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• 1.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, 58758 Linköping, Sweden.
25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe metabolite studies in human hepatocytes, in vivo mouse and human urine with high-resolution mass spectrometry.2017In: Drug Testing and Analysis, ISSN 1942-7603, E-ISSN 1942-7611, Vol. 9, no 5, 680-698 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe are potent hallucinogenic drugs that recently emerged as new psychoactive substances. To date, a few metabolism studies were conducted for 25I-NBOMe, whereas 25C-NBOMe metabolism data are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic profile of these compounds in human hepatocytes, an in vivo mouse model and authentic human urine samples from forensic cases. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes were incubated for 3 h with 10 μM 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe; samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) on an Accucore C18 column with a Thermo QExactive; data analysis was performed with Compound Discoverer software (Thermo Scientific). Mice were administered 1.0 mg drug/kg body weight intraperitoneally, urine was collected for 24 h and analyzed (with or without hydrolysis) by LC-HRMS on an Acquity HSS T3 column with an Agilent 6550 QTOF; data were analyzed manually and with WebMetabase software (Molecular Discovery). Human urine samples were analyzed similarly. In vitro and in vivo results matched well. 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe were predominantly metabolized by O-demethylation, followed by O-di-demethylation and hydroxylation. All methoxy groups could be demethylated; hydroxylation preferably occurred at the NBOMe ring. Phase I metabolites were extensively conjugated in human urine with glucuronic acid and sulfate. Based on these data and a comparison with synthesized reference standards for potential metabolites, specific and abundant 25C-NBOMe urine targets are 5'-desmethyl 25C-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe and 5-hydroxy 25C-NBOMe, and for 25I-NBOMe 2' and 5'-desmethyl 25I-NBOMe and hydroxy 25I-NBOMe. These data will help clinical and forensic laboratories to develop analytical methods and to interpret results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

• 2.
36 § avtalslagen – till konsumentens värn?: Högsta domstolens domskäls förenlighet med syftet enligt prop. 1975/76: 812015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act (SFS 1915:218) was introduced in 1976 in order to ensure legal protection for consumers in their relation to traders. The requisit ”unreasonably” however, on the one hand, is claimed to be too imprecise to be percceived to be legally secure for contractors. On the other hand, there is the perception that the meaning of the general clause is to leave room for a legally freer assessment. The purpose of this essay is to, with the data which can be provided by legislative history and the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, examine the grounds, which are determined to fulfill the original purpose of the general clause, are satisfactory from a legally certain aspect. In the legislative history, we can see that the inquiry established that, the introduction of a general clause in the Swedish Contract Act, would be a valuable addition from a legally secure and predictable perspective. Then the inquiry deemed that an adjustment of unfair terms would be preferable, in case contracts shall be regulated using the general clause. Whether a term can be considered unfair, the inquirys opinion was that, the content of the agreement, the circumstances that existed when the contract was agreed, later occured conditions and the circumstances in general, had to be taken in account. The majority of the respondents concurred in the inquriys opinion about the reading of the general clause. However, according to the respondents assessments, the word ”unreasonably”, was preferable to the word ”unfair”. The rapporteur and the Council on Legislation considered the inquiry having reported to vaguely on the reading of the general clause, but they agreed with the respondents that the word ”unreasonably” was to prefer instead of ”unfair”. From the court cases, which are presented for in the essay, it is possible to determine that the most prominent grounds established by the Supreme Court, is predictability, the inferior position of the consumer and the clarity of contractual terms. In a predominantly number of court cases we believe the Supreme Court´s verdicts to be consistent with the purpose which permeated the legislative history. A few verdicts, however, are ambiguous, since we believe that the Supreme Court's reasoning, in the assessment of certain contractual terms of clarity, is inconsistent. We have found that the consequence of this is that there are far too high demands on the consumer, to the extent that it is required by him, to have firsthand knowledge of current legislation. Another problem with provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act, seems to be that its enforcement in some cases leads to conflict with legal principles, for instance, the principle of predictability and the within contract law established principle, "pacta sunt servanda".

• 3.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
3D Content-Based Model Matching using Geometric Features2006Report (Other academic)

We present an approach that utilizes efficient geometric feature extraction and a matching method that takes articulation into account. It is primarily applicable for man-made objects. First the object is analyzed to extract geometric features, dimensions and rotation are estimated and typical parts, so-called functional parts, are identified. Examples of functional parts are a box's lid, a building's chimney, or a battle tank's barrel. We assume a model library with full annotation. The geometric features are matched with the model descriptors, to gain fast and early rejection of non-relevant models. After this pruning the objectis matched with relevant, usually few, library models. We propose a sequential matching, where the number of functional parts increases in each iteration. The division into parts increases the possibility for correct matching result when several similar models are available. The approach is exemplified with an vehicle recognition application, where some vehicles have functional parts.

• 4.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
3D Graphics Technologies for Web Applications: An Evaluation from the Perspective of a Real World Application2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Web applications are becoming increasingly sophisticated and functionality that was once exclusive to regular desktop applications can now be found in web applications as well. One of the more recent advances in this field is the ability for web applications to render 3D graphics. Coupled with the growing number of devices with graphics processors and the ability of web applications to run on many different platforms using a single code base, this represents an exciting new possibility for developers of 3D graphics applications.

This thesis aims to explore and evaluate the technologies for 3D graphics that can be used in web applications, with the final goal of using one of them in a prototype application. This prototype will serve as a foundation for an application to be included in a commercial product. The evaluation is performed using general criteria so as to be useful for other applications as well, with one part presenting the available technologies and another part evaluating the three most promising technologies more in-depth using test programs.

The results show that, although some technologies are not production-ready, there are a few which can be used in commercial software, including the three chosen for further evaluation; WebGL, the Java library JOGL and Stage 3D for Flash. Among these, there is no clear winner and it is up to the application requirements to decide which to use. The thesis demonstrates an application built with WebGL and shows that fairly demanding 3D graphics web applications can be built. Also included are the lessons learned during the development and thoughts on the future of 3D graphics in web applications.

• 5.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
3D visualization of weather radar data2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis

There are 12 weather radars operated jointly by smhi and the Swedish Armed Forces in Sweden. Data from them are used for short term forecasting and analysis. The traditional way of viewing data from the radars is in 2D images, even though 3D polar volumes are delivered from the radars. The purpose of this work is to develop an application for 3D viewing of weather radar data.

There are basically three approaches to visualization of volumetric data, such as radar data: slicing with cross-sectional planes, surface extraction, and volume rendering. The application developed during this project supports variations on all three approaches. Different objects, e.g. horizontal and vertical planes, isosurfaces, or volume rendering objects, can be added to a 3D scene and viewed simultaneously from any angle. Parameters of the objects can be set using a graphical user interface and a few different plots can be generated.

