number. This way, the RFID reader can identify the RFID tagged object from a distance. There are also a variety of ways to approximate the distance between reader and tag. Unfortunately this is a rather difficult task, especially in indoor  environments.

    There are already some existing products on the market that uses RFID for different kinds of positioning. In this thesis, the theory behind positioning, the fundamentals of RFID and different positioning solutions will be analysed and presented.

    A number of tests were carried out with an RFID system within the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band, which is around 866 MHz. The test system only supported range estimation based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the test results showed that narrowband RSSI measurements are highly disturbed by multipath propagation which make the overall positioning performance insufficient. Further analysis of time based range estimation techniques, such as time of arrival (TOA), time of flight (TOF) and time difference of arrival (TDOA), revealed that better positioning accuracy is possible, especially if ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) is used.

  • 2.
    Lång, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    3D Teleconferencing: The construction of a fully functional, novel 3D Teleconferencing system2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the work done to develop a 3D teleconferencing system, which enables remote participants anywhere in the world to be scanned in 3D, transmitted and displayed on a constructed 3D display with correct vertical and horizontal parallax, correct eye contact and eye gaze. The main focus of this report is the development of this system and especially how to in an efficient and general manner render to the novel 3D display. The 3D display is built out of modified commodity hardware and show a 3D scene for observers in up to 360 degrees around it and all heights. The result is a fully working 3D Teleconferencing system, resembling communication envisioned in movies such as holograms from Star Wars. The system transmits over the internet, at similar bandwidth requirements as concurrent 2D videoconferencing systems.

  • 3.
    Winell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    3D-visualisering av robotsimulering2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization is a rapidly growing area of computer graphics. Due to the very progressive development of computer technology and especially 3D-graphic boards yesterdays imagination of visualizations, today is a reality.

    At Saab Bofors Dynamics in Linköping missile systems are developed. Through the development, different subsystems are simulated before the manufacturing starts. The results of these simulations have to be visualized to get a meaning. The visualizations can be symbolic or more real looking 3D-visualizations.

    During the work an investigation of available tools for computer visualizations on the market has been conducted. The outcome of the investigation has later been the foundation for the selection of tools to solve the visualization task.

    One 3D-visualization application for general 3D-visualization has then been developed using two different 3D-APIs, and the experiences of these have then been analyzed.

  • 4.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    4D Medical Image Processing with CUDA2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Learn how to do 4D image processing with CUDA, especially for medical imaging applications. In this session we will give a couple of examples of how 4D image processing can take advantage of the computational power of the GPU. We will present how to use the GPU for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis and true 4D image denoising. Most of our examples use the GPU both to speedup the analysis and to visualize the results.

  • 5.
    Kjellman, Görel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A 12-year follow-up of subjects initially sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses2001In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865, Vol. 6, no 1, 52-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose Neck/shoulder and low back pain are common in the Western world and can cause great personal and economic consequences, but so far there are few long term follow-up studies of the consequences of back pain, especially studies that separate the location of back pain. More knowledge is needed about different patterns of risk factors and prognoses for neck/shoulder and low back pain, respectively, and they should not be treated as similar conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible long-term differences in neck/shoulder and low back symptoms, experienced over a 12-year period, with regard to work status, present health, discomfort and influence on daily activities.

    Method A retrospective cohort study of individuals sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses 12 years ago was undertaken. Included were all 213 people who, in 1985, lived in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, were aged 25–34 years and who had taken at least one new period of sickleave lasting >28 days with a neck/shoulder or low back diagnosis. In 1996, a questionnaire was mailed to the 204 people who were still resident in Sweden (response rate 73%).

    Results Those initially absent with neck/shoulder diagnoses rated their present state of discomfort as worse than those sicklisted with low back diagnoses. Only 4% of the neck/shoulder group reported no present discomfort compared with 25% of the low back group. Notably, both groups reported the same duration of low back discomfort during the last year, which may indicate a higher risk for symptoms in more than one location for subjects with neck/shoulder problems.

    Conclusions Individuals with sickness absence of more than 28 days with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses appear to be at high risk of developing long-standing symptoms, significantly more so for those initially having neck/shoulder diagnoses.

  • 6. Amin, AI
    et al.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lee, AJ
    Sexton, R
    Moran, BJ
    Heald, RJ
    A 5-cm colonic J pouch colo-anal reconstruction following anterior resection for low rectal cancer results in acceptable evacuation and continence in the long term2003In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, Vol. 5, no 1, 33-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Optimal treatment for low rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision, with most patients suitable for low colo-rectal or colo-anal anastomosis. A colon pouch has early functional benefits, although long-term function, especially evacuation, might mitigate against its routine use. The aim of this study was to assess evacuation and continence in patients with a colon pouch, and to examine the impact of possible risk factors. Methods. In 1998, all 102 surviving patients with a colon pouch, whose stoma had been closed for more than one year, were sent a postal questionnaire. A composite incontinence score was calculated from questions on urgency, use of a pad, incontinence of gas, liquid or faeces, and a composite evacuation score from questions on medication taken to evacuate, straining, the need and number of times returned to evacuate. Results. The response rate was 90% (50 M, 42 F), with a median age of 68 years (IQR 60-78) and median follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR 1.7-3.9). The anastomosis was 3 cm or less from the anus in 45/92 (49%), and incontinence scores were worse in this group (P = 0.001). There were significantly higher incontinence scores in females (P = 0.014). Age, preoperative radiotherapy, part of colon used for anastomosis, post-operative leak and length of follow-up had no demonstrable effect on either score. Conclusion. Gender and anastomotic height were the only variables which influenced incontinence. Ninety percent of patients reported that their bowel function did not affect their overall wellbeing, and none would have preferred to have a stoma.

  • 7. Balldin, J
    et al.
    Berglund, M
    Borg, S
    Mansson, M
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Beroendekliniken IHS. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency.
    Franck, J
    Gustafsson, L
    Halldin, J
    Nilsson, LH
    Stolt, G
    Willander, A
    A 6-month controlled naltrexone study: Combined effect with cognitive behavioral therapy in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence2003In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, Vol. 27, no 7, 1142-1149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In several studies, patients with alcohol dependence treated with the opioid antagonist naltrexone have shown fewer relapses to heavy drinking than those receiving placebo. An interaction between the naltrexone effect and the type of psychological therapy has been observed. Methods: A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was performed at 10 different investigation sites. After a placebo run-in period of 1 week, 118 patients were randomized into 4 treatment groups - 50 mg of naltrexone daily or placebo in combination with either cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or supportive therapy. The CBT was performed over nine sessions according to the manual of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity). The supportive therapy was defined as "the treatment as usual." Alcohol consumption, craving, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, medication compliance by tablet count, and adverse clinical events were assessed at all visits. Other liver enzymes and psychiatric symptoms were also determined. Results: Ninety-one (77%) patients completed the study, and 92 (78%) were 80% compliant with the medication regimen. A lower percentage of heavy-drinking days was shown in the naltrexone group (p = 0.045) compared with the placebo group, as was a lower craving score (p = 0.029). These results are supported by the lower levels of liver enzyme activities (p < 0.010 for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and ?-glutamyltransferase), but not by the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels, in the naltrexone group. The mean time period before the first day of heavy drinking was longer for the group treated with CBT (p = 0.010), especially in combination with naltrexone (p = 0.007). Naltrexone was well tolerated, and no patients discontinued the study due to side effects. Conclusions: This study supports the effect of naltrexone in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence and suggests that a beneficial interaction effect with CBT can be expected.

  • 8.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grear, Daniel A.
    Colorado State University, USA .
    Buhnerkempe, Michael
    Colorado State University, USA .
    Webb, Colleen T.
    Colorado State University, USA .
    Miller, Ryan S.
    US Anim and Plant Health Inspect Serv, CO USA .
    Portacci, Katie
    US Anim and Plant Health Inspect Serv, CO USA .
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Bayesian Approach for Modeling Cattle Movements in the United States: Scaling up a Partially Observed Network2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Networks are rarely completely observed and prediction of unobserved edges is an important problem, especially in disease spread modeling where networks are used to represent the pattern of contacts. We focus on a partially observed cattle movement network in the U.S. and present a method for scaling up to a full network based on Bayesian inference, with the aim of informing epidemic disease spread models in the United States. The observed network is a 10% state stratified sample of Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection that are required for interstate movement; describing approximately 20,000 movements from 47 of the contiguous states, with origins and destinations aggregated at the county level. We address how to scale up the 10% sample and predict unobserved intrastate movements based on observed movement distances. Edge prediction based on a distance kernel is not straightforward because the probability of movement does not always decline monotonically with distance due to underlying industry infrastructure. Hence, we propose a spatially explicit model where the probability of movement depends on distance, number of premises per county and historical imports of animals. Our model performs well in recapturing overall metrics of the observed network at the node level (U.S. counties), including degree centrality and betweenness; and performs better compared to randomized networks. Kernel generated movement networks also recapture observed global network metrics, including network size, transitivity, reciprocity, and assortativity better than randomized networks. In addition, predicted movements are similar to observed when aggregated at the state level (a broader geographic level relevant for policy) and are concentrated around states where key infrastructures, such as feedlots, are common. We conclude that the method generally performs well in predicting both coarse geographical patterns and network structure and is a promising method to generate full networks that incorporate the uncertainty of sampled and unobserved contacts.

  • 9.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Västra Götalandsregionen, Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    A Biopsychosocial and Long Term Perspective on Child Behavioral Problems: Impact of Risk and Resilience2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health has become a prominent issue in society. Yet, much remains unknown about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the association between biological, psychological and social factors of risk and resilience and behavioral problems in a birth cohort of Swedish children. 1723 mothers and their children were followed from birth to the age of 12 as part of the South East Sweden Birth Cohort Study (the SESBiC study). Information was gathered through register data, standardized questionnaires and DNA samples.

    In study I, stability of maternal symptoms of depression and the impact on child behavior at age 12 were investigated. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was found to be 12.0 % postpartum. Symptoms of postpartum depression significantly increased the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms 12 years later in women. Children whose mothers reported concurrent symptoms of depression and anxiety had an increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12, but no long term effect on child behavior was seen for postpartum depressive symptoms. The greatest risk was seen for children whose mothers reported symptoms of depression on both occasions. In study II, the impact of gene-environment interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met and experience of life events together with symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety on child behavior at age 12 was studied. A main effect of 5-HTTLPR was noticed, but no geneenvironment effects were shown. Similarly to study I, concurrent symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety were an important predictor of child behavioral problems. A high degree of psychosocial stress around childbirth was found to have long lasting detrimental effects on child behavior, increasing the risk for internalizing problems at age 12. Study III investigated the impact of geneenvironment interactions of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met and life events together with symptoms of maternal depression and birth characteristics on behavioral problems at age 3. Symptoms of postpartum depression were found to predict internalizing as well as externalizing problems in children three years later. Child experience of life events was a stable predictor of behavioral problems across the scales similar to sociodemographic factors such as parental immigration status and unemployment. No gene-environment interaction effects of 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met were shown. Study IV used the risk factors identified in studies I-III to investigate factors of resilience to behavioral problems at age 12. The l/l genotype of 5-HTTLPR was associated with a lower risk for behavioral problems at age 12, especially for children facing low adversity. Good social functioning was found to be a general resource factor, independent of the level of risk, while an easy temperament was associated with resilience for children with a high degree of adversity. However, effect sizes were small.

    In summary, the results from the present thesis emphasize the importance of maternal mental health and sociodemographic factors for child mental health at ages 3 and 12, which must be taken into account in clinical settings. Moreover, it adds to the null-findings of the gene-environment effect of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on behavioral problems in children, but indicates a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms at age 12.

    List of papers
    1. Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age
    2013 (English)In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 17, no 3, 405-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children of depressed mothers have been shown to express behaviour problems to a greater extent than children of non-depressed mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine the persistence of depressive symptoms in mothers and to evaluate the relative importance of symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) and concurrent maternal symptoms of depression, on child behaviour at age 12. A birth cohort of 1,707 children and their mothers was followed from 3 months after birth to 12 years after birth. Self-reported symptoms of depression in mothers were assessed at baseline and 12-year follow-up where 893 mothers (52.3 %) and their children participated. The mothers reports on the behaviour of their children at age 12 were used. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors that increased the risk of child behaviour problems. At baseline, 10.4 % scored above the cutoff for symptoms of postpartum depression. At follow up, 18.2 % scored above the cutoff for depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that ongoing maternal symptoms of depression, as distinct from PPD-symptoms, was the strongest predictor of child behaviour problems at age 12. The gender of the child and socio-demographic factors at baseline were additional factors that affected the risk of behaviour problems in the 12 year old children. Children of mothers who reported symptoms of depression, both postpartum and at follow-up, were at a greater risk of behaviour problems compared to children of women with no depressive symptoms on either occasion. Our findings indicate that recurrent and ongoing maternal depressive symptoms significantly increase the risk of child behaviour problems as reported by mothers, while symptoms of PPD do not seem to result in an increased risk of behaviour problems in 12 year olds. High maternal socio-demographic life stress at childbirth constitutes an important risk factor for later child behaviour problems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2013
    Keyword
    CBCL, Children, Mental health, Postpartum depression, SESBiC-study
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90750 (URN)10.1007/s10995-012-0985-z (DOI)000316021200003 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-05 Created: 2013-04-05 Last updated: 2016-01-22
    2. Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, no 1, 10- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.

    METHODS: Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2013
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104869 (URN)10.1186/1753-2000-7-10 (DOI)23518193 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2016-01-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The early environment is important for child development and wellbeing. Gene-by-environment studies investigating the impact of the serotonin transporter genelinked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms by life events on mental health and behaviour problems have been inconclusive. Methodological differences regarding sample sizes, study population, definitions of adversities and measures of mental health problems obstacle their comparability. Furthermore, very few studies included children. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of risk factors covering pregnancy and birth, genetic polymorphism, experience of multiple life events and psychosocial environment, and child behaviour at age three, using a comparably large, representative, population-based sample.

    Methods: A total of 1,106 children, and their mothers, were followed from pregnancy to age three. Information on pregnancy and birth-related factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms, child behaviour and child experiences of life events were filled in by the mothers. Child saliva samples were used for genotyping the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between psychological scales and genetic polymorphisms.

    Results: Symptoms of postpartum depression increased the risk of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Experience of multiple life events was also a predictor of behavioural problems across the scales. No gene-by-environment or gene-bygene-by-environment interactions were found. Children of immigrants had an increased risk of internalizing problems and parental unemployment was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing type of problems.

    Conclusion: This study shows the importance of the psychosocial environment for psychosocial health in preschool children, and adds to  the literature of null-findings of gene-by-environment effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF in children

    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124207 (URN)10.1186/s12887-016-0614-x (DOI)000377535800002 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:Funding was obtained from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS), the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Clas Groschinsky Memorial Foundation, Stockholm, Samariten Foundation, Stockholm, the Hallsten Research Foundation and ALF, County Council of Ostergotland.

    Vid tiden för publicering förelåg publikationen endast som manuskript

    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2016-07-06Bibliographically approved
    4. A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve
    Show others...
    2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

    Keyword
    Child, genotype, longitudinal, mental health, resilience
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124208 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2016-01-22Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

  • 11.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A blueprint for using commercial games off the shelf in defence training, education and research simulations2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two types of simulations, those made for business and those made for pleasure. The underlying technology is usually the same, the difference being how and for what purpose the simulation is used. Often the two purposes can be combined. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the mutual benefit that exists between the military community and the entertainment business. These mutual benefits have only in recent years begun to be seriously explored.

    The objective of this work is to explore how to modify and use commercial video games off the shelf, in defence training, education and research. The work focuses on the process of how and what to consider when modifying commercial off the shelf games for military needs.

    The outlined blueprint is based on studies performed with combatants from the Swedish Army. To facilitate the develop­ment of the blueprint, a great number of commercial games used by military communities around the world are evaluated. These evaluations, in harmony with literature in the area, are used to develop a basic theoretical framework. The basic theoretical framework characterizes the approach and style throughout the work.

    From a general point of view, there are two overall findings; first there is an urgent need for more intuitive, pedagogical and powerful tools for preparation, management and evaluation of game-based simulation, especially since the real learning often takes place during the modification process rather the during the playing session. Second, there is a defective understanding of the differences between and purposes of a defence simulation and a game. Defence simulations focus on actions and events, while video games focus on human reactions to actions and events. 

  • 12.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Dige, N
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Schwerdt, K
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Säfström, Kåge
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology UHL.
    Granerus, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    A case of Kleine-Levin syndrome examined with SPECT and neuropsychological testing2002In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, Vol. 105, no 4, 318-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case of Kleine-Levin syndrome with typical periodic hypersomnia and bulemia was diagnosed. On examination with single photo emission tomography (SPECT) (CERETEC«) during a relapse period and 2 weeks later there was marked cortical hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes, especially on the left side as well as in the right parietal lobe. Neuropsychological testing performed 1 week after a relapse showed a reduction in encoding to memory function of verbal learning indicating neocortical damage of the left fronto-temporal region. A follow-up 2 months later after the patient had spontaneously recovered showed only a slight left fronto-temporal disturbance. CT and MRI of the brain were normal although the MRI showed a large and asymmetric mamillary body. Neuropsychological testing 6 years after recovery showed pronounced reduction in short-time verbal and visual memory. Seven years after recovery SPECT demonstrated a normalized frontal perfusion but still a slight hypoperfusion in the left temporal lobe. Our results correlate to autopsy findings in two cases described previously.

  • 13.
    Evangelista, Pietro
    et al.
    IRAT-CNR and Department of Management and Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sweeney, Edward
    National Institute for Transport and Logistics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    A case study investigation on purchasing green transport and logistics services2012In: Purchasing & Supply Management in a Changing World: IPSERA 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Esposito, E., Evangelista, P., Pastore, G., Raffa, M., Napoli, Italia: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane , 2012, WP17-1-WP17-13 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n the context of green supply chain management, green purchasing has received increased attention over the past decade and the strategic importance of introducing green aspects into purchasing practices has been recognised. Despite this growing importance, little has been written in relation to purchasing green transport and logistics services. Considering the strong environmental impact associated with transport and logistics activities, much remains to be learned concerning buyer’s practices when sourcing more sustainable services from third party logistics companies (3PLs). The aim of this paper is to explore practices of buying green transport and logistics services in three different European countries (Italy, Ireland and Sweden) using a multiple case study research approach. The paper analyses how general environmental company ambitions and environmental purchasing practices are reflected when green transport and logistics services are purchased. The results of the paper indicate that while the case companies show a relatively high concern of green issues at company level, a lower importance is attributed to green issues at the purchasing function level. When green concerns in purchasing transport and logistics services are analysed the level of importance decrease dramatically. It emerges a conflicting attitude among the overall company level and the purchasing of transport and logistics services. This suggests that there is the potential for improvements especially in the area of green collaboration in buyer and supplier relationships. 

  • 14.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A Case Study of  Semi-Automatic Parallelization of  Divide and Conquer Algorithms Using Invasive Interactive Parallelization2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since computers supporting parallel execution have become more and more common the last years, especially on the consumer market,  the need for methods and tools for parallelizing existing sequential programs has highly increased. Today there exist different methods of achieving this, in a more or less user friendly way. We have looked at one method, Invasive Interactive Parallelization (IIP), on a special problem area, divide and conquer algorithms, and performed a case study. This case study shows that by using IIP, sequential programs can be parallelized both for shared and distributed memory machines. We have focused on parallelizing Quick Sort for OpenMP and MPI environment using a tool, Reuseware, which is based on the concepts of Invasive Software Composition.