Compared to the traditional 2D products used by meteorologists when analyzing radar data, the 3D scenes add information that makes it easier for the users to understand the given weather situations. Demonstrations and discussions with meteorologists have rendered positive reactions. The application will be installed and evaluated at Arlanda airport in Sweden.

• 6.
Uppsala University, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden. Uppsala University, Sweden. Uppsala University, Sweden. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland. Uppsala University, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
450K-array analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells reveals global DNA methylation to be relatively stable over time and similar in resting and proliferative compartments2013In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 27, no 1, 150-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the microenvironment influences gene expression patterns; however, knowledge is limited regarding the extent to which methylation changes with time and exposure to specific microenvironments. Using high-resolution 450K-arrays, we provide the most comprehensive DNA methylation study of CLL to date, analysing paired diagnostic/follow-up samples from IGHV-mutated/untreated and IGHV-unmutated/treated patients (n=36) and patient-matched peripheral blood and lymph node samples (n=20). On an unprecedented scale, we revealed 2239 differentially methylated CpG sites between IGHV-mutated and unmutated patients, with the majority of sites positioned outside annotated CpG islands. Intriguingly, CLL prognostic genes (e.g. CLLU1, LPL, ZAP70, NOTCH1), epigenetic regulator (e.g. HDAC9, HDAC4, DNMT3B), B-cell signaling (e.g. IBTK) and numerous TGF-ß and NF-κB/TNF pathway genes were alternatively methylated between subgroups. Contrary, DNA methylation over time was deemed rather stable with few recurrent changes noted within subgroups. Although a larger number of non-recurrent changes were identified among IGHV-unmutated relative to mutated cases over time, these equated to a low global change. Similarly, few changes were identified between compartment cases. Altogether, we reveal CLL subgroups to display unique methylation profiles and unveil methylation as relatively stable over time and similar within different CLL compartments, implying aberrant methylation as an early leukemogenic event.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 27 August 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.245.

• 7.
Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
A 12-year follow-up of subjects initially sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses2001In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865, Vol. 6, no 1, 52-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Background and Purpose Neck/shoulder and low back pain are common in the Western world and can cause great personal and economic consequences, but so far there are few long term follow-up studies of the consequences of back pain, especially studies that separate the location of back pain. More knowledge is needed about different patterns of risk factors and prognoses for neck/shoulder and low back pain, respectively, and they should not be treated as similar conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible long-term differences in neck/shoulder and low back symptoms, experienced over a 12-year period, with regard to work status, present health, discomfort and influence on daily activities.

Method A retrospective cohort study of individuals sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses 12 years ago was undertaken. Included were all 213 people who, in 1985, lived in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, were aged 25–34 years and who had taken at least one new period of sickleave lasting >28 days with a neck/shoulder or low back diagnosis. In 1996, a questionnaire was mailed to the 204 people who were still resident in Sweden (response rate 73%).

Results Those initially absent with neck/shoulder diagnoses rated their present state of discomfort as worse than those sicklisted with low back diagnoses. Only 4% of the neck/shoulder group reported no present discomfort compared with 25% of the low back group. Notably, both groups reported the same duration of low back discomfort during the last year, which may indicate a higher risk for symptoms in more than one location for subjects with neck/shoulder problems.

Conclusions Individuals with sickness absence of more than 28 days with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses appear to be at high risk of developing long-standing symptoms, significantly more so for those initially having neck/shoulder diagnoses.

• 8.
Queen Mary University of London, England .
Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, Vol. 14, no 61, 292-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on childrens cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on childrens cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on childrens learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and childrens learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more detail.

• 9.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A 4096-Point Radix-4 Memory-Based FFT Using DSP Slices2017In: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, E-ISSN 1557-9999, Vol. 25, no 1, 375-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

This brief presents a novel 4096-point radix-4 memory-based fast Fourier transform (FFT). The proposed architecture follows a conflict-free strategy that only requires a total memory of size N and a few additional multiplexers. The control is also simple, as it is generated directly from the bits of a counter. Apart from the low complexity, the FFT has been implemented on a Virtex-5 field programmable gate array (FPGA) using DSP slices. The goal has been to reduce the use of distributed logic, which is scarce in the target FPGA. With this purpose, most of the hardware has been implemented in DSP48E. As a result, the proposed FPGA is efficient in terms of hardware resources, as is shown by the experimental results.

• 10.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular genetics.
A bioinformatics approach to investigate the function of non specific lipid transfer proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis

Plant non specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) enhance in vitro transfer of phospholipids between membranes. Our analysis exploited the large amount of Arabidopsis transcriptome data in public databases to learn more about the function of nsLTPs. The analysis revealed that some nsLTPs are expressed only in roots, some are seed specific, and others are specific for tissues above ground whereas certain nsLTPs show a more general expression pattern. Only few nsLTPs showed a strong up or downregulation after that the Arabidopsis plant had suffered from biotic or abiotic stresses. However, salt, high osmosis and UV-B radiation caused upregulation of some nsLTP genes. Further, when the coexpression pattern of the A.thaliana nsLTPs were investigated, we found that there were several modules of nsLTP genes that showed strong coexpression indicating an involvement in related biological processes. Our finding reveals that the nsLTPs gene was significantly correlated with lipase and peroxidase activity. Hence we concluded that the nsLTPs may play a role in seed germination, signalling and ligning biosynthesis.

• 11.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
A calibration method for laser-triangulating 3D cameras2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

A laser-triangulating range camera uses a laser plane to light an object. If the position of the laser relative to the camera as well as certrain properties of the camera is known, it is possible to calculate the coordinates for all points along the profile of the object. If either the object or the camera and laser has a known motion, it is possible to combine several measurements to get a three-dimensional view of the object.

Camera calibration is the process of finding the properties of the camera and enough information about the setup so that the desired coordinates can be calculated. Several methods for camera calibration exist, but this thesis proposes a new method that has the advantages that the objects needed are relatively inexpensive and that only objects in the laser plane need to be observed. Each part of the method is given a thorough description. Several mathematical derivations have also been added as appendices for completeness.

The proposed method is tested using both synthetic and real data. The results show that the method is suitable even when high accuracy is needed. A few suggestions are also made about how the method can be improved further.

• 12.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CASL - Cognitive Autonomous Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A case-based approach to dialogue systems2010In: Journal of experimental and theoretical artificial intelligence (Print), ISSN 0952-813X, E-ISSN 1362-3079, Vol. 22, no 1, 23-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

We describe an approach to integrate dialogue management, machine-learning and action planning in a system for dialogue between a human and a robot. Case-based techniques are used because they permit life-long learning from experience and demand little prior knowledge and few static hand-written structures. This approach has been developed through the work on an experimental dialogue system, called CEDERIC, that is connected to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A single case base and case-based reasoning engine is used both for understanding and for planning actions by the UAV. Dialogue experiments both with experienced and novice users, where the users have solved tasks by dialogue with this system, showed very adequate success rates.