  • 15.
    Sanchez Centellas, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gudlur, Sushanth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ramström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    A cluster of aspartic residues in the extracellular loop II of PAR 4 is important for thrombin interaction and activation of platelets2017In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 154, 98-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thrombin activates platelets via proteolytic cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4. The two PARs have distinct but complementary roles. The mechanisms responsible for PAR1 activation by thrombin have been extensively studied. However, much less is known regarding thrombin activation of PAR4, especially the potential involvement of regions of PAR4 other than the N-terminal, which is bound to the catalytic site of thrombin. We have studied PAR4 in S. cerevisiae strainMMY12, an expression system in which the GPCR receptors are connected to a Lac Z reporter gene resulting in increased beta-galactosidase activity. This approach was used to assess PAR4 mutants to evaluate the contribution of different aspartic residues in facilitating PAR4 activation. Furthermore, peptides mimicking parts of the PAR4 N-terminal and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) were tested for their ability to inhibit platelet activation by thrombin. Binding of these peptides to gamma-thrombin was studied by monitoring the decrease in tryptophan fluorescence intensity of thrombin. We conclude that not only the N-terminal but also the electronegative aspartic residues D224, D230 and D235 (located in ECLII) are be important for PAR4 binding to thrombin. We further suggest that they play a role for the tethered ligand binding to the receptor, as mutations also affected activation in response to a PAR4-activating peptide mimicking the new N-terminal formed after cleavage. This agrees with previous results on PAR1 and thrombin binding. We suggest that the ECLII of PAR4 could be a potential target for antithrombotic drug development. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-04-13 12:45
  • 16.
    Larsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization .
    Patriksson, Michael
    Matematiska vetenskaper Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A column generation procedure for the side constrained traffic equilibrium problem2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a column generation procedure for the side constrained traffic equilibrium problem. A dual stabilization scheme is introduced to improve the computational performance. Computational experiments for the case of linear side constraints are presented. The test problems are well known traffic equilibrium instances where side constraints of link flow capacity type and general linear side constraints are added. The computational results are promising especially for instances with a relatively small number of side constraints.

  • 17.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Common Intermediate Representation for C, Pascal, Modula-2 and Fortran-771986Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a unified abstract syntax tree representation, called CIR, which is a program representation for a multi-language environment. The languages in question are C, Pascal, Modula-2 and Fortran-77. Nodes in this intermediate representation usually correspond to syntactic constructs in these languages. It is also possible to reconstruct source text from the CIR representation.It proved possible to achieve a fairly high degree of uniformity in the intermediate representation for the expression and statement parts of these languages. However, the declaration structure proved to be much more irregular, especially for C and Fortran-77. Also, some statistics on different node classes is presented for the languages involved, and a comparison to Diana is done.

  • 18.
    Murphy, Robin
    et al.
    Texas A&M University.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Community-Driven Roadmap for the Adoption of Safety Security and Rescue Robots2013In: Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics community has created a roadmap for producing unmanned systems that could be adopted by the Public Safety sector within 10 years, given appropriate R&D investment especially in human-robot interaction and perception. The five applications expected to be of highest value to the Public Safety community, highest value first, are: assisting with routine inspection of the critical infrastructure, “chronic emergencies” such as firefighting, hazardous material spills, port inspection, and damage estimation after a disaster. The technical feasibility of the applications were ranked, with the most attractive scenario, infrastructure inspection, rated as the second easiest scenario; this suggests the maturity of robotics technology is beginning to match stakeholder needs. Each of the five applications were discussed in terms of the six broad enabling technology areas specified in the current National Robotics Initiative Roadmap (perception, human-robot interaction, mechanisms, modeling and simulation, control and planning, and testing and evaluation) and nine specific capabilities identified by the community as being essential to commercialization (communication, alerting, localization, fault tolerance, mapping, manpower needs, plug and play capabilities, multiple users, and multiple robots). The community believes that perception and human-robot interaction are the two biggest barriers to adoption, and require more research, given that their low technical maturity (3rd and 6th rank respectively). However, each of the specific capabilities needed for commercialization are being addressed by current research and could be achieved within 10 years with sustained funding. 

  • 19.
    Peng, Huatao
    et al.
    Wuhan University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Hubei University of Technology, Peoples R China; University of Vaasa, Finland.
    A comprehensive analysis of cleaner production policies in China2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, 1138-1149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of cleaner production have often focused on two domains: the applications and the effects. An ever-increasing importance of cleaner production is pushing researchers to pay more attention to the formulation and principles of cleaner production policies. However, there is nearly none of the previous research that systematically and comprehensively analyses the development processes of cleaner production policies and exploring their characteristics deeply. The missing study is important in not only contributing to the perfection of cleaner production policies but also influencing the strategic planning of firms. This paper bridges this gap by first presenting a comprehensive study of the development process of cleaner production policies and then exploring their characteristics. We choose China, the biggest developing country and one of the most challenging countries to implement cleaner production, as the main research target and in addition a number of other developed and developing countries for comparisons. To investigate deeper into the characteristics of cleaner production in China, all the major policies and regulations issued by central ministries from 1997 to 2013 have been studied, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the research. By employing T-LAB software with linguistic and statistical content analysis method, this paper derives following conclusions. (1) "audit", "implementation" and "environmental" have the highest correlation coefficients with cleaner production; (2) cleaner production policies focus on four themes: "pilot", "indicator", "people" and "list"; (3) the formulation and implementation of cleaner production policies are endowed with typical characteristics of collaboration; (4) the characteristics of cleaner production policies are typically constraining types that evidently guide and regulate the behaviours of firms. This paper contributes as a general important reference of cleaner production policies for governments and firms especially in developing countries. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-01 11:04
  • 20.
    He, Qing
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Comprehensive Analysis of Optimal Link Scheduling for Emptying a Wireless Network2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications have become an important part of modern life. The ubiquitous wireless networks and connectivities generate exponentially increasing data traffic. In view of this, wireless network optimization, which aims at utilizing the limited resource, especially spectrum and energy, as efficiently as possible from a network perspective, is essential for performance improvement and sustainable development of wireless communications.

    In the dissertation, we focus on a fundamental problem of wireless network optimization, link scheduling, as well as its subproblem, link activation. The problem type arises because of the nature of wireless media and hence it is of relevance to a wide range of networks with multiple access. We freshen these classic problems up by novel extensions incorporating new technologies of interference management or with new performance metrics. We also revisit the problems in their classic setup to gain new theoretical results and insights for problem-solving. Throughout the study, we consider the problems with a general setup, such that the insights presented in this dissertation are not constrained to a specific technology or network type. Since link activation and scheduling are key elements of access coordination in wireless communications, the study opens up new approaches that significantly improve network performance, and eventually benefit practical applications.

    The dissertation consists of five research papers. The first paper addresses maximum link activation with cooperative transmission and interference cancellation. Papers II and III investigate the minimum-time link scheduling problem in general and a particular class of networks, respectively. In Paper IV, we consider the scheduling problem of emptying a network in its broad form and provide a general optimality condition. In Paper V, we study the scheduling problem with respect to age of information.

    List of papers
    1. Maximum Link Activation with Cooperative Transmission and Interference Cancellation in Wireless Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximum Link Activation with Cooperative Transmission and Interference Cancellation in Wireless Networks
    2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 16, no 2, 408-421 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We address the maximum link activation problem in wireless networks with new features, namely when the transmitters can perform cooperative transmission, and the receivers are able to perform successive interference cancellation. In this new problem setting, which transmitters should transmit and to whom, as well as the optimal cancellation patterns at the receivers, are strongly intertwined. We present contributions along three lines. First, we provide a thorough tractability analysis, proving the NP-hardness as well as identifying tractable cases. Second, for benchmarking purposes, we deploy integer linear programming for achieving global optimum using off-theshelf optimization methods. Third, to overcome the scalability issue of integer programming, we design a sub-optimal but efficient optimization algorithm for the problem in its general form, by embedding maximum-weighted bipartite matching into local search. Numerical results are presented for performance evaluation, to validate the benefit of cooperative transmission and interference cancellation for maximum link activation and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2017
    National Category
    Communication Systems Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112447 (URN)10.1109/TMC.2016.2546906 (DOI)
    Conference
    2014 IEEE 25th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), September 2-5, Washington DC, DC, USA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; EU FP7 Marie Curie [324515, 329313]; National Science Foundation [CCF-0728966, CCF-1420651]; ONR [N000141410107]

    Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2017-03-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Minimum-Time Link Scheduling for Emptying Wireless Systems: Solution Characterization and Algorithmic Framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum-Time Link Scheduling for Emptying Wireless Systems: Solution Characterization and Algorithmic Framework
    2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, Vol. 60, no 2, 1083-1100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a set of transmitter-receiver pairs, or links, that share a wireless medium and address the problem of emptying backlogged queues with given initial size at the transmitters in minimum time. The problem amounts to determining activation subsets of links, and their time durations, to form a minimum-time schedule. Scheduling in wireless networks has been studied under various formulations before. In this paper, we present fundamental insights and solution characterizations that include: 1) showing that the complexity of the problem remains high for any continuous and increasing rate function; 2) formulating and proving sufficient and necessary optimality conditions of two baseline scheduling strategies that correspond to emptying the queues using one-at-a-time or all-at-once strategies; and 3) presenting and proving the tractability of the special case in which the transmission rates are functions only of the cardinality of the link activation sets. These results are independent of physical-layer system specifications and are valid for any form of rate function. We then develop an algorithmic framework for the solution to this problem. The framework encompasses exact as well as sub-optimal, but fast, scheduling algorithms, all under a unified principle design. Through computational experiments, we finally investigate the performance of several specific algorithms from this framework.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014
    Keyword
    Algorithm; optimality; scheduling; wireless networks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104836 (URN)10.1109/TIT.2013.2292065 (DOI)000330286100022 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2016-09-15
    3. Polynomial Complexity Minimum-Time Scheduling in a Class of Wireless Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polynomial Complexity Minimum-Time Scheduling in a Class of Wireless Networks
    2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, ISSN 2325-5870, Vol. 3, no 3, 322-331 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a wireless network with a set of transmitter-receiver pairs, or links, that share a common channel, and address the problem of emptying finite traffic volume from the transmitters in minimum time. This, so called, minimum-time scheduling problem has been proved to be NP-hard in general. In this paper, we study a class of minimum-time scheduling problems in which the link rates have a particular structure. We show that global optimality can be reached in polynomial time and derive optimality conditions. Then we consider a more general case in which we apply the same approach and obtain an approximation as well as lower and upper bounds to the optimal solution. Simulation results confirm and validate our approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
    Keyword
    algorithm, interference, optimality, scheduling, wireless networks
    National Category
    Communication Systems Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112446 (URN)10.1109/TCNS.2015.2512678 (DOI)
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved
    4. A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network
    2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION THEORY, IEEE , 2016, 1446-1450 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider link scheduling in wireless networks for emptying the queues of the source nodes, and provide a unified mathematical formulation that accommodates all meaningful settings of link transmission rates and network configurations. We prove that, any scheduling problem is equivalent to solving a convex problem defined over the convex hull of the rate region. Based on the fundamental insight, a general optimality condition is derived, that yields a unified treatment of optimal scheduling. Furthermore, we demonstrate the implications and usefulness of the result. Specifically, by applying the theoretical insight to optimality characterization and complexity analysis of scheduling problems, we can both unify and extend previously obtained results.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2016
    Series
    IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory. Proceedings, ISSN 2157-8095, E-ISSN 2157-8117
    Keyword
    convex programming;radio links;radio networks;telecommunication scheduling;convex hull;convex problem;general optimality condition;link scheduling;link transmission rates;network configurations;optimal scheduling;source nodes;wireless network;Complexity theory;Information theory;Interference;Optimal scheduling;Processor scheduling;Scheduling;Wireless networks;complexity;optimality;scheduling;wireless networks
    National Category
    Computer Engineering Information Systems Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131357 (URN)10.1109/ISIT.2016.7541538 (DOI)000390098701102 ()
    Conference
    IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2016, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain, July l0-l5, 2016
    Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2017-01-30Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Olsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Conceptual Female Hygiene Product: Developed from Needs and Prerequisites in an Agricultural East African Context2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menstruation is a large problem for females in development countries today. Studies have shown that around 40 percent of menstruating girls have been absent from school due to their menstruation. One of the challenges that need to be solved is the absence of female hygiene products amongst women, especially in low income and developing countries due to the cost of commercial products. In countries where the national economy is unstable or poorly comes a problem with importing products, it would be better if they could produce their own products so that the national economy is supported. Small factories and production sites that produce female hygiene products have started to form in some areas. This shows that it is possible to produce in the context where the product is going to be sold. One of the advantages of this system is from the environmental perspective, many of the local production sites use environmentally friendly materials and some products are up to 95 percent bio-degradable. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a concept for a sustainable female hygiene product that women in developing countries can afford to buy, this so that social effects can be enabled due to the security that a functioning protection can bring. To be able to do so a field study in Uganda has been conducted. During the study users and local producers were interviewed to find out what demands and prerequisites there are to create a female hygiene product that can be produced and used locally. The field study gave a deeper understanding and knowledge about both the subject as whole and the technical aspects to take into consideration when developing a female hygiene product. The study confirmed that female hygiene products, or rather the lack of them, are a big problem that needs to be solved quickly. It also revealed that the possibilities for producing in the context existed but was not developed enough. Through an analysis of the empirical findings as well as theories about, for example, material and production, six concepts were developed. The concepts and already existing products were evaluated and correlated to requirements collected in the field study. One concept was chosen for further development from this evaluation. This concept consists of a disposable napkin that is fastened by putting it in holders sewn in the panty. The panty can be bought as a product with existing holders or the holders can be sewn into the users own panties. The final concept has taken both technical aspects and social effects into account. Lists of requirements on material for the concept as well as the production of it are also included in the work. A prototype of the concept has been sewn and tested. The final concept in this work is not a finished product and needs further developing before being released as a product. More work need to be done on specifying the production and specific materials to implement the concept. For further developing, it is also important to have in mind in what context the product would be used due to the different possibilities and demands that the setting gives.

  • 22.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players: The correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performance of these players during the World Cup2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 38, 493-497 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Objectives: To investigate the correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performance of these players during the World Cup.

    Methods: The team doctors at eleven of the best football clubs in Europe prospectively recorded player’s exposure and injuries during the 2001-2002 season (July 2001-May 2002). Sixty-five  players  participated in the World Cup in Korea/Japan (June 2002). During the World Cup, the clubs reported injuries sustained by these players, and their performance was evaluated by three international experts.

    Results: The number of  team matches during the season varied between 40 and 76 for the different countries involved. The individual player had a mean of 36 matches during the season. Top players played more matches, especially during the final period of the season. Players that participated in the World Cup (WC players) played more matches during the season compared to players who did not participate in the World Cup (46 vs 33 matches).

    WC players did not show an increased risk for injury during the season. Twenty-nine per cent of the WC players incurred injuries during the World Cup and 32% performed below their normal standard. The players who under-performed in the World Cup played more matches during the 10 weeks prior to the World Cup compared to those who performed better than expected (12.5 vs 9, p< 0.05). Twenty-three (60%) of the 38 players who had played more than 1 match/week prior to the World Cup incurred injuries or underperformed during the World Cup.

    Conclusions: There is a considerable variation in the number of matches played per season in European professional leagues. Top-level players are obliged to play many matches especially during the final period of the season.

  • 23.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Pielke Jr, Roger
    University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Beck, Silke
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research.
    A democracy paradox in studies of science and society?2011In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 36, no 4, 474-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many scholars seem to agree that citizens should be involved in expert deliberations on science and technology issues. This interest in public deliberation has gained attraction in many practical settings, especially in the European Union, and holds the promise of more legitimate governance of science and technology. In this article, the authors draw on the European Commission’s (EC) report “Taking the European Knowledge Society Seriously” to ask how legitimate these efforts to “democratize” scientific expertise really are. While the report borrows from deliberative democrats' normative accounts of legitimacy, the authors identify a tension between the principles for legitimate rule prescribed by deliberative democratic theory and the report’s celebration of diversity and dissent. While this inconsistency suggests that the legitimacy of deliberative governance arrangements is justified on empirical rather than normative grounds, it remains an open question whether studies of science and technology offer enough empirical support for such a justification. In this article, the authors address this pressing question and propose three possible responses.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A deployment system for pervasive computing2000In: Proceedings. International Conference on  Software Maintenance, 2000., 2000, 262-270 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software has for a long time been used for controlling different systems. Today, there is a trend towards integrating more software in consumer electronics, home appliances, cars etc. Suddenly software is moving from traditional environments, such as the desktop computer into new and unknown territory. This will influence many aspects of the software engineering process; above all, several new problems have arisen in the domain of software deployment. How can software be effectively deployed in these environments? Current deployment strategies are not directly applicable. The paper discusses problems with current deployment models and proposes a new, modified model. A deployment model for pervasive computing must support component based development, different delivery models, and installation and activation strategies. Support for dynamic installation and activation (i.e. making modifications without de-activating the software), is especially important. We introduce a prototype implementation, the Java Distributed Run-time Updating Management System (JDRUMS), which we have used as a vehicle for eliciting requirements for our deployment model

  • 25.
    Sajid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Siddiqui, Imran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A distributed, load-aware, power and frequency bargaining protocol for LTE-based networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a distributed, dynamic, load aware, joint power and frequency allocation protocol for 4G networks along with system-level simulated results are presented. In all cellular networks, a key limiting factor for throughput is inter-cell interference, especially at the cell edges. Several methods have been proposed and adopted in each mobile network generation to cancel or suppress its effects, whereas each method has its drawbacks in terms of receiver complexity or additional control nodes. However, the proposed protocol presented here does not impose any architectural changes.  In 4G networks such as LTE, the choice of OFDMA for the air interface has paved the way for selective frequency and power allocation in the available spectrum. Taking advantage of this opportunity, fractional frequency reuse (FFR) has been proposed in OFDMA based mobile networks in order to reduce the throughput loss at the cell edges due to inter-cell interference. In FFR, center users lose part of available spectrum that is dedicated to the edge users.  Our protocol aims to minimize this loss of center users incurred by FFR, at the cost of minimal degradation at the edges.

    An eNodeB, only when overloaded, requests its neighbours’ edge band to be used for its center users at a reduced power level. This is done via small message exchange between the eNodeBs. The neighbors of the overloaded eNodeBs solve a small local knapsack problem to decide whether band lending is feasible or not. A distinguishing feature of this protocol is the power level adjustment for the borrowed band, which is mutually decided by the borrower and lender. The band is released when it is not needed or it is causing unacceptable loss to the lender. The implementation is done in a Matlab based LTE system level simulator. For the implementation of our protocol in the simulator, starting point was implementation of FFR-3 functionality, a prerequisite and a baseline for comparison with our protocol.

    Results are compared among three different setups of re-use1, FFR-3 and our protocol by varying number of overloaded eNodeBs for various numbers of scenarios and the comparison is made based on the center users’ throughput, edge users’ throughput. An estimation of time and protocol overhead is also presented. We have observed center users’ throughput gain up to 46%, at the cost of 9% edge users’ throughput loss, when compared to the classic FFR-3 scheme. The overall system throughput goes up to 26 % in heavily loaded scenario.

     

    The utility of the protocol for an LTE system is evident from the results, which is supported by the dynamic and decentralized nature of the protocol. This ensures better utilization of spectrum, by temporarily allocating more bandwidth where it is needed more.