• 13.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
A class of Mth-band linear-phase FIR filters synthesized using the frequency-response masking approach2002In: Nordic Signal Processing Symposium,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)

This paper introduces a class of Mth-band linear-phase FIR filters synthesized using the frequency-response masking (FRM) approach. In the FRM approach, the overall filter makes use of periodic model filters and nonperiodic masking filters which makes it possible to obtain FIR filters requiring few arithmetic operations even when the transition band is narrow. The proposed filters are designed using linear and nonlinear programming. Design examples are included illustrating the efficiency of the proposed filters.

• 14.
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
A class of two-channel hybrid analog/digital filter banks1999In: Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems,1999, 1999, 14-17 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

This paper introduces a class of hybrid analog/digital filter banks with approximately perfect magnitude reconstruction. The filter bank consists of analog analysis and digital synthesis filter banks. The analog analysis filters are formed as a sum and difference of two allpass subfilters, respectively, resulting in filters with low orders and few free parameters, which is advantageous from implementation and design points of view. The digital synthesis filters are odd-order linear-phase FIR filters with symmetric and anti-symmetric impulse responses, respectively. The filter design is performed by first optimizing the analog analysis filters. Then, with the analog filters fixed, optimum digital synthesis filters, in the minimax sense, are obtained with the aid of linear programming

• 15.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A clock driver with reduced EMI2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

A clock driver that works on the principle of charging and discharging the clock network in a VLSI circuit in two steps is investigated in a few different configurations. The aim of the design is twofold:

• to reduce the power consumption
• to reduce the third harmonic of the clock signal, and thereby the EMI (electromagnetic interference) emitted by the clock network.

The first should be possible to accomplish as the clock interconnect network gets charged by half the voltage during each rising transition, and the second should be possible to accomplish by carefully time the rising and falling transitions, so that the third Fourier coefficient of the resulting wave form cancels.

The drivers are loaded by eight 16-bit adders. The drivers’ power consumption, and the spectrum of the output signal, are investigated under varying clock frequencies, power supply voltage, and driver architecture. The results are compared to a conventional square wave clock.

The results are that while the third harmonics of the resulting output sees an improvement in all the investigated cases over the square wave clock, the power savings are, for higher clock frequencies, more than completely canceled by the extra power needed in the logic stage which controls these drivers. On the other hand, the power consumption of the new driver appears to drop below that of the conventional driver when the clock frequency drops below approximately 100MHz.

A few suggestions for further investigations of new designs and clock wave forms are given.

• 16.
Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
A Common Market, a Common ‘Problem’: Migration andEuropean Integration Before and After the Launching of the Single Market2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

Since the ratification of the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 the European Union is emerging as a key actor within migration policy. But in order to understand the current development it is important to have a clear picture of the EU’s historical trajectory in the field of migration. In this paper the discussion thus focus esexclusively on the pre-Amsterdam era. It sets out with a brief historical overview of the early decades of European integration and accounts for labour migration’s crucial function in the founding logic of the EEC. While supranational competence over migration policy was very limited during this period, the discussion shows that the way in which competence was allocated between supranational and national levels would be highly consequential for the future development. Following this, the major part of the paper is devoted to an examination of the Community’s transformation during the second half of 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. The measures introduced under the banner of the Single Market, particularly those pertaining to the free movement of persons, instigated a development whereby immigration and asylum would be progressively treated as ‘common’ Community matters. Equally important, the paper shows that Community activity in the area of migration also addressed a range of other matters, many of which went beyond the issue of people moving across external and internal borders. From then on, Brussels began to address the situation of ethnic minorities of migrant background, thus bringing the growing problems of ethnic exclusion and racism on to the EU agenda. On the whole, it was the question of how to better ‘integrate’ ‘legal immigrants’ and ethnic minorities into Community societies that received the most attention. In this fashion, the present paper examines the EU’s interventions in the area of immigration and asylum together with its efforts in the realm of migrant ‘integration’. Although very few accounts have undertaken to analyze jointly the EU’s approaches to immigration and migrant ‘integration’, this paper demonstrates that in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues in question, these policy areas need to be approached as inextricably intertwined and as mutually conditioning.

• 17.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
Sahlgrens University Hospital. Ryhov Hospital. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
A Comparison Between the Carbon Fiber Cage and the Cloward Procedure in Cervical Spine Surgery A Ten- to Thirteen-Year Follow-Up of a Prospective Randomized Study2011In: SPINE, ISSN 0362-2436, Vol. 36, no 12, 919-925 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Study Design. Ten- to 13-year follow-up of a prospective randomized study. Objective. To compare the 10- to 13-year outcomes of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with a cervical intervertebral fusion cage (CIFC), and the Cloward procedure (CP) using a broad clinical and patient-centered assessment. Summary of Background Data. There are few prospective studies and none with a follow-up of 10 years or more. Methods. Patient questionnaires completed 10 years or more after ACDF. Seventy-three patients (77%) responded. Radiographs were obtained at 2 years. Results. Apart from greater fulfillment of preoperative expectation (P = 0.01) and less headache (P = 0.005) in the CIFC group compared with the CP group, there were no significant differences in the outcomes of the two surgical methods. Pain intensity improved in comparison with preoperative levels in both the CIFC and CP groups (P andlt; 0.0001), but the Neck Disability Index (NDI) only improved in the CIFC group (P = 0.04). Only those with a healed fusion benefited from an improved NDI (P = 0.02). There was no deterioration in pain intensity or NDI after the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion. The outcomes of the two surgical methods, with a few exceptions, were equal at 10- to 13-year follow-up, and there was no deterioration in outcome after the 2-year follow-up. Pain intensity improved more than disability, which may indicate that further improvement of physical function requires early more extensive postoperative rehabilitation. Despite persisting disability, repeat surgery was relatively uncommon.

• 18.
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America,.
A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals2012In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, Vol. 8, no 9, e1002962- p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the questionwhether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing toanalyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogsand wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with thosebetween domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selectedfor tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wilddogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs andC. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in thedifferent domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestiveevidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in differentdomesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticatedanimals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences betweenthe rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role ininfluencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific tothe given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise bedifferent.