  • 26.
    Asghar, Malik Summair
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A “Divide-by-Odd Number” Injection-Locked Frequency Divider.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of resonant CMOS frequency dividers with direct injection in frequencysynthesizers has increased in recent years due to their lower power consumptioncompared to conventional digital prescalers. The theoretical and experimentalaspects of these dividers have received great attention. This masters thesis workis a continuation of earlier work, based on the fundamentals of Injection-LockedFrequency Dividers (ILFD’s). The LC CMOS ILFD with direct injection is wellknownfor its divide-by-2 capability. However, it does not divide well by oddnumbers. The goal of this master thesis work is to modify the LC CMOS ILFDwith direct injection so that it can divide equally well by odd and even integers.In this master thesis report, an introduction to the basic concepts behindInjection-Locked frequency dividers is first presented. Some of the previous workand the background of a reference LC CMOS ILFD design are studied. The author,studied the reference design, and the experimental setup used for characterizingit’s locking behavior. The algorithm used to characterize the locking behavior ofthis ILFD are explored to reproduce the results for divide-by-even numbers for theexisting ILFD topology. Using a Spice model these results are also reproduced insimulations.Over the years, numerous ILFD circuit topologies have been proposed, most ofwhich have been optimized for division by even numbers, especially divide-by-2.It has been more difficult to realize division by odd numbers, such as divide-by-3.This master thesis work develops a simple modification to an LC CMOS injectionlocked frequency divider (ILFD) with direct injection, which gives it a wide lockingrange both in the “divide-by-odd number” mode and in the conventional “divideby-even number” regime, thereby opening up applications which require frequencydivision by an odd number. The work presents the circuit architecture, SPICEsimulations and experimental validation.

  • 27.
    Landelius, Tomas
    et al.
    n/a.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Dynamic Tree Structure for Incremental Reinforcement Learning of Good Behavior1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the idea of learning by reinforcement, within the theory of behaviorism. The reason for this choice is its generality and especially that the reinforcement learning paradigm allows systems to be designed, which can improve their behavior beyond that of their teacher. The role of the teacher is to define the reinforcement function, which acts as a description of the problem the machine is to solve. Gained knowledge is represented by a behavior probability density function which is approximated with a number of normal distributions, stored in the nodes of a binary tree. It is argued that a meaningful partitioning into local models can only be accomplished in a fused space consisting of both stimuli and responses. Given a stimulus, the system searches for responses likely to result in highly reinforced decisions by treating the sum of the two normal distributions on each level in the tree as a distribution describing the system's behavior at that resolution. The resolution of the response, as well as the tree growing and pruning processes, are controlled by a random variable based on the difference in performance between two consecutive levels in the tree. This results in a system that will never be content but will indefinitely continue to search for better solutions.

  • 28.
    Kimita, Koji
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    A Failure Analysis Method for Designing Highly Reliable Product-Service SystemsIn: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Product-Service Systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developing measures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failure analysis in PSS design called PSS Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends the framework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product and service aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.

  • 29.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    A failure analysis method for designing highly reliable product-service systems2017In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, product-service systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developingmeasures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failureanalysis in PSS design called PSS failure mode and effect analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends theframework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product andservice aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.

  • 30.
    Ockander, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A female lay perspective on health, disease, and sickness absence2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge about a female perspective on health and disease is important to understand what happens in e.g. the medical meeting. A deeper understanding for the phenomenon of health also has social and economic importance. In Sweden women account for about 60% of the long-term cases of sickness absence.

    Aim: To explore and describe women's perceptions of health and disease and their accounts of sickness absence.

    Methods: The chronic diseases mentioned by elderly women in an interview study are compared with those documented in their respective medical records (n=199). The prevalence of positive diagnoses, overall agreement, and the kappa-coefficient were calculated for each group of diagnoses. Semi-stmctnred interviews were conducted with 82 women who had been on sick leave (60 days or more) or who had disability pension. Sixty of these middle-aged women also carried out a Q-sort.

    Results: The lowest overall agreement between the elderly women report during interviews and their medical records was observed for psychiatric diseases, followed by diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Poor chance-adjusted agreement was found concerning diseases of the gastrointestinal system and diseases of the skin (Paper I). Long-term sickness absence can be said to arise in three distinguishable "spaces": the workspace, the medical-legal space, and the mental space. In the beginning, the women were positive about sick leave as such, which they saw as an opportunity for physical rest. But as time went on, they came to regard sick leave as creating a vicious circle of new problems related to inactivity and isolation. Apart from this vicious circle and chronic physical impairments, certain conditions at the workplace, at the hospital, and the social insurance office transformed seemingly trivial sick leaves into long-term and irreversible sickness absences (Paper II). The women's accounts of being sickness absent contained interpretations of what had happened to them, how things were for the moment, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: the crisis, the breakpoint, and the migration. The perceptions of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future were associated with their feelings of power to initiative and well-being. The descriptions of life on sick leave are connected to a theory of "loss of work" (Paper III). For these women, to be able to get back to work was found to be equivalent to breaking away from the prospect of isolation and loneliness. Five actors were identified along with suggestions for their actions: the woman who is on sick leave herself, the employer, the health care provider, the social insurance official, and the shop-steward. It was found important to take oneself seriously and also to be taken seriously by others. The results are related to a theory of enduring and suffering (Paper IV). Six accounts representing different conceptions of health, illness, and medicine were identified and described (Paper V).

    Conclusions: The results point to the importance of doing research from different perspectives, using different methods and different sources of information to obtain a deeper understanding of a complex phenomenon like health. Above all, the results presented in this thesis point to a large variation at the individual level in perceptions, which implies the need for care in, for example, the planning of rehabilitation programs. The results also highlight the point that sick leave without follow-up from work, health care, and the social insurance office might have negative consequences on health. Implications for practice are suggested along with proposals for future research.

    List of papers
    1. Patient-doctor Concordance in Elderly Women’s Self-reported Health and Medical Records
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient-doctor Concordance in Elderly Women’s Self-reported Health and Medical Records
    2002 (English)In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 41, no 2, 119-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the chronic diseases mentioned by elderly women in an interview study with those documented in their respective medical records.

    METHODS: The prevalence of positive diagnoses, overall agreement, and the kappa-coefficient were calculated for each group of diagnoses.

    RESULTS: The lowest overall agreement was observed for psychiatric diseases, followed by diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Poor chance-adjusted agreement was found concerning diseases of the gastrointestinal system and diseases of the skin.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a main reason for discordance was that the elderly women feared "losing face" by reporting some diseases.

    Keyword
    diagnosis, women, medical records, patients, medical decision making
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26291 (URN)12061118 (PubMedID)10807 (Local ID)10807 (Archive number)10807 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    2. A female lay perspective on the establishment of long-term sickness absence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A female lay perspective on the establishment of long-term sickness absence
    2001 (English)In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 10, no 1, 74-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden women account for about 60% of the long-term cases of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to describe women's explanations as to how long-term sickness absence arises and becomes permanent, with reference to their personal experience. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women who have personal experience of long-term sickness absence. Long-term sickness absence can be said to arise in three distinguishable “spaces”: the work space, the medico-legal space and the mental space. In the beginning, the women were positive about sick-leave as such, which they saw as an opportunity for physical rest. But as time went on, they came to regard sick-leave as creating a vicious circle of new problems related to inactivity and isolation. Apart from this vicious circle and chronic physical impairments, certain conditions at the workplace, at the hospital and the social insurance office transformed seemingly trivial sick-leaves into long-term and irreversible sickness absences

    Keyword
    sickness absence, lay explanation models, women, phenomenology, interview
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26067 (URN)10.1111/1468-2397.00154 (DOI)10526 (Local ID)10526 (Archive number)10526 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: Is there a "loss of work syndrome"?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: Is there a "loss of work syndrome"?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In most European countries, long-term sickness absence contribute the greatest number of days that are reimbursed due to sickness absence. This group is growing and it is constituted mainly of women.

    Aim: The present study seeks further knowledge about what happens then and there, i.e., how long-term sickness absent women handle and explain, for themselves and others, this interruption in their daily life.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women with personal experience from long-term sickness absence.

    Results: The women's accounts of being sickness absent contained interpretations of what had happen to them, how things were for the moment, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: the crisis, the breakpoint, and the migration. The perception of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future was associated with their feeling of power to initiative and well-being.

    Conclusion: From our study we have found implications for central topics of importance: time elapse, sense of coherence, reorientation/adaptation, and vital goals.

    Keyword
    Vital goal, life plan, sense of coherence, phenomenology, women, sickness absence
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80264 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    4. How to avoid the frightening scenario of long-term sickness absence: The advice from women with personal experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to avoid the frightening scenario of long-term sickness absence: The advice from women with personal experience
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to describe women's perceptions of what can be done to avoid long-term sickness absence.

    Methods: Interviews were conducted with 82 women who had been on sickness absence ( 60 days or more) or had disability pensions.

    Results: For these women, to be able to get back to work was found to be equivalent to breaking away from the prospect of isolation and loneliness. Five actors were identified along with suggestions for their actions: the woman who is on sick leave herself, the employer, the healthcare provider, the social insurance official, and the shop-steward.