• 19.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Visual Computing Research Group, Ulm University.
A Crowdsourcing System for Integrated and Reproducible Evaluation in Scientific Visualization2016In: 2016 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis), IEEE Computer Society, 2016, 40-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

User evaluations have gained increasing importance in visualization research over the past years, as in many cases these evaluations are the only way to support the claims made by visualization researchers. Unfortunately, recent literature reviews show that in comparison to algorithmic performance evaluations, the number of user evaluations is still very low. Reasons for this are the required amount of time to conduct such studies together with the difficulties involved in participant recruitment and result reporting. While it could be shown that the quality of evaluation results and the simplified participant recruitment of crowdsourcing platforms makes this technology a viable alternative to lab experiments when evaluating visualizations, the time for conducting and reporting such evaluations is still very high. In this paper, we propose a software system, which integrates the conduction, the analysis and the reporting of crowdsourced user evaluations directly into the scientific visualization development process. With the proposed system, researchers can conduct and analyze quantitative evaluations on a large scale through an evaluation-centric user interface with only a few mouse clicks. Thus, it becomes possible to perform iterative evaluations during algorithm design, which potentially leads to better results, as compared to the time consuming user evaluations traditionally conducted at the end of the design process. Furthermore, the system is built around a centralized database, which supports an easy reuse of old evaluation designs and the reproduction of old evaluations with new or additional stimuli, which are both driving challenges in scientific visualization research. We will describe the system's design and the considerations made during the design process, and demonstrate the system by conducting three user evaluations, all of which have been published before in the visualization literature.

• 20.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A Cyclic Analog to Digital Converter for CMOS image sensors2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

In this work a 12-bit Cyclic ADC (CADC) aimed for column-parallel readout implementation in CMOS image sensors is presented. The aim of the conducted study is to cover multiple CADC sub-component architectures and provide an analysis onto the latter to a mid-level of depth. A few various Multiplying DAC (MDAC) structures have been re-examined and a preliminary redundant signed-digit CADC design based on a 1.5-bit modified flip-over MDAC has been conducted. Three comparator architectures have been explored and a dynamic interpolative Sub-ADC is presented. Finally, some weak spots degrading the performance of the carried-out design have been analyzed. As an architectural improvement possibility two MDAC capacitor mismatch error reduction techniques have been presented.

• 21.
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
National University of Rwanda, Box 117, Butare, Rwanda.
A Data Assimilation Approach to Coefficient Identification2011Report (Other academic)

The thermal conductivity properties of a material can be determined experimentally by using temperature measurements taken at specified locations inside the material. We examine a situation where the properties of a (previously known) material changed locally. Mathematically we aim to find the coefficient k(x) in the stationary heat equation (kTx)x = 0;under the assumption that the function k(x) can be parametrized using only a few degrees of freedom.

The coefficient identification problem is solved using a least squares approach; where the (non-linear) control functional is weighted according to the distribution of the measurement locations. Though we only discuss the 1D case the ideas extend naturally to 2D or 3D. Experimentsdemonstrate that the proposed method works well.

• 22.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
A descriptive study of mental health services provided for physically abused children in Sweden: A four-year follow-up of child and adolescent psychiatric chartsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

Since there has been a considerable increase in the number of police reports on physical child abuse in Sweden since the mid 1980s, there should be an increased number of children in need of trauma-focused mental health treatment. During 1986-1996 there were 126 children reported as being physically abused by a parent or equivalent and reported to the police in a police district in Sweden. Fifty-seven of these children (45%) had been the objects of interventions from Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Services. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and content of this. Questions addressed were: What interventions were provided prior to, at the acute situation, and during the 4 years after the physical abuse incident? This group of children was referred to (CAPS) for different reasons, but few for physical abuse. Only 35 out of 122 referrals were made under the label of child physical abuse. Overall, interventions were almost exclusively directed toward the parents. Six out of 126 physically abused children received individual therapy. Abuse was not mentioned in the charts for 23 of the children, even though 8 of them had been referred due to  abuse. The results of this study indicate that physically abused children often have been in contact with mental health services prior to the abuse for different reasons. Individual interventions for physically abused children were rare due to for instance CAPS workloads, poor motivation among parents and children, and maybe due to professionals’ lack of knowledge regarding effective treatment.

• 23.
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
A Dual Active-Set Algorithm for Regularized Monotonic Regression2017In: Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, ISSN 0022-3239, E-ISSN 1573-2878, Vol. 172, no 3, 929-949 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Monotonic (isotonic) regression is a powerful tool used for solving a wide range of important applied problems. One of its features, which poses a limitation on its use in some areas, is that it produces a piecewise constant fitted response. For smoothing the fitted response, we introduce a regularization term in the monotonic regression, formulated as a least distance problem with monotonicity constraints. The resulting smoothed monotonic regression is a convex quadratic optimization problem. We focus on the case, where the set of observations is completely (linearly) ordered. Our smoothed pool-adjacent-violators algorithm is designed for solving the regularized problem. It belongs to the class of dual active-set algorithms. We prove that it converges to the optimal solution in a finite number of iterations that does not exceed the problem size. One of its advantages is that the active set is progressively enlarging by including one or, typically, more constraints per iteration. This resulted in solving large-scale test problems in a few iterations, whereas the size of that problems was prohibitively too large for the conventional quadratic optimization solvers. Although the complexity of our algorithm grows quadratically with the problem size, we found its running time to grow almost linearly in our computational experiments.

• 24.
University of Brescia, Italy.
University of Brescia, Italy. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
A framework for PSS business models: formalization and application2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, 519-524 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies to take into account the relevant elements that need to be designed to successfully implement a service-oriented BM and thus guide strategic decisions. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

• 25.
Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala.
Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Uppsala.
A global search reveals epistatic interaction between QTL for early growth in the chicken2003In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 13, no 3, 413-421 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

We have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large proportion of the variation in body weights at different ages and growth between chronological ages in an F-2 intercross between red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. QTL were mapped using forward selection for loci with significant marginal genetic effects and with a simultaneous search for epistatic QTL pairs. We found 22 significant loci contributing to these traits, nine of these were only found by the simultaneous two-dimensional search, which demonstrates the power of this approach for detecting loci affecting complex traits. We have also estimated the relative contribution of additive, dominance, and epistasis effects to growth and the contribution of epistasis was more pronounced prior to 46 days of age, whereas additive genetic effects explained the major portion of the genetic variance later in life. Several of the detected loci affected either early or late growth but not both. Very few loci affected the entire growth process, which points out that early and late growth, at least to some extent, have different genetic regulation.

• 26.
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A Gröbner basis algorithm for fast encoding of Reed-Müller codes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

In this thesis the relationship between Gröbner bases and algebraic coding theory is investigated, and especially applications towards linear codes, with Reed-Müller codes as an illustrative example. We prove that each linear code can be described as a binomial ideal of a polynomial ring, and that a systematic encoding algorithm for such codes is given by the remainder of the information word computed with respect to the reduced Gröbner basis. Finally we show how to apply the representation of a code by its corresponding polynomial ring ideal to construct a class of codes containing the so called primitive Reed-Müller codes, with a few examples of this result.