    Conclusions: It is important to take oneself seriously and also to be taken seriously by others. Thus, it is important to not wait too long to take action which concerns both the individual herself and all those who get involved in her case at work, at hospital or at the social insurance office. Practical advice to reach recovery and avoid sickness absence is presented.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80265 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Accounts of health, illness and medicine in women on long-term sickness absence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounts of health, illness and medicine in women on long-term sickness absence
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term sickness absence has grown to an important social and economic question and it affects women more than men. The specific aim of the study was to identify patterns of association between ideas of health endorsed by groups of women having a close firsthand experience of long-term sickness absence. Using the Q-methodology, in a group of 60 middle-aged women, six accounts representing different conceptions of health, illness, and medicine were identified. Future studies should be implemented to investigate the prospective value of the categorisation identified in this study e.g. to see whether, and in that case how, these conceptions affect sick leave and rehabilitation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80266 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
  • 31.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet Uppsala.
    Arman, Maria
    Karolinska institutet Stockholm.
    Backman, Maria
    Röda Korsets Högskola Stockholm.
    Flatters, Ursula
    Vidarkliniken Järna.
    Hatschek, Thomas
    Karolinska inst Stockholm.
    Hamrin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology .
    A five-year follow-up of quality of life in women with breast cancer in anthroposophic and conventional care2006In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, Vol. 3, no 4, 523-531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complementary and alternative medicine is used by many cancer patients in most parts of the world, and its use is increasing. The aim of the present study was to examine, over 5 years, the perceived quality of life/life satisfaction in two samples of women with breast cancer who were treated with anthroposophic care or conventional medical treatment only. Data from admission, after 1 year and after 5 years are used for the comparisons. On admission to the study the women in anthroposophic care perceived their quality of life to be lower than that of the women in the conventional treatment group, especially for emotional, cognitive and social functioning and overall quality of life. Sixty women who actively chose treatment with anthroposophic medicine and 60 individually matched women treated with conventional medicine participated. Quality of life was measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Twenty-six women within anthroposophic care and 31 women within conventional medicine survived the 5 years. Effect size (ES) estimation favored the anthroposophic group in seven of the subscales mostly measuring emotional functioning. The ES for four of the subscales favored the conventional treatment group, mostly concerning physical functioning. After 5 years there were improvements in overall quality of life and in emotional and social functioning compared to admission for the women in anthroposophic care. The improvements took place between admission and 1 year, but not further on. Only minor improvements were found in the matching group. © 2006 The Author (s).

  • 32.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Domeij, Erica
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    A follow-up of medical graduates of a problem-based learning curriculum2003In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, Vol. 37, no 2, 155-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is little information available on the effects of problem-based undergraduate curricula on doctors and their performances after graduation. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire study of all graduates of the new medical programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Link÷ping University. Methods: All 446 medical students who had graduated from the new programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire about selected activities during their studies and their careers after graduation. They were also asked to evaluate the quality of their undergraduate education retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive, multivariate and bivariate approaches. Results: A total of 77% of the graduates responded. They showed a high degree of overall contentment with their undergraduate education and felt well prepared for professional life during their preregistration period and specialist education (mean = 4.0 on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 0 to 5). They felt especially well prepared in terms of skills for communication with patients, collaboration with other health professionals and development of critical thinking/scientific attitudes. The students' age at the beginning of their studies correlated positively with their contentment as graduates, especially in terms of preparation for patient communication and collaboration with other health professionals. No differences between students originally admitted via a local admission procedure and those admitted via a national procedure were detected concerning retrospective evaluation of undergraduate medical education. Conclusion: Graduates of the new curriculum showed a high degree of satisfaction with their undergraduate education and its preparation of them for medical practice. Specifically, they were very content with the particular emphases of the new curriculum.

  • 33.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlén, Johan
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models2015In: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56), October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, 91-104 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is vital to ensure credibility in simulation results and to justify model-based design decisions – especially in early development phases when system level measurement data for traditional model validation purposes are scarce. Central UQ challenges in industrial applications are computational cost and availability of information and resources for uncertainty characterization. In an attempt to meet these challenges, this paper proposes a framework for early and approximate UQ intended for large simulation models of dynamical systems. A Modelica simulation model of an aircraft environmental control system including a liquid cooling circuit is used to evaluate the industrial applicability of the proposed framework.

  • 34.
    Häll, Carl Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Framework for Evaluation and Design of an Integrated Public Transport System2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operators of public transport always try to make their service as attractive as possible, to as many persons as possible and in a so cost effective way as possible. One way to make the service more attractive, especially to elderly and disabled, is to offer door-to-door transportation. The cost for the local authorities to provide this service is very high and increases every year.

    To better serve the needs of the population and to reduce the cost for transportation of elderly and disabled, public transportation systems are evolving towards more flexible solutions. One such flexible solution is a demand responsive service integrated with a fixed route service, together giving a form of flexible public transport system. The demand responsive service can in such a system be used to carry passengers from their origin to a transfer location to the fixed route network, and/or from the fixed route network to their destination.

    This thesis concerns the development of a framework for evaluation and design of such an integrated public transport service. The framework includes a geographic information system, optimization tools and simulation tools. This framework describes how these tools can be used in combination to aid the operators in the planning process of an integrated service. The thesis also presents simulations made in order to find guidelines of how an integrated service should be designed. The guidelines are intended to help operators of public transport to implement integrated services and are found by evaluating the effects on availability, travel time, cost and other service indicators for variations in the design and structure of the service.

    In a planning system for an integrated public transport service, individual journeys must in some way be scheduled. For this reason the thesis also presents an exact optimization model of how journeys should be scheduled in this kind of service.

  • 35.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Fully Decentralized and Load-Adaptive Fractional Frequency Reuse Scheme2011In: Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), 2011 IEEE 19th International Symposium on, 2011, 425-428 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new fully decentralized dynamic fractional frequency reuse (FFR)-based scheme for cellular OFDMA networks is introduced. FFR is a technique to mitigate inter-cell interference to improve the throughput of interference-limited users on the cell edge, to the expense of the rest of the cell's users and the aggregate throughput. The proposed scheme aims to limit the FFR-incurred loss of the center users' throughput, while still providing sufficient bandwidth for the cell edge users' communication. This is done by local information sharing and distributed optimization. The resulting flexibility of frequency reuse can be especially beneficial in scenarios with non-uniform and time-varying load. The optimization task is accomplished by solving a knapsack problem in each cell, where the goal is to maximize the center throughput while maintaining acceptable degradation on the cell edge with respect to the original FFR allocation. The performance improvement resulting from the distributed and dynamic FFR scheme is demonstrated by snapshot simulations on an 81-cells network with asymmetric cell load. The proposed scheme achieves up to a 62% gain in cell-center throughput with a cost of no more than 18% at the edges when compared to the classic FFR scheme. The overall system throughput improvement ranges from 22% to 58%.

  • 36.
    Edell-Gustafsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    A gender perspective on sleeplessness behavior, effects of sleep loss, and coping resources in patients with stable coronary artery disease2006In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, Vol. 35, no 2, 75-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to systematically compare perceived sleep quality, sleeplessness behavior, sense of mastery, self-esteem, depression, subjective health, and effects of sleep loss in men and women with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Further aims were to determine possible predictors of poor sleep quality and sense of mastery, as well as the consequences of too little sleep. METHODS: Comparative-correlation and predictive design were used. Patients with a history of stable angina pectoris scheduled to undergo coronary angiography at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden were included. There were 47 women and 88 men (mean age 62.4 years) with CAD. Structured interviews using validated questionnaires covered sleep quality and sleep habits, effects of sleep loss, psychologic resources, and depression. RESULTS: Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that sleeplessness behavior, depressed mood, female gender, and pharmacologic treatments with inflammation inhibitors significantly (P < .0001) accounted for the variance of poorer sleep quality. The analysis also showed that the following factors in descending order significantly accounted (P < .0001) for the outcome of sleep quality: inability to feel refreshed by sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, gastrointestinal problems, too little sleep, final morning awakening time, sleep onset latency, lying down because of daytime tiredness, and daytime physical tiredness. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with men, women with stable CAD may be especially at risk of experiencing poor sleep quality, even when sleeplessness behavior and pharmacologic treatments with inflammation inhibitors are controlled. It is also possible that they may be more at risk of depressed mood. Copyright © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.

  • 37.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hol, Jeroen
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Graphics Processing Unit Implementation of the Particle Filter2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern graphics cards for computers, and especially their graphics processing units (GPUs), are designed for fast rendering of graphics. In order to achieve this GPUs are equipped with a parallel architecture which can be exploited for general-purpose computing on GPU (GPGPU) as a complement to the central processing unit (CPU). In this paper GPGPU techniques are used to make a parallel GPU implementation of state-of-the-art recursive Bayesian estimation using particle filters (PF). The modifications made to obtain a parallel particle filter, especially for the resampling step, are discussed and the performance of the resulting GPU implementation is compared to one achieved with a traditional CPU implementation. The resulting GPU filter is faster with the same accuracy as the CPU filter for many particles, and it shows how the particle filter can be parallelized.

  • 38.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hol, Jeroen
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Graphics Processing Unit Implementation of the Particle Filter2007In: Proceedings of the 15th European Statistical Signal Processing Conference, European Association for Signal, Speech, and Image Processing , 2007, 1639-1643 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern graphics cards for computers, and especially their graphics processing units (GPUs), are designed for fast rendering of graphics. In order to achieve this GPUs are equipped with a parallel architecture which can be exploited for general-purpose computing on GPU (GPGPU) as a complement to the central processing unit (CPU). In this paper GPGPU techniques are used to make a parallel GPU implementation of state-of-the-art recursive Bayesian estimation using particle filters (PF). The modifications made to obtain a parallel particle filter, especially for the resampling step, are discussed and the performance of the resulting GPU implementation is compared to one achieved with a traditional CPU implementation. The resulting GPU filter is faster with the same accuracy as the CPU filter for many particles, and it shows how the particle filter can be parallelized.

  • 39.
    Abrahamsson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Gröbner basis algorithm for fast encoding of Reed-Müller codes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the relationship between Gröbner bases and algebraic coding theory is investigated, and especially applications towards linear codes, with Reed-Müller codes as an illustrative example. We prove that each linear code can be described as a binomial ideal of a polynomial ring, and that a systematic encoding algorithm for such codes is given by the remainder of the information word computed with respect to the reduced Gröbner basis. Finally we show how to apply the representation of a code by its corresponding polynomial ring ideal to construct a class of codes containing the so called primitive Reed-Müller codes, with a few examples of this result.