• 27.
A heuristic smoothing procedure for avoiding local optima in optimization of structures subject to unilateral constraints2000In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, Vol. 20, no 1, 29-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Structural optimization problems are often solved by gradient-based optimization algorithms, e.g. sequential quadratic programming or the method of moving asymptotes. If the structure is subject to unilateral constraints, then the gradient may be nonexistent for some designs. It follows that difficulties may arise when such structures are to be optimized using gradient-based optimization algorithms. Unilateral constraints arise, for instance, if the structure may come in frictionless contact with an obstacle. This paper presents a heuristic smoothing procedure (HSP) that lessens the risk that gradient-based optimization algorithms get stuck in (nonglobal) local optima of structural optimization problems including unilateral constraints. In the HSP, a sequence of optimization problems must be salved. All these optimization problems have well-defined gradients and are therefore well-suited for gradient-based optimization algorithms. It is proves that the solutions of this sequence of optimization problems converge to the solution of the original structural optimization problem. The HSP is illustrated in a few numerical examples. The computational results show that the HSP can be an effective method for avoiding local optima.

• 28.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
University of Cambridge, England. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE VIDEO CODEC OPTIMIZED BY LARGE-SCALE TESTING2016In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING (ICIP), IEEE , 2016, 1379-1383 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

While a number of existing high-bit depth video compression methods can potentially encode high dynamic range (HDR) video, few of them provide this capability. In this paper, we investigate techniques for adapting HDR video for this purpose. In a large-scale test on 33 HDR video sequences, we compare 2 video codecs, 4 luminance encoding techniques (transfer functions) and 3 color encoding methods, measuring quality in terms of two objective metrics, PU-MSSIM and HDR-VDP-2. From the results we design an open source HDR video encoder, optimized for the best compression performance given the techniques examined.

• 29.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A High-Performance Tracking System based on Camera and IMU2013In: 16th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), 2013, IEEE , 2013, 2065-2072 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

We consider an indoor tracking system consisting of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera that detects markers in the environment. There are many camera based tracking systems described in literature and available commercially, and a few of them also has support from IMU. These are based on the best-effort principle, where the performance varies depending on the situation. In contrast to this, we start with a specification of the system performance, and the design isbased on an information theoretic approach, where specific user scenarios are defined. Precise models for the camera and IMU are derived for a fusion filter, and the theoretical Cramér-Rao lower bound and the Kalman filter performance are evaluated. In this study, we focus on examining the camera quality versus the marker density needed to get at least a one mm and one degree accuracy in tracking performance.

• 30. Landernäs, Krister
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
A high-speed low-latency digit-serial hybrid adder2004In: IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS'04, 2004, III-217-III-220 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

• 31.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
“A home away from home”: The role of the Church of Sweden Abroad for Swedish migrants2013In: New Religiosity in Migration, 2013, 38-41 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

According to some studies, Sweden is one of the most secularized countries in the world. with low church attendance. For most Swedes, their contact with the church is limited to traditional rites. How are we then to understand that quite a few Swedes seem to act much like immigrant groups from less secularized nations, by turning to the ethnic church and to religious practices while moving – fully or part time – to foreign countries?

The aim of the presentation is to discuss this question, based on results from a project in which the role of the Church of Sweden   Abroad has been explored. The Church of Sweden has a long traditions of creating parishes abroad, mainly in the larger European cities and in connection with harbors, as Seaman`s Churches. Since some decades, however, the Church has started to follow the streams of tourists and elderly migrants and parishes have been established, mainly in Southern Europe and, lately in Asian countries.

The presentation will be based on a project consisting of three studies: 1) A qualitative case study, 2) A mapping of the web sites of all 45 parishes, and 3) An internet-based survey of all parishes. An interesting pattern turned out to be  that many church visitors who initially seemed to be attracted by the (Swedish) “home away from home”  that the parish offered through e.g. “Swedish coffee”, eventually began to participate regularly in the church services, even in Holy Communion.

• 32.
Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany. Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany. Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany. Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany. Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
A hybrid MBE-based growth method for large-area synthesis of stacked hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 43644Article in journal (Refereed)

Van der Waals heterostructures combining hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene offer many potential advantages, but remain difficult to produce as continuous films over large areas. In particular, the growth of h-BN on graphene has proven to be challenging due to the inertness of the graphene surface. Here we exploit a scalable molecular beam epitaxy based method to allow both the h-BN and graphene to form in a stacked heterostructure in the favorable growth environment provided by a Ni(111) substrate. This involves first saturating a Ni film on MgO(111) with C, growing h-BN on the exposed metal surface, and precipitating the C back to the h-BN/Ni interface to form graphene. The resulting laterally continuous heterostructure is composed of a top layer of few-layer thick h-BN on an intermediate few-layer thick graphene, lying on top of Ni/MgO(111). Examinations by synchrotronbased grazing incidence diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and UV-Raman spectroscopy reveal that while the h-BN is relaxed, the lattice constant of graphene is significantly reduced, likely due to nitrogen doping. These results illustrate a different pathway for the production of h-BN/graphene heterostructures, and open a new perspective for the large-area preparation of heterosystems combining graphene and other 2D or 3D materials.

• 33.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
A Java Framework for Broadcast Encryption Algorithms2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis

Broadcast encryption is a fairly new area in cryptology. It was first addressed in 1992, and the research in this area has been large ever since. In short, broadcast encryption is used for efficient and secure broadcasting to an authorized group of users. This group can change dynamically, and in some cases only one-way communication between the sender and receivers is available. An example of this is digital TV transmissions via satellite, in which only the paying customers can decrypt and view the broadcast.

The purpose of this thesis is to develop a general Java framework for implementation and performance analysis of broadcast encryption algorithms. In addition to the actual framework a few of the most common broadcast encryption algorithms (Complete Subtree, Subset Difference, and the Logical Key Hierarchy scheme) have been implemented in the system.

This master’s thesis project was defined by and carried out at the Information Theory division at the Department of Electrical Engineering (ISY), Linköping Institute of Technology, during the first half of 2004.

• 34.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings2016In: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Sergio Cavalieri, Elisabetta Ceretti, Tullio Tolio, Giuditta Pezzotta, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, 150-155 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

This paper's objective is to analyze, based on a literature review, how existing IPSO design methods support and manage requirements when developing an IPSO. Issues analyzed are e.g. which types of aspects existing methods should consider, such as environmental issues and demands from stakeholders and customers. Another issue is what types of stakeholders are involved in the process. There is also an interest in finding out which of these methods are used in the industry. The goal is that the results will provide insight into how the requirements specification is used when developing an IPSO in theory, and in what way this insight will contribute to future studies on how companies currently derive and manage requirements when developing an IPSO.