  • 40.
    He, Zhiyuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A heuristic for thermal-safe SoC test scheduling2007In: IEEE International Test Conference, 2007, IEEE , 2007, 116-125 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature has become a technological barrier to the testing of high performance systems-on-chip, especially when deep submicron technologies are employed. In order to reduce test time while keeping the temperature of the cores under test within a safe range, thermal-aware test scheduling techniques are required. In this paper, we address the test time minimization problem as how to generate the shortest test schedule such that the temperature limits of individual cores and the limit on the test-bus bandwidth are satisfied. In order to avoid overheating during the test, we partition test sets into shorter test sub-sequences and add cooling periods in between, such that continuously applying a test sub-sequence will not drive the core temperature going beyond the limit. Further more, based on the test partitioning scheme, we interleave the test sub-sequences from different test sets in such a manner that a cooling period reserved for one core is utilized for the test transportation and application of another core. We have proposed a heuristic to minimize the test application time by exploring alternative test partitioning and interleaving schemes with variable length of test sub-sequences and cooling periods. Experimental results have shown the efficiency of the proposed heuristic.

  • 41.
    Berggren, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A high sensitivity imaging detector for the study of the formation of (anti)hydrogen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment, Gravity, Interferometry and Spectroscopy) isan experiment under development at CERN which will measure earth's gravitationalforce on antimatter. This will be done by creating a horizontal pulsedbeam of low energy antihydrogen, an atom consisting of an antiproton anda positron. The experiment will measure the vertical de ection of the beamthrough which it is possible to calculate the gravitational constant for antimatter.To characterise the production process in the current state of the experimentit is necessary to develop an imaging detector for single excited hydrogenatoms. This thesis covers the design phase of that detector and includes studiesand tests of detector components. Following literature studies, tests and havingdiscarded several potential designs, a baseline design was chosen. The suggesteddetector will contain a set of ionising rings followed by an electron multiplyingmicrochannel plate, a light emitting phosphor screen, a lens system and nallya CCD camera for readout. The detector will be able to detect single hydrogenatoms, measure their time of ight as well as being able to image electronplasmas and measure the time of ight of the initial particles in such a plasma.Tests were made to determine the behaviour of microchannel plates at the lowtemperatures used in the experiment. Especially, the resistance and multiplicationfactor of the microchannel plates have been measured at temperaturesdown to 14 K.

  • 42.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Angbratt, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Bolme, P
    Häger, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Valter, L
    A high-precision protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for persisting obesity2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest that adolescent adiposity is established already in preadolescence. Earlier studies have confirmed a strong tracking of obesity from adolescence to adulthood. Our aim was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of a population-derived protocol for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity in preadolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analysed data obtained for child health surveillance up to age 5 from 5778 children born in a swedish county in 1991. The basic data set included age, sex, and weight and height measurements from the regular checkups between ages 1.5 and 5. Data not routinely collected in the child health centre setting were disregarded. The children were at age 10 randomly assigned to protocol derivation and validation cohorts and assessed for obesity according to IOTF criteria. The accuracy of predicting obesity in the validation cohort was measured using decision precision, specificity, and sensitivity. The decision protocol selected 1.4% of preschool children as being at obesity risk. The precision of the protocol at age 10 was 82% for girls and 80% for boys, and the specificity was 100% for both boys and girls, The sensitivity was higher for girls (41 %) than for boys (21%). The relative risk for obesity at age 10 estimated by the odds ratio for individuals selected by the protocol compared to non-selected peers was 212.6 (95% confidence interval 56.6 to 798.4) for girls and 120.3 (95% Cl 24.5 to 589.91for boys. Conclusion/Significance: A simple and inexpensive decision protocol based on BMI values proved to have high precision and specificity for identification of preschool children at risk for obesity persisting into adolescence, while the sersitivity was low especially for boys. Implementation and further evaluations of the protocol in chlid health centre settings are warranted. © 2007 Timpka et al.

  • 43.
    Li, Lin
    et al.
    Tongji University.
    Huo, Jiazhen
    Tongji University.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A hybrid flowshop scheduling problem for a cold treating process in seamless steel tube production2011In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 49, no 15, 4679-4700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seamless steel tubes often have various categories and specifications, which further require complicated operations in production, especially in the cold treating process (CTP). This paper investigates the scheduling problem using the seamless tube plant of Baoshan Iron and Steel Complex as a study background. By considering the practical production constraints such as sequence-dependent setup times, maintenance schedule, intermediate material buffers, job-machine matches, we formulate the hybrid flowshop scheduling problem with a non-linear mixed integer programming model (NMIP). In addition, our model provides a flexibility to remove the permutation assumption, which is often a limitation in early studies. In order to obtain the solution of the above NMIP problem, a two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed and it combines a modified genetic algorithm and a local search method. With real production instances, our computation experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm is efficient and it outperforms several other approaches. Industrial implementation also shows that such a scheduling tool brings a cost saving of more than 10% and it substantially reduces the computation time. Our study also illustrates the need of relaxing permutation assumption in such a scheduling problem with complicated operation sequences.

  • 44.
    Nolén, Sixten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A local bicycle helmet ‘law’ in a Swedish municipality: the structure and process of initiation and implementation2002In: Injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1566-0974, Vol. 9, no 2, 89-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On May 1, 1996, the Municipality of Motala in Sweden introduced a local bicycle helmet ‘law.’ It is, however, not an official law in a legal sense, but a municipally endorsed recommendation supported by promotional activities. This ‘law’ applies to children (ages 6–12), although the objective is to increase helmet use among cyclists of all ages. The study is a qualitative evaluation of the structure and process during initiation and implementation of the Motala bicycle helmet law. The aim was to describe the activities that were carried out, which actors took part and the opinions of the most closely involved actors. The results are based on analysis of written material and on interviews with eight of the actors. The mass media focused much attention on the bicycle helmet law, especially during the first six months after its introduction. The name helmet law was presumably of significance in this context. It is essential that relevant target groups provide sufficient support and that committed individuals initiate and promote the work, which, however, must not become dependent on a single individual. All issues concerning bicycle helmets should be coordinated with the law. Also, continuous engagement of the municipal government and a strategy for the control and follow-up of the law are needed. Local bicycle helmet laws of this type have a potential to produce a long-lasting effect on helmet use, provided some of the problems encountered can be avoided and some of the promotional activities are intensified.

  • 45.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    A Look at the Roles of Look & Roles in Embodied Pedagogical Agents – a User Preference Perspective2009In: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, ISSN 1560-4292, Vol. 19(1)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical framework addressing three aspects of embodied pedagogical agents: visual static appearance, pedagogical role, and communicative style. The framework is then applied to a user study where 90 school children (age 12‑15) in a dummy multimedia program were presented with either an instructor or a learning companion condition. They were then to choose between eight visually different embodied pedagogical agents: four more naturalistic (detailed & 3D-rendered) and four more stylized (simplified & cartoonish). Finally the participants were to choose between a strictly task-oriented versus a task- and relation-oriented pedagogical agent.

    The goal of the study was to explore possible relations between the three aspects mentioned above with respect to user preferences. Results were: (i) When the agent was introduced as a learning companion, female students displayed a significant tendency to choose a more stylized visual character, (ii) When the agent was introduced as a learning companion, female students displayed a significant tendency to choose a task- and relation-oriented agent, (iii) In the case when students had chosen a more stylized character, there was a significant tendency to choose a task- and relational-oriented agent.

    The paper also discusses limitations and strengths of the study, and advocates careful descriptions in studies of this kind – especially regarding the notion of visual realism.

     

  • 46.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zakharov, A A
    Lund University.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Leif I
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A low-energy electron microscopy and x-ray photo-emission electron microscopy study of Li intercalated into graphene on SiC(0001)2010In: NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 12, no 125015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects induced by the deposition of Li on 1 and 0 ML graphene grown on SiC(0001) and after subsequent heating were investigated using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and x-ray photo-emission electron microscopy (XPEEM). For 1 ML samples, the collected photoelectron angular distribution patterns showed the presence of single pi-cones at the six equivalent K-points in the Brillouin zone before Li deposition but the presence of two pi-cones (pi-bands) after Li deposition and after heating to a few hundred degrees C. For 0 ML samples, no pi-band could be detected close to the Fermi level before deposition, but distinct pi-cones at the K-points were clearly resolved after Li deposition and after heating. Thus Li intercalation was revealed in both cases, transforming the carbon buffer layer (0 ML) to graphene. On 1 ML samples, but not on 0 ML, a (root 3 x root 3) R30 degrees diffraction pattern was observed immediately after Li deposition. This pattern vanished upon heating and then wrinkles/cracks appeared on the surface. Intercalation of Li was thus found to deteriorate the quality of the graphene layer, especially for 1 ML samples. These wrinkles/cracks did not disappear even after heating at temperatures andgt;= 500 degrees C, when no Li atoms remained on the substrate.

  • 47.
    Köhn, Dagmar
    et al.
    Institute for Computer Science Universität Rostock.
    Strömbäck, Lena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, IISLAB - Laboratory for Intelligent Information Systems.
    A method for Semi-automatic Standard Integration in Systems Biology2008In: Database and Expert Systems Applications,2008, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer , 2008, 745-752 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of standards for biological pathways has led to a huge amount of model data stored in a variety of different formats represented in XML (e. g. SBML) or OWL (e. g. BioPAX). As a result, there is an urgent need for the conversion of data between different formats, especially between XML and OWL data. The fact that that transformation is hard to realize hampers the integration of data in the area. Addressing this problem, the following article proposes a general, semi-automatic solution by suggesting the transformation of XML Schema based data into an OWL format. The general solution presented here will support biologists by offering them a way to query data of any format and as well compare different data files or schemas to each other using OWL as a common format for matching and providing a backwards transformation to XML Schema. The paper presents a first architectural approach and its prototype implementation. The evaluation showed that the approach is promising.

  • 48.
    Stenkula, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A molecular approach to insulin signalling and caveolae in primary adipocytes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of type II diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate due to the western world lifestyle. Type II diabetes is characterized by an insulin resistance distinguished by impaired glucose uptake in adipose and muscle tissues. The molecular mechanisms behind the insulin recistance and also the knowledge considering normal insulin signalling in fat cells, especially in humans, are still unclear.

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) is known to be important for medating the insulin-induced signal from the insulin receptor into the cell. We developed and optimized a method for transfection of primary human adipocytes by electroporation. By recombinant expression of proteins, we found a proper IRS to be crucial for both mitogenic and metabolic signalling in human adipocytes. In human, but not rat, primary adipocytes we found IRS1 to be located at the plasma membrane in non-insulin stimulated cells. Insulin stimulation resulted in a two-fold increase of the amount of IRS1 at the plasma membrane in human cells, compared with a 12-fold increase in rat cells. By recombinant expression of IRS1 we found the species difference between human and rat IRS1 to depend on the IRS proteins and not on properties of the host cell.

    The adipocytes function as an energy store, critical for maintaining the energy balance, and obesity strongly correlates with insulin resistance. The insulin sensitivity of the adipocytes with regard to the size of the cells was examined by separating small and large cells from the same subject. We found no increase of the GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation in the large cells, whereas there was a two-fold increase in the small cells. This finding supports the idea of a causal relationship between the enlarged fat cells and reduced insulin sensitivity found in obese subjects.

    The insulin receptor is located and functional in a specific membrane structure, the caveola. The morphology of the caveola and the localization of the caveolar marker proteins caveolin-1 and -2 were examined. Caveolae were shown to be connected to the exterior by a narrow neck. Caveolin was found to be located at the neck region of caveolae, which imply importance of caveolin for maintaining and sequestering caveolae to the plasma membrane.

    In conclusion, the transfection technique proved to be highly useful for molecular biological studies of insulin signal transduction and morphology in primary adipocytes.

    List of papers
    1. Expression of a mutant IRS inhibits metabolic and mitogenic signalling of insulin in human adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of a mutant IRS inhibits metabolic and mitogenic signalling of insulin in human adipocytes
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, ISSN 0303-7207, Vol. 221, no 1-2, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adipose tissue is a primary target of insulin, but knowledge about insulin signalling in human adipocytes is limited. We developed an electroporation technique for transfection of primary human adipocytes with a transfection efficiency of 15% ± 5 (mean ± S.D.). Human adipocytes were co-transfected with a mutant of IRS-3 (all four potential PI3-kinase binding motifs mutated: IRS-3F4) and HA-tagged protein kinase B (HA-PKB/Akt). HA-PKB/Akt was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with anti-HA antibodies, resolved with SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotted with phospho-specific antibodies. We found that IRS-3F4 blocked insulin stimulation of HA-PKB/Akt phosphorylation and in further analyses also translocation of recombinant HA-tagged glucose transporter to the plasma membrane. IRS-3F4 also blocked insulin-induced activation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of IRS for metabolic as well as mitogenic signalling by insulin. This method for transfection of primary human adipocytes will be useful for studying insulin signalling in human adipocytes with molecular biological techniques.

    Keyword
    Insulin, Transfection, Human, Adipocytes, Protein kinase B, Elk-1
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14538 (URN)10.1016/j.mce.2004.04.011 (DOI)000222854100001 ()
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2013-10-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Cell surface orifices of caveolae and localization of caveolin to the necks of caveolae in adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cell surface orifices of caveolae and localization of caveolin to the necks of caveolae in adipocytes
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 14, no 10, 3967-3976 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Caveolae are noncoated invaginations of the plasma membrane that form in the presence of the protein caveolin. Caveolae are found in most cells, but are especially abundant in adipocytes. By high-resolution electron microscopy of plasma membrane sheets the detailed structure of individual caveolae of primary rat adipocytes was examined. Caveolin-1 and -2 binding was restricted to the membrane proximal region, such as the ducts or necks attaching the caveolar bulb to the membrane. This was confirmed by transfection with myc-tagged caveolin-1 and -2. Essentially the same results were obtained with human fibroblasts. Hence caveolin does not form the caveolar bulb in these cells, but rather the neck and may thus act to retain the caveolar constituents, indicating how caveolin participates in the formation of caveolae. Caveolae, randomly distributed over the plasma membrane, were very heterogeneous, varying in size between 25 and 150 nm. There was about one million caveolae in an adipocyte, which increased the surface area of the plasma membrane by 50%. Half of the caveolae, those larger than 50 nm, had access to the outside of the cell via ducts and 20-nm orifices at the cell surface. The rest of the caveolae, those smaller than 50 nm, were not open to the cell exterior. Cholesterol depletion destroyed both caveolae and the cell surface orifices.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14539 (URN)10.1091/mbc.E03-01-0050 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2013-09-10
    3. Human, but not rat, IRS1 targets to the plasma membrane in both human and rat primary adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human, but not rat, IRS1 targets to the plasma membrane in both human and rat primary adipocytes
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, Vol. 363, no 3, 840-845 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adipocytes are primary targets for insulin control of metabolism. The activated insulin receptor phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), which acts as a docking protein for downstream signal mediators. In the absence of insulin stimulation, IRS1 in rat adipocytes is intracellular but in human adipocytes IRS1 is constitutively targeted to the plasma membrane. Stimulation of adipocytes with insulin increased the amount of IRS1 at the plasma membrane 2-fold in human adipocytes, but >10-fold in rat adipocytes, with the same final amount of IRS1 at the plasma membrane in cells from both species. Cross-transfection of rat adipocytes with human IRS1, or human adipocytes with rat IRS1, demonstrated that the species difference was due to the IRS1 protein and not the cellular milieus or posttranslational modifications. Chimeric IRS1, consisting of the conserved N-terminus of rat IRS1 with the variable C-terminal of human IRS1, did not target the plasma membrane, indicating that subtle sequence differences direct human IRS1 to the plasma membrane.

    Keyword
    Insulin receptor substrate; Human; Rat; Insulin; Plasma membrane; Signaling; Transfection; Caveolae
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14540 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.09.065 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2013-09-10
    4. Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane is blunted in large compared with small primary fat cells isolated from the same individual
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane is blunted in large compared with small primary fat cells isolated from the same individual
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, Vol. 50, no 8, 1716-1722 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Several studies have suggested that large fat cells are less responsive to insulin than small fat cells. However, in these studies, large fat cells from obese individuals were compared with smaller fat cells from leaner participants, in effect making it impossible to draw conclusions about whether there is a causal relationship between fat cell size and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesised that small fat cells might be more insulin-responsive than large adipocytes when obtained from the same individual.

    Materials and methods: We developed a method of sorting isolated primary human fat cells by using nylon filters of two different pore sizes. The cells were stained to visualise DNA, which allowed discrimination from artefacts such as lipid droplets. The sorted cells were left to recover overnight, since we had previously demonstrated that this is necessary for correct assessment of insulin response.

    Results: We found similar amounts of the insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1 and GLUT4 when we compared small and large adipocytes from the same volunteer by immunoblotting experiments using the same total cell volume from both cell populations. Activation of IR, IRS-1 and Akt1 (also known as protein kinase B) by insulin was similar in the two cell populations. However, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of plasma membrane sheets did not reveal any increase in the amount of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation in the large fat cells, whereas we saw a twofold increase in the amount of GLUT4 in the small fat cells.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Our results support a causal relationship between the accumulation of large fat cells in obese individuals and reduced insulin responsiveness.

    Keyword
    Adipocyte, GLUT4, Human, Insulin, Insulin receptor, Insulin resistance, IRS-1, Primary fat cell
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14541 (URN)10.1007/s00125-007-0713-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved
  • 49.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A more secure existence: Rethinking the myth of individual origin2013In: Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in honour of Ingvar Johansson on his seventieth birthday / [ed] Christer Svennerlid, Jan Almäng, Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson, Frankfurt am Main: Ontos Verlag, 2013, 717-727 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Ingvar Johansson has made a formidable contribution to the development of philosophy in general and perhaps especially to the development of metaphysics. This volume consists of original papers written by 50 philosophers from all over the world in honour of Ingvar Johansson to celebrate his 70th birthday. The papers cover traditional issues in metaphysics and the philosophy of mind, applied ethics and applied metaphysics, the nature of human rights, the philosophy of economics and sports. Some of the papers study the philosophy of Ingvar Johansson.All of them studies subjects which he has shown an interest in. The variety of subjects covered, testifies to the extraordinary wide range of issues his thought has had a bearing on.

  • 50.
    Meier, H E Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Doscher, Ralf
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Faxen, Torgny
    Linköping University.
    A multiprocessor coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea: Application to salt inflow2003In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, Vol. 108, no C8, 3273- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Swedish Regional Climate Modeling Program, SWECLIM, a three-dimensional (3-D) coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been developed to simulate physical processes on timescales of hours to decades. The code has been developed based on the massively parallel version of the Ocean Circulation Climate Advanced Modeling (OCCAM) project of the Bryan-Cox-Semtner model. An elastic-viscous-plastic ice rheology is employed, resulting in a fully explicit numerical scheme that improves computational efficiency. An improved two-equation turbulence model has been embedded to simulate the seasonal cycle of surface mixed layer depths as well as deepwater mixing on decadal timescale. The model has open boundaries in the northern Kattegat and is forced with realistic atmospheric fields and river runoff. Optimized computational performance and advanced algorithms to calculate processor maps make the code fast and suitable for multi-year, high-resolution simulations. As test cases, the major salt water inflow event in January 1993 and the stagnation period 1980-1992, have been selected. The agreement between model results and observations is regarded as good. Especially, the time evolution of the halocline in the Baltic proper is realistically simulated also for the longer period without flux correction, data assimilation, or reinitialization. However, in particular, smaller salt water inflows into the Bornholm Basin are underestimated, independent of the horizontal model resolution used. It is suggested that the mixing parameterization still needs improvements. In addition, a series of process studies of the inflow period 1992/1993 have been performed to show the impact of river runoff, wind speed, and sea level in Kattegat. Natural interannual runoff variations control salt water inflows into the Bornholm Basin effectively. The effect of wind speed variation on the salt water flux from the Arkona Basin to the Bornholm Basin is minor.

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