The literature review started out with the analysis of 201 papers, yielding 22 papers within the area of working with requirements for an IPSO. These papers were reviewed and summarized with the above issues and interests in mind. Findings are that when deriving requirements, existing IPSO design methods are lacking in regard to a holistic life cycle and system perspective of the offering. Few of the methods consider both requirements regarding the environmental impact of the offering and demands from all involved stakeholders, normally only the customer. Furthermore, few studies have ended with a clear work process regarding how to initially find the requirements to analyze them and later interpret them as actual metrics. There are also no signs that existing methodology is used in the industry's day-to-day work.

• 35.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Lund University. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A low-energy electron microscopy and x-ray photo-emission electron microscopy study of Li intercalated into graphene on SiC(0001)2010In: NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 12, no 125015Article in journal (Refereed)

The effects induced by the deposition of Li on 1 and 0 ML graphene grown on SiC(0001) and after subsequent heating were investigated using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and x-ray photo-emission electron microscopy (XPEEM). For 1 ML samples, the collected photoelectron angular distribution patterns showed the presence of single pi-cones at the six equivalent K-points in the Brillouin zone before Li deposition but the presence of two pi-cones (pi-bands) after Li deposition and after heating to a few hundred degrees C. For 0 ML samples, no pi-band could be detected close to the Fermi level before deposition, but distinct pi-cones at the K-points were clearly resolved after Li deposition and after heating. Thus Li intercalation was revealed in both cases, transforming the carbon buffer layer (0 ML) to graphene. On 1 ML samples, but not on 0 ML, a (root 3 x root 3) R30 degrees diffraction pattern was observed immediately after Li deposition. This pattern vanished upon heating and then wrinkles/cracks appeared on the surface. Intercalation of Li was thus found to deteriorate the quality of the graphene layer, especially for 1 ML samples. These wrinkles/cracks did not disappear even after heating at temperatures andgt;= 500 degrees C, when no Li atoms remained on the substrate.

• 36.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A method to improve integrated product service offerings based on life cycle costing2015In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 64, no 1, 33-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Although a few papers have reported on life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of integrated product service offerings (IPSOs), insight on how to improve IPSOs based on LCC analysis is missing. This paper presents a method and an Excel and MATLAB-based tool that support IPSO design by employing LCC analysis, both from the provider and customer perspectives. This method takes advantage of exchangeability between products and services, being enabled within IPSO design. The method has been applied to an existing IPSO and potential improvements have been identified, e.g. one cheap component causing high LCC that could be reduced significantly by redesign.

• 37.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Intensive care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
A minimally invasive axial blood flow pump: an experimental and clinical study1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The first aim of this thesis was to evaluate a new minimally invasive axial blood flow pump for treatment of patients needing circulatory support after open heart surgery. This system, the Hemopump temporary cardiac assist device, is a very small catheter mounted intracorporeal pump, which is introduced transvalvularly into the left ventricle. The pump can be inserted either through the femoral artery or directly through a graft sutured to the ascending aorta. In an experimental model, the flow capacity of three different designs of the system was investigated. Flow capacity varied between 2.0 and 4.5 liters per minute, depending on the working conditions for the different pump models. Twenty,four patients were treated for post,cardiotomy heart failure. Fourteen patients (58 %) were weaned from the device and later discharged from the hospital. In a subgroup of these patients (54%) where early intervention was instituted, the survival rate was 85%. The pump proved to be an effective tool for unloading a failing left ventricle with preservation of multi-organ perfusion. A clinical protocol was established for postoperative management. The Hemopump was easy to adapt to the clinical setting, and device~ related complications were few.

The second aim was to develop a new less invasive procedure for CABG, avoiding the need for cardio~pulmonary bypass during these procedures. First an animal trial was performed as a feasibility study. In combination with the administration of a short~acting ~~blocker, esmolol, this method enabled precise coronary bypass surgery. When results became consistent a small pilot study was done on five patients showing that this was a reproducible technique. Finally a prospective randomized trial comparing this technique with conventional bypass surgery was carried out. The Hemopump supported bypass surgery did not prolong the procedure, did not require a longer time on circulatory support and bleeding was less. Postoperative enzyme levels indicated that ischemic insult to the myocardium was less than with conventional surgery.

In summary, this minimally invasive axial blood flow pump proved to be a powerful left ventricular assist system enabling a less invasive approach during conditions where circulatory support is needed.

• 38.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology.
School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
A mixed method evaluation of a group-based educational programme for CPAP use in patients with obstructive sleep apnea2013In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 19, no 1, 173-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Rationale, aims and objectives  Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a low long-term adherence. Educational interventions are few and sparsely described regarding content, pedagogical approach and participants' perceptions. The aim was to describe adherence to CPAP treatment, knowledge about OSA/CPAP, as well as OSA patients' perceptions of participating in a group-based programme using problem-based learning (PBL) for CPAP initiation. Educational programme  The PBL programme incorporated elements from theories and models concerning motivation and habits. Tutorial groups consisting of four to eight patients met at six sessions during 6 months. Methods  A sequential explanatory mixed method design was used on 25 strategically selected patients. Quantitative data regarding, clinical variables, OSA severity, CPAP use, and knowledge were collected at baseline, after 2 weeks and 6 months. Qualitative data regarding patients' perceptions of participation were collected after 6 months by semi-structured interviews using a phenomenographic approach. Results  72% of the patients were adherent to CPAP treatment after 2 weeks and 6 months. All patients improved their baseline knowledge about OSA and CPAP after 2 weeks and sustained it after 6 months. Anxiety and fear, as well as difficulties and needs were motivational factors for participation. Patients described the difficulties of behavioural change, an awareness that improvements do not occur immediately, a realization of the importance of both technical and emotional support and the need for a healthier lifestyle. Conclusion and practice implications  A group-based programme using PBL seems to facilitate adaptive and developmental learning and result in acceptable CPAP adherence levels.

• 39.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
A model for critical review of literature - With vaginismus as an example2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, Vol. 28, no 1, 21-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we present a behavioral model for the critical review of the literature within a certain research field, using vaginismus as an example. We searched the literature for the title word "vaginismus" and analyzed to what extent the articles dealt with the following seven categories: prevention, etiology, maintaining factors, consequences, object of intervention, method of intervention, and method of evaluation. In each category we scrutinized the content of the articles for biological, psychological, social, relational, and gender aspects. Quality requirements of etiological and treatment studies were then added and the results presented in a "quality-adjusted" model. There were 102 articles during 1985-2001, of which 22 were included in the review. Most of the articles deal with supposed predisposing factors of etiology and different aspects of intervention. Only a few articles discuss precipitating factors, maintaining factors, or consequences of the problem. No article had a gender analysis. Only 11 of the articles fulfilled some of the proposed quality criteria. We found the behavioral model with quality requirements useful for classifying and evaluating the literature of vaginismus. The model may also be used as a guide to design methodologically good studies. © 2007 Informa UK Ltd.

• 40.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
A Model for Interpreting Work and Information Management in Process-Oriented Healthcare Organisations2003In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, Vol. 72, no 1-3, 47-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: To increase productivity, management in healthcare organisations have introduced different types of process-oriented organisational configurations. Few studies have addressed clinical practice and information management in these settings. Methods: A case study was performed at a paediatric clinic. Data was collected from archives, through interviews, by participatory observation, and by performing a focus group session. The collected data was analysed using a qualitative and interpretative research strategy. Results: A model was developed of care practitioners’ daily work in process-oriented organisations. The model shows that clinical work was deeply integrated; the care activities were dependent on supply activities and tightly connected to management routines. Conclusion: The resulting model can be used to support development of health information system (HIS) embedded in process-oriented healthcare work.

• 41.
Arizona State University, USA.
Arizona State University, USA. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A 'Model-on-Demand' Identification Methodology for Nonlinear Process Systems2001In: International Journal of Control, ISSN 0020-7179, E-ISSN 1366-5820, Vol. 74, no 18, 1708-1717 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

An identification methodology based on multi-level pseudo-random sequence (multi-level PRS) input signals and 'Model-on-Demand' (MoD) estimation is presented for single-input, single-output non-linear process applications. 'Model-on-Demand' estimation allows for accurate prediction of non-linear systems while requiring few user choices and without solving a non-convex optimization problem, as is usually the case with global modelling techniques. By allowing the user to incorporate a priori information into the specification of design variables for multi-level PRS input signals, a sufficiently informative input-output dataset for MoD estimation is generated in a 'plant-friendly' manner. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated in case studies involving the identification of a simulated rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactor and a pilot-scale brine-water mixing tank. On the resulting datasets, MoD estimation displays performance comparable to that achieved via semi-physical modelling and semi-physical modelling combined with neural networks. The MoD estimator, however, achieves this level of performance with substantially lower engineering effort.

• 42.
Arizona State Univ, Dept Chem & Mat Engn, Control Syst Engn Lab, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Div Automat Control, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
Arizona State Univ, Dept Chem & Mat Engn, Control Syst Engn Lab, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Div Automat Control, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden. Arizona State Univ, Dept Chem & Mat Engn, Control Syst Engn Lab, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Div Automat Control, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
A 'Model-on-Demand' identification methodology for non-linear process systems2001In: International Journal of Control, ISSN 0020-7179, Vol. 74, no 18, 1708-1717 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

An identification methodology based on multi-level pseudo-random sequence (multi-level PRS) input signals and 'Model-on-Demand' (MoD) estimation is presented for single-input, single-output non-linear process applications. 'Model-on-Demand' estimation allows for accurate prediction of non-linear systems while requiring few user choices and without solving a non-convex optimization problem, as is usually the case with global modelling techniques. By allowing the user to incorporate a priori information into the specification of design variables for multi-level PRS input signals, a sufficiently informative input-output dataset for MoD estimation is generated in a 'plant-friendly' manner. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated in case studies involving the identification of a simulated rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactor and a pilot-scale brine-water mixing tank. On the resulting datasets, MoD estimation displays performance comparable to that achieved via semi-physical modelling and semi-physical modelling combined with neural networks. The MoD estimator, however, achieves this level of performance with substantially lower engineering effort.

• 43.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A Modified Complex Algorithm Applied to Robust Design Optimization2011In: 13th AIAA Non-Deterministic Approaches Conference, 2011, 2011-2095 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

Today there is a desire to perform optimizations in order to receive optimal system properties. However, for computationally expensive simulation models, an optimization maybe too tedious to be motivated. This paper proposes a modification of the Complexoptimization algorithm to enable the creation and usage of local meta-models during theoptimization. Its performance is demonstrated for a few analytical problems and a reliabilitybased design optimization is conducted for an aircraft example.

• 44.
Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
A Monte Carlo method for locally multivariate brain mapping.2011In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 56, no 2, 508-516 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Locally multivariate approaches to functional brain mapping offer a highly appealing complement to conventional statistics, but require restrictive region-of-interest hypotheses, or, in exhaustive search forms (such as the "searchlight" algorithm; Kriegeskorte et al., 2006), are excessively computer intensive. We therefore propose a non-restrictive, comparatively fast yet highly sensitive method based on Monte Carlo approximation principles where locally multivariate maps are computed by averaging across voxelwise condition-discriminative information obtained from repeated stochastic sampling of fixed-size search volumes. On simulated data containing discriminative regions of varying size and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the Monte Carlo method reduced the required computer resources by as much as 75% compared to the searchlight with no reduction in mapping performance. Notably, the Monte Carlo mapping approach not only outperformed the general linear method (GLM), but also produced higher discriminative voxel detection scores than the searchlight irrespective of classifier (linear or nonlinear support vector machine), discriminative region size or CNR. The improved performance was explained by the information-average procedure, and the Monte Carlo approach yielded mapping sensitivities of a few percent lower than an information-average exhaustive search. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the algorithm on whole-brain, multi-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a tactile study, revealing that the central representation of gentle touch is spatially distributed in somatosensory, insular and visual regions.

• 45.
Ulm University, Germany.
National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK . Ulm University, Germany. Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. Centro de Investigaciónes FEPIS, Quinindé, Ecuador. Tallinn Children's Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia. Center of Allergy and Immunology, Tbilisi, Georgia. Hannover Medical School, Germany. Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany. Local Health Authority Rome, Italy. Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand . Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. AL-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine. Torrecárdenas Hospital, Almería, Spain. Arrixaca University Children's Hospital and CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Murcia, Spain. 12 de Octubre Children's Hospital, Madrid, Spain. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Allergy Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Allergy Centre UHL. Sundsvall Hospital, Sweden,. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Ulm University, Germany. National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK . St George's, University of London, UK. National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK .
A multi-centre study of candidate genes for wheeze and allergy: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase 22009In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 39, no 12, 1875-1888 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

BACKGROUND: Common polymorphisms have been identified in genes suspected to play a role in asthma. We investigated their associations with wheeze and allergy in a case-control sample from Phase 2 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood.

METHODS: We compared 1105 wheezing and 3137 non-wheezing children aged 8-12 years from 17 study centres in 13 countries. Genotyping of 55 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes was performed using the Sequenom System. Logistic regression models were fitted separately for each centre and each SNP. A combined per allele odds ratio and measures of heterogeneity between centres were derived by random effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS: Significant associations with wheeze in the past year were detected in only four genes (IL4R, TLR4, MS4A2, TLR9, P<0.05), with per allele odds ratios generally <1.3. Variants in IL4R and TLR4 were also related to allergen-specific IgE, while polymorphisms in FCER1B (MS4A2) and TLR9 were not. There were also highly significant associations (P<0.001) between SPINK5 variants and visible eczema (but not IgE levels) and between IL13 variants and total IgE. Heterogeneity of effects across centres was rare, despite differences in allele frequencies.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the biological plausibility of IgE-related mechanisms in asthma, very few of the tested candidates showed evidence of association with both wheeze and increased IgE levels. We were unable to confirm associations of the positional candidates DPP10 and PHF11 with wheeze, although our study had ample power to detect the expected associations of IL13 variants with IgE and SPINK5 variants with eczema.

• 46.
Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands. Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands. Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain. University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain. University of Girona, Spain; University of Girona, Spain. Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands. Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
A New Fiji-Based Algorithm That Systematically Quantifies Nine Synaptic Parameters Provides Insights into Drosophila NMJ Morphometry2016In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 11, no 3, e1004823Article in journal (Refereed)

The morphology of synapses is of central interest in neuroscience because of the intimate relation with synaptic efficacy. Two decades of gene manipulation studies in different animal models have revealed a repertoire of molecules that contribute to synapse development. However, since such studies often assessed only one, or at best a few, morphological features at a given synapse, it remained unaddressed how different structural aspects relate to one another. Furthermore, such focused and sometimes only qualitative approaches likely left many of the more subtle players unnoticed. Here, we present the image analysis algorithm Drosophila_NMJ_Morphometrics, available as a Fiji-compatible macro, for quantitative, accurate and objective synapse morphometry of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a well-established glutamatergic model synapse. We developed this methodology for semi-automated multiparametric analyses of NMJ terminals immunolabeled for the commonly used markers Dlg1 and Brp and showed that it also works for Hrp, Csp and Syt. We demonstrate that gender, genetic background and identity of abdominal body segment consistently and significantly contribute to variability in our data, suggesting that controlling for these parameters is important to minimize variability in quantitative analyses. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were performed to investigate which morphometric parameters are inter-dependent and which ones are regulated rather independently. Based on nine acquired parameters, we identified five morphometric groups: NMJ size, geometry, muscle size, number of NMJ islands and number of active zones. Based on our finding that the parameters of the first two principal components hardly correlated with each other, we suggest that different molecular processes underlie these two morphometric groups. Our study sets the stage for systems morphometry approaches at the well-studied Drosophila NMJ.

• 47.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
A noisy silence about care: Swedish preschool teachers’ talk about documentation2016In: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421, Vol. 36, no 1, 4-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

This article investigates what happens to institutional narratives of care in Swedish preschool when a policy on increased documentation is introduced. Questions deal with preschool teachers’ professionalism as expressed through the teachers’ talk about documentation. The analysis is based on theories in education policy, teacher professionalism and institutional narratives. The findings show that the few references made by the teachers to narratives of care are subordinated to narratives of learning. A major conclusion is that narratives of care are in a process of becoming a ‘noisy silence’, which influences teachers’ professionalism as well as shaping our common society.

• 48.
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A Noncommutative Catenoid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

Noncommutative geometry generalizes many geometric results from such ﬁelds as diﬀerential geometry and algebraic geometry to a context where commutativity cannot be assumed. Unfortunately there are few concrete non-trivial examples of noncommutative objects. The aim of this thesis is to construct a noncommutative surface $\mathcal{C}_\hbar$ which will be a generalization of the well known surface called the catenoid. This surface will be constructed using the Diamond lemma, derivations will be constructed over $\mathcal{C}_\hbar$ and a general localization will be provided using the Ore condition.

• 49.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A novel high-power pulse PECVD method2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 22, 4562-4566 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

A novel plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) technique has been developed in order to combine energetic particle bombardment and high plasma densities found in ionized PVD with the advantages from PECVD such as a high deposition rate and the capability to coat complex and porous surfaces. In this PECVD method, an ionized plasma is generated above the substrate by means of a hollow cathode discharge. The hollow cathode is known to generate a highly ionized plasma and the discharge can be sustained in direct current (DC) mode, or in high-power pulsed (HiPP) mode using short pulses of a few tens of microsecond. The latter option is similar to the power scheme used in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which is known to generate a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, and thus providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this work amorphous carbon coatings containing copper, have been deposited using both HiPP and DC operating conditions. Investigations of the bulk plasma using optical emission spectroscopy verify the presence of Ar+, C+ as well as Cu+ when running in pulsed mode. Deposition rates in the range 30 mu m/h have been obtained and the amorphous, copper containing carbon films have a low hydrogen content of 4- 5 at%. Furthermore, the results presented here suggest that a more efficient PECVD process is obtained by using a superposition of HiPP and DC mode, compared to using only DC mode at the same average input power.

• 50.
Inst. onk-pat. Karolinska Inst.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Äldre - vård - civilsamhälle (ÄVC) . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Geriatrics and Hospital based homecare VHN. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Äldre - vård - civilsamhälle (ÄVC) . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric and Hospital Based Homecare UHL. Ints.för onkologi-patologi Karolinska institutet.
A one-day education in soft tissue massage: Experiences and opinions as evaluated by nursing staff in palliative care2008In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, Vol. 6, no 2, 141-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Objective: Increasing awareness of well-being aspects of physical touch has spurred the appreciation for soft tissue massage (STM) as part of palliative care. Educational programs are available but with no specific focus on utilization for this kind of care. The aim was to study the feasibility of a 1-day course in STM in clarifying nursing staff's experiences and opinions, but also to shed light on their motivation and ability to employ STM in the care of dying cancer patients. Method: In all, 135 nursing staff participated. The course consisted of theory and hands-on training (hand-foot-, back massage). Focus-groups with 30/135 randomly chosen participants were conducted 4 weeks after the intervention. This study engaged a qualitative approach using content analysis. Results: The overall opinion of the 1-day course was positive. The majority experienced the contents of the course to be adequate and sufficient for clinical care. They emphasized the pedagogical expertise as valuable for the learning process. The majority of nurses shared the opinion that their extended knowledge clarified their attitudes on STM as a complement in palliative care. Still, a few found it to be too basic and/or intimate. Three categories emerged during the analysis: experiences of and attitudes toward the education, experiences of implementing the skills in every-day care situations, and attitudes to the physical body in nursing care. Significance of results: The approach to learning and the pedagogical skills of the teacher proved to be of importance for how new knowledge was perceived among nurses. The findings may encourage hospital organizations to introduce short courses in STM as an alternative to more extensive education. Copyright © 2008 Cambridge University Press 2008.

